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A pyramidal bony cavity in the facial skeleton. Base = anterior part Apex = posterior part Contents: eyeballs and their muscles, nerves, vessels Periorbita (periosteum) = the facial sheath of the eyeball continuous with the pericranium at inferior orbital fissure.
. Lateral wall = by the frontal process of the zygomatic and greater wing of sphenoid. Medial part has the lacrimal fossa for the lacrimal sac and duct.The orbit Walls and apex: Superior wall ( roof) = by the frontal bone. Inferior wall ( floor) = by the maxilla + zygomatic and palatine bone. Apex = optic canal in the lesser wing of the sphenoids medial to the superior orbital fissure. Lacrimal fossa found at the orbital plate of frontal bone. Inferior orbital fissure separates it from the lateral wall of orbit. Medial wall = by the ethmoid bone + frontal. lacrimal and sphenoid bones. lesser wing of the sphenoid near the apex.
The Orbit Periorbita = the periostium of the bony orbit. upper lid tendon of levator palpebra muscle. forms a funnelshaped sheath to enclose orbital contents. Separated from the sclera by the Episcleral space. Orbital septum = continuous with the periorbita at the margin of the base of the orbit. Fuses with bulbar conjunctiva. attaches to the tarsal plates. Tenon·s capsule ( Vagina bulbi.. Fascial sheath) Thin membrane to envelop eyeball from Optic nerve to ciliary muscle & surrounded by periorbital fat. continuous with subdural and subarachnoid spaces. fascia bulbi. .
The orbit .
Oculomotor. nn. Superior rectus. nn ABDUCENT. cn lll Medial rectus. nn. nn. nn. Oculomotor Four recti muscles. Oculomotor. cn lll Lateral rectus. cn lll . Oculomotor. nn. Oculomotor. cn Vl Two Obliques: Superior oblique. cn lll Inferior rectus.Muscles & nerves of the Orbit Levator palpebra superioris. nn. TROCHLEAR cn lV Inferior Oblique.
Extrinsic muscles of the Eyeball .
elevate superior eyelid Four recti muscles. Oculomotor. elevate. Oculomotor. nn. Superior rectus. abducts. nn ABDUCENT. nn. adduct medial rotation of eyeball Medial rectus. . nn. Inferior Oblique. Oculomotor. Oculomotor. elevate. nn. Depresses. nn. nn. abducts. Adducts eyeball Lateral rectus. TROCHLEAR. Oculomotor. depresses medial rotation of eyeball. Abducts eyeball Two Obliques: Superior oblique. adduct. lateral rotate eyeball. Orbital eye Muscle movements Levator palpebra superioris. rotate medially Inferior rectus.
sphincter pupillae. flushing of the face on affected side. Horner syndrome = paralysis of superior tarsal muscle due to interruption of cervical sympathetic trunk. Clinical« Enucleation = removal of eyeball Oculomotor Nerve palsy = affects the ocular muscles. constricted pupils. ptosis. sinking.Sxsx. levator palpebrae superioris. pupils fully dilated. Paralysis of extraocular muscle = due to brainstem or head injury diplopia ( double vision) Glaucoma = HPN of the anterior and posterior .SxSx = sup. redness & dryness of the eyes. nonreactive due to unopposed dilator pupillae.Orbit. Eyelid droops.
1.The orbit. compress optic nerve exophthalmoses . Bleeding into the maxillary sinuses b. Orbital tumors = malignant tumors from the sphenoidal or posterior ethmoidal sinuses erosion of bony walls. Periorbital ecchymosis = a blow hemorrhage into eyelids extravasations of blood into the periorbital skin. Displacement of the maxillary teeth C. Blowout fracture = indirect traumatic injury that displaces the orbital wall resulting to: a. Fracture = can be caused by a blow in the eye. clinical«. 3. Fracture of nasal bone hemorrhage airway obstruction infection that could spread thru the cavernous sinus via ophthalmic veins. 2.
Ciliary glands = large sebaceous glands associated w/ eyelashes. Tarsal plates = dense band of connective tissue forming the skeleton of the eyelids.The Eyelid With the lacrimal fluids. it protect the cornea and eyeball from injury. The eyelids cover the eyeball anteriorly. Covered externally by the thin skin and internally by the palpebral conjunctiva which is reflected to the eyeball and continuous with the bulbar conjunctiva. dust. Tarsal glands = produces lipid secretions Eyelashes = in the margin of the lids. Conjunctival fornices = the reflections of the conjunctiva. . small particles. Angle of eye = place where eyelids meet.
anatomy«.The Eyelid. .
