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Jack H. Winters firstname.lastname@example.org 2/26/04
February 26, 2004
2004 .OUTLINE • Smart antennas • Implementation issues • Appliqué • Conclusions Slide 2 February 26.
robustness in the ISM band (microwave ovens. outdoor lights) • Higher antenna gain ⇒ Extend range (outdoor coverage) • Multipath diversity gain ⇒ Improve reliability • MIMO (multiple antennas at AP and laptop) ⇒ Increase data rates Slide 3 February 26. 2004 .Smart Antennas for WLANs Smart Antenna AP Smart Antenna AP Interference Smart Antennas can significantly improve the performance of WLANs • TDD operation (only need smart antenna at access point or terminal for performance improvement in both directions) • Interference suppression ⇒ Improve system capacity and throughput – Supports aggressive frequency re-use for higher spectrum efficiency.
they also provide: • M-fold multipath diversity gain • With M Tx antennas (MIMO). 2004 . M-fold data rate increase in same channel with same total transmit power Slide 4 February 26.Implementation Issues Switched Multibeam Antenna SIGNAL Adaptive Antenna Array SIGNAL BEAMFORMER BEAM SELECT SIGNAL OUTPUT SIGNAL OUTPUT INTERFERENCE BEAMFORMER WEIGHTS INTERFERENCE Smart antenna is a multibeam or adaptive antenna array that tracks the wireless environment to significantly improve the performance of wireless systems Adaptive arrays in any environment provide: • Antenna gain of M • Suppression of M-1 interferers In a multipath environment.
g. can provide M independent channels.11a (4X 54 Mbps) 1. to increase data rate M-fold with no increase in total transmit power (with sufficient multipath) – only an increase in DSP – – Indoors – up to 150-fold increase in theory Outdoors – 8-12-fold increase typical Measurements (e.Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) Radio With M transmit and M receive antennas. 2004 ..5 Mbps EDGE 19 Mbps WCDMA Slide 5 February 26. AT&T) show 4x data rate & capacity increase in all mobile & indoor/outdoor environments (4 Tx and 4 Rx antennas) – – – 216 Mbps 802.
power inversion. with additional sequences Slide 6 February 26. 2004 . power out-of-band Non-Blind (demod): Training sequence/decision directed reference signal MIMO needs non-blind.WEIGHT GENERATION TECHNIQUES For Smart Antenna: Need to identify desired signal and distinguish it from interference • • • ∑ Weight Generation Blind (no demod): MRC – Maximize output power Interference suppression – CMA.
including M A/D and D/A's. plus substantial digital signal processing • The cost is much higher for digital • An appliqué approach is possible . Analog Implementation • Analog Advantages: • Digital requires M complete RF chains. 2004 .Digital vs. versus 1 A/D and D/A for analog. for higher gain with delay spread • Modification for MIMO (802.11n) is easier than with analog Slide 7 February 26.digital requires a complete baseband • Digital Advantages: • Slightly higher gain in Rayleigh fading (as more accurate weights can be generated) • Temporal processing can be added to each antenna branch much easier than with analog.
11 standard (blind beamforming with MRC) • Appliqué configuration requires minimal modifications to legacy designs Slide 8 February 26. 2004 . Host Interface • Conforms to 802.Appliqué Wireless Transceiver RF Appliqué (Spatial processing only) RF Processor Baseband/MAC Processor.
CARDBUS Interface Legacy Transceiver Baseband/MAC Processor RF Processor Motia Smart Antenna RF Chip Partners: Intersil/Globespan. RFMD. 2004 . Atmel Slide 9 February 26.Smart Antenna WiFi (PCMCIA Reference Design) Appliqué Architecture Plug-and-Play to legacy designs PCMCIA . Maxim/TI.
5/11Mbps) February 26.5/11Mbps MPDU Data from MAC Barker BPSK/QPSK (CCK 5. 2004 56 Barker 16 Barker 24 Barker BPSK BPSK QPSK 192 symbol Long Preamble Preamble 128 Barker BPSK SFD 16 Barker BPSK PHY H 48 Barker BPSK Slide 10 .802.11b Packet Structure Time permits weight generation 20 µs 96 symbol Short Preamble Preamble SFD PHY H MPDU Data from MAC Barker BPSK/QPSK CCK 5.
1 x FER 0 3 0 Th o tic l fo s o p c e e re a r h rt a k t S R(d ) N B Slide 11 February 26.A fo r d ta ra e rm n e o p ris n ll u a te 0 . M p -a t) y= 4 0 4 . . 2004 . M p -a t) E p n (1 b s 1 n x o .802. .5 b s a e e P ly (1 M p B s lin ) o .4 0 . Mp ae e P ly (2 b s B s lin ) o .8 0 .5 b s a e e 1 b s B s lin Mp ae e 1 Mp 1 n 1 b s -a t 5 Mp 1 n . Mp ae e P ly (5 M p B s lin ) o .7 0 . 1 b s -a t) E p n (5 M p 1 n x o . 1 bs ae e E p n (1 M p 1 n x o .6 0 .1 8 2 1s e 0 .5 b s -a t) E p n (2 b s 1 n x o .5 b s -a t 2 b s1 n M p -a t 1 b s1 n M p -a t P ly (1 b s B s lin ) o .3 0 .2 0 .1 5 e -1 0 -5 0 5 1 0 1 5 2 0 2 5 -0 845 .11b Performance with Fading Achieves a 12 to 14 dB gain over a single antenna P rfo a c C m a o .5 0 .1 p c 1 M p B s lin 1 bs ae e 2 b s B s lin Mp ae e 5 M p B s lin .
2 dB 2X to 3X Range + Uniform Coverage 3X to 4X Range + Uniform Coverage Slide 12 February 26.1 dB Adaptive One Side 12. 2004 .0 dB Theoretical Bound Both Sides 22.8 dB Adaptive Both Sides 18.802.11b Beamforming Gains with 4 Antennas Performance Gain over a Single Antenna in a Rayleigh Fading Channel 2 Antenna Selection 6.
11n Requirements – – – for 802.11n: >100 Mbps in MAC >3 bits/sec/Hz Backward compatible with all 802.11 standards 4X4 system (?) Requires MAC changes and may require MIMO: – Next standards meeting in Orlando Slide 13 February 26.802. 2004 .
2004 .802.11n Process Slide 14 February 26.
Summary and Conclusions Current research is finding ways to implement smart antennas in a variety of commercial systems: – – – – Reusing same silicon where possible to reduce cost Minimizing modifications to existing systems Staying within the standards Meeting each system’s unique requirements Slide 15 February 26. 2004 .