Direct Intervention

BRITISH INTERVENTION in THE MALAY STATES 

From 1824 ± 1873, the British in Malaya had tried to refrain from interfering in the affairs of the Malay states. When the Straits Settlements were transferred from the control of the Indian government to the Colonial Office in 1867, the traits community thought that there would be intervention. 

BRITISH INTERVENTION in THE MALAY STATES 

In September 1873, Lord Kimberely , Secretary of the colonial office, inaugurated a policy of intervention in the affairs of the Maya states.

Factors for British Intervention 

Rich in raw materials like tin Industrial revolutions in Europe: raw materials and export markets 

Factors for British Intervention 

Investment by English businessmen especially in tin mining Fear of other western powers intervention like Italy, German, France, etc 

Factors for British Intervention 

Opening of Suez canal in 1869 Situation of anarchy (lawlessness, social and political disorders) Civil wars between rulers and noblemen over throne and territory  

Factors for British Intervention 

Wars between Chinese secret societies Pirate activities in Straits of Malacca Conservative Party elected in 1874, change of foreign policy  

The Resident System

THE RESIDENTAL SYSTEM IN MALAY STATE 

During the last three decades of the nineteenth century, Britain became increasingly involved in the internal affair of the Malay State. Perak, Selangor, Negeri Sembilan and Pahang, the sultans accepted British officials to help them rule. 

THE RESIDENTAL SYSTEM IN MALAY STATE 

These officials were called Residents, and the system of governing with assistance from a resident was know as the Residential System.

The Resident System 

British intervened with the excuse of protecting the interests on British merchants Chaos broke out with the Larut War (for the control over the tin mines) 

PERAK 1874 

The British intervened with excuse of protecting the interest of British merchants Chaos broke out with Larut War ( for control of the tin mines) 

PERAK 1874 

Involved the Chinese secret societies, Hai San and Ghee Hin, and the civil war ( the struggle for the throne between Raja Abdullah and Raja Ismail

PERAK 1874 

Chieftains such as Ngah Ibrahim and Raja Abdullah requested British¶s help The Pangkor Treaty was signed on 20th January 1874 J.W.W. Birch appointed the first resident  

SELANGOR (1874) 

Civil war involving Raja Mahadi and Raja Abdullah Tengku Kudin and Yap Ah Loy supported Raja Abdullah Selangor Sultan and Sayid Masyor supported Raja Mahadi  

SELANGOR (1874) 

British intervention was not welcomed In 1873, a British cargo boat was attacked by pirates. British took as an excuse to intervene In August 1874, J.G. Davidson appointed as Resident and Frank Swettenham as his assistant.  

PAHANG (1880s) 

Civil war between Wan Mutahir and Wan Ahmad for the post of Chief Minister The British were worried over Sultan Ahmad¶s suggestion to give the trade concessions to Western powers 

PAHANG (1880s) 

A British citizen was murdered ± British took as an excuse to interfere Sultan Ahmad was forced to sign a treaty and receive a Resident (1888) J.P. Rodger (Resident)  

Sungai Ujung (1874) 

Stuggle for power in Sungai Linggi between Dato¶ Kelana Sayid Abdul Rahman and Dato¶ Bandar Kulup Tunggal Dato Kelana sought help from the English and was subsequently aknoeldge as chief of Sungai Ujong. 

Sungai Ujung (1874)  

However, the appointment of Dato¶ kelana and British presence were opposed by Dato¶ Bandar Kulup Tunggal The British army. Led by w.A Pickering successfully defeated Dato¶ Bandar Kulup Tunggal

Sungai Ujung (1874) 

Sungai Ujong accepted British Advisor, W.I Tatham.

Analysis of British Intervention 

The colonization was spurred by internal weaknesses such as unrest and civil war in the states concerned.

Analysis of British Intervention 

In other words there was no unity among the inhabitants and this gave the British the chance and excuse to intervene by instilling an advisor (and later Resident)

Analysis of British Intervention 

Second the presence of important economic resources such as tin ore and agricultural products in these states were also the reasons for intervention.

Analysis of British Intervention 

Third, there was strong competition among the western powers for colonies to meet the economic needs of their country thus the need for intervention.

