Weather and Climate Unit Part I/VI

Start Part I / V of an educational unit about Weather and Climate Topics for students students in grades 6-8 Download the Powerpoint version of this video, unit notes, assessments, lab activities, handouts, review games, videos, and much more at www.sciencepowerpoint.com

‡ RED SLIDE: These are notes that are very important and should be recorded in your science journal. ‡ BLACK SLIDE: Pay attention, follow directions, complete projects as described and answer required questions neatly.

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

‡ Keep an eye out for ³The-Owl´ and raise your hand as soon as you see him.
± He will be hiding somewhere in the slideshow

³Hoot, Hoot´ ³Good Luck!´

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

The Weather and Climate Unit
This Unit belongs to Ryan Murphy Copyright 2010 and can be found at www.sciencepowerpoint.com

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

This Unit will cover« Weather and Climate The Atmosphere Air Quality The Ozone Layer Air Pressure Fronts Wind Global Winds Dangerous Weather Systems Light and Temperature The Seasons Clouds Meteorology Greenhouse Effect Climate Change Biomes

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

This Unit will cover« Weather and Climate The Atmosphere Air Quality The Ozone Layer Air Pressure Fronts Wind Global Winds Dangerous Weather Systems Light and Temperature The Seasons Clouds Meteorology Greenhouse Effect Climate Change Biomes

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

This Unit will cover« Weather and Climate The Atmosphere Air Quality The Ozone Layer Air Pressure Fronts Wind Global Winds Dangerous Weather Systems Light and Temperature The Seasons Clouds Meteorology Greenhouse Effect Climate Change Biomes

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

This Unit will cover« Weather and Climate The Atmosphere Air Quality The Ozone Layer Air Pressure Fronts Wind Global Winds Dangerous Weather Systems Light and Temperature The Seasons Clouds Meteorology Greenhouse Effect Climate Change Biomes

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

This Unit will cover« Weather and Climate The Atmosphere Air Quality The Ozone Layer Air Pressure Fronts Wind Global Winds Dangerous Weather Systems Light and Temperature The Seasons Clouds Meteorology Greenhouse Effect Climate Change Biomes

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

This Unit will cover« Weather and Climate The Atmosphere Air Quality The Ozone Layer Air Pressure Fronts Wind Global Winds Dangerous Weather Systems Light and Temperature The Seasons Clouds Meteorology Greenhouse Effect Climate Change Biomes

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

This Unit will cover« Weather and Climate The Atmosphere Air Quality The Ozone Layer Air Pressure Fronts Wind Global Winds Dangerous Weather Systems Light and Temperature The Seasons Clouds Meteorology Greenhouse Effect Climate Change Biomes

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

This Unit will cover« Weather and Climate The Atmosphere Air Quality The Ozone Layer Air Pressure Fronts Wind Global Winds Dangerous Weather Systems Light and Temperature The Seasons Clouds Meteorology Greenhouse Effect Climate Change Biomes

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

This Unit will cover« Weather and Climate The Atmosphere Air Quality The Ozone Layer Air Pressure Fronts Wind Global Winds Dangerous Weather Light and Temperature The Seasons Clouds Meteorology Greenhouse Effect Climate Change Biomes

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

This Unit will cover« Weather and Climate The Atmosphere Air Quality The Ozone Layer Air Pressure Fronts Wind Global Winds Dangerous Weather Light and Temperature The Seasons Clouds Meteorology Greenhouse Effect Climate Change Biomes

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

This Unit will cover« Weather and Climate The Atmosphere Air Quality The Ozone Layer Air Pressure Fronts Wind Global Winds Dangerous Weather Light and Temperature The Seasons Clouds Meteorology Greenhouse Effect Climate Change Biomes

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

This Unit will cover« Weather and Climate The Atmosphere Air Quality The Ozone Layer Air Pressure Fronts Wind Global Winds Dangerous Weather Light and Temperature The Seasons Clouds Meteorology Greenhouse Effect Climate Change Biomes

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

This Unit will cover« Weather and Climate The Atmosphere Air Quality The Ozone Layer Air Pressure Fronts Wind Global Winds Dangerous Weather Light and Temperature The Seasons Clouds Meteorology Greenhouse Effect Climate Change Biomes

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

This Unit will cover« Weather and Climate The Atmosphere Air Quality The Ozone Layer Air Pressure Fronts Wind Global Winds Dangerous Weather Light and Temperature The Seasons Clouds Meteorology Greenhouse Effect Climate Change Biomes

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

This Unit will cover« Weather and Climate The Atmosphere Air Quality The Ozone Layer Air Pressure Fronts Wind Global Winds Dangerous Weather Light and Temperature The Seasons Clouds Meteorology Greenhouse Effect Climate Change Biomes

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

This Unit will cover« Weather and Climate The Atmosphere Air Quality The Ozone Layer Air Pressure Fronts Wind Global Winds Dangerous Weather Light and Temperature The Seasons Clouds Meteorology Greenhouse Effect Climate Change Biomes

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

This Unit will cover« Weather and Climate The Atmosphere Air Quality The Ozone Layer Air Pressure Fronts Wind Global Winds Dangerous Weather Light and Temperature The Seasons Clouds Meteorology Greenhouse Effect Climate Change Biomes

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

This Unit will cover« Weather and Climate The Atmosphere Air Quality The Ozone Layer Air Pressure Fronts Wind Global Winds Dangerous Weather Light and Temperature The Seasons Clouds Meteorology Greenhouse Effect Climate Change Biomes

‡ Let¶s go outside! Please provide at least a twenty-five word forecast for today¶s weather in journal.

