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Early Islamic Texts
(Fuj) Kush (RAK) Jazirat al Hulayla (RAK) Jumeirah (Dubai) Dalma (AUH) Shimal (RAK) Suhar (Oman)
EARLY ISLAMIC PERIODS IN THE UAE
Transitional Period (630-661) Umayyad Dynasty (661-750) Abbasid Dynasty (750-1258)
SASANIAN PERIOD 240-635 CE
Event Birth of the Prophet Hijra The umma conquers Mecca Abu Bakr becomes first caliph Umar becomes caliph Conquers Damascus Conquers Jerusalem Conquers Cteshiphon Conquers Babylon Conquers Alexandria Uthman becomes caliph compiled Qur’an Ali declares himself caliph Struggle between Ali and Mu’awiya (Shia /Sunni split)
Date 570 622 630 632-634 634-644 635 637 637 641 642 644-656 656 656-661
Assassination of Ali, beginning of Umayyad 661 Dynasty
EVENTS OF EARLY ISLAM IN THE UAE
Azd tribe in Oman peninsula ruled by Sassanians
al-Julanda sub-tribe from Suhar in conflict with Al-`Atik subtribe from Dibba. Azd converts to Islam Sassanians reject Islam Azd attack Sassanian administrators, expel them from Oman (Mazun) Several Azd subtribes rejected Islam, rebelled against alJulanda Abu Bakr sends army from Medina through central Arabia and around Empty Quarter to support al-Julanda in Oman Battle at Dibba results in rout of rebels, and return of Azd to Islam
630: al-Julanda invited to join umma
632: Ridda (Apostasy)
Event