You are on page 1of 25

c 

  

V 



]  c Ú All Rights Reserved


V 


‡

V

± Lecture Objectives,
± Why Do we Set Casing?
± Exploration Well Casing Setting Depths,
± Development Well Casing Setting Depths,
± Exploration versus Development (Same Target),
± Restrictions on Casing Shoe Depth,
± Special Criteria,
± Example.

] Ú All Rights Reserved
V 


‡





± At the end of this lecture YOU will be able to:

‡ State the two Drilling related reasons for running casing,

‡ State the difference in selecting casing points for


exploration and development wells,

‡ Describe functions of different type of casings

‡ State restrictions that govern shoe depth selection,

‡ Calculate the minimum conductor setting depth offshore to


enable returns to be taken to the flowline.

Œ
] Ú All Rights Reserved
V 


‡ 

 
± Casing is set for two Drilling reasons;
‡ Consolidate the hole already drilled (protect sensitive
formations, water sources etc),
‡ Provide pressure control integrity to drill ahead (be able to
safely handle a kick).

Ñ
] Ú All Rights Reserved
V 


‡   
V 


± Exploration wells are planned with little offset data,
± Each casing should be set as deep as it is safe This is to:
‡ Allow maximum contingency in case extra casings are
needed lower down,
‡ Minimize the number of casing strings run to minimize
well cost,

± Each casing string is run as deep as possible based on


kick tolerance, unless other reasons dictate it be run
higher.

è
] Ú All Rights Reserved
V 


‡ 



V 


± Casings are run as minimum as possible. This to:
‡ Reduce the cost of the well (less time running casings; less
casing)
‡ Run smaller casings to reach the reservoir at a particular
hole size which will also lead to large cost savings (smaller
casings cheaper than larger; same for drillbits etc.)

± Each casing string is only set deep enough to enable the


next casing point to be reached,
± Contingency is less critical.

-
] Ú All Rights Reserved
V 


‡    


! 
 
"
  
#  



$ 

%&' V  (&'

(&' 1
 

)%*%+,'

)%*%+,'
-

 

.*#+,'
-

 

.*#+,'
-

 

0


 /'  
] Ú All Rights Reserved
V 


‡ 0
 V  


± Kick tolerance:
‡ The hole section should not be
drilled deeper than is possible to
safely circulate out a kick, based on
formation pressures, fracture
gradients and kick tolerance
policies.

·
] Ú All Rights Reserved
V 


‡ 0
 V  



Î
] Ú All Rights Reserved
V 


‡ 0
 V  


± Wellbore Stability:
‡ We may be restricted by
deterioration of the wellbore with
time,
‡ If a formation is stabilized by our
mud system for up to 10 days,
then drilling ahead for 12 days
might prevent us logging the hole
or running casing.


] Ú All Rights Reserved
V 


‡ 0
 V  


± Mud Requirements:
‡ We may have formations which
have mutually exclusive
requirements for the mud,
‡ For instance if we have very
reactive shale requiring ideally
OBM at a higher density to drill,
but the mud will cause emulsion
blocking in the reservoir, then we
need to separate the two with
casing.


] Ú All Rights Reserved
V 


‡ 0
 V  


± Directional Requirements:
‡ We may anticipate problems
related to torque and drag, or
differential sticking due to
stationary string while using
downhole motors,
‡ The build up section may
need protection before
drilling ahead.


] Ú All Rights Reserved
V 


‡ 0
 V  


± Fracture gradient at the shoe:
‡ We need to set our casing in a competent formation for
drilling ahead,
‡ We could drill to the limit for kick tolerance on a hole
section; but if the place where we set the casing is fractured
or underpressured then the shoe will be too weak to drill
ahead.


] Ú All Rights Reserved
V 


‡ V 

‡ Purpose:
± Prevents washing out under the rig,
± Provides elevation for flow and bell nipple.
‡ Common Sizes and Depths:
± 30´ - 20´ Welded,
± 20´ - 16´ Threaded,
± 30¶ - 200¶ (< 100¶ common).