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy 

Weather:

The state of the atmosphere at a given time and place, with respect to variables such as 
-

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Temperature

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Moisture

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Wind

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Air

Pressure

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Climate: The average weather of a particular part of the world at different times of the year.

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

‡ April 21st,..
± What is the climate of Florida? ± What is the climate of Arizona? ± What is climate of Alaska? ± What is the climate of Kenya? ± What is the climate in Saudi Arabia? ± What is the climate in the United Kingdom?

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

‡ The Atmosphere: A starting point

‡ This thin layer is out atmosphere. 

Atmosphere:

The layer of gases surrounding Earth; composed mainly of nitrogen and oxygen.

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

‡ Atmos ± vapor ‡ Sphairia - ball

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‡ The atmosphere is like the fog from a breath on an apple.

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

‡ Activity! Use a Petri-dish to draw a circle and then draw the thinnest possible line around it without touching the circle?

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

‡ Label this thin circle as the atmosphere.

Atmosphere

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Importance 
-

of the atmosphere

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Keeps

planet warm (Greenhouse effect)

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‡ The Moon does not have an atmosphere is extremely cold in the shade, and extremely hot in the sun.

‡ What is so special about this photo?

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‡ Answer! Water exists in all three forms of matter because of our greenhouse effect.
± Solid, liquid, gas

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Provides

oxygen to breathe (makes respiration possible).

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Protects

us from small meteors.

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Has

ozone that protects us from radiation (UV).

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‡ What¶s not scientifically accurate about your stereotypical space battle?

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‡ Answer! There is no sound, fire cannot burn without oxygen, and the ships can¶t bank turns because space is a vacuum.

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy 

Without

atmosphere, smell, taste, sound, and combustion are not possible.

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

‡ Activity! History of the atmosphere. ‡ 9 boxes equaling a half page required.

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

1st atmosphere

H and He from solar nebula

Lost to solar wind

2nd atmosphere

H20, CO2 and SO2 From Volcanoes from Transformed by photosynthesis N2, O2, from photosynthesis and constant N2 production Nitrogen fixing + continued photosynthesis

Current atmosphere

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

1st atmosphere

H and He from solar nebula

Lost to solar wind

2nd atmosphere

H20, CO2 and SO2 From Volcanoes from Transformed by photosynthesis N2, O2, from photosynthesis and constant N2 production Nitrogen fixing + continued photosynthesis

Current atmosphere

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

1st atmosphere

H and He from solar nebula

Lost to solar wind

2nd atmosphere

H20, CO2 and SO2 From Volcanoes from Transformed by photosynthesis N2, O2, from photosynthesis and constant N2 production Nitrogen fixing + continued photosynthesis

Current atmosphere

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

1st atmosphere

H and He from solar nebula

Lost to solar wind

2nd atmosphere

H20, CO2 and SO2 From Volcanoes from Transformed by photosynthesis N2, O2, from photosynthesis and constant N2 production Nitrogen fixing + continued photosynthesis

Current atmosphere

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

1st atmosphere

H and He from solar nebula

Lost to solar wind

2nd atmosphere

H20, CO2 and SO2 From Volcanoes from Transformed by photosynthesis N2, O2, from photosynthesis and constant N2 production Nitrogen fixing + continued photosynthesis

Current atmosphere

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

1st atmosphere

H and He from solar nebula

Lost to solar wind

2nd atmosphere

H20, CO2 and SO2 From Volcanoes from Transformed by photosynthesis N2, O2, from photosynthesis and constant N2 production Nitrogen fixing + continued photosynthesis

Current atmosphere

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

1st atmosphere

H and He from solar nebula

Lost to solar wind

2nd atmosphere

H20, CO2 and SO2 From Volcanoes from Transformed by photosynthesis N2, O2, from photosynthesis and constant N2 production Nitrogen fixing + continued photosynthesis

Current atmosphere

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

1st atmosphere

H and He from solar nebula

Lost to solar wind

2nd atmosphere

H20, CO2 and SO2 From Volcanoes from Transformed by photosynthesis N2, O2, from photosynthesis and constant N2 production Nitrogen fixing + continued photosynthesis

Current atmosphere

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

1st atmosphere

H and He from solar nebula

Lost to solar wind

2nd atmosphere

H20, CO2 and SO2 From Volcanoes from Transformed by photosynthesis N2, O2, from photosynthesis and constant N2 production Nitrogen fixing + continued photosynthesis

Current atmosphere

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

1st atmosphere

H and He from solar nebula

Lost to solar wind

2nd atmosphere

H20, CO2 and SO2 From Volcanoes from Transformed by photosynthesis N2, O2, from photosynthesis and constant N2 production Nitrogen fixing + continued photosynthesis

Current atmosphere

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

‡ Activity! Tic-Tac-Toe vs. Teacher.

