Organizational Crisis Management

The Human Factor
Gerald Lewis, Ph.D.

Introduction 
Book Explains both theoretical background as well as practical strategies for responding to workplace crises esp Human Factor 
Chapters 1 and 2: Historical Changes and Current State of the Workplace Milieu  Milieu = environment  Chapter 3: Methodology to assess the Potential Impact of different categories of Crises on the Workforce  Chapters 4 and 5: Explore the Psychological Reactions of Individuals as well as Groups who have Experienced a Wide Range of Personal and Professional Crises. rises.

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 Chapter 6: impact of Five µRs¶ 6:  Remaining at Home  Retaining at work  Releasing to home or a shelter  Relocating to a new facility  Returning to a pervious workplace

Pre and post transition changes  Chapter 7: Legal and Security aspects of workplace 7: disruption(e.g disruption(e.g violence and disruption)  Chapter 8: Key roles within and outside the organization 8:  Chapter 9: speci¿c services, programs, and 9: interventions that should be in place prior to any event, guidelines for working with the media, emergency management agencies, and behavioral health services
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Understanding the Work Organization as a Social Milieu
Chapter 1
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Organizations Social Environment ‡ The social environment in the workplace is the atmosphere of the interaction between employers. workplace. 5 . The social environment may include the attitudes of workers. the level of interaction between people in the workplace and behavior towards eachother. employees and all stakeholders involved in the internal environment of the workplace.

Changes in Workplace ‡ Over past few decades: ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± More women More minorities More diversity More Technology More Services. Boundryless. contingency and system theory etc. OB emphasis. 6 . virtual. Worklife balance. Less Productions More skilled workforce More Aged workforce (Developed Countries) Workforce Awareness Boundryless.

The Changing Organization 7 .

report to: specific place. more involved in work. task or project. unwritten contract. boss may be far away. work from home. hired by HR or 3rd party.Past Vs Present ‡ Loyal people. 8 . retirement & benefits ‡ 7 org switches on avg. avg. specific to: job. specific time. long serving jobs. more services. enjoy evening & night(watching soups). work. specific boss. Commitment to a contract. org clear boundaries. more time in job.

PDAs. and conference calls Virtual Offices ‡ Can work anywhere. computers. PDAs. pagers. fax machines. Webcams. types messages ‡ MIS Portals. with anyone ‡ Email replacing memos. Wi-Fi. modems.Technology: Our Love/Hate Relationship ‡ Concrete boundary of organization gone because of technology ‡ Cell phones. anytime. ERPs 9 . Wi-Fi.

community.e personal..Technology Contd . ‡ Technology has increased the ability to communicate but «. and acknowledged ‡ Core Social and Emotional elements that lubricate human beings and keep them going in times of difficulty i. professional or even a national crisis 10 . attachment and belonging ‡ All essential aspects of what humans need to feel: valued.. ‡ Has it increased or diminished the capacity to connect with co-workers in the workplace? co‡ Sense of team. respected.

violence. intolerable working conditions. sexual harassment. servants etc ‡ Working Long hours. discrimination. intervention« 11 . no government support Standard throughout the world ‡ Islam has already laid the foundation but we are bound by the forced reality to follow the west ‡ Scenario changed 20th Century ‡ Labor unions. and governmental intervention«. psychology.From Worker to Employee ‡ For Thousands of Years: Workers = Slaves Years: Discardable Commodity working on farms. sweatshops. low pay. employment policies. two world wars. factories. civil rights legislation.

Bonuses. ‡ Job = Career/Profession ‡ Changes were hard to come (voilent but not revolution rather evolution) 12 . Sick Leaves. Vacation. Disability. etc. but an essential/ integral part of organization ‡ Should be developed. etc. Pension Plans. Health Insurance. nurtured and cultivated ‡ Receive Salaries & Benefit.From Worker to Employee ‡ Workers Became: Became: ± ± ± ± Employees Personnel Staff Teams ‡ Not a commodity or machine.

History of Management 13 .

History of Management Org. Environment Management Science Behavioral Management Administrative Management Scientific Management 1890 1940 2000 14 Evolution of Management Theory .

Craftsman Foreman. Master. Worker. job Employee. Systems. Supervisor. Human Behavior. Services. Trade New Concepts Organization. Work. Work Family balance. Bosses. Organizational Culture. Factory.History of Management Past Concepts (Still Valid) Owners. Administrator Managers. Chief Leader. WF Conflict 15 .

± ± ± Organizations were seeking ways to better satisfy customer needs. Machinery was changing the way goods were produced. Managers had to increase the efficiency of the worker-task workermix.Industrial Revolution  Substituted machine power for human labor  Created large organizations in need of management ‡ Adam Smith  Published The Wealth of Nations in 1776  Advocated the division of labor (job specialization) to increase the productivity of workers  Scientific Management Modern management began in the late 19th century. ± Hence Improving how people worked was becoming more critical!!!!! 16 . mix.

and develop the worker. Develop a science for each element of an individual¶s work. Divide work and responsibility almost equally between management and workers. 4. 17 . Management takes over all work for which it is better fitted than the workers. Scientifically select and then train. 2. teach. which will replace the old rule-ofrule-ofthumb method. Heartily cooperate with the workers so as to ensure that all work is done in accordance with the principles of the science that has been developed. 3.Taylor s Scientific Management 1.

