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For more than two centuries this policy enabled Japan to enjoy a flowering of its indigenous culture.and soon occupied much of East and Southeast Asia. Formosa (Taiwan). Following three decades of unprecedented growth. Japan's economy experienced a major slowdown starting in the 1990s.BACKGROUND In 1603. In 1931-32 Japan occupied Manchuria. but the country remains a major economic power . During the late 19th and early 20th centuries. While the emperor retains his throne as a symbol of national unity. and in 1937 it launched a full-scale invasion of China. Japan became a regional power that was able to defeat the forces of both China and Russia.triggering America's entry into World War II . It occupied Korea. and southern Sakhalin Island. dynastic government) ushered in a long period of relative political stability and isolation from foreign influence. after decades of civil warfare. After its defeat in World War II. the Tokugawa shogunate (a military-led. Japan opened its ports after signing the Treaty of Kanagawa with the US in 1854 and began to intensively modernize and industrialize. Japan attacked US forces in 1941 . Japan recovered to become an economic power and an ally of the US. elected politicians hold actual decision-making power.

between 3 nm and 12 nm in the international straits . Tsugaru. and Eastern and Western Channels of the Korea or Tsushima Strait contiguous zone: 24 nm exclusive economic zone: 200 nm .La Perouse or Soya. Osumi.GEOGRAPHIC Location Geographic coordinates Map references Area total: land: water: territorial sea: 12 nm.

46% (2005) Irrigated land 25.GEOGRAPHIC Climate Terrain lowest point: Hachiro-gata -4 m highest point: Fujiyama 3.64% permanent crops: 0.9% other: 87.920 sq km (2003) .776 m Natural resources Land use arable land: 11.

have been deemed "Decade Volcanoes" by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior. 1.500 seismic occurrences (mostly tremors) every year.43 cu km/yr (20%/18%/62%) per capita: 690 cu m/yr (2000) Natural hazards many dormant and some active volcanoes.665 ft). typhoons volcanism: both Unzen (elev. .GEOGRAPHIC Total renewable water resources 430 cu km (1999) Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural) total: 88.500 m. 3. 1.117 m. about 1. which lies near the densely populated city of Kagoshima.621 ft) and Sakura-jima (elev. 4. tsunamis.

Hazardous Wastes. Tropical Timber 94. Whaling signed. contributing to the depletion of these resources in Asia and elsewhere Environment . Ozone Layer Protection. Wetlands. Law of the Sea. Climate ChangeKyoto Protocol. Ship Pollution. Japan is one of the largest consumers of fish and tropical timber. Tropical Timber 83. Biodiversity.GEOGRAPHIC Environment .current issues air pollution from power plant emissions results in acid rain. but not ratified: none of the selected agreements . Marine Dumping. Antarctic Treaty. Environmental Modification.international agreements party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol. Antarctic Seals. Endangered Species. acidification of lakes and reservoirs degrading water quality and threatening aquatic life. Desertification. AntarcticMarine Living Resources. Climate Change.

) Birth rate 7.2% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.83 Urbanization urban population: 66% of total population (2008) rate of urbanization: 0.804.2% Population growth rate -0.5% 15-64 years: 64.) Age structure 0-14 years: 13.DEMOGRAPHIC Population 126.3% 65 years and over: 22.242% (2010 est.41 Death rate 9.) .433 (July 2010 est.

other 0.06 15-64 years: 1.4%.17 years male: 78. Koreans 0.) HIV/AIDS .66 years (2010 est.deaths fewer than 100 (2007 est. Chinese 0.02 65 years and over: 0.056 under 15 years: 1.) Ethnic groups Japanese 98.600 (2007 est.5%.people living with HIV/AIDS 9.5%.6% note: up to 230.74 total population: 0.000 Brazilians of Japanese origin migrated to Japan in the 1990s to work in industries. some have returned to Brazil (2004) .DEMOGRAPHIC Sex ratio at birth: 1.87 years female: 85.) HIV/AIDS .95 Life expectancy at birth total population: 82.

DEMOGRAPHIC Religions Shintoism 83. Buddhism 71. Christianity 2%. other 7.4%.7% of GDP (2007) .8% note: total adherents exceeds 100% because many people belong to both Shintoism and Buddhism (2005) Languages Japanese Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 99% male: 99% female: 99% (2002) School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education) total: 15 years male: 15 years female: 15 years (2008) Education expenditures 3.9%.

GOVERNMENT Government type Capital Independence National holiday Legal system .

