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Drawing conclusions and/or making decisions
concerning a population based on sample results.
º
0roblem Under Study
-
Data

Survey Experiment

[ ©nce sample data has been gathered, statistical


inference allows to assess evidence in favor or some
claim about the population from which the sample
has been drawn.

[ The method of inference used to support or reject


claims based on sample data is known as testing of
hypothesis.
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Example: The mean monthly cell phone bill of
this city is ȝ = $42
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Example: The proportion of adults in this city
with cell phones is ʌ = 0.68
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Claim: the
population
mean age is 50.
(Null Hypothesis:
0opulation
H0: ȝ = 50 )
  

 
ës † O     º
ëf not likely, Suppose
the sample
REJECT mean age Sample
Null Hypothesis is 20: X = 20
|  
    

[ To compare the effectiveness of different methods of


teaching

[ To know whether average self-confidence score of college


students is equal to some specified value.

[ To know whether average yield of a crop in a certain district


is equal to a specified value

[ To compare the effects of stress management programs on


self-esteem.
|  
    

[ To know whether intelligence level measured through


intelligence quotient is up to the standard

[ To find if a new drug is really effective for the particular


ailment, say, in reducing blood pressure or inducing sleep

[ To compare two processes with regard to production of


certain items

[ To know if the genetic fraction of the total variation in a


strain is more than a given value
|  

Statistical test is a procedure governed by certain rules,


that leads to take a decision about the hypothesis for its
acceptance or rejection on the basis of the sample values

These tests have wide applications in agriculture,


medicine, industry, social sciences, psychology,
etc.
R 

StatisticÔ >unction of sample values, like sample mean,


sample variance

0arameterÔ >unction of population values, like


population mean, population variance

Statistical HypothesisÔ A definite statement about the


population parameters

ëf all the parameters are completely specified, the


hypothesis is called a simple hypothesis, otherwise it is
a composite hypothesis.
R 

H 0Ô The hypothesis under test for a sample study

H 1Ô The hypothesis tested against the null


hypothesis
H0:  o

H 1:  o (Two-Tailed Test)
< o (Left-Tailed Test)
> o (Right-Tailed Test)

Level of Significance () Ô The maximum size of the error


(rejecting H0 when it is true) which we are
prepared to risk. The higher the value of , less
precise is the result.
R 

Test Statistic
 A quantity calculated from sample of data.
 ëts value is used to decide whether or not the null
hypothesis should be rejected in the hypothesis test

Critical value(s)
 The critical value(s) for a hypothesis test is a value to
which the value of the test statistic in a sample is compared
to determine whether or not the null hypothesis is rejected.
 The critical value for any hypothesis test depends on the
significance level at which the test is carried out, and
whether the test is one-sided or two-sided.
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 Normal Test

 t - Test

 Chi - Square Test

 > - Test
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68% of
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95% of the data

99.7% of the data


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Normal test
Test for the Mean of a Normal 0opulation

0opulation Variance is Known


ëf xi ( i =1,i,n) is a r.s of size n from N( , 2), then

    Î

H0 : = 0 or
H0 : the sample has been drawn from the population
with mean 0
H1 :  0 (two-tailed) or > 0 (right-tailed) or
< 0 (left-tailed)

$
Test Statistic:    Î


Test for the Mean«

Test Criteria
Depending on the alternative hypothesis selected, the test
criteria is as follows:

 a  


a   

      
      
       

D is the table value of D at level of significance .