4. Weber¶s Bureaucracy. Henry Fayol: management could be learned and Fayol: taught and that colleges should begin to offer courses in such knowledge 3. Behavioral Management Organizational Behavior 7. Time and motion Study Therblig 2. will be discussed in Reorganization book. Quantitative Approach 6.Other approaches!!! 1. Contingency Approach 18 . Also presented 14 POM points. Ideal Organization 5. Systems Approach System Hawthrone Studies Environment + Culture + Open 8.

theory. sociology. structure. and cultural anthropology to learn about individual.History of Management ‡ Hawthrone studies Employees are not Machine but Emotion Beings ‡ Organization Behavior  ³the study of human behavior. drawing on setting.´ processes. group. 19 . and principles from such disciplines as psychology. methods. and performance within an organizational setting. attitudes. and processes.

Work of Individual Cross ‡ ³The art of managing others is a dynamic process that is ever changing and evolving. Training. Government has changed. Work Culture. changed. The changed. OD. evolving. changed. world has changed´ changed´ ‡ Hunsaker and Alessandra 20 . HRD.Modern Management ‡ For Greater productivity + Organizational Viable Strength ± Develop Skills in Managing ‡ OB. People have environment. Many of the managerial concepts proposed only a few years ago cannot and will not work in today¶s environment.

Control. Forward Thinking. Closely Supervise. ± Crisis and tragedy Management ± Improve Org Culture and Employee motivation 21 . Maintain Satisfaction ± Mitigate Stress and Strain. people skills. Build self managed teams or manage teams ± Focus on individuals.New Concepts in Managing HR ‡ Previously Managers were expected to: to: ± Command. Order ‡ Now: Now: ± Leaders.

national ± Gender. basic values. and expectations develop that tend to exert an in uence on the individuals who compose the group ‡ We are surrounded by numerours cultures at a time: time: ± Family. group culture. nurture. regional. to grow. ‡ Individual has to manage a multitudes of culture 22 . to care ‡ Defined as ± Whenever groups of people come together. team culture etc. attitudes. religious.Organizational Culture ‡ Culture cultivate. or workplace/ organizational culture ± Children culture. community. behaviors. etc.

‡ culture is a collection of values. ‡ when cultures clash that the individual feels caught in a bind ‡ Crisis situation brings a change to a culture. other. culture.Organizational Culture ‡ They can modify their identity and behaviors as they transition from one culture to the other. & behavior shared by workers that control the way workers interact with each other 23 . norms.

myths. or artifacts that are unique to the culture and are imbued with special meaning ‡ eagles and ags.´  Values. xes. 24 . Heroes. Rituals & Values ‡ 4 cultural differences aspects: ‡ Symbols: Symbols: ‡ Symbols are language. and practices ‡ Symbols. gestures.Organizational Culture  ³The way we do things around here. symbols. and stars ags. rituals. cruci xes.

but which uous. systems.Organizational Culture ‡ Heroes ± persons alive or dead. parades ± E.g passing of pillars at boston scientific facility ‡ Values ± The conscious affective desires or wants of people that guide behavior ± group s ideas about what is right or wrong ± Pass down from generation to generation ± Education. families. real or imaginary. organizations religion. communication and 25 . religious ceremonies. who possess characteristics which are highly prized in the culture and become a model for behavior ‡ Rituals ± collective activities that are technically super uous. within the culture are considered socially essential ± handshakes.

 To help employees learn the culture. corporate mission statements. org stories anchor the present into past. stories.Organizational Culture ‡ Stories  There is usually a document or body of verbal stories that delineate the cultural norms  pledges. or myths. provide explanations and legitimicy of current practices. etc.g nike. examplify what is important to the org and provide a compelling picture of org goals. or legends  Narratives of significant events or actions of people that convey the spirit of the organization e. nike.  usually looked toward at times of turmoil and unrest as a way of assuaging apprehension and anxiety among the group.. 26 .

Organizational Culture ‡ culture establishes norms and thus a sense of identity and stability ‡ Culture dynamic Balance between Fluidity and Rigidity ‡ Fluid ± better able to respond to external changes. earth rotate round the sun etc Eg: ± Religious and military cultures tend to be more closed and rigid!!!! 27 . new information and tend to incorporate components of other cultures as they evolve ± More individualistic orientation making difficult for the group to respond cohesively to an overwhelming crisis ‡ Rigid ± difficult time incorporating new realities or evidence ± Adhere to cultural norms ± Eg: earth center of universe.

Organizational Culture ‡ No crisis smooth sailing fluid system better greater tolerance for individual differences and creativity ‡ culture creates a sense of stability and identity for members within the group and facilitates strategies to manage the turmoil and travails of a group. 28 .e a Strong Culture ‡ Culture is every evolving by responding to internal and external events. ‡ Organizations are able to operate efficiently only when shared values exist among the employees i.