‡ Activity! Tic-Tac-Toe vs. Teacher.
± Students (X) go first.

‡ Activity! Tic-Tac-Toe vs. Teacher.
± Students (X) go first. ± Students must verbally read the square before putting (X) in it.

‡ Activity! Tic-Tac-Toe vs. Teacher.
± Students (X) go first. ± Students must verbally read the square before putting (X) in it. State if first, sec, third. ± Teacher must read the square as well.

‡ Activity! Tic-Tac-Toe vs. Teacher.
± Students (X) go first. ± Students must verbally read the square before putting (X) in it. State if first, sec, third. ± Teacher must read the square as well.

1st atmosphere

H and He from solar nebula

Lost to solar wind

2nd atmosphere

-

-

Current atmosphere

H20, CO2 and SO2 From Volcanoes from Transformed by photosynthesis N2, O2, from photosynthesis and constant N2 production Nitrogen fixing + continued photosynthesis

-

-

-

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

1st atmosphere

H and He from solar nebula

Lost to solar wind

2nd atmosphere

-

-

Current atmosphere

H20, CO2 and SO2 From Volcanoes from Transformed by photosynthesis N2, O2, from photosynthesis and constant N2 production Nitrogen fixing + continued photosynthesis

-

-

-

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

1st atmosphere

H and He from solar nebula

Lost to solar wind

2nd atmosphere

-

-

Current atmosphere

H20, CO2 and SO2 From Volcanoes from Transformed by photosynthesis N2, O2, from photosynthesis and constant N2 production Nitrogen fixing + continued photosynthesis

-

-

-

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

1st atmosphere

H and He from solar nebula

Lost to solar wind

2nd atmosphere

-

-

Current atmosphere

H20, CO2 and SO2 From Volcanoes from Transformed by photosynthesis N2, O2, from photosynthesis and constant N2 production Nitrogen fixing + continued photosynthesis

-

-

-

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

‡ Lab Demonstration (Composition of Atmosphere) Pie plate, candle, water, jar
± Questions on next slide.

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‡ What happened to the candle when covered by jar?

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‡ What happened to the candle when covered by jar?
± What does this tell us about what the atmosphere is made of?

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‡ What happened to the candle when covered by jar?
± What does this tell us about what the atmosphere is made of? ± What other factors controlled the rate of time that caused the candle to go out?

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

‡ What happened to the candle when covered by jar?
± What does this tell us about what the atmosphere is made of? ± What other factors controlled the rate of time that caused the candle to go out?

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

‡ Redo Experiment recording in seconds how long it takes for the candle to go out in a small, medium, and large container.
± Small ± Medium ± Large (Volume 25ml) (Volume 300ml) (Volume 1000ml)

± Graph results (Bar works best) ± Use your graph to explain the differences.

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Seconds of flame

25 20 15 10 5 0 1 2 3

Series1

Volume in millimeters
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Combustion: A process in which a substance reacts with oxygen to give heat and light.

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Combustion: A process in which a substance reacts with oxygen to give heat and light.

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‡ What goes in? What comes out?

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‡ Answer! Gas and Oxygen in Gases released.

Combustion

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The 
-

atmosphere is made of 

-

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78%

Nitrogen

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21%

Oxygen

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‡ Why is the sky blue?

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‡ The sky is blue because«

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‡ The sky is blue because«
± Nitrogen and Oxygen are small atoms.

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‡ The sky is blue because«
± Nitrogen and Oxygen are small atoms. ± Red light (long wavelength) from the sun passes by Nitrogen and Oxygen without hitting them.

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

‡ The sky is blue because«
± Nitrogen and Oxygen are small atoms. ± Red light (long wavelength) from the sun passes by Nitrogen and Oxygen without hitting them. ± Blue light (shorter wavelength) hits Nitrogen and Oxygen and is scattered.

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

‡ The sky is blue because«
± Nitrogen and Oxygen are small atoms. ± Red light (long wavelength) from the sun passes by Nitrogen and Oxygen without hitting them. ± Blue light (shorter wavelength) hits Nitrogen and Oxygen and is scattered. ± You see this blue.

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

‡ The sky is blue because«
± Nitrogen and Oxygen are small atoms. ± Red light (long wavelength) from the sun passes by Nitrogen and Oxygen without hitting them. ± Blue light (shorter wavelength) hits Nitrogen and Oxygen and is scattered. ± You see this blue. ± It is a bit more complicated than this but hopefully you get the idea.

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

‡ The sky is blue because«
± Nitrogen and Oxygen are small atoms. ± Red light (long wavelength) from the sun passes by Nitrogen and Oxygen without hitting them. ± Blue light (shorter wavelength) hits Nitrogen and Oxygen and is scattered. ± You see this blue. ± It is a bit more complicated than this but hopefully you get the idea.

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

Shorter wave-lengths

longer wave-lengths

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Shorter wave-lengths

longer wave-lengths

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Shorter wave-lengths

longer wave-lengths

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‡ Which letter represents the blue light that we see, and which represents the red light?