Glands of Moll = special apocrine sweat glands Meibomian glands = Tarsal glands .Eyelids . structure Rima = palpebral fissure Cilia = eyelashes Lateral commisures = canthi Lacus lacrimalis = lacrimal lake Lacrimal caruncle = fleshy hillocks within the lake Lacrimal papilla = elevation on each side of the lake Lacrimal punctum = small opening of the elevation. Ciliary glands of Zeiss = special sebaceous glands with hairs.
Of lacrimal and ophthalmic artery and Veins. Of infraorbital. lower lids to the submandibular nodes. Of facial to orbicularis oculi. Of cnVl Trigeminal and palpebral br. Arteries = palpebral brs. zygomtic br.Eyelids. . Lymphatics = upper lid drain to superficial parotid and superficial cervical nodes. Sensory nerves = palpebral branch of supraorbital. infratrochlear and lacrimal br. Oculomotor to Levator palpebrae. structure« Motor nerve = sympathetic. supratrochlear.
Eyelids. Ectropion = eversion of lid Intropion = inversion of lid. Clinical« anomalies. Epicanthus = fold of skin covering the inner canthus. ( Mongolian race) Distichiasis = presence of an accessory row of eyelashes. . Crypthopthalmos = no lid formation. eye is hidden by overlying skin. Coloboma = vertical fissure of one or both u. eyes are exposed. lids. Ankyloblepharon = eyelids are fused. Ablepharon = absent eyelids.
scaling of lids and abscess. Inflammations« Dermatitis of eyelids = allergic conditions Blepharitis = lid inflammation due to sebaceous gland infections. With photophobia. Chronic caused by bacteria. common in children. allergy or irritating fumes. edema. Conjunctivitis = Acute (pinkeye) inflammation of bulbar & palpebral conjunctiva. loss of eyelashes.Clinical. increase lacrimation. may spontaneous rupture. . itching. Hordeolum ( sty) = acute circumscribed inflammation of the Glands of Moll(external) or Meibomian glands ( internal hordeolum). Caused by staph. congestion. Chalazion = chronic granuloma of eyelids due to meibomian gland or duct infection.
shiner eye = subcutaneous hemorrhage caused by a blunt force or instrument. concussion. Mechanical « Black eye. . Contusions.Clinical. Hemorrhage is slowly resorbed. perforating wounds are caused by mechanical injury to the eye.
appear on lid skin. .Neoplasms« Squamous papilloma = develop at lid margin and on palpebral conjunctiva. Seborrheic keratosis = not a true neoplasm. Basal cell carcinoma = most common malignancy Ptosis = drooping of eyelid due to cn lll oculomotor nerve Lesions of facial nerve cn Vll = eliminates the blink reflex of the eye.
B. C. slightly avascular over the sclera.Lacrimal apparatus Conjunctiva = the mucous membrane of the eye. Bulbar( ocular ) = thin. A. transparent. Lacrimal canaliculi = connection between lacrimal punctum . Palpebral part = forms a crescentric fold or Plica semilunaris. Conjunctival sac = with lids closed. Lacrimal glands = secretes lacrimal fluids Lacrimal ducts = conveys fluids from glands to the conjunctiva sac. a space between the eyeball and eyelids . lined by conjunctiva.
Lacrimal gland« .
. Nerve = lacrimal br.Lacrimal glands Location = lies in the lacrimal fossa. Blood supply = lacrimal branch of the ophthalmic artery. the gland has 3 ² 9 excretory ducts opening into the superior fornix of the conjuctival sac. Of Trigeminal nerve(sensory). secretomotor by the Facial nerve.
Lacrimal glands .
ducts. Location = at the medial end of each lid. From lacrimal gland excretory ducts lid margin lacus lacrimalis puncta lacrimalis lacrimal papilla at lateral of lacus superior/ inferior fornices lacrimal sac nasolacrimal duct inferior meatus of the nose. Purpose: Prevent drying of eyeball To wash out foreign bodies Blinking = pumps tears from the lacrimal glands . Origin and Flow of Tears.Lacrimal canals.
The Eyelids. sac« . lacrimal duct.
encircles the eye. Lamina cribrosa = the weakest point of sclera. . and nerves.The Eyeball Outer or Fibrous coat Sclera = dense collagenous fibers loosely attached to the choroid layer and pierced by nerves. Corneoscleral junction = cornea and sclera meet contains small canal the sinus venosus sclerae. vessels.
