A future with no wars over limited supplies of Oil A future when every country is energy selfsufficient Earth with no Acid rains, Ozone depletion or warming

An overview of Hydrogen Fuel Cell – The energy solution for Future

We look at
• Energy Resources & Hydrogen today • Hydrogen Energy – energy for future • Hydrogen Fuel Cells
– – – – – How they developed Basics and working principle Types Areas of Application Benefits and prospects

• Hydrogen - The Energy for tomorrow • Hydrogen – The Energy solution for future

Energy Resources

Hydrogen Energy of Future

Hydrogen - Today
Production Use Storage

Steam Reforming of Petrolium Space Programme

Cryogenic Liquid

Hydrogen Energy
Hydrogen is the simplest and the most plentiful element in the universe. Despite its simplicity and abundance, hydrogen doesn't occur naturally as a gas on the Earth — it's always combined with other elements. Hydrogen is high in energy, yet an engine that burns pure hydrogen produces almost no pollution. NASA has used liquid hydrogen since the 1970s to propel the space shuttle and other rockets into orbit. Hydrogen fuel cells power the shuttle's electrical systems, producing a clean byproduct—pure water, which the crew drinks.

What is a Fuel Cell ?
Electricity In principle, Fuel cells are electrochemical devices like batteries that convert the chemical energy of a fuel directly and very efficiently into electricity (DC) and heat, thus doing away with combustion. Unlike a battery, a fuel cell does not run down or require recharging. It will produce energy in the form of electricity and heat as long as fuel is supplied.



How Fuel Cells developed ?
William Robert Grove discovered that by arranging two platinum electrodes with one end of each immersed in a container of sulfuric acid and the other ends separately sealed in containers of oxygen and hydrogen, a constant current would flow between the electrodes. By combining several sets of these electrodes in a series circuit he he soon accomplished this feat in 1839 with the device he named a "gas battery" the first fuel cell. In 1889, Chemist Ludwig Mond and assistant Carl Langer described their experiments with a fuel cell using coalderived "Mond-gas." They attained 6 amps per square foot (measuring the surface area of the electrode) at 0.73 volts. Mond and Langer's cell used electrodes of thin, perforated platinum. William W. Jacques an electrical engineer and chemist, in 1896 startled the scientific world and general public by his broad assertion that he had invented a process of making electricity directly from coal. Jacques constructed a "carbon battery" in which air was injected into an alkali electrolyte to react (he thought) with a carbon electrode. It turned out, however, that instead of electrochemical action with an efficiency of 82 percent, he was obtaining thermoelectric action with an efficiency of about 8 percent.

Todys’s Fuel Cell
A fuel cell system which includes a "fuel reformer" can utilize the hydrogen from any hydrocarbon fuel - from natural gas to methanol, and even gasoline. Since the fuel cell relies on chemistry and not combustion, emissions from this type of a system would still be much smaller than emissions from the cleanest fuel combustion processes.

A modern Fuel Cell Assembly

What is the Principle ?
A fuel cell consists of two electrodes sandwiched around an electrolyte. Oxygen passes over one electrode and hydrogen over the other, generating electricity, water and heat. 

How it Works ?
    Layers of materials with distinct electrochemical properties are sandwiched together to form a single galvanic cell.At the heart lies a membrane that can only be crossed by charged molecules. Gas-permeable electrodes coated with a catalyst adhere to this membrane, adding a layer on either side.These electrodes are in turn connected to a device that can utilize electricity— a load— which creates a complete electrical circuit.

Working Principle
    Hydrogen gas(H2)flows

into channels on one face of the cell and migrates through that electrode, while the same occurs with oxygen gas (O2, typically from the ambient air) along the opposite electrode. Spurred by a catalyst, favorable chemistry causes the hydrogen to oxidize into hydrogen protons and give up its electrons to the neighboring electrode, which thereby becomes the anode. This buildup of negative charge then follows the path of least resistance via the external circuit to the other electrode (the cathode). It is this flow of electrons through a circuit that creates electricity.

Working Principle- Contd…
But this wouldn't continue for long without a complete electrochemical cycle. As the electrical current begins to flow,hydrogen protons pass through the membrane from the anode to the cathode. When the electrons return from doing work—lighting your house , charging a battery, or powering your car's motor, for example—they react with oxygen and the hydrogen protons at the cathode to form water.Heat emanates from this union (an exothermic reaction), as well as from the frictional resistance of ion transfer through the membrane. This thermal energy can be utilized outside the fuel cell. Anode Reaction: H2 —> 2 H+ + 2 eCathode Reaction: ½ O2 + 2 H+ + 2 e- —> H2O