B A
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‡ Answer! B represents the smaller wave length of light scattering off of N2 and O2.

B A
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‡ Why then, are sunsets red, yellow, and orange?

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‡ Answer! The sun is not directly overhead and passes across the atmosphere. The blue light is scattered out, leaving the longer reds, oranges, and yellows.

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy 

All

other gases 1%  Argon .7%  Carbon Dioxide .2%  Neon  Helium  Methane  Krypton  Hydrogen  Xenon
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy 

All

other gases 1%  Argon .7%  Carbon Dioxide .2%  Neon  Helium  Methane  Krypton  Hydrogen  Xenon
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy 

All

other gases 1%  Argon .7%  Carbon Dioxide .2%  Neon  Helium  Methane  Krypton  Hydrogen  Xenon
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy 

All

other gases 1%  Argon .7%  Carbon Dioxide .2%  Neon  Helium  Methane  Krypton  Hydrogen  Xenon
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy 

All

other gases 1%  Argon .7%  Carbon Dioxide .2%  Neon  Helium  Methane  Krypton  Hydrogen  Xenon
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy 

All

other gases 1%  Argon .7%  Carbon Dioxide .2%  Neon  Helium  Methane  Krypton  Hydrogen  Xenon
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy 

All

other gases 1%  Argon .7%  Carbon Dioxide .2%  Neon  Helium  Methane  Krypton  Hydrogen  Xenon
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy 

All

other gases 1%  Argon .7%  Carbon Dioxide .2%  Neon  Helium  Methane  Krypton  Hydrogen  Xenon
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy 

All

other gases 1%  Argon .7%  Carbon Dioxide .2%  Neon  Helium  Methane  Krypton  Hydrogen  Xenon
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

‡ What are these? When all are identified we can move on.

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

‡ What are these? When all are identified we can move on.

N2 Nitrogen Gas

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‡ The sky is blue because Nitrogen gas N2 and Oxygen Gas O2 are almost the same size (small). This scatters the blue light.

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

‡ What are these? When all are identified we can move on.

O2 Oxygen N2 Nitrogen Gas

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‡ What are these? When all are identified we can move on.

O2 Oxygen N2 Nitrogen Gas CO2 Carbon Dioxide

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

‡ What are these? When all are identified we can move on.

O2 Oxygen N2 Nitrogen Gas Argon CO2 Carbon Dioxide

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

‡ What are these? When all are identified we can move on.

O2 Oxygen N2 Nitrogen Gas Argon CO2 Carbon Dioxide Neon

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

‡ What are these? When all are identified we can move on.

O2 Oxygen N2 Nitrogen Gas Argon CO2 Carbon Dioxide Neon Krypton

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

‡ What are these? When all are identified we can move on.

O2 Oxygen N2 Nitrogen Gas Argon CO2 Carbon Dioxide Neon Krypton Xenon
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

‡ What are these? When all are identified we can move on.

O2 Oxygen N2 Nitrogen Gas Argon CO2 Carbon Dioxide Neon Krypton Xenon CH4 Methane
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

‡ What are these? When all are identified we can move on.

O2 Oxygen N2 Nitrogen Gas Argon CO2 Carbon Dioxide Helium Neon Krypton Xenon CH4 Methane
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

‡ What are these? When all are identified we can move on.

O2 Oxygen N2 Nitrogen Gas Argon CO2 Carbon Dioxide Helium Neon Krypton H2 Hydogen Xenon CH4 Methane
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

‡ Activity! Please create a pie graph in journal by hand of atmospheres composition.

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy 

Title:

Layers of the Atmosphere 

Spread 
-

these 5 bullets out over a page. Draw relevant things after titling layer.layer.-

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

‡ Caution! Notes are going from the top up and not top down.

‡ Caution! Notes are going from the top up and not top down. 

Title:

Layers of the Atmosphere 

Spread 
-

these 5 bullets out over a page. Draw relevant things after titling layer.layer.-

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy 

Title:

Layers of the Atmosphere 

Spread 
-

these 5 bullets out over a page. Draw relevant things after titling layer.layer.-

Troposphere

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Troposphere: Weather occurs here.

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Stratosphere:

Jets fly through, ozone

found here.

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Mesosphere:

Meteors burn up here

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Thermosphere:

Space shuttle orbits here,

Aurora borealis

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Exosphere:

Merges with space, some satellites can be found here.

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‡ Now draw with a red line the temperatures of the layers of atmosphere.

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‡ Now draw with a red line the temperatures of the layers of atmosphere.

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‡ Now draw with a red line the temperatures of the layers of atmosphere.

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

‡ Now draw with a red line the temperatures of the layers of atmosphere.

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

‡ Now draw with a red line the temperatures of the layers of atmosphere.

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

‡ Check out the large variations in temperature as you move up in atmosphere. Why?

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

‡ Caution! Read the next slide from the bottom up.
± Not from the top down!

‡ Very hot in space when sun hits you. ‡ Gets colder again with few air molecules as you go toward space ‡ Gets warmer in stratosphere because sun¶s radiation is strong because not blocked out. ‡ As you go up Mt. Everest there is less air particles so it gets colder.