The eyeball .
Ciliary body = connects choroid with circumference of iris. Contains 2 radial dilator pupillae and 2 circular sphincter pupillae muscles. firmly attached to retina. ciliary body. . Ciliary process secretes the Aqeous humor. post. With vessels for retinal nutrition. iris Choroid = dark brown pigment bet. easily stripped from sclera. continuous with choroid. Iris = heavily pigmented colored part of eye.Middle or vascular coat: choroid. 2/3 of mid-coat. ends anteriorly in the ciliary body. Contractile diaphragm in front of the lens with central opening Pupils. Pectinate ligaments between cornea and lens. Retina and sclera. Eye color depends on presence of pigments in iris: Blue eyes = pigment is limited to posterior surface of iris Brown eyes = pigment is scattered thru the iris. Ciliary muscles acts suspensory ligament for the lens.
Intrinsic eye muscles .
depressed fovea centralis ´ area of most acute visionµ Pars ceca = non-visual part. oval. . yellow. pars indica = retinal pigmented cells covering posterior surface of iris. Macula lutea = lateral to optic disc. anterrior to ora serrata pars ciliaris = part of retinal covering ciliary body posteriorly. depressed area ´Optic papilla or Optic discµ nerves and vessels enter and leave. posterior at fundus. contains circular.Internal coat Retinal coat: Pars optica (visual part) light sensitive. Optic disc contains nerve fibers but no photoreceptors so it insensitive to lightµ blind spotµ.
Division of eyeball Ocular chamber = anterior to lens and suspensory ligament. lies behind lens ( between lens and retina) . anterior chamber 2. 1. posterior chamber Vitreous chamber = contains vitreous body.
rostral portion of the sclera Aqueous humor = clear . strongly curved. biconvex = elastic capsule with lens fibers and suspended by the ciliary process of the ciliary zonules (suspensory ligaments). watery fluid of the anterior and posterior chamber. crystalline. contained in a thin hyaloid (vitreous) membrane.Refractive media Cornea = transparent. transparent jelly mass in space between lens and retina. Thickens to form the ciliary zonule. Lens. Vitreous body = coorless. .
Forms the tear film protection over the sclera and cornea.Formation of Aqeous humor Formed at the cilliary process of posterior chamber flow medially to edge of pupil enters the anterior chamber flows laterally to the Iridocorneal angle enter the meshwork of space of Fontana enters the scleral venous sinus ( canal of Schlemm) drains via aqueous veins into the scleral plexuses. .
less tension on the suspensory ligaments. 90% open angle type. . contraction of the eye muscles. constriction of the pupils ( due to parasympathetic n. increase in lens thickness. Visual fields = area within which objects are seen by the eye in a fixed position. Nystagmus = involuntary rhythmic ossicillation of one or both eyes. Glaucoma = increase intraocular pressure.) Far vision = lens is flattened as in resting eyes.Visual system Accomodation( near vision): starts as convergence of the eyes. Strabismus = squinting of eye.
Astigmatism = distorted vision. Focus behind retina. Axis too long. due to irregular corneal shape. Emmetropia = normal eye refraction Myopia (nearsightedness) =focus infront of retina..Abnormalities. Presbyopia (old sight) = less effectivity in accomodation Diplopia (double vision) = paralysis of any eye muscle Exophthalmos (proptosis)= abnormal protrussion of eyeball µGraves diseaseµ Photophobia = abnormal sensitivity to light Opaque cornea = corneal fibers loss their transparency . Hyperopia (farsightedness)= axis is too short.
Retinal separation = separation of neural from pigment layer of retina. ... Keratitis = ulcerative inflammation of the cornea. Diabetic retinopathy = small fatty retinal deposits and petechiae in patients with diabetes for 15 years. Blindness = visual acuity less than 20/20 with limited visual field.Abnormalities«.µ Arcus senilis = benign peripheral corneal degeneration Pterygium = winglike plaque of tissue at the medial part of the conjunctiva and cornea due to trauma. Kayser-Fleischer ring= pigmented rings of green or brown inside the limbus of eye seen in Wilsons disease ´hepatocellular degeneration.
.Visual pathway Starts as convergence of eyes vision pass thru pupil to lens choroid to the retina optic nerve Optic chiasma Optic tract lateral geniculate body Optic radiation Brodman 44 area for vision in the brain.
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