Communication transmitted without the use of words Words fail to convey meaning-therefore, pictures, drawings, sounds are often used to convey messages-these means (other than words) form part of non-verbal communication Non verbal signals transmit the implied meaning A more spontaneous form of communication as compared to verbal communication Includes kinesics, paralanguage, artifactual communication, proxemics, chronemics and silence


(of non-verbal communication)

To Provide information either consciously or unconsciously To regulate the flow of conversation To express emotion To qualify, complement, contradict or expand verbal messages To control or influence others To facilitate and simplify tasks

(of non-verbal communication) Reliability - People can tell lies with their words.But body language and other word non-verbal signs speak the truth Efficiency - Non-verbal message can be sent and received more easily and quickly Credibility - Managers can create positive impressions through non-verbal communication Understanding Attitudes - One who can read non-verbal messages can better understand the underlying attitudes and intentions of others more accurately


(of non-verbal communication)

Lack of secrecy Face-to-Face interactions are essential Lack of written proof More difficult to study Useful for small messages only Gestures may be misunderstood It fails to reveal past events and ideas

Sign language: Audio Signals Visual Signals


Para Language

Non Verbal Communication

Artifactual Language


Audio Signals
Example:Drum beating to make important
announcements,fire alarm,accident alarm,clock alarm,etc.

:convey messages quickly :useful for managing time :helps in streamling the working of an organisation

Visual Signals
Visual signs such as posters, drawings, cartoons, photographs, caricatures, statues, traffic lights,etc are used to convey information Advantages :quickly convey message :convey the message more easily and economically :makes communication interesting and motivating :informs and educates illiterate people

Limitations of sign language
>Require greater skill and effort >People may misunderstand >On the spot correction is not possible >Only simple and elementary ideas can be communicated

Body Language (KINESICS)
Kinesics-the most important aspect of non-verbal communication The study of messages conveyed by body movements. suggests implied meaning. Stated meaning and implied meaning to be put together to get the total meaning of a communication. Includes ~facial expressions, ~gestures, ~body movements, ~posture, ~eye contact, ~touch Five kinds of body language clues ~emblems, ~illustrators, ~affect displays, ~regulators, ~adaptors.

Para Language
µPara¶ means µlike¶ and therefore, Para language is µlike language¶. It suggests not what is said but how it is said. Includes ~Voice, ~Tone, ~Pitch variation, ~Volume variation, ~Speed of delivery, ~the use of pauses, ~Stress, ~Intonation, ~Non-fluencies. Advantages ~No oral communication is complete without para language ~Para language of a person indicates his place in the hierarchical structure of the organization. Limitations ~We cannot fully rely on it. ~It is difficult to blend what is said and how. Therefore, extra care is required to get the exact meaning.

Proxemics:Space Language
Study of space between interacting parties. Four space zones: ~0-18inches intimate zone family, close relatives and friends ~18´-4 feet friendly zone informal business gatherings ~4-10 feet social zone business transactions ~over 10feet public zone public gatherings Belonging to any one zone not a permanent phenomenon.


Artifactual Communication:Communication
Through Personal Appearance
Artifacts such as clothing style, appearance, perfume, etc. form a part of total personality. Message signals that a person sends across through these artifacts is known as artifactual communication. Indication of a person¶s status and taste. Simple and sober dress with matching accessories desirable. Ex: The quality of furnishing reveals a person¶s aesthetic sensibility.

Silence is said to be more eloquent than words. What silence actually means in a given situation depends upon the context. Most suitable for some selected responses like respect, fear, willingness, etc. Silence can be harmful in some cases. Ex: Suppose an employee is admonished by his boss for an alleged dereliction of duty, and the employee listens to the boss silently. The employee¶s silent can be his acceptance of the fault; it can also be his helplessness, for he is in no position to retaliate.


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