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

‡ Very hot in space when sun hits you. ‡ Gets colder again with few air molecules as you go toward space ‡ Gets warmer in stratosphere because sun¶s radiation is strong because not blocked out. ‡ As you go up Mt. Everest there is less air particles so it gets colder.

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

‡ Very hot in space when sun hits you. ‡ Gets colder again with few air molecules as you go toward space ‡ Gets warmer in stratosphere because sun¶s radiation is strong because not blocked out. ‡ As you go up Mt. Everest there is less air particles so it gets colder.

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

‡ Very hot in space when sun hits you. ‡ Gets colder again with few air molecules as you go toward space ‡ Gets warmer in stratosphere because sun¶s radiation is strong because not blocked out. ‡ As you go up Mt. Everest there is less air particles so it gets colder.

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

‡ Very hot in space when sun hits you. ‡ Gets colder again with few air molecules as you go toward space ‡ Gets warmer in stratosphere because sun¶s radiation is strong because not blocked out. ‡ As you go up Mt. Everest there is less air particles so it gets colder.

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy 

New

Area of Focus: Air Quality and Pollution

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

‡ Atmosphere also contains water vapor (H2O)

‡ + trillions of tiny particles Dust, smoke, pollen, salt, chemicals, etc

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy 

Air 
-

Pollution can be

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Global: 
Ex.

Global Warming, Ozone Hole

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Global: 
Ex.

Global Warming, Ozone Hole

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Global: 
Ex.

Global Warming, Ozone Hole

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Regional 
Ex.

Acid Rain

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Regional 
Ex.

Acid Rain

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Regional 
Ex.

Acid Rain

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Local 
Ex.

Smog, Urban heat

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy 

Local 
Ex.

Smog, Urban heat

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy 

Local 
Ex.

Smog, Urban heat

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

‡ Air Pollution can be natural and man made.
± What is this a photo of?

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‡ Answer! Picture of sediment pollution on a coral reef

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

‡ Assessment Question! - Please describe a few types of air pollution, and their sources.
± You will not be able to copy each one, so just get the names, and maybe a bit of info.

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

‡ Assessment Question! - Please describe a few types of air pollution, and their sources.
± You will not be able to copy each one, so just get the names, and maybe a bit of info.

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

‡ Natural Sources of pollution

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‡ Natural Sources of pollution
± Forest Decay CO2

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‡ Natural Sources of pollution
± Forest Decay CO2 ± Volcanoes ± SO4

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‡ Natural Sources of pollution
± Forest Decay CO2 ± Volcanoes ± SO4 ± Nitrogen Decay NO4

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

‡ Natural Sources of pollution
± Forest Decay CO2 ± Volcanoes ± SO4 ± Nitrogen Decay NO4 ± Methane Decay CH4

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

‡ Natural Sources of pollution
± Forest Decay CO2 ± Volcanoes ± SO4 ± Nitrogen Decay NO4 ± Methane Decay CH4 ‡ Note ± Natural Sources more than double human sources

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‡ Sulfur oxides especially sulfur dioxide are emitted from burning of coal and oil.

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‡ Burning Coal (to create electricity) also emits CO2 (Carbon Dioxide a greenhouse gas)

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‡ Carbon dioxide (CO2), a greenhouse gas emitted from combustion.

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‡ Nitrogen oxides especially nitrogen dioxide are emitted from high temperature combustion.

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‡ Nitrogen oxides especially nitrogen dioxide are emitted from high temperature combustion. AKA - Smog

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‡ Smog over Beijing

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‡ Carbon monoxide is colorless, odorless, non-irritating but very poisonous gas.

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‡ Carbon monoxide is colorless, odorless, non-irritating but very poisonous gas. It is a product by incomplete combustion of fuel such as natural gas, coal or wood.

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

‡ Carbon monoxide is colorless, odorless, non-irritating but very poisonous gas. It is a product by incomplete combustion of fuel such as natural gas, coal or wood. Vehicular exhaust is a major source of carbon monoxide.

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

‡ Carbon monoxide is colorless, odorless, non-irritating but very poisonous gas. It is a product by incomplete combustion of fuel such as natural gas, coal or wood. Vehicular exhaust is a major source of carbon monoxide.

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy 

To

avoid carbon monoxide poisoning, Do

not 
-

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy 

Run

a car in a closed garage.

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Burn

charcoal indoors or in a tent.

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Run

a generator inside.

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Burn

anything without ventilation.

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‡ Fire and Carbon Monoxide Alarm.
± Cost about 15 dollars.

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‡ Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC¶s), such as hydrocarbon fuel vapors and solvents.

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‡ Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC¶s), such as hydrocarbon fuel vapors and solvents.

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‡ Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC¶s), such as hydrocarbon fuel vapors and solvents.

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‡ No open burning laws in some states allow people to burn waste with high levels of VOC¶s

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‡ Burning household waste releases VOC¶s

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‡ Fireworks contain toxic metals, such as lead, cadmium and copper.

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‡ Class Poll! Town members donating several thousand dollars for fireworks celebration on July 4th which pollutes local area for the reason of celebration. _____ No celebratory fireworks, but having local band play patriotic tunes Historians talking about The American Revolution. ______

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‡ Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), harmful to the ozone layer emitted from products currently banned from use.

