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Training Needs Analysis

By Ms. Arpita Kaul, Assistant Professor, RDIAS


Input Analysis Phase Output
Process
Organizational
Analysis
Objectives
TRIGGER Training
Resource
Actual Organizational Identify Needs
Environment
Performance(AOP)< Performance
Expected Organizational Discrepancy (PD)
Performance (EOP) Operational PD=EP-AP
Analysis & causes of PD
Expected
Performance
(EP) Non
Training
Person Needs
Analysis
Actual
Performance
(AP)
TNA
 TNA is a systematic method for determining
what caused performance to be less than
expected or required
 TNA is important because it helps to
determine whether a deficiency can be
corrected through training
 In some cases the TNA determines the
employees lack necessary KSAs to do the job,
and training is required
 In other cases employees have KSAs to do the
job, but roadblocks to effective performance
are discovered that need to be removed
 Training professionals make sure the right
training is provided to the right people by
conducting a needs analysis
TNA
 Increases the chances that time & money
spent on training would be spent wisely
 Determine benchmark for evaluation of
training
 Increase the motivation of participants
 Align training activities with the strategic
plan
Performance Discrepancy

Is it worth fixing?

KSA Reward/Punishment Inadequate Obstacles in


Deficiency Incongruence Feedback the system

Choose
Provide
Appropriate Remedy Change Contingencies Remove
Proper
Obstacles
Feedback
Job aid
Training Practice
Change the job
Transfer or terminate
TRAINING NEED ANALYSIS
 Proactive TNA : focus on anticipated performance problem in
future
 Reactive TNA : focus on perceived performance problem in
the present
 Where to look for discrepancies:
 Organizational objectives
 Labour inventory
 Grievance/absenteeism/ accident
FRAMEWORK FOR CONDUCTING
TNA
 Organisational Analysis
 Internal environment
 Operational Analysis
 Job Analysis
 KSAs
 Person Analysis
ORGANISATIONAL ANALYSIS
 Mission & strategies
 Resource & allocation of resource
 Internal/organisational environment
 Reward/ Punishment
OPERATIONAL ANALYSIS
 What is required of employee in order for them to
be effective
 Helps determine what KSAs are required
 Determine the characteristic of task env. Reguired
for performance
 Data Source
 Job Description
 Job Specification
 Performance Standards
PERSON ANAYSIS
 Expected performance – Actual performance = Performance
deficiency
 Where to collect data
 Performance Appraisal
 Demerits
 Lack of supervisor training
 Lack of opportunity for supervisor to see substantial amounts
of subordinates’ performance
 Rater error such as halo error, leniency etc.
 Poorly developed appraisal & appraisal process
Improvement in Training
 Training
 Job Related
 Self rating
 360 degree appraisal
PERFORMANCE DATA
 Productivity  Downtime
 Absenteeism &  Repairs
tardiness
 Accidents
 Short term sickness
 Grievance
 Waste
 Late deliveries
 Product quality
LIKELIHOOD OF DEFICIENCY BEING KSA ISSUE
Distinctiveness
Low High
C
Low
High

o
n
s
e
n
s
u
s
PROFECIENCY TESTS
 Cognitive Tests knowledge
 Behavioural Tests skill
 Surveys attitude
OUTCOMES OF TNA
 Non training needs/ no KSA deficiency
 Reward/ punishment incongruencies
 Inadequate or inappropriate feedback
 Obstacles in the system
 Non training needs / KSA deficiency
 Job Aids
 Practice
 Changing the job itself
 Training Needs
APPROACHES TO TNA
 Proactive
 Prepare employees for promotion/ transfer
 Prepare employees for change in their current
jobs
 Reactive
“ Prevention is better than cure.”
It's easier to ask a dumb
question than it is to fix a
dumb mistake.
Rational behavior requires theory.
Reactive
behavior requires only reflex action.