Sensors

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Displacement Sensors

Potentiometer (Already discussed) Strain Gages Inductive Sensors (LVDT) Capacitive Sensors Piezoelectric Sensors

=(A/V)/m = S/m

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producing large negative G. making resistance decrease. ---Stretching bar of P-type silicon crystal inhibits holes from moving away from their impurity sites. producing large positive G .P and N doped Silicon Strain Gages Gage Factor = G = ( R/R)/( L/L) ---Stretching bar of N-type silicon crystal breaks electrons loose from impurity sites.

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so it is important to choose Ri >> R1=R2=R3=R4 To avoid bridge loading .Unbonded Strain Gage Pressure Sensor This is a deflection mode instrument.

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BONDED Strain Gages .

Silicon Integrated Circuit Pressure Sensor .

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Inductive Transducers Coils must be wound in opposite directions so magnetic fluxes oppose <.L <.L + Vo(t) - .

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µ = magnetic permeability of core material = µ R4 *10-7 F/m .

The magnetic core moves freely without touching bobbins. and at the null (zero) position.Linear Variable Differential Transformer Displacement Transducer LVDT used to measure very small displacements in a seismometer that measures movements in the earth¶s crust due to earthquakes. . It consists of a middle primary coil and two outer secondary coil. it extends halfway into each secondary coil.

Example Medical Applications of Linear Variable Displacement Transformer (LVDT) .

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.NOTE: The output voltage is actually the PEAK voltage of an ac sine wave whose frequency is that of the primary winding excitation sine wave.

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Advantages of LVDTs as displacement sensors .

have made the LVDT an attractive displacement measurement sensor.Disadvantages of LVDTs ‡ All these advantages. LVDTs for use in medical applications have the following disadvantages: ± They require a high frequency. ± They cannot be used in the vicinity of equipment that creates strong magnetic fields. constant-amplitude ac sinusoidal excitation. in addition to their reasonable cost. ± A somewhat complicated ³phase sensitive´ ac-to-dc converter (detector) must be used if both positive and negative displacements from the middle (null) position needs to be measured. . However.

LVDT showing AC Excitation and Phase Sensitive Demodulator .

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) .Phase INSENSITIVE Detector (Diode Halfwave rectifier with capacitive filter.

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Commercial Diode Ring Modulator (also called ³Double Balanced Mixer´ .

LVDT Detector Circuit without need for a Phase-Sensitive Demodulator .

LVDT Excitation Circuit (Power oscillator (1 kHz Power Sine Wave Oscillator) .

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ic(t) .

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since output resistance of op amp is nearly 0 ohms .Does not effect circuit.

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C = q/v => v = q/C => kfL/( 0 RA) L = thickness of piezo transducer .

Molecular Model of a Simple Piezoelectric Material: ZnS .

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Y: L Y! f /A x/L => f ! A ™Y ™x L f A x Therefore A ™Y q!k™ f !k™ ™x ! K ™x L where ™Y k™ L .How is the piezoelectric constant ³k´ (recall q = kF) related the constant ³K´ above? Recall the definition of Young¶s Modulus.

Crystal Cable Amplifier Rs Cs Cc Ca Ra q = Kx is = dq/dt = Kdx/dt R C Rs // Ra Cs  Cc  Ca q ! C ™ v0 iC ! C ™ dv0 dt .

q ! C ™ v0 iC ! C ™ dv0 dt iC iS iR Eqn 2.19 is now written in phasor form: .

K ™ j[ ™ RC ™ X C So. like the capacitive transducer. it cannot transduce constant (dc) displacements! .C ™ j[ ™ Vo ! K ™ j[ ™ X  Vo(1 j[X ) ! Vo R This transfer function is of the same form as that of the RC HPF 1st order filter and also the capacitive displacement sensor.

1k 100k 2 16 F 160 10k   £ ¤ ¢¢  ¡ Piezo Xducer 4 ¡ .2MEG 1uF R2 R1 11.100 k a d 100k ¡¡  3 2 + - ) = 16 F   = 15 8 1 Vout R3 1 = -15 3.

xo Kx0 C Piezoelectric Displacement Sensor has a high pass filter step response .

x(t) = x0 {u(t) ± u(t-Td)} .Predicting Piezo Transducer Step Response Via Laplace Transforms Replacing ³j ´ in Text Eqn 2. x(t) = x0 u(t) xo 0 x(t) vo(t) t=0 t = = RC .xoKS xoKS xoKSe-1 = 0.37xoKS t=Td But in reality.20 by the Laplace complex frequency variable ³s´ Note that for a step input of amplitude Vo( s) K S ™ s ™X H ( s) xo. x(t) = xo u(t) => X(s) = x0/s X (s) s ™X  1 K S ™ s ™X K S ™ s ™ X xo xo ™ K S ™ X Vo( s) ™ X ( s) ™ s ™X  1 s ™X  1 s s ™X  1 vo(t ) xo ™ K S e t / X Note this is response only to the leading edge of the input pulse.

such as 40 kHz resonant ultrasonic pulsed distance measuring application . such as audio microphone Operating frequency for very sensitive.+ vout Useable Operating Frequency Range for ³wideband´ signal transducer. narrowband signal transducer.

