You are on page 1of 52

|  |


  

 |
||

Components of Business Environment

| | 
  

 !"
|||#
|
!$"! 
 ! 
||   % 
K |& '  (!   ! (!  "!  !% !
'   !  ) 
K  !$  |  | (  ((  &   !% ! 
  
K  !$  !

!  ! !$%  & % & 


%!
)  !* ) '$ %! % '&    (%
K "$ !$   +  !& (" & !  !  
% !    !    !*
K  "$ 
  $ +
 !" (" & ! 

) " %!%  )!%  $   "

|| ,  % 
K -. *!%! !$
 ) !*!%$ %!%! / %
'!% "*
0 !
 $ (
 1! !""" 2!%.!*
! !!%
%#% 
3 
K  )$ " 
%!'  !  ) (% %  !$ 
 
454
6(
!!&!  &

 &
 ' ! 3&!"
7
'! 
"! 
. !"
 !" "
 " !"
 ! 
0  &!
# 3 (
|| ,  % 
K | ! !"" '  ! )  ("!  ( ! !"" ( ! ! $!"
 !   ) ) %  %&   '

% %$
6   )!  (
5%  %%  ""
!%   *
K "!  ' ) ! '  !% !     )!& !

!
K  !"  
"    8 !"  !% '$ !'
!$   
K  
" '  %  "* !    ! !%  '!  '
%"( ! &   %&    !    '!   & !%
(   ' 
 & ( '" ! !%  !* !%! !$ 

& ( '" ((  &


K  $ ! !   ! ((  &  !"  ( '" & 
 
*"& %%
|| ,  % 
K | ! !"" '  ! )  ("!  ( ! !"" ( ! ! $!"
 !   ) ) %  %&   '

% %$
6   )!  (
5%  %%  ""
!%   *
K "!  ' ) ! '  !% !     )!& !

!
K  !"  
"    8 !"  !% '$ !'
!$   
K  
" '  %  "* !    ! !%  '!  '
%"( ! &   %&    !    '!   & !%
(   ' 
 & ( '" ! !%  !* !%! !$ 

& ( '" ((  &


K  $ ! !   ! ((  &  !"  ( '" & 
 
*"& %%
|| ,  % 
K | ! !"" '  ! )  ("!  ( ! !"" ( ! ! $!"
 !   ) ) %  %&   '

% %$
6   )!  (
5%  %%  ""
!%   *
K "!  ' ) ! '  !% !     )!& !

!
K  !"  
"    8 !"  !% '$ !'
!$   
K  
" '  %  "* !    ! !%  '!  '
%"( ! &   %&    !    '!   & !%
(   ' 
 & ( '" ! !%  !* !%! !$ 

& ( '" ((  &


K  $ ! !   ! ((  &  !"  ( '" & 
 
*"& %%
|| , !$
K | " !""& !   % 9 8 !" ': 9 
"   
  !  % )     $ 8 
K | 
!& $!4!  
  !$$$!  
!"" %  9  !% 
"   !%
  % !% !

 
K "" 8 !"
  ! ! ! '!$  
 $ 
! ' 
K |   :    ' !"  !'   !" !% ("  !" 
! )""
K  !" | !% $!(  |  !"  (! 
|
K  " !" | !% !$   9 ' %  (!"$  ! !" | !" 

"    |
|| , "! 
 ! 
K  !"|
 " !%!" & 
 !%': 
!!$   !%! 
- !   
K ! |
5"  !"|
$ "! &!%.$!"|
$!( 
  " 
 "$ !"
K 3"'!"|
K ! !"(  %! !$
K  |
`ntroduction to Business Environment-2
K ( 
  |
   |
K  1  9 %! 9 ((" 9|("& 9#! !"
 !* "% 9(   2
K % 13 9  &95 3 (  2
   |
K 6 !     ;
K % &# 
!   
K |  9 !"9 "$ !"9.$!"95"  !"9|  !"9| "$ !"

! " ! $!%'%$ '   
K |  ' " !% %

!%!( !  !$'  %  !*$

| | 
  
<
 !"
˜icroeconomic Environment- Direct
Stakeholders
K  1 !* "%    5% 2
 
 %!
 (("
|("&
#! !" !* "%
(  

| | 
  

 !"
˜icro Firm ʹStakeholder
Relationships

| | 
  

 !"
Stakeholder ʹ Suppliers (1/6)
K 0& % ! 
!!"!'" &9 %"&  !% / !" & 
 (%
K  
! !" ! ! ( !
!     !"  
!&
(%
K  (("& ! !& ! !& "* '! *  (!& (%  !% '
( '"  %  ( 
K "!  () 
(("  
   !" !% %(%  49
'   !% %$ 
! !" (   ' ) 
K = !" & 
 ((" "!  (  !  !" (!!   !* $


 
K  ((" ! !    * "%$
  !"")$ !8  (! 