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‡ Ammonia (NH3) emitted from agricultural processes.

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‡ Odors, such as from garbage, sewage, and industrial processes

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‡ Odors, such as from garbage, sewage, and industrial processes

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‡ Radioactive pollutants produced by nuclear explosions, war explosives, and natural processes such as the radioactive decay of radon.
± Note, gases below are water vapor, Plant would to have a meltdown to release radioactive pollutants.

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‡ Radioactive pollutants produced by nuclear explosions, war explosives, and natural processes such as the radioactive decay of radon.
± Note, gases below are water vapor.

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‡ Radioactive pollutants produced by nuclear explosions, war explosives, and natural processes such as the radioactive decay of radon.
± Note, gases below are water vapor. The Plant would have to have a meltdown to release radioactive pollutants.

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‡ Radioactive Fallout: Chernobly Disaster

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‡ Note ± Don¶t freak out! Meltdown would be very rare. But knowing evacuation routes and the dangers of nuclear fallout from a radioactive cloud is important.

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‡ Ground level ozone (O3) formed from NOx and VOCs.

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‡ Particulate matter (PM), measured as smoke and dust.

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‡ Particulate matter (PM), measured as smoke and dust.

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‡ Particulate matter (PM), measured as smoke and dust.
± PM10 is the fraction of suspended particles 10 micrometers in diameter and smaller that will enter the nasal cavity.

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‡ Particulate matter (PM), measured as smoke and dust.
± PM10 is the fraction of suspended particles 10 micrometers in diameter and smaller that will enter the nasal cavity. ± PM2.5 has a maximum particle size of 2.5 µm and will enter the bronchies and lungs.

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

‡ Particulate matter (PM), measured as smoke and dust.
± PM10 is the fraction of suspended particles 10 micrometers in diameter and smaller that will enter the nasal cavity. ± PM2.5 has a maximum particle size of 2.5 µm and will enter the bronchies and lungs.

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‡ Activity! ± Particulate matter in our building
± Science Room ± Teachers Room ± Gym Closet ± Cafeteria ± Janitor¶s Room ± Outside ± Office ± Control

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‡ Procedure

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‡ Procedure
± Need six plastic bags.

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‡ Procedure
± Need six plastic bags. ± Create 1 centimeter circles on filter paper.

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‡ Procedure
± Need six plastic bags. ± Create 1 centimeter circles on filter paper. ± Put in bag.

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‡ Procedure
± Need six plastic bags. ± Create 1 centimeter circles on filter paper. ± Put in bag. ± Remove filter from bag, use elastic to place on vacuum, run vacuum for 1 minute.

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‡ Procedure
± Need six plastic bags. ± Create 1 centimeter circles on filter paper. ± Put in bag. ± Remove filter from bag, use elastic to place on vacuum, run vacuum for 1 minute. ± Label and place filter back in bag.

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

‡ Procedure
± Need six plastic bags. ± Create 1 centimeter circles on filter paper. ± Put in bag. ± Remove filter from bag, use elastic to place on vacuum, run vacuum for 1 minute. ± Label and place filter back in bag. ± Analyze number of particulates in circle.

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

‡ Procedure
± Need six plastic bags. ± Create 1 centimeter circles on filter paper. ± Put in bag. ± Remove filter from bag, use elastic to place on vacuum, run vacuum for 1 minute. ± Label and place filter back in bag. ± Analyze number of particulates in circle. ± Graph results, post warnings if necessary.

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

‡ Procedure
± Need six plastic bags. ± Create 1 centimeter circles on filter paper. ± Put in bag. ± Remove filter from bag, use elastic to place on vacuum, run vacuum for 1 minute. ± Label and place filter back in bag. ± Analyze number of particulates in circle. ± Graph results, post warnings if necessary.

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

‡ Please observe the slides that collected Particulate Matter (PM) from the building.

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

‡ Please observe the slides that collected Particulate Matter (PM) from the building.

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‡ Please observe the slides that collected Particulate Matter (PM) from the building.

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‡ Please rate each area on a 1-5 Scale of PM ‡ 1 ± Same as control ‡ 2 ± Low PM ‡ 3 ± Medium PM ‡ 4 ± High PM ‡ 5 ± Very High PM

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‡ Control 1

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‡ Control 2

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‡ Control 3

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‡ Control

Office

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‡ Control

Teachers Room

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‡ Control

Janitor¶s Room

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‡ Control

Outside

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‡ Control

Science Room

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‡ Control

Cafeteria

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‡ Control

Gym Closet

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‡ N = 1 Is not enough data to accurately say anything. Let¶s do this 200 hundred more times and see if we get the same results.

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‡ N = 1 Is not enough data to accurately say anything. Let¶s do this 200 hundred more times and see if we get the same results.

I think it would be wise to retest the gym closet
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

‡ Please write a short paragraph / evaluation of the schools air quality ‡ Some considerations in statement
± Was the level of PM high or low? ± What places should we test again? ± Do the results surprise you? ± Why do you think the results are what they are? ± Can we base anything on such a small number of samples.