The Resident System
Duties of the Resident 1. To restore and maintain peace and order 2. To develop the resources of the state 3. To set up a regular system of revenue collection and administration

Problems faced by the Resident 

No set of rules or instructions to guide them Depended on their own initiative and resourcefulness No authority to force Sultan to accept his advice ignorance of local values and sensibilities   

For Instance 

J.W.W. Birch in Perak was not liked by Sultan and was opposed by the Perak chief until he was killed in Pasir Salak Birch cancelled a loan the Sultan and granted to a trader. Brought disgrace to the Sultan  

Merits of the Resident System 

Stable government, peace and order Development in transport and communication Development in agriculture ± rubber was introduced Social changes ± debt slavery abolished   

Merits of the Resident System 


Substantial economic growth. Foreign investment ± more effective exploitation of natural resources. Greater revenue ± higher standard of living. Multi-cultural society ± increase in Malaya¶s population. 



The Federated Malay States (FMS)

The Federated Malay States (FMS) 

Through the Federation Agreement (1896) the ³Federated Malay States´ were formed 

Federal Treaty, consisting of Selangor, Perak, Pahang and Negeri Sembilan

The Federated Malay States (FMS) 

Headed by a Resident-General based in Kuala Lumpur 

The role of the Resident-General was to advise on all aspects of government except on issues relating to Islam and Malay customs

The Federated Malay States (FMS) 

The Resident-General responsible to the High Commissioner in Singapore The first Resident-General was Frank Swettenham. 

Federal Council 

Federal Council, 1895, acting like a Cabinet was setup in Kuala Lumpur The aim is to increase the power of the rulers and the residents in the states concerned. 

Federal Council 
   

High Commisoner (President) Resident General 4 Sultans 4 Residents 4 unofficial members ( 3 Europeans and 1 Chinese)

Federal Council 

Obvious effect of the establishment of the council was the gradual weakening of the power of the sultan and the State Executive Council

Federal Council 

This become very clear went when sultan become only an ordinary member with no decision-making power. Laws were signed and passed by the High Commissioner and not the Sultan. 

Durbar 

To create a better relationship between the rulers and the British officers, a Conference of Malay Rulers known as Durbar was introduced Durbar Conference, 1897, meeting of the four Rulers, to discuss customary practices, Islam and Malay welfare 

Reasons for setting up FMS 

to address Pahang¶s financial problems to standardize the administration (lead to efficiency) to ensure security to check the Residents¶ power   

Merits of FMS
Efficient administration  stable government 

peace and order heads of departments set up System of justice, police and army were created  

Merits of FMS
Economic progress 
   

improved communications increase in population development of tin and rubber industries growth of towns increase in revenue

Non-federated Malay States

Non-federated Malay States 

Kelantan, Terengganu, Kedah and Perlis were under the protection of Siam Bangkok Treaty 1909, the Siamese agreed to hand over these states to the British British advisors were appointed i.e. Kelantan-J.S. Mason 1910  

Non-federated Malay States 

British power made it difficult for other Western power to penetrate the Northern states 1919 ± the four states were combined as the ³NonFederated Malay States´ 

Non-federated Malay States 

Having successfully expanded into the Unfederated Malay States the British effectively controlled the whole of peninsula.

Decentralization of Power

Decentralization of Power 

Means that the important powers relating to administration of finance and services, such as the railway, customs and postal services that were once under central control, would be distributed to the states concerned

Underlying factor for decentralization
1.

dissatisfaction among the Sultans concerning their decision-making power; unlike the rulers in NonFederated where the had greater power over their own state. Decline of world economy in the 1920s.

2.

Underlying factor for decentralization
3.

The struggle of power between the Resident General and High Commissioner. Only a few Malays were in the administration

4.

Underlying factor for decentralization
3.

Loss of power of the Sultans and State Councils British intention to combine the FMS and NFMS

4.

Conclude 

Distribution of power implemented by English was based on economic and political motives. British had intention of ruling whole of Malaya under one administrative entity that is Malayan Union. 

Conclude 

However, this distribution of power was not successful because the Japanese invaded Malaya in 1941.

Questions 

List the struggle and sacrifices of our freedom fighters.

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