 ""$ (! 
K 
(!  (
!"  %" !* $ '
 9 '! *)!%  $! 
!& '  %%
Stakeholder ʹ Competitors (2/6)
K |8 (      &    "& ! ! 
!  '    !"
 

K '   !!*%   )  
    (  

K |!("& '  %!' (  !" ! 

 
'  
K 5 $ !   
) !  !* )""'!!% !  

(  
K   (    !!%  "  (% 

$ 
   "&)"" !"  (% !"!  !$( 
K 5 )! !& ( 
   ' (  (   $
'!%$!% (% !%( !" !  ! 
Stakeholder ʹ Customers (3/6)
K   ! 
!" "*   (  ( !
K   !  "&    
 
 
$!4! 
K 
& ) %!)  !
    ! (  
 !"  ! %
K  % ! 
%  "" !&  
 8( 
! % ! ! 
% 
K       !""&   

  !
   $ )  %    "
    ! !
 
 "%
K   ! "*$
 !" 
 &
K jalue: ! 
!  %%
  (  
 (%
!%  "!  ( 
Stakeholder ʹ `ntermediaries/Distributors (4/6)
K # %  "" % "& !%  !* $ !"
K 5) !% (   
 %!  $
 !
 !" 



K  '  )  ! 

   %"$  (%  


 ! 9 )  !% )  & )!  )"" $! "& (! 
 ' 
K |

  (!  %" !%! !$  


 
! ( 9  *
!!$ 9 !* *)"%$9  !%4$ !% % ("!&9
$  ) !
 !"  
K   !*     !  ) ' 
!"  !%
 % ' 1 2 %"$  (%   % 
K  '  !   "!$ ! $
  ! $
(  
K  '  !  !"     
  '!  

:   !% (!  (


Stakeholder ʹ Shareholders (5/6)
K  ! "% (% "$  !( !"
K "! !% "&   !  ) ! "%
'! %  ! % !%$ 
 %  / %
K %  ! "% ( (  !& "!%  ""$
)  % %)  !* !" !  

(!& "!     !  !"    ! 
 * 
)"  !* '%
K !% !% '!* % !   !"  ! !$ !
!" & !
") "!  ( ) '  '
  % !% (%
K   ( '" !$ 
 '   "!$"& 
 ( '" & 
!* $
Stakeholder ʹ Employees (6/6)
K |("&  '    !% *""
  !& !%  
)!%
K  & ! !

 % '& (!& !     & (  )%   & !%



"  !"  !% '"

 % 
K    
*""% !

 !""&   

  ! 
  !  
   
K !$ 
$!4!   ! ( ! % !   / !" & 

!((" ! ! ! %
K  )"" ! !  !"' 
("&  % 
K |("&   !"  !  
$!"
K  & ! 49 !% "& !

 (%  &9 "!  ! / !""&


(   

  (!&
 
˜icro Environment ʹ `ndirect Stakeholders

K %  !* "% >


3
  &
5 3 (
K % 8 !" !* "%$ ( ! 
% "&$!$% ' 
K   $ ( 8 
"  !%'  "&
!

 % !  


K "" !* "% !&  ! !%$

()!%
"  
| | 
  
?
 !"
`ndirect Stakeholders - Government ʹ 1/3
K Local Government:
  %  
! 
:' '& '   
! 
( ( &)!" 
    &
   ' 
5 $ $!4! $!  " !""&
("!   %%

 "!)

K Central Government:
-"%   ""$
"  !&( '"   $!4!  !%  
%  !* "%
!*9 ( !%
 "!) 9  ("! 9"& !8 !%
("   (" 
5%
!  9 (%9(  9 ' %49 !%  
* 
"    $  !%!  !  9"''&$9( 

! 9
: (: !%("  !"%! 

| | 
  
<
 !"
`ndirect Stakeholders - Community ʹ 1/3

K  %) (( &!" 