Cultural Shift ‡ Get people to change their behavior ‡ Help them to understand the value of the change in behavior ‡ Communicate about changes via a number of modalities example Reward on change ‡ New people New Behavior ‡ Remove Old Rigid People hence remove old behavior ‡ Nothing can impact a culture more like a crisis 29 .

Proactive Approach before Crisis ‡ Understand the pre-crisis culture of org pre‡ Plan and do not over react to situation out of haste and anxiety ‡ Questions to be answered regarding crisis & culture ± How will it affect the values and attitudes? ± Does the workplace have a uid or rigid culture? ± How has dealt with crisis in past ‡ We can learn from past experiences. 30 .

layoffs. better productivity ‡ How Managers should increase motivation when? work± High work demand. terrorism (USA) ‡ Academic Concepts: empowerment.Motivation & Morale ‡ More motivation. turmoil . Rewards and Benefits etc. teamwork. people first. develop workers. ‡ Organization in reality do not Walk the Talk ‡ Must put all concepts in practice ‡ Values/promises and behaviors/implementation of leaders should match ‡ Betrayel leads to a loss of trust 31 . stress and strain. communication. reorganizations. transition. worknonwork conflict.

affected by various variables and factors ± Upbringing. while others demonstrate heroism? ± Why are some honest. culture and environmental factors ‡ Core Determinant of human behavior is MOTIVATION ± What makes people do what they do? ± Why do some become violent. while others are criminal? ± How come some are good employees while others remain obstructionistic? obstructionistic? 32 .Motivation & Morale ‡ Human Behavior is very complex. conditioning. early experiences.

and Self-esteem: appreciated by others ‡ Belongingness.Maslow s Hierarchy of Needs ‡ Self-actualization: the opportunity to utilize one s Self-actualization: abilities to their maximum free of constraint ‡ Self-esteem: feeling valued. clothing. social and love: being with family or a love: community and feeling a sense of belonging ‡ Safety and security: a safe haven with limited threat of security: harm ‡ Physiological: food. shelter. relief from pain ‡ people were motivated by the goal of satisfying ve levels of ascending needs 33 . acknowledged.

there may be a signi cant downward shift in the level of needs ‡ worry about terrorism. more than one level of need is receiving some degree of satisfaction ‡ Not 100 % each level is achieved ‡ during a workplace crisis or tragedy. for a while people were less concerned with self-esteem and selfactualization and more focused on safety and security 34 .Maslow s Hierarchy of Needs ‡ With most activities.

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within.Motivation vs Morale. and one s feelings about oneself as a member of the group ‡ Strong Motivation + High level of Morale ‡ People can tolerate quite a bit of trauma. a religious organization. ‡ Motivation ± An internal. and neglect as long as they have a sense of community and trust a sense of belonging and being nurtured by the group: group: ‡ be it a family. individualistic drive or striving to achieve satisfaction. ‡ Morale ± Belonging to a group. one s feeling about the group itself. abuse. a country. or a workplace. a gang. and disruption as long as they feel that they have a sense of comfort and connection and are being dealt with in a sincere and honest manner and not betrayed ‡ high level of morale within a group: it facilitates the emotional group: recovery of the group and the individuals within. 37 . workplace. loss. ‡ Most people can handle rejection. satisfaction.

‡ Active Trauma: Trauma: Passive and Active Trauma ± A boundary violation. surgery. loss of a job. nurturance. support that the individual may need but not receive in order to cope with the active trauma ‡ Most individuals have the capacity to manage active traumas of signi cant severity as long as they receive acknowledgment. trauma. 38 . support. and nurturance ‡ Difficulty is that the way that the workplace manages the incident may result in a signi cant degree of passive trauma. a clearly toxic interaction ± Actual injury. crisis ‡ Passive trauma ± A form of physical or emotional neglect ± The lack of response. assault.

organization.g homicides ‡ Cameras.‡ Hostility and Possibly violence in the workplace ‡ At risk vs toxic at‡ at-risk workplace is that which is vulnerable from hostility and violence from outside e. ‡ Toxic systems usually have a lower level of morale. workers. and systems with low morale seem to diminish the motivational levels of individuals 39 Workplace Toxicity . security reduce ‡ toxic workplace is that which is fraught with tension and turmoil generated from within a work organization.

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workers. security reduce ‡ toxic workplace is that which is fraught with tension and turmoil generated from within a work organization.g homicides ‡ Cameras.‡ Hostility and Possibly violence in the workplace ‡ At risk vs toxic at‡ at-risk workplace is that which is vulnerable from hostility and violence from outside e. organization. and systems with low morale seem to diminish the motivational levels of individuals 43 Workplace Toxicity . ‡ Toxic systems usually have a lower level of morale.

Premorbid Conditions ‡ Condition of the organism before it is affected by an accident. disease.g diabities or highblood pressure before a heartattack ‡ Workplace is a living system with a premorbid history or condition as well ‡ Stressors and Changes can impact the toxicity and thus the premorbid history of an organization 44 . or trauma ‡ What must be assessed is his or her premorbid condition prior to any intervention e.

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