Most people think of childhood as a fairly long period in the life span a time when the individual is relatively
helpless and dependent on others. To children, childhood often seems endless as they wait impatiently for magic time to come when society will regard them as grown ups and no longer as children.
CHARACTERISTICS of EARLY CHILDHOOD
Viewpoint from the Parents: y Most parents consider early childhood a problem age or a troublesome age. While babyhood presents problems for parents, most of these center around the baby s physical care.
negativistic. They are often obstinate. they are incapable of handling successfully. and
antagonistic. Young children are developing distinctive personalities and are demanding an independence which.
. and they suffer from jealousies. they are often bothered by bad dreams at night irrational fears during the day. in most cases. stubborn. They have frequent temper tantrums. disobedient.
childhood as the toy age because young children spend much of their waking time playing with toys . Studies of children s play have revealed that toy play reaches its peak during the early childhood years and then begins to decrease when children reach school age.
to cope with the work they will be expected to do when they begin their formal schooling. they are labeled children. preschoolers rather school
distinguish it from the time when children are considered old enough . both physically and mentally. Even when children go to nursery school or kindergarten.
Viewpoint of the Psychologists:
They referred early childhood as pregang children age . are the time when the
foundations of social behavior as a preparation for the more highly organized social life they will be required to adjust to when they enter first grade.
y The emotional relationships that existed during babyhood
are based on babyish dependence on others to meet their emotional needs. especially their need for affection. is learning to relate emotionally to parents. siblings and other people. They must learn to give as well as to receive affection.
.y One of the most difficult of the developmental tasks of
y y y y y y y
HEIGHT WEIGHT BODY PROPORTIONS BODY BUILD BONES and MUSCLES FAT TEETH
.y Growth during early childhood proceeds at a slow rate as
compared with the rapid rate of growth in babyhood.
The foundations were
in babyhood. It is no longer necessary to provide specially prepared foods for eat young children and they learn to their meals at regular times. partly because their growth rate has slowed down and partly because they have now developed marked food likes and dislikes. young children s appetites are not as ravenous as they were in babyhood.
as a result.y The ideal age to learn skills. are not held back by fear of hurting themselves or being ridiculed by peers. willing to repeat an activity until they have acquired the ability to do it well. .
.Young children are adventuresome and. as older children often are. therefore.Young children enjoy repetition and are.
y Hand Skills y Leg Skills y Improvement in Speech/Speech Skills y Improvement in Comprehension
.y Young children learn easily and quickly because their bodies
are still pliable and because they have acquired few skills that they do not interfere with the acquisition of new ones. It may be regarded as the teachable moment for acquiring skills.
heightened emotionality in early childhood is characterized by temper tantrums. intense fears. This is a
time of disequilibrium when children are out of focus in the sense that they are easily aroused to emotional outbursts and.
y Although any emotion may be heightened in the sense that
It occurs more frequently and more intensely than is normal for that particular individual.
. as a result .y Emotions are especially intense during early childhood. and unreasonable outbursts of jealousy. are difficult to live with guide.
y Part of the intense emotionality of children at this age may be
traced to fatigue due to strenuous and prolonged play. rebellion against taking naps and the fact that they may eat too little.
y Most young children feel that they are capable of doing
more than their parents will permit them to do and revolt against the restrictions placed upon them
y ANGER y FEAR y JEALOUSY y CURIOSITY y ENVY y JOY y GRIEF y AFFECTION
even if they are only occasional.y The foundations for socialization are laid as the number of
contacts young children have with their peers increases with each passing year.
y The kind of social contacts young children have is more
important than the number of such contacts. If young children enjoy their contacts with others . but they also talk more with them. Not only do they play more with other children. their attitudes toward future social contacts
Physical attacks begin to be replaced by verbal attacks in the form of name calling. children imitate the attitudes and behavior of a person whom they especially admire and want to be like. It begins at home and later develops in play with children outside the home. AGGRESIVENESS increases between the ages of 2 4 and then declines.
NEGATIVISM or resistance to adult authority.IMITATION To identify themselves with the group. reaches its peak between 3 4 yrs of age and then declines. blaming other
. Verbal resistance . RIVALRY The desire to excel or outdo others is apparent as early as the fourth year.
it appears only occasionally before the 3rd year
ASCENDANT BEHAVIOR Or bossiness begins around the age of 3 and increases as opportunities for social contacts increase. they are often selfish and ego centric. selfishness gradually wanes but generosity is still very undeveloped.
. SYMPATHY Requires an understanding Of the feelings and emotions of others. cooperative play and group activities begin to develop and increase in both frequency and duration as the child s opportunities for play with other children increase. As their social horizons broaden.COOPERATION By the end of the 3rd year. Girls tend to be bossier than boys. SELFISHNESS While young children s social horizons are limited mainly to the home.
Young of temper outbursts in young children find that naughty and children is destroying anything disturbing behavior is a way of within their reach. home. peer approval. SOCIAL APPROVAL DESTRUCTIVENESS As early childhood draws to A common accompaniment a close. How soon this change others but.
. whether winning peer approval their own or someone else s possessions. empathy Is gradually replaced by an requires an understanding of interest in and concern for the feelings and emotions of others. in addition it will occur will depend on how requires the ability to imagine many contacts young children oneself in the place of the other have with people outside the person.EMPATHY EGO CENTRISM Like sympathy.
but they seldom refuse to play with children of another race.with others. close.SHARING Young children discover from experiences with others that one way to win social approval is to share what they have especially toys . boys and girls play together harmoniously. gradually attach their affection to people outside the home. personal associations with others. boys come under social pressures that lead them to shun play activities that might be regarded sissyish PREJUDICE Most preschool children show a preference for playmates of their own race. After that.
. ATTACHMENT BEHAVIOR When they discovered that satisfaction that comes from warm.
SEX ANTAGONISM Until they are 4 yrs old.
objects. and with increased ability to ask questions in words others can understand. with increased ability to explore their environments because of greater motor coordination's and controls.y With
abilities. young children s understanding of people.
. and situations increased rapidly. especially the abilities to reason and to see relationships.
situations or people that have elements in common as they formerly did. As a result.y Young children now begin to notice details that formerly
escaped their attention. they are not so opt to confuse objects. Their concepts become more specific and meaningful to them (Preoperational)
y In early childhood moral development is on a low level.
y morality by constraint . y preconventional morality
The reason for this is that young children s intellectual development has not yet reached the point where they can learn or apply abstract principles of right and wrong.
usually at a more rapid rate. Changes in Parental Attitudes 3. which began during the second year of babyhood. continue throughout early childhood. Preferences for others
. CONDITIONS CONTRIBUTING TO CHANGED PARENT CHILD RELATIONSHIPS 1. Changes in the Child 2. Parental Preferences 6. Childish concept of a Good Parent 5. Parental Concept of a Good Child 4.Child Relationships changes in parent child relationships.