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Consumer-based Brand
Equity: Creating
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r Back to the question that we asked on the

first day of class:
± What is a brand?
r We have defined it as
± Brain space
± A set of associations in memory
± Those associations that create differentiation
related to the brand in memory, resulting in brand
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r eview
³The differential effect that brand knowledge
has on consumer response to the marketing
of that brand´
r The unique ³brain-space´ that your brand
occupies in the minds of your customers

r Gmproves perception of product performance

r Makes company less vulnerable to
competitive or environmental shocks
r Larger margins
r Gncrease marketing communication
r Greater trade cooperation and support

r We create brand equity by creating an

integrated Brand that:
± Maximizes the creation of brain-space
± By ensuring that every interaction with our
company teaches and reinforces the brand
± So that our relationships with others will evolve
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r Brand equity is created in a progressive

± Establish proper Brand Gdentity
± Create Brand meaning
± Elicit positive Brand responses
± Forge strong Brand relationship

r Who are you? (Awareness, Brand Gdentity)

r What are you? (Brand Meaning)
r What about you? What do G think or feel
about you? (Brand esponse)
r What about you and me? What is our
connection? (Brand elationship)


Judgments Feelings

Gmagery Meaning

Gdentity Gdentity
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r Stage 1: Awareness
± What brands of product or service category can
you think of?
± Have you ever heard of these brands?
± What brands might you likely use under the
following situations?
± How frequently do you think of this brand?
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r Stage 2: Meaning
± Compared with other brands in this category, how well does
this brand provide the basic function of the product or
service category?
± How much do you like the look, feel, and other design
aspects of this brand?
± To what extent do people you admire and respect use this
± How well do Aakers attributes describe this brand?
± To what extent do you feel like you have ³grown up´ with
this brand? Does it bring back pleasant memories?
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r Stage 3: esponse (Judgments and feelings)

± Overall attitudes and opinions of the brand?
± How good a value is this brand?
± To what extent do the makers of this brand
understand your needs/care about your
opinions/have your interests in mind?
± Feelings of warmth/fun/excitement/security/self-
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r Stage 4: esonance (elationship)

± G consider myself loyal to this brand
± G feel this is the only brand of this product that G
± G love this brand
± G identify with the people who use this brand/G feel
a connection with the people who use this brand
± G am always interested in learning more about this
± G am proud to have others know that G use this
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r Past Brand management expenditures are

investments in what customers learned about
the Brand
± Can be good or bad investments
r Past investments constrain future directions
± Consumers decide whether a future marketing
program is acceptable
± Midstream change costs in terms of real dollars
AND dilution or reconstruction of brain space

Step 1: Selecting Brand elements

± Symbols
± Criteria

Step 2: Creating Associations

± Gntegrated marketing communications
± Effective advertising communication
± Effective promotion, pricing, placement

r Brand Elements
± Summarize associations
± Aid retrieval of brand information
± Simplify new learning

r Types of Brand Elements

± Brand Name (Apple, Microsoft)
± Logos and Symbols (Nike Swoosh)
± Characters (California aisins)
± Slogans and Jingles (G m Lovin it)

r Memorable
± Easily recognized and recalled
r Meaningful
± Descriptive and persuasive
r Likable
± Fun, Gnteresting, ich Gmagery
r Transferable
± Within and across product and national boundaries
r Adaptable
± Updatable, flexible
r Protectable
| !

r Actual words
± Energizer
r Coined (Descriptive)
± Microsoft
r Coined (Abstract)
± Maytag
r Acronym Names
± GE

1. Prioritize Goals for Brand Name

± Meaning
± Memorable
± Likable
± Adaptable
± Transferable
2. List Generation
3. Screening
± Legal Search
± Consumer Testing

r Existing words (or historical references)

± Mayflower moving
± The Savoy (Black, upwardly mobile professionals)
r Word stems and morphemes
± Morpheme: Smallest linguistic unit of meaning
r Plosives and Sibilants
± Letter sounds convey meaning
r Q s, X s, Z s
r X: Extreme, Cutting edge
u  ! 

: ³b´ suggests relaxation, and ³berry´ suggests
smallness. Alliteration is lighthearted.
 : The repetition of ³n´ at the end of each syllable produces a
³whirring´ sound suggesting a spinning motion.
 #: ³pro´ is pedestrian, but ³ac´ suggests ³action´
$   : ³zo´ = ³life´ in Greek, and ³loft´ equals elevation. Z is very
 : ³t´ and ³k´ associated with ³active´
% : Suggests ³Niagara´ â

r Simple to spell and pronounce

± Aids recall
r Aim, aid, Ban
r Difficult to pronounce? FCUK, Faconnable, Hundai
r Familiar
± Pre-exists in memory: Less learning, but may have
preexisting associations with it
r Dodge Neon
r Distinctive
± Gncreases recognition separates from clutter