GOVERNMENT Executive branch head of government cabinet Judicial branch Flag description .


jp Internet hosts 54.main lines in use 44. FM 89 (plus 485 repeaters).mobile cellular 114.in addition.917 million (2009) Radio broadcast stations AM 215 (plus 370 repeaters).364 million (2009) Telephones . note .TELECOMMUNICATIONS Telephones .91 million (2008) . US Forces are served by 3 TV stations and 2 TV cable services (1999) Internet country code .846 million (2010) Internet users 90. shortwave 21 (2001) Television broadcast stations 211.

TRANSPORT Railways Roadways Waterways Pipelines Airports Heliports .

composition by sector .per capita (PPP) GDP .ECONOMY GDP (purchasing power parity) GDP (official exchange rate) GDP .real growth rate GDP .

17 million (2009 est.) Budget revenues: $1.9% of GDP (2009 est.1% (2009 est.by occupation agriculture: 4% industry: 28% services: 68% (2009 est.8% of GDP (2008 est.742 trillion expenditures: $2.) Unemployment rate 5.) .) 173.) Public debt 192.) 4% (2008 est.6% of GDP (2009 est.106 trillion (2009 est.) Investment (gross fixed) 20.ECONOMY Labor force 66.) Labor force .

) 1.production 957. textiles.) Stock of domestic credit $16.32 trillion (31 December 2007 est.ECONOMY Inflation rate (consumer prices) -1. electronic equipment. machine tools. chemicals.) Industries among world's largest and technologically advanced producers of motor vehicles. steel and nonferrous metals. processed foods Industrial production growth rate -17% (2009 est.9 billion kWh (2008 est.) .39 trillion (31 December 2008 est.) $13.4% (2009 est.) Electricity . ships.4% (2008 est.

production 3.) .363 million bbl/day (2009 est.consumption 925.) Oil .exports 380.consumption 94.67 billion cu m (2009 est.900 bbl/day (2008 est.539 billion cu m (2009 est.production 132.) Oil .ECONOMY Electricity .5 billion kWh (2008 est.) Natural gas .033 million bbl/day (2008 est.) Natural gas .700 bbl/day (2009 est.) Oil .consumption 4.) Oil .imports 5.

) $746. poultry. South Korea 8. semiconductors.13%. US 16.27%.partners China 18. Hong Kong 5.6 billion (2008 est.88%. chemicals Exports . fish Exports $545. electrical machinery.42%. fruit.5 billion (2008 est.commodities transport equipment. sugar beets. pork. dairy products.3 billion (2009 est. eggs.products rice. Taiwan 6.) Agriculture . vegetables.ECONOMY Current Account Balance $142. motor vehicles.2 billion (2009 est.) $156.) Exports .49% (2009) .

103.18 (2006).22 (2005 .) $708. fuels. raw materials Imports .96%. Saudi Arabia 5.12%.ECONOMY Imports $501.commodities machinery and equipment. South Korea 3.29%. 110.2%.58 (2008). foodstuffs.95% (2009) Exchange rates yen (JPY) per US dollar .98%. Australia 6. 116.partners China 22.3 billion (2008 est.99 (2007).) Imports . Indonesia 3. US 10.6 billion (2009 est. chemicals. textiles.94. UAE 4.5 (2009). 117.29%.

ASDF) (2009) Military service age and obligation 18 years of age for voluntary military service (2001) Manpower available for military service males age 16-49: 27.MILITARY Military branches Japanese Ministry of Defense (MOD): Ground Self-Defense Force (Rikujou Jietai.478.461.338 females age 16-49: 26.905 (2010 est.075 females age 16-49: 21.115 female: 593.720. MSDF).) Manpower fit for military service males age 16-49: 22.8% of GDP (2006) .) Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually male: 626. Maritime Self-Defense Force (Kaijou Jietai.375 (2010 est. GSDF).) Military expenditures 0. Air Self-Defense Force (Koku Jieitai.564.466 (2010 est.

now administered by Russia and claimed by Japan. and Shikotan." occupied by the Soviet Union in 1945. China and Taiwan dispute both Japan's claims to the uninhabited islands of the Senkaku-shoto (Diaoyu Tai) and Japan's unilaterally declared exclusive economic zone in the East China Sea. remains the primary sticking point to signing a peace treaty formally ending World War II hostilities. the site of intensive hydrocarbon prospecting . known in Japan as the "Northern Territories" and in Russia as the "Southern Kuril Islands.international the sovereignty dispute over the islands of Etorofu. Japan and South Korea claim Liancourt Rocks (Take-shima/Tok-do) occupied by South Korea since 1954. Kunashiri.INERNATIONAL Disputes . and the Habomai group.

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