Fuel Cell Types
Fuel Cell type Proton Ex Membrane (PEM) Alkaline (AFC) Direct Methanol ( DMFC) Phosphoric Acid (PAFC) Molten Carbonate (MCFC) Solid Oxide ( SOFC) Alkali Carbonate Ceramic Oxides Hydrogen / Methane Hydrogen / Methane Electrolyte Solid polymer membrane Potassium Hydroxide Solid polymer membrane Phosphorus Anode gas Hydrogen Hydrogen Methanol solln in Water Hydrogen Cathode gas Pure or Atm Oxygen Pure Oxygen Atm Oxygen Atm Oxygen Atm Oxygen Atm Oxygen T emp o C 75 < 80 75 210 650 800 1000 Efficienc y% 35 - 60 50 - 70 35 - 40 35 - 50 40 - 55 45 - 60

Potential Applications
• Stationary power generation • Residential • Transportation – No pollution • Portable power – Miniature Fuel Cells • Land fill Waste treatment – Power from Methane in-situ .

Stationary Power
• More than 2500 fuel cell systems have been installed all over the world in hospitals, nursing homes, hotels, office buildings, schools, utility power plants, and an airport terminal, providing primary power or backup. • In large-scale building systems, fuel cells can reduce facility energy service costs by 20% to 40% over conventional energy service.

Residential Power
• Ideal for residential power generation, either to provide supplemental power and backup for critical areas, or installed as independent generator in areas that are inaccessible by power lines. • Operating silently, they reduce noise & air pollution and the waste heat can be used to provide hot water or room heating for a home. • Prototypes being tested & demonstrated for residential use extract hydrogen from propane or natural gas.

Powering Transportation
• All the major automotive manufacturers have a fuel cell vehicle either in development or in testing right now • Honda and Toyota have already begun leasing vehicles in California and Japan. • Automakers and experts speculate that the fuel cell vehicle may be commercialized by at least 2010. • Fuel cells are also being incorporated into buses, locomotives, airplanes, scooters and golf carts.

up to a month on a cellular phone without recharging. • Fuel cells will change the telecommuting world, powering laptops and palm pilots hours longer than batteries. • Other applications for micro fuel cells include pagers, video recorders, portable power tools, and low power remote devices such as hearing aids, smoke detectors, burglar alarms, hotel locks and meter readers. • These miniature fuel cells generally run on methanol, an inexpensive wood alcohol also used in windshield wiper fluid.

Revolutionize Portable Power Miniature fuel cells will help consumers talk for

Landfills and Waste Water Treatment
• Fuel cells currently operate at landfills and wastewater treatment plants across USA. • Providing a valid technology for reducing emissions and generating power from the methane gas they produce.

No other energy generating technology holds the combination of benefits that fuel cells offer
Energy Security : Abundant Source • Supply Security : Efficient, modular and fuel flexible • Physical security : resources evenly distributed in nature • High Reliability • High quality power • High Efficiency – as high as 85% • ENVORONMANTALLY FRIENDLY

Energy Security
• Being efficient, modular and fuel flexible, fuel cells can enable a transition to a secure, renewable energy future, based on the use of hydrogen. • A fuel cell system that includes a "fuel reformer" can utilize the hydrogen from any hydrocarbon or alcohol fuel - natural gas, ethanol, methanol, propane, and even gasoline or diesel. • Hydrogen can also be produced from electricity from conventional, nuclear or renewable sources. • Hydrogen can be extracted from novel feed stocks such as landfill gas or anaerobic digester gas from wastewater treatment plants, from biomass technologies, or from hydrogen compounds containing no carbon, such as ammonia or borohydride. • Fuel cells and Electrolysis, in combination with solar or wind power, or any renewable source of electricity offer the promise of a totally zero-emission energy system that requires no fossil fuel and is not limited by variations in sunlight or wind flow. • This hydrogen can supply energy for power needs and for transportation.

High Reliability
• Fuel cells can be configured to provide backup power to a grid-connected customer, if the grid fail. • They can be configured to provide completely grid-independent power. • They can also use the grid as the backup system. • Modular installation (several identical units to provide a desired quantity of electricity) provides extremely high reliability . • In specialized applications, fuel cells can achieve up to 99.9999% reliability, less than one minute of down time in a six year period.

High Quality and Efficiency
• Fuel cells offer high quality power, crucial to an economy that depends on increasingly sensitive computers, medical equipment and machines. • High Efficiency as they make energy electrochemically, and do not burn fuel. • Fuel cells are fundamentally more efficient than combustion systems.

Environmental Benefits
• Air pollution continues to be a primary health concern in the industrialized world. • Exposure to ozone, particulate, or airborne toxic chemicals has substantial health consequences. • Scientists are now directly linking air pollution to heart disease, asthma and cancer. • Recent health studies suggest polluted urban air is a comparable health threat to Fuel cellssmoking. passive can reduce pollution today and offer the promise of eliminating pollution tomorrow

Hydrogen - Tomorrow
Production Storage


Bio-mass & Electrolysis

Innovative Tank Designs


Hydrogen production for Future
Solar powered Electrolysis


Algal Production

Hydrogen Power

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