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‡ Clean Air Act (1970) created federal and state regulations to limit emissions from both stationary (industrial) sources and mobile sources.

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‡ Activity! Role Play ‡ Main Roles

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‡ Activity! Role Play ‡ Main Roles
± Farley (Reporter)

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‡ Activity! Role Play ‡ Main Roles
± Farley (Reporter) ± Newspaper Chief

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‡ Activity! Role Play ‡ Main Roles
± Farley (Reporter) ± Newspaper Chief ± Female Scientist

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‡ Activity! Role Play ‡ Main Roles
± Farley (Reporter) ± Newspaper Chief ± Female Scientist ± Global George (Earth)

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‡ Activity! Role Play ‡ Main Roles
± Farley (Reporter) ± Newspaper Chief ± Female Scientist ± Global George (Earth) ± Doctor Guy

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‡ Smaller Roles

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‡ Smaller Roles
± Refrigerator Inventor

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‡ Smaller Roles
± Refrigerator Inventor ± Computer Processor Guy

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‡ Smaller Roles
± Refrigerator Inventor ± Computer Processor Guy ± Automobile Air Conditioner Service Person

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Chief then Farley to start

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Chief then Farley

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Chief

Chief

Chief and Farley

Farley

Farley

Female Scientist

Female Scientist and then Farley

Female Scientist and then Farley

Female Scientist

Farley

Female Scientist

Female Scientist

Female Scientist

Farley then Female Scientist

Female Scientist then George

Global George

Global George

Global George

Farley

Doctor then Farley

Doctor

Farley

Refrigerator Inventor

Computer Guy

Auto Guy

Chief

Farley

Farley

Farley and then Chief

THE END
‡ Actors and Actresses please line up and take a bow.

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy 

Ozone 
-

Layer

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Layers

of atmosphere

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Gas

made of 3 oxygen atoms (O3)

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Gas

made of 3 oxygen atoms (O3)

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Gas

made of 3 oxygen atoms (O3)

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Absorbs 99% of suns harmful UVB rays

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Chloroflurocarbons,

(CFC s) made by humans in aerosols destroy Ozone

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Humans

have created a hole in the ozone

layer.

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‡ Hole is concentrated at poles, but pockets can be found globally.
± Why should you care?

‡ Remember: Avoid UV Exposure by«
± Don¶t use tanning beds. ± Don¶t sun bathe. ± Avoid sun during peek hours. ± Seek Shade. ± Wear large hats. ± Protect skin with clothing. ± Use sunscreen or«.

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

‡ Remember: Avoid UV Exposure by«
± Don¶t use tanning beds. ± Don¶t sun bathe. ± Avoid sun during peek hours. ± Seek Shade. ± Wear large hats. ± Protect skin with clothing. ± Use sunscreen or«.

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

‡ Remember: Avoid UV Exposure by«
± Don¶t use tanning beds. ± Don¶t sun bathe. ± Avoid sun during peek hours. ± Seek Shade. ± Wear large hats. ± Protect skin with clothing. ± Use sunscreen or«.

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

‡ Remember: Avoid UV Exposure by«
± Don¶t use tanning beds. ± Don¶t sun bathe. ± Avoid sun during peek hours. ± Seek Shade. ± Wear large hats. ± Protect skin with clothing. ± Use sunscreen or«.

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

‡ Remember: Avoid UV Exposure by«
± Don¶t use tanning beds. ± Don¶t sun bathe. ± Avoid sun during peek hours. ± Seek Shade. ± Wear large hats. ± Protect skin with clothing. ± Use sunscreen or«.

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

‡ Remember: Avoid UV Exposure by«
± Don¶t use tanning beds. ± Don¶t sun bathe. ± Avoid sun during peek hours. ± Seek Shade. ± Wear large hats. ± Protect skin with clothing. ± Use sunscreen or«.

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

‡ Remember: Avoid UV Exposure by«
± Don¶t use tanning beds. ± Don¶t sun bathe. ± Avoid sun during peek hours. ± Seek Shade. ± Wear large hats. ± Protect skin with clothing. ± Use sunscreen or«.

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

‡ Remember: Avoid UV Exposure by«
± Don¶t use tanning beds. ± Don¶t sun bathe. ± Avoid sun during peek hours. ± Seek Shade. ± Wear large hats. ± Protect skin with clothing. ± Use sunscreen or«.

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

‡ Remember: Avoid UV Exposure by«
± Don¶t use tanning beds. ± Don¶t sun bathe. ± Avoid sun during peek hours. ± Seek Shade. ± Wear large hats. ± Protect skin with clothing. ± And use sunscreen or«.

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

‡ Check your body often for signs of skin cancer.
± Remember your ABCDE¶s Skin Cancer. If you have a mole that has these than it should be looked at by a doctor.

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

‡ Check your body often for signs of skin cancer.
± Remember your ABCDE¶s Skin Cancer. If you have a mole that has these than it should be looked at by a doctor.

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

‡ A ± Asymmetry: Spots on your skin are not circles, they are very irregular shaped.

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‡ B ± Border: Moles may have a blurry or dark jagged edge.

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‡ C ± Color: A mole that has differences in color, with some dark and some light.

