Piezoelectric Ceramics

generates a voltage in response to a mechanical change. y The piezoelectric effect is understood as the linear electromechanical interaction between the mechanical and the electrical state in crystalline materials with no inversion symmetry. and conversely. .What are « Piezoelectrics & the effect y A piezoelectric material responds mechanically when voltage is applied.

y y The most well-known piezoelectric material is quartz (SiO2). 1) Crystals 2) Cermaics. Piezoelectric materials can be divided in 2 main groups.Piezoelectric Materials y The piezoelectric effect occurs only in non conductive materials. .

Piezoelectricity is defined as a change in electric polarization with a change in applied stress (direct piezoelectric effect). The converse piezoelectric effect is the change of strain or stress in a material due to an applied electric field.electric polarization (i.e. y y . an electric field or voltage).Introduction y Few ceramic materials exhibit the unusual phenomenon of piezoelectricity .

each crystal has a dipole moment. tetravalent metal ion.Cont « y A traditional piezoelectric ceramic is *perovskite crystal.ions. y Under conditions that confer tetragonal or rhombohedral symmetry on the crystals. usually lead or barium. each consisting of a small. usually titanium or zirconium. divalent metal ions. * Perovskite (Pv) is a calcium titanium oxide mineral species composed of calcium titanate . in a lattice of larger. and O2 .

Cont « ‡ Commonly Used Piezoelectric Ceramics ‡ Barium Titanate (BaTiO3) ‡ Lead Zirconate-Titanate (PZT) ‡ Lead Titanate (PbTiO3) ‡ Potassium Niobate (KNbO3) .

y Then electrodes are mounted and a DC field applied in order to polarize the ceramic material. y y These transducers are also called electrostriction transducers. polycrystalline ceramics are fired and baked at a high temperature. allowing it to be used as a piezoelectric ceramic transducer.Piezoelectric Ceramics . the material exhibits piezoelectric properties. y once polarized. since ceramic crystals are deformed by electricity .Creation To create piezoelectric ceramics.

´Soft" doped Piezo ceramics are characterized by a comparatively high domain mobility and a resulting "ferroelectrically soft" behavior. i.Properties y Piezoelectric Ceramics are divided into two groups.e. "hard" doped Piezo ceramic materials can be subjected to high electrical and mechanical stresses. relatively easy polarization. . The stability of their properties destines them for high-power applications.

generates voltage of the same polarity as the poling voltage.Cont « y Mechanical compression or tension on a poled piezoelectric ceramic element changes the dipole moment. creating a voltage. or tension perpendicular to the direction of polarization. y Compression along the direction of polarization. .

y Correspondingly the material does not immediately return to the initial strain level upon discharging. y .Creep Effect Piezoelectric materials exhibit a creep effect y The material continues to expand for some time upon charging.

Instrumentation ² Flow Properties etc. Electricity Generation .Applications Phonograph Cartridges Airbag Sensors Ultrasound Generation ² Sonar etc.

solid state batteries. Motor action is adapted to piezoelectric motors.Piezo Motors & Generators y The principle is adapted to piezoelectric motors. . and other products. sound or ultrasound generating devices. and many other products. y Piezo ceramic motors improve phone camera auto focus and zoom. sound or ultrasound generating devices. and many other products. Generator action is used in fuel-igniting devices.

Conclusion Special type of ceramics that exhibit piezoelectricity y Transducers y Wide range of application y Active area of research y .