2. . Phase shift around feedback loop must be an integer multiple of 360 degrees so oscillations can build up at frequency of oscillation. Magnitude of voltage gain around feedback loop ³BA´ must be > 1 at frequency of oscillation.General Block Diagram of a Feedback Oscillator 1.

inverting gain) from the pi network and the negative gain from the inverter results in a positive loop gain. Piezoelectric Crystal Resonator The crystal in combination with C1 and C2 forms a Hi-Q ³Pi network´ bandpass filter.e. Vi Vo Vo Vo=Vi Load line established by biasing resistor R1. Hence the inverter will neither be fully on nor off. which provides a 180 degree phase shift and also a voltage gain from the output to input at approximately the resonant frequency of the crystal. assume the inverter is ideal. The combination of the 180 degree phase shift (i. but in the transition region where it has gain.Pierce Crystal Oscillator Circuit Made from Digital Inverter Gate Biasing Resistor R1 R1 acts as a feedback resistor. and effectively causing it to function as a high gain inverting amplifier. To understand the operation of this. it can be noted that at the frequency of oscillation. To see this. the crystal appears inductive. making the bias point set by R1 unstable and leading to oscillation. biases inverter into its analog amplifying region Vi . thus it can be considered a large inductor with a very high Q. biasing the inverter into its linear amplifying region of operation. with very high input impedance and very low output resistance. this resistor forces the inverter¶s input and output voltages to be equal.

RE bias BJT CE amplifier into the middle of its amplifying region.) . so RFC is sometimes replaced with parallel resonant circuit to encourage oscillation at only the harmonic frequency the parallel resonant circuit has been tuned to resonate at. Typical Values: Vcc = 9 V. R2. RE = 1 k ohm. R1. Note XRFC = 500 ohms at 8 MHz. Cb = 0. Oscillator will have high harmonic content with RFC.1 uF C1 = C2 = 30 pF (XTAL often cut to resonate at desired frequency with these external values of C1 and C2. R1 = R2 = 560 ohms.8 MHz Crystal Oscillator RFC (RF Choke) is a 10 uH inductor that has a high enough reactance at the parallel resonant frequency of the XTAL (8 MHz) to guarantee a loop gain > 1 at 8 MHz.

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It contains a rectangular array of up to 2 million hingemounted microscopic mirrors. and a projection lens. Larry Hornbeck of Texas Instruments in 1987. The DLP chip is perhaps the world's most sophisticated light switch. which was invented by Dr. The semiconductor that continues to reinvent projection At the heart of every DLP® projection system is an optical semiconductor known as the DLP® chip. . its mirrors can reflect a digital image onto a screen or other surface.DLP (Digital Light Processor ) IC How DLP Technology Works 1. The DLP chip combined with the advanced electronics that surround it produce stunning images and video that have redefined picture quality. a light source. each of these micromirrors measures less than onefifth the width of a human hair. When a DLP chip is coordinated with a digital video or graphic signal.

2. a mirror that's switched off more frequently reflects a darker gray pixel. the mirrors in a DLP projection system can reflect pixels in up to 1. When a mirror is switched on more frequently than off. it reflects a light gray pixel. The bit-streamed image code entering the semiconductor directseach mirror to switch on and off up to several thousand times per second. . In this way. This creates a light or dark pixel on the projection surface.024 shades of gray to convert the video or graphic signal entering the DLP chip into a highly detailed grayscale image. The grayscale image A DLP chip's micromirrors tilt either toward the light source in a DLP projection system (ON) or away from it (OFF).

This filters the light into a minimum of red. a mirror responsible for projecting a purple pixel will only reflect red and blue light to the projection surface. As a result. These systems are capable of producing no fewer than 35 trillion colors. additional colors are added including Cyan. Magenta and Yellow to expand the color pallet for even more vibrant color performance.3. and blue. those colors are then blended to see the intended hue in a projected image. particularly for high brightness projectors required for large venue applications such as concerts and movie theaters. Some DLP projectors offer solid-state illumination which replaces the traditional white lamp. the light source emits the necessary colors eliminating the color filter. In some DLP systems. a 3-chip architecture is used. The on and off states of each micromirror are coordinated with these basic building blocks of color. For example. . Adding color The white light generated by the lamp in a DLP projection system passes through a color filter as it travels to the surface of the DLP chip. from which a single-chip DLP projection system can create at least 16. With BrilliantColorΠTechnology.7 million colors. green.

causing red. The switching of the mirrors. . White light passes through a color filter. blue and even additional primary colors such as yellow cyan.³Single Chip´ DLP Technology Many data projectors and HDTVS using DLP technology rely on a single chip configuration like the one described above. green. and the proportion of time they are 'on' or 'off' is coordinated according to the color shining on them. magenta and more to be shone in sequence on the surface of the DLP chip. Then the sequential colors blend to create a full-color image you see on the screen.

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making it a reliable alternative to medication. Battery Free Pain Relief Piezoelectric Device Paingone is a pocket sized pain relief device that works by delivering a controlled electronic frequency through the nerve pathways to the brain. osteoporosis. It has been successfully clinically tested by people suffering from a number of painful conditions such as arthritis. as independent tests show. Many NHS Hospitals and GPs use PainGone in their Pain Clinics and recommend it to their patients as a safe. the body's natural painkillers for natural pain relief wherever and whenever you need it. sciatica and inflammatory conditions. . it stops or relieves pain quickly in up to 87% of cases on which it is used. PainGone¶s effectiveness has been clinically confirmed.³PainGone´ ± A Drug Free. back pain. This stimulates endorphins. drug free therapy.

000 clicks ‡Over 3 million worldwide users ‡Clinically tested ‡Drug free and safe ‡Simple to use and no side effects ‡30 second treatment ‡Works through clothing . gentle electrical charge produced by crystals. at anytime. pads or batteries ‡Small and lightweight ‡Use as often as required ‡NHS recommended ‡CE registered Class IIa medical device ‡Money Back Guarantee ‡Estimated life time of over 100. straight to the point of pain. This stimulating frequency can thus provide prolonged and often instant relief.‡ How does it work? PainGone works by pressing the button on top of the device to deliver a low frequency. the body's natural painkillers to free you from pain. This means that anywhere. Each click sends a pulse that will activate endorphins. ‡Used on the point of pain ‡No leads. pain relief is but a click away.

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