Some Critical Values of D

Level of Critical value of D


Significance

Two-tailed Single tailed test


test  
10% 1.645 1.280

5% 1.960 1.645

1% 2.580 2.330
Test for the Mean«

0opulation Variance is Unknown

Large Sample (n>30)


2 is estimated by sample variance i.e.,

‰3  s2+
where
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Normal test is then applied


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Test the claim that the true mean # of TV sets in
ëndian homes is equal to 3.
(Assume ı = 0.8)

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2 < ' $A  -D= -1.96  ^D= ^1.96


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-D= -1.96  ^D= ^1.96


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Test for the Mean«AN©THER Example
>rom a class, 36 students were selected at random and their marks
in a subject out of 20 were observed. The mean and standard
deviation are 18.7 and 1.25. Test whether the mean marks of
students is 19.
Solution:
H0: The sample of students has been drawn from the
population with mean marks = 19
H1:  19
@ † n = 36, = 19,  = 1.25

Under H0,
  $ 
D $ MM


H0 is accepted at 5% level of significance
Test for Difference of Means

0opn. ë Ô N( 1, m) 0opn. ëë Ô N( 2,  ),


- -
n1 m
n2 

0opulation Variances are Known

H0 : 1 = 2

Test Statistic: Normal test

›   ›   

  

›
 
Test for Difference of Means€Example

ënformation on two sets of samples regarding the expenditure


in Rs. per month per family

n1= 42
m †  †   
n2= 32 O † R   †   
Test whether the average expenditure per month per family is
equal.
H0 : 1 = 2 H1: 1  2

D = 3.36

D > 1.96, H0 is rejected. The average expenditure per month


per family in the two populations is not equal.
Test for Difference of Means€

Under H0

   O    O
† †   O †  OO †  O
O  OO  

 O  O

0opulation Variances are known & Equal


Test for Single 0roportion

n Ô Sample size
x Ô 0ersons possessing the given attribute

Ô ©bserved proportion of successes

0 Ô 0opulation proportion, Q = 1- 0
H 0: 0 = 0 0
H1: 0  00 or 0 > 00 or 0 < 00
Test Statistic: Normal test

 
 · 


Test for Single 0roportion«

Test Criteria:

 a   


a 
  
      
      
      

Test for Single 0roportion«Example
ën order to test the conjecture of the management that 60%
employees favour a new bonus scheme, a sample of 150
employees was taken. 55 employees favoured the new bonus
scheme.
Solution: n = 150, x = No. of employees favoured = 55

p= = 0.367
m
H0: 0 = 0.60
H1: 0  0.60
   
† † † 
 m    

D>2.58, Ho is rejected and it is concluded that 60% employees
do not favour the new bonus scheme.
Test for Difference of 0roportions
Let x1 (x2) be the number of persons possessing a given
attribute A in random sample of size n1 (n2) from 1st (2nd)
population. Then sample proportions will be
 
  



Let 01 and 02 be the population proportions
H 0: 0 1 = 0 2
H1: 01  02 or 01 > 02 or 01 < 02

Test Statistic: Normal test

    
   
    




Test for difference of proportions«

Test Statistic: Under H0: 01 = 02 = 0 (say)

Q =1-0

 

 

Î
 

—  
 OO


O
Test for difference of proportions«Example
ën a district, 450 persons were regular consumers of tea out of a
sample of 1000 persons. ën another district, 400 were regular
consumers of tea out of a sample of 800 persons. ës there a
significant difference between the two districts as far as tea
drinking habit is concerned?
Solution: H 0: 0 1 = 0 2 = 0
H 1: 0 1  0 2
ÿ  ÿ
† †  ÿ
 
ÿÿ
 
ÿÿÿ ÿÿ

Significant at 5% as calculated value is more than table value


(1.96). Reject H0
t - tests

Test for the Mean of a Normal 0opulation


Small Sample (n < 30) and 0opulation Variance is Unknown

A r.s x1,«,xn Ô N( , 2)


H0 : = 0

H1 :  0 or > 0 or < 0

Test Statistic: t - test


 $ 
  $m

m O m
     $  O
 m $ m m
The null hypothesis is accepted or rejected accordingly.
Test for the Mean«

Test Criteria:

 a  


a 
  
         
        
        

Test for the Mean«Example
Suppose the claim has been made that the height of adult males in a
college is different from what it used to be and we wish to test this
hypothesis. A campus wide survey made 20 years ago found that the
mean height of males was 69.5 in. To study this, a random sample of
15 males of the same age from current students was taken and their
height recorded.
Solution:
H0: The average height is 69.5 in.
H1: The average height is more than 69.5 in. 65.0, 67.5, 68.0,
 †  M  † R 68.5, 69.0, 69.5,
69.5, 70.0, 71.0,
R
 71.5, 71.5, 72.5,
?† † R   
R  72.5, 74.5, 75.5