K = !" &
"
9:' !%( ( &
K .* ) " !" " !% ! !'"
!  
K !(  9'"4 %!9'  
("!$!((" !  

| | 
  

 !"
`ndirect Stakeholders ʹ Pressure Groups ʹ 1/3
K  %| 3 (
!(  9  %"( !%
$!   %!'"%!!  1$>
5  !$!  ! !" %9" !""&

0!"!2
!%  % !( !%$ "! 
"! 
:' !%(%
(  

| | 
  

 !"
˜esoeconomic Environment- What is it?

K ˜esoeconomics  %  % '  %&



economic arrangements )  ! 
'! %        
' &$
!% ""$ !% (("& !% %!%9  
 !   ! $ 
!$$$! 
 !" 
%!%9 '   ( !  

% ) ! structures  
  ("!&  9
!% how to measure these effects

| | 
  
@
 !"
˜eso Economics ʹ Further Explained
K |     %&
    & 9!%!!*
K !( !"  & !" !& & 
K 9) &  " !&!% ("8 &   &

  !!"&  ;
( >|8 $
!)*9' ) " !&8  
( >)
!)*
K   !  ( 
K !)
!)*! !) &   " %)
K   !"!%( !"!!"&     '! %!'  

| | 
  
A
 !"
Relevance of ˜eso Economics to Business
Environment
The problem
-)  !!"&    %!  !% !$  ! )!& !  
"

 %& 
$) !% %"( 9  "$ !" !%   !"
!$9 !* !% (  %&! ;
  ('"  !  !    $% 6 &;  !   ! !!"& 
 (  
!$ !  ! !""& !(( 9  $ !$$
  !% !$$ (( "!  
    !   !  !% )    1!"  )  *)"%$
!  !  !% (( "!  2  %  %!" ) (( "!  9
 )* 9    (   
# !!"&  
  ! "$ ("8 !%!(  &  9 ) % 
! ) ) ! 8 !% ) ! !$

| | 
  
B
 !"
˜eso Economics ʹ ˜eaning
K |  &  ! !% 
 "
K R     


K ° 
      
 


  

K   ("8 & 
!   &   %

 ! & 
 ! !"4!  1  (( "! 2
   &  1
! !"4!  2 !%
 !  &  1
 2

| | 
  
C
 !"
˜eso Economics: Example- the bicycle ͚rule͛

| | 
  
D
 !"
 !: &

| | 
  
E
 !"
| | 
  
?
 !"
("8& 
 
F |  "    (  '& )  ! " $
 "      & 
O 

         


 
   
 

    
  


 
  


 

   


 

  $  " !%  $)$ (( "!  (meso


trajectory)
    !% %&! 
!$ !&$  " (meso
systems)
!    !% %&! 
 " (( "!  (systems of
meso)

| | 
  
@<
 !"
Three-Phase ˜eso Trajectory
K 5 !  >
K irigination of a novel generic rule.   $!  ( !   !
)    "     8   1 !$$  % !" &

 & 2 '&  ( !" !$!    
8( ! 
K 5 !  >
K °doption and adaptation of the rule in a population of carriers.
  !%(  ( !      !  
  "    ! 9
)   !%(   "   (( "!  
  " !$
  
!&
K 5 !  @>
K Retention and maintenance of that rule in a population of carriers.
    )   ! !'"4   "
 $$ 
   )  ' ! !"   !%  !"   


| | 
  
@
 !"
 |  >% &# 
K %  !&"
)(%
)  
)8( !  
)$!4!  
) ! 
)!* 
)"!) 
) (  
)   !%
( !( !""
  !  
| | 
  
@
 !"
! 
K !   $!""& % % !  G
!H
 1 % ! $!4! + % & !% !* 2
 !!   
 
! 
K 
"      1% &
!%!* 2
K 6""(! !""$!4!  !% &9!
!* 9!""$!4!  !
 &
K Source of competitive advantage , '$!'"
(%  !$  !  
!% !*! 
 5|!"& 
K  !
 8 !"! 
 )   

(!   !'8( %  

 
"")$
!  >
K P"  !"
K E  
K S !"
K T "$ !"
@B
5"  !"#! 
K 5"  !"
!   " %$ 
$ "!  !%"$!"  !%%

' 
!"!%
!" "  %
)   
 (! 
8!("  " %>
K !8(" &
K |("& "!) 
K | !"$ "!  
K !%   !% !


