Six Sigma

Sigma is a measure of goodness: the capability of a process to produce perfect work. A defect is any mistake that results in customer dissatisfaction. Sigma indicates how often defects are likely to occur. The higher the sigma level, the lower the defect rate. The lower the defect rate, the higher the quality.

. and by improving the organizational process by eliminating the defects or the obstacles which prevents the organizations to reach the perfection . Six Sigma is a systematical process of quality improvement through the disciplined data-analyzing approach.

Taguc hi and others. Deming. Ishikawa. and Zero Defects. .  Six Sigma was heavily inspired by six preceding decades of quality improvement methodologies such as Quality control. based on the work of pioneers such as Shewhart. TQM.Historical Overview  Bill Smith first formulated the particulars of the methodology at Motorola in 1986. Juran.

particularly from top-level management. SIX SIGMA doctrine asserts that:  Continuous efforts to achieve stable and predictable process results (i.. analyzed.  Achieving sustained quality improvement requires commitment from the entire organization.e. Like its predecessors. .  Manufacturing and business processes have characteristics that can be measured. reduce process variation) are of vital importance to business success. improved and controlled.

Why Six Sigma? ‡ Sigma allows comparison of products and services of varying complexity ‡ Also. it provides a common basis for benchmarking (competitors and non-competitors). the better your operation is performing. ‡ Sigma measures how well you re doing in getting to zero defects. . ‡ The higher the sigma level.

 A clear focus on achieving measurable and quantifiable  An increased emphasis on strong and passionate management leadership and support." "Green Belts". .  A clear commitment to making decisions on the basis of verifiable data. to lead and implement the Six Sigma approach.  A special infrastructure of "Champions." "Black Belts. Features that set Six Sigma apart from previous quality improvement initiatives include: financial returns. rather than assumptions and guesswork. etc." "Master Black Belts.

2. DMAIC is used for projects aimed at improving an existing business process.Methods  Six Sigma projects follow two project methodologies inspired by Deming's Plan-DoCheck-Act Cycle. . DMADV is used for projects aimed at creating new product or process designs. 1.

Determine what the relationships are.  Analyze the data to investigate and verify cause- and-effect relationships.  Measure key aspects of the current process and collect relevant data.DMAIC The DMAIC project methodology has five phases:  Define the problem. and attempt to ensure that all factors have been considered. Seek out root cause of the defect under investigation. specifically. . and the project goals. the voice of the customer.

.  Control the future state process to ensure that any deviations from target are corrected before they result in defects. Improve or optimize the current process based upon data analysis.

.  Measure and identify CTQs (characteristics that are Critical To Quality). production process capability. product capabilities.DMADV  The DMADV project methodology. also known as DFSS ("Design For Six Sigma").  Analyze to develop and design alternatives. features five phases:  Define design goals that are consistent with customer demands and the enterprise strategy. create a high-level design and evaluate design capability to select the best design. and risks.

. set up pilot runs.  Verify the design. This phase may require simulations. and plan for design verification. implement the production process and hand it over to the process owner(s). optimize the design. Design details.

Defines a business DMADV  1.DMAIC  1.Improvements made meet customer satisfaction  4.Define customer needs  2.Analyze options to process  3.Measure customer process  2.Model put through performance simulation tests for verification .Identify root cause of the recurring problem  4.Model is designed to to reduce defects  5.Measuring current needs & specifications  3. Keep check on future meet customer needs  5.

 5 whys  Analysis of variance  Histograms  Regression analysis  Process capability  Pareto chart etc. .Quality management tools and methods used in Six Sigma.

Implementation roles  Six Sigma identifies several key roles for its successful implementation:      Champions Master Black Belts Black Belts Green Belts Yellow Belts .

Six Sigma Organization  The six sigma team has five levels of hierarchy .

of a person in an organization at the time of performing a work or at the time of implementation of a project.  There are four Belt levels :     Champion Master black belt(MBB) Black belt(BB) Green belt(GB) Yellow belt(YB) .What is a belt?  Belt refers to the level or the position.

Approves six sigma projects.Champion ‡ Lay down policies and guidelines regarding ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ functioning of six sigma teams. Removes road blocks in the path of six sigma implementation Receives presentations Monitors project Make available necessary resources Sort out conflicts .

.  All duties involve implementation of Six Sigma. strategic and policy planning and implementation. including statistical analysis. and training and mentoring of Black Belts.Master Black Belt  The highest level of Six Sigma expertise.

 All job duties include implementation of Six Sigma methodology throughout all levels of the business. . and providing Six Sigma training and mentoring to Green andYellow Belts.Black Belt  A Six Sigma-trained professional who has usually completed an examination and been certified in its methods.  Leading teams and projects.

Green Belt  In many organizations.  A Six Sigma-trained professional who does not work on Six Sigma projects exclusively. Six Sigma's "entry level". but whose duties include leading projects and teams and implementing Six Sigma methodology at the project level .

.Yellow Belt  The lowest level of Six Sigma expertise.  Applies to a professional who has a basic working knowledge and who may manage smaller process improvement projects.  But who does not function as a project or team leader.

.  In addition to these examples. There currently is no central certification body. there are many other organizations and companies that offer certification.Certification  In the United States. Six Sigma certification for both Green and Black Belts is offered by the Institute of Industrial Engineers and by the American Society for Quality. neither in the United States nor anywhere else in the world.

Origin and meaning of the term "six sigma process" .

Software used for Six Sigma .

List of Six Sigma companies  Motorola  Mumbai dabbawallas  GE  PepsiCo  Whirlpool .

Criticism  Lack of originality  Role of consultants  Potential negative effects  Based on arbitrary standards  Criticism of the 1.5 Sigma shift .

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