Since |t| < 2.14 (value of t at 5% and 14 d.f), the mean height is 69.5 in.
t-table

'

›
Test for the Difference of Two 0opulation Means

0opulation Variances are Unknown but Equal

Let    Î be the sample mean of a sample of size n1 (n2) from


a population with mean 1 ( 2).
H0 : 1 - 2 = 0

Test Statistic: Under H0

$  $ 
      $
 

  
2 is estimated from the sample
  $ Î     $ Î  

   $ 
Test for the Difference«Example

ën order to compare the reading ability of dyslexic children by


placing a blue plastic overlay on reading material with a clear
overlay, an experiment was conducted with 12 children in each
group and the scores are as follows:

Blue ©verlay ± 70, 80, 90, 80, 50, 80, 70, 80, 70, 80, 80, 70

Clear ©verlay ± 50, 40, 50, 50, 60, 60, 60, 40, 60, 70, 60, 80

Assess whether reading ability of dyslexic children improved by


placing a blue plastic overlay?
Test for the Difference«Example

Solution:
H0 : 1 = 2 H1 : 1 > 2

 †  r   †   r
 †  r   † ÕÕ Õ

 †
  

Since t > 2.074 (value of t at 5% and 22 d.f), The null hypothesis


is significant and thus not accepted. This concludes that blue
plastic overlays on reading material improves visual processing
and provides immediate improvement in the reading ability of
dyslexic children.
0aired t-test for Difference of Means

[ When n1 = n2 = n

[ Two samples are not independent (paired)

[ Let (xi, yi), i=1,..,n be a r.s from a B.N. population

[ Let di = xi - yi
H0 : 1 - 2 = 0

Test Statistic: Under H0

 $
 




 

         $  

 
$   
0aired t-test«Example

ën a study to know the effect of training to 8 researchers on a


particular subject, following are the pre and post training
scores:

Before training: 49 53 51 52 47 50 52 53

After training: 52 55 52 53 50 54 54 53

Can we conclude that training has improved the performance


of the researchers?
0aired t-test«Example

Solution:
H0 : B = A H1 : B < A

Researcher No. Before After di = xi - yi O


(xi) (yi)

1. 49 52 -3 9
2. 53 55 -2 4
3. 51 52 -1 1
4. 52 53 -1 1
5. 47 50 -3 9
6. 50 54 -4 16
7. 52 54 -2 4
8. 53 53 0 0
0aired t-test«Example



     



      R 
R





     R
  R 

t (5%,7 d.f.) = 1.90


H0 is rejected, so it is concluded that training has improved
the performance of the researchers.
Chi-Square tests

Test for the variance of a normal population

Let x1, x2,«,xn (n


2) be a r.s from N( , 2).

H0 :  †
O O

Test Statistic: Under H0


O
  $  
O
†      O when is known
 †m   
O
  $  
O
†      O

m when is unknown
 †m   
Chi-Square tests« Example

The precision of an instrument, measured in terms of


variance, is not less than 0.16. Given the 11 measurements
(2.3, 2.5, 2.3, 2.4, 2.7, 2.5, 2.6, 2.5, 2.7, 2.6, 2.5) on the
instrument, test the claim:
Solution: #   † m

#  
†  
  
 †  

†  
†    
Tabulated value of 2 with 10 d.f. at 1% level is 2.5. Since
calculated value < tabulated, H0 is not significant and hence the
precision of the instrument is 0.16.
Test of Goodness of >it

To test the discrepancy between the observed and the expected


frequency
H0 : the fitted distribution is a good fit
H1 : not a good fit

Test Statistic:
©i «Ô ©bserved frequency of ith class
Ei Ô Expected frequency of ith class, i =1,«,n.