K 5"  !" !'" &
@C
5"  !".$!"
K $!4!   (! ) 
!
!)*$ %"'! %
! !"%"$&
K $ "! !%("  
" 
$ !"%"$&
K "! $ $!4!  
 (!  ' % 9 !

9
/  ! 9!%%$ "! 

%  
@D
| | 
  
@E
 !"
|  #! 
K |  
!  !

  
(  ! $()
(  !"
 !% 
I   

!( !" 
"")$!8!(" 


!   !  &>
K |  $) 
K   !  
K |8 !$!  
K 
"! ! 
@?
|  #! 

K        




!   ! !

   (  ! $
()!% (%$(! 
K |  
!   " %
"! 9 
""!% % ' 9 ("& 9
'   & "
K  !$ !:  !!'"  !!
$
 ! (!  !* ("! 

A<
  " !"#! 
K  !"
!   " % %$!(  !%
" !"! ( 
 8 !"! 
   !

  % 
!%  4
(  !"!* 
 !"
!   " %>
K -!"     
K 5( "! $) ! 
K $% ' 
K !!  % 
K |( !   !
 &

A
  " !"
"  

K  !"  !%$!(  ! ( 
K $!( &   (( "!  49

!"&  9!$% ' 
K ( ! !!'" % ! $  
'! )  !* $
  !$ 
K  !$  %$!(  ! (  !
 "  $
 ! ('" 

 

A
 "$ !"#!  
K  "$ !"
!   !")
'!   &9%  


  (% "" 9!%



"     $%   
 "$ !"
!   " %>
K !  &
K  ! 
K  "$&   
K ! 
  "$ !" !$ A@
 "$ !"|
K    "$ !" 
  )
 "$ 9(   9! !" 9)   ! )
' (% !%!* ((   
K  "$& ! ! % 

 "
 &" 9
 ( (!  9!%  &
K   !%$
 
 !$$&! ( 

)"%!%(("! !
! (! 

AA
| | 
  
AB
 !"
(! 
 "$&

| | 
  
AC
 !"
Environment Turbulence
6% 
 !$ ")  $  $! ! 

Ú $! !   !' !  &  (! $


 " % !" 
Ú # $! !  9 )% 
 !$! $9$ &9
!!'"9 )"$
Ú  8  "%!& 
""&(   ( '" ' " 
 8 !"9 (!"!% !" 

AD
           

| || 
|

á  á

 
   r 
  
V  V 
  

  
  

    
 

    
  
  
 

   


  

     



    
  

|
 | 
|
AE
Responding to Levels of Environmental Turbulence

Ú  ! ' "!% 1 

  ""2 !
 %$ 
!$$  !%
 (  
! $! !   "%
!  "" 
' "  

$! ! +  1|$| & 

J!(! 
     &2
Ú  $!  ""
 ' " 9 
$ 
  !
 !$

A?
." 
| !" ' " 
  Ú
 ." 5% !'" !'"!* 5! 

 
!$  ")# )""'"* (! 
Ú ."  ("8 &9'    
# ! !'"'&8 !("! 
Ú ."@  ("8 &9' ! "!  !
(% !'" ! !%((   
Ú ."A ("8 & 
  ! %'& 
)% 
$"'!"!%  !"("  !" !$ 9' 
 "  !(! !""&(% !'"
((   
Ú ."B(% !'" (   8( %
 !%  !   
/  "& ! 
$! !  ! (%  

 

   
 r   
 
B<
&( 
 !$ ! 
Ú " % !$6 8("!$   &(

    

!$9((""% ) "%!%"&'!'"
!$9!%% '9) !  !((%9) & 
!((%9) !    /   )9!% )
'   ! '!

 %
Ú  !% !$6 8("!$   &(

!$9((""% ) "%"&'!'" 
!&) ! ('!'"& !((%9) !  ('!'"
!  9  /   !%'  (" !  
!&'
Ú (%% !$ 6 8("!$   &(

!$9((""% ) "% !%

 
!%( '"& 
" $!   !%8("!!  

) !  !((%9) &  !((%9!%) !  
   /   !%(" !  !
  

—

 

B
K $! !  (!  " ("
K  *& ! * 
$! !    ! 8 !"
!%!( ! !% !" $! 
K $! !  % 'K/  * 
 + 
!  (! ((   !% ! !% (%
) "&  (% !'" ( 
K   /   % !%$ ) 
!"
$! ! !" ' &  (%   8 !"9
 !"!% (!"
K  !" /   % !%$ 
!" ' & 

B