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‡ D ± Diameter: Any mole larger than a pencil eraser should be looked at by a doctor.

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‡ E ± Elevation: The mole is raised above the surface of the skin.

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‡ Which of the pictures below is a normal freckle, and which is something you would want to have checked? ±Why?

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‡ Dangerous looking mole because is AAsymmetrical, and C-Color changes

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‡ Which of the pictures below is a normal freckle, and which is something you would want to have checked? ±Why?

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‡ Dangerous looking mole because AAsymmetrical, C-Color, and D-Diameter.

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‡ Which of the pictures below is a normal freckle, and which is something you would want to have checked? ±Why?

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‡ Very Dangerous looking mole because of E-Elevation, and D-Diamter.

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‡ Highest rates of skin cancer in US

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‡ Why do NH, VT, and the Northwest, have more skin cancer than sunny states?

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‡ Many people are fair skinned among other factors.

‡ Many people are fair skinned among other factors.

‡ Assessment Question?
± What are some ways to avoid skin cancer.

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Way s 
-

to avoid skin cancer!

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Don t

sunbathe. The sun is radiation

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‡ Your body after 30 years of sun bathing

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Tanning

also increases your risk

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Avoid

the sun, especially between 10-4PM 10-

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Seek

shade

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Wear

a shirt (thicker and darker)

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Wear

sunglasses

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Wear

a hat, the bigger the better

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Lastly,

wear sunscreen, SPF 30 or more

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‡ Be especially wary fair skinned people

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‡ Be especially wary fair skinned people
± Who out there is fair skinned?

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‡ The good news«Montreal Protocol (1987)

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‡ The good news«Montreal Protocol (1987)
± Global agreement to phase of CFC¶s

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‡ The good news«Montreal Protocol (1987)
± Global agreement to phase of CFC¶s ± Bad News ± Not followed by every country.

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‡ Try Again! Try and identify the picture beneath the squares.
± Raise your hand when you think you know. You only get one guess.

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³Grandma, I think you should wear some sunscreen.´

‡ Activity! Weather and Climate Review Game I

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

End Weather and Climate Unit Part II/V

‡ More Units Available at«

Earth Science: The Soil Science and Glaciers Unit, The Geology Topics Unit, The Astronomy Topics Unit, The Weather and Climate Unit, and The River Unit, The Water Molecule Unit. Physical Science: The Laws of Motion and Machines Unit, The Atoms and Periodic Table Unit, The Energy and the Environment Unit, and The Introduction to Science / Metric Unit. Life Science: The Diseases and Cells Unit, The DNA and Genetics Unit, The Life Topics Unit, The Plant Unit, The Taxonomy and Classification Unit, Ecology: Feeding Levels Unit, Ecology: Interactions Unit, Ecology: Abiotic Factors, The Evolution and Natural Selection Unit and coming soon The Anatomy and Physiology Unit.

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

‡ More Units Available at«

Earth Science: The Soil Science and Glaciers Unit, The Geology Topics Unit, The Astronomy Topics Unit, The Weather and Climate Unit, and The River Unit, The Water Molecule Unit. Physical Science: The Laws of Motion and Machines Unit, The Atoms and Periodic Table Unit, The Energy and the Environment Unit, and The Introduction to Science / Metric Unit. Life Science: The Diseases and Cells Unit, The DNA and Genetics Unit, The Life Topics Unit, The Plant Unit, The Taxonomy and Classification Unit, Ecology: Feeding Levels Unit, Ecology: Interactions Unit, Ecology: Abiotic Factors, The Evolution and Natural Selection Unit and coming soon The Anatomy and Physiology Unit.

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

‡ More Units Available at«

Earth Science: The Soil Science and Glaciers Unit, The Geology Topics Unit, The Astronomy Topics Unit, The Weather and Climate Unit, and The River Unit, The Water Molecule Unit. Physical Science: The Laws of Motion and Machines Unit, The Atoms and Periodic Table Unit, The Energy and the Environment Unit, and The Introduction to Science / Metric Unit. Life Science: The Diseases and Cells Unit, The DNA and Genetics Unit, The Life Topics Unit, The Plant Unit, The Taxonomy and Classification Unit, Ecology: Feeding Levels Unit, Ecology: Interactions Unit, Ecology: Abiotic Factors, The Evolution and Natural Selection Unit and coming soon The Anatomy and Physiology Unit.

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

‡ More Units Available at«

Earth Science: The Soil Science and Glaciers Unit, The Geology Topics Unit, The Astronomy Topics Unit, The Weather and Climate Unit, and The River Unit, The Water Molecule Unit. Physical Science: The Laws of Motion and Machines Unit, The Atoms and Periodic Table Unit, The Energy and the Environment Unit, and The Introduction to Science / Metric Unit. Life Science: The Diseases and Cells Unit, The DNA and Genetics Unit, The Life Topics Unit, The Plant Unit, The Taxonomy and Classification Unit, Ecology: Feeding Levels Unit, Ecology: Interactions Unit, Ecology: Abiotic Factors, The Evolution and Natural Selection Unit and coming soon The Anatomy and Physiology Unit.

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

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