’

 $    ’ 

 
  
Test of Goodness of >it«Example

 Suppose four brands of cola are equally preferred by consumers.

 ët is of interest to know whether in the population of consumers,


the proportion of individuals preferring each brand is ¼.

 To test this null hypothesis, 100 individuals were randomly


selected.

 They were asked to taste the four brands without disclosing the
brand name and then declare their preference.

H0 : 0A =0B = 0C = 0D = 0.25
Test of Goodness of >it«Example

Frequenc
O served (Oi) pected ( i) Oi - i

2 25 -5
31 25
28 25 3
21 25 -4
›
 
  
 †   
† Õ 
 † 

Since 3.44 < 7.82 (value of chi-square at 5% and 3 d.f), the result is
not significant and hence the proportion is same which is 1/4.
Table of Chi-square
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Test of ëndependence

Contingency Table

Class A1 A2 A3

B1 n11 n21 n31

B2 n12 n22 n32

B3 n13 n23 n33


Test of ëndependence«

H0: The attributes are independent


H1: They are not independent

Test Statistic:
©ij «Ô ©bserved frequency
Eij Ô Expected frequency i =1,«,r j =1,«,s

    
  O
’O     ’ O    
 


H0 is rejected at level  if
’ O › ››’O  ›  
Test of ëndependence«Example 1

>rom the following table, test the hypothesis that the test
result is related to the sex of the student:

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Test of ëndependence«Example 1

H0: Test result is independent of the sex of the student

`!  "  



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 ( $(%
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  # ( %

  †    

    † 6
Test of ëndependence«Example 2

The educational standard of adoptability of new innovations


among 500 farmers are given below. Test whether the educational
standard has any impact on their adoptability of innovation.

H0: Adoptability is independent of the educational standard

Ñ)  ` 


  
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>- tests

Test for the comparison of two population variances

0opn. ë Ô N( 1,  O ) 0opn. ëë Ô N( 2,  OO ),
- -
n1   O n2 O  OO

 O
O O
 £       OO £  O
   O
  O 

 O
 £    O £
  O 
>- test«

H0 : O †  OO

Test Statistic:

m
 †  m m m


The computed value of > is compared with the tabulated


value and the inference is drawn accordingly.
Example
The nicotine contents in mgm in two samples of tobacco
were found to be as follows:
Sample A: 24 27 26 21 25
Sample B: 27 30 28 31 22 36
Test whether the two samples have been taken from the
population with the same variability.

Solution: n1 = 6, n2 = 5

H0 :  O †  OO , H1 : O
 O
O

m
† †M   M

Since > < 5.19 (value of > at 5% and 5, 4 d.f), the two
samples have the same variability
>-table (5%)
5 

5 5 5 5
55 5
5 5 5 5
5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
5 5 5 5
55 5 5
5 5
5
5
5 5 5
5 5 5
5 5
55 5 5
5 5
5
5
5 5
5 5 5
5
›
% $ (@  
  
$ !  $ *
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A    $
$ #  
 $2   $ $ 
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9#
>?   # 
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A  "º!" &!  M
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#
"'A!  "º!" $O!  MA
@     () & 
Test Statistic:
H0: ʌ = 0.08
H1: ʌ  0.08   #3?  #3
@† † † >#B
 .   / #3.  #3/
 +3#3?
 ?33
+?332+3#3?
Critical Values: å 1.96 Decision:
Reject Reject (:      º
Conclusion:
Oº Oº
  

-1.96 0 1.96 x *
  : 
'O M% 
B   &-

 
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   $1 C !
   DA 
#  $ $ 
>?   & 
9+DB>#?3 
H0: ȝ = 168
)+D?#3#    H1: ȝ  168
 +3#3?
#
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% $ ) & (
   
H0: ȝ = 168
;O Oº ;O Oº
H1: ȝ  168

‘ «+& (:  1
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'+D;O 
'
'+D;O 
  +& -2.0639 1.46
2.0639
  )  , 
m  m
 m† † † m 
)     m 
 w -).  

(+/ %$# Do not reject H0:


 
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