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i Multidimensional Effects on Human activities

i Climate Variations alter the water cycle

i Many studies show that this has already occurred ( Dragoni


1998,, Buffoni et al
1998 al.. 2002,
2002, Labat et al
al.., 2004,
2004, Huntington 2006
2006,,
IPCC 2007
2007))

i Changes in cropping pattern, land use pattern and over


exploitation of water storages

i Variation in inter-
inter-annual and long
long--term variability of monsoon
rainfall are statistically significant
K —roundwater management
has potential implications
K Every meter drop of pumping
water level increases green
house gas emission by 5% in
India
K Increasing trend in
temperature and decreasing
trend in rainfall (Rupkumar
et al. 1994, Singh and
Sontakke, 2002)
K High degree of correlation
between rainfall and —rowth in Agricultural —roundwater
Use in selected countries
agricultural production
(—adgil 2003)
K CC has put agriculture at great risk

K Agriculture is very much sensitive to CC

K It is one of the major drivers of CC

K Impact of CC will add to number of undernourished


people in the world if population growth remains
high and economic growth in the developing world is
low (IIASA,2002
(IIASA,2002)).

K Impact of CC on agriculture is the major deciding


factor affecting food security
security..
K Different crops respond differently to CC

K If temperature rose by 4 degree centigrade, grain yield


would fall 25ƥ
25ƥ 40 percent, rice yields will fall by 15ƥ
15ƥ25
percent and wheat yields by 30ƥ
30ƥ35 percent (Kumar and
Parikh, 1998b)
1998b).. Mendelsohn,
Mendelsohn, et al
al.. (1994)
1994)

K Wheat production decreases over time with change in


temperature (Aggarwal,
Aggarwal, 2008)
2008)

K Yield variability in maize increases in Swiss maize crop


(Finger et al
al.. 2010)
2010)
 
  
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K mill et al
al.. 2010 reviewed 17 studies
K Data from 16 countries
K 104 different adaptation practices followed Farm management
and technology is most frequently used
K —overnment intervention and knowledge management come
next
K Water is the principal
        

   
medium through which
stresses of CC will be È  
     
manifested (McCartney
and Smakthin, 2010)             

   
 
 
K Water storage provides a
major role for sustainable       
   
development      

       

   
K Water buffer will reduce
risk and it will reduce
vulnerability of the people.
K Structural measures referred to K Non-structural measures
Non-
any physical construction to refer to
avoid negative impacts of
hazards, they include K Policies
K Knowledge development
K Engineering measures
K Awareness and methods
K Construction of hazard
resistant and Protective K Operating practices
structures K Participative mechanism
K Construction of infrastructure K mhese measures may
(ISDR, 2010
2010)) reduce risk and related
K Physical structures in the impacts (ISDR, 2010)
landscape
K Planting of mangroves
K Beach nourishment
K Construction of reservoirs
K Pay out structure varies from
crop and phase
K mhe strike or upper threshold M
MM 
M
corresponds to 30 years
average rainfall.
rainfall.
MM

K mhe exit or lower threshold



MM
refers to water requirement to
avoid complete crop failure
failure..
K If accumulated rainfall
exceeds the first trigger, the
payment is zero.
zero.
K Otherwise the policy pays  M M 
M MM MM
  MMM !MM  
M
amount relative to the first  MMM
trigger
Source: Xavier et al., 2008
K If rainfall is below the second
trigger, a fixed maximum
indemnity is paid
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: 2006
K A narrow range of adoptation cost estimation has emerged
using variety of methodologies (Stern, 2006; UNFCCC, 2009;
Parry et al., 2009 and Nelson et al., 2009)
K Nelson et al. describes the investments needed to reduce
children malnutrition close to level it without climate change as
given in the table below:

  
    
   
       


  
 
        
  
        
  
   
        
  
         
  
        
  
    
 
  
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Source: Nelson et al., 2009
K Increase in maximum
Max Min
temperature in mrichy,,
mrichy Re ion Rainfall
memperature memperature
Cuddalore and Perambalur ellore .2 0.02 0.94
Dharmapuri .3 0.02 .39
districts will result in a loss of Perambalur 3.02 0.0 2.4
79%
79%, 34%
34% and 33
33%
% Ramnad 0.30 0.00 0.7
il ris . 3 0.03 7. 2
respectively in the net revenue.
revenue. Cuddalore .79 0.02 0.24
anya umari 0.34 0.02 0.0
K HADCM3
HADCM 3 scenario will have man avur .42 0.0 0.44
Coimbatore .3 0.03 . 7
maximum effect on Perambalur
mrichy 2.74 0.0 0.22
farmers with a loss about motal ( xcept il iris) .44 0.0 0.
M
Rs..3000/acre
Rs 3000/acre followed by (Palanisamy et al.)

mrichy farmers whose losses


will be around Rs
Rs..2740/acre
2740/acre..
K Informal institutions rely on enforcement methods not
supported by the government.
government.
K mhe informal institutions have roots in the local
communities and are embedded in with the existing
customs, traditions, rules of conduct and belief
belief..
K At these lowest levels informal institutions prevail
over the formal ones (Sokile & Van Koppen,
Koppen, 2005
2005)).
K mhe importance of informal institutions should not be
disregarded (Ingram and Neel 1998;1998; World Bank
2002)).
2002
K mhe services of N—Os play a vital role in reducing the
vulnerability at local levels (Luna, 2001)
2001)
K Partnership between informal process and formal
interventions to facilitate adoptation should be
encourages..
encourages
K An example of such an interaction can be seen in
Shinyanga region in northern manzania
K Water resource management : Support of N—O has
created awareness and improved water productivity
by 21%
21% in Andhra Pradesh, India (Kakumanu
Kakumanu,, 2009)
2009)
K Adaptation is an essential ingredient in both the adaptation
component and in the development of adaptation policies.
K assessment of the impacts of various climate change scenarios at
disaggregated levels
K national and state level assessments of each country are needed
for designing effective adaptation strategies.
K mhe researchers should aim to better understand water resources
and storage under different social and ecological conditions.
K mhis will provide insights into potential climate change impacts on
water supply and demand.
K mhere is a need for designing the short-term training programs for
different stakeholders and for careful long-term learning through
collaborative research.
K Crop insurance is a risk management mechanism to tide over the
crop failure.
K Weather based insurance premium should be given wide publicity
to the farmers.
K Research on weather based crop insurance which now limited to
dry or rainfed conditions have to be extended to irrigated areas
and crops also.
K State or National governments should conduct studies for the river
basins or regions to identify the vulnerable areas by calculating
the vulnerability index. mhis will help the policy makers to identify
hot spot areas.
K Existing adaptation mechanisms should be analysed in different
environments to fine tune the strategies for mainstreaming and up
scaling them