] Ú All Rights Reserved
V 


‡ 
 V
 
± Conductor Pipe (offshore):
‡ The Conductor needs to be set deep enough in a formation
which allows returns to the flowline,
‡ The minimum depth for the conductor shoe to allow returns
to the flowline can be calculated:

?  A †    v † 
   !
†    †  

   ! " #$  $   % "  


!  $    %&    
! '  " #$  
V   !     "    # (
V    !    "    # (
V   !   "    # ()

] Ú All Rights Reserved
V 


‡  

± Calculate the minimum setting depth BRT, on a
development offshore Well:
‡ Height of flowline = 80' MSL,
‡ Height of drill floor = 90' MSL,
‡ Water depth = 100'
‡ Formation density gradient = 0.85 psi/ft,
‡ Seawater in the area = 0.45 psi/ft ,
‡ Expected returns gradient = 0.5 psi/ft.
X     X   


   A
  
Therefore;
The casing shoe will be at 129 + 100 + 90 = 319¶ below the rotary table.
-
] Ú All Rights Reserved
V 


‡ 1
V 2
‡ The Surface Casing is usually set in the first competent
formation which is strong enough to close in on a kick,
‡ The setting depth is selected to allow a BOP to be nippled up
for drilling ahead.
‡ Other considerations:
± Support subsequent casing strings,
± Isolate of surface fresh water formation,
± Case-off unconsolidated or lost circulation areas,
± On a multi well platform, well may be kicked off in surface
hole and surface casing will also protect the build up section
Common sizes and depth: 20´ - 9 5/8´ threaded,
 » 100¶ - 3000¶ (or more).
] Ú All Rights Reserved
V 


‡ -

 
V 2
‡ The Intermediate Casing is set as deep as possible to allow
sufficient shoe strength for drilling ahead,
‡ It is often planned to be set in a pressure transition zone, where
pore pressures and fracture gradients are increasing. Care must
be taken to not drill into transition zone-well kicks,
‡ Other considerations:
± Directional (reduce torque and drags in an extended reach hole)
or wellbore stability reasons - Case off troublesome zones (Lost
Circulation, Salt Section, Over-pressured Zones, Heaving Shales)
prior to drilling ahead. Separates hole into workable sections.
‡ Common sizes and depths:
± 13 3/8´, 10 3/4´, 9 5/8´ - 3000¶ to 10,000¶

] Ú All Rights Reserved
V 


‡  V 
‡ The Production Casing is set through or just above the
reservoir, depending on the type of completion to be used,
‡ The completion type will dictate the production casing
setting depth:
± If a production liner is run, then generally the production
casing will be set somewhere above the reservoir,
± If the completion calls for the production casing or liner to be
perforated, it will be set through the reservoir,
± In a non-cemented completion (such as a prepacked screen in a
horizontal well) then the casing may be set just inside the
reservoir.


] Ú All Rights Reserved
V 


‡  
‡ Purpose:
± Isolates the pay zone from other formations and the fluids in
them,
± Protective housing for production equipment,
» Subsurface artificial lift,
» Multiple zone completion,
» Screens for sand control,
± Covers worn or damaged intermediate string.
‡ Common sizes:
± 4 1/2´, 5´, 7´, & 9 5/8´.


] Ú All Rights Reserved
V 


‡ 

ërill pipe
± Prime reason: Wiper Plug

‡ Save money,
‡ Cover Corroded/Damaged Casing,
Liner
‡ Cover: Hanger
Running
± Lost circulation zones, Tool
± Shales or plastic formations, Shear
Pin Liner
± Salt zones. Wiper
Plug
‡ Deep Wells:
± Rig unable to lift long string of
casing.


] Ú All Rights Reserved
V 


‡ 


TIE BACK
‡ Tie-Back (Liner Complement); STINGER WITH
SEALS
± The integration of the liner
with casing from top of
existing liner to surface,
± To further up casing to cover
corroded or damaged zone,
LINER
± This is often done if
production is commercially
viable or there is damage to
casing above the liner.


] Ú All Rights Reserved
V  V 

‡ V  3

± To Conclude;
‡ Drive Pipe,
‡ Conductor Pipe,
‡ Surface Casing,
‡ Intermediate Casing,
‡ Production Casing:
± Liner,
± Liner & Tieback,
± Full String.


] Ú All Rights Reserved
V 


‡ 45 
 
2

± State the two Drilling related reasons for running casing,

± State the difference in selecting casing points for


exploration and development wells,

± Describe functions of different type of casings

± State restrictions that govern shoe depth selection,

± Calculate the minimum conductor setting depth offshore


to enable returns to be taken to the flowline.


] Ú All Rights Reserved
c 

  

Casing Point Selection

1


]  c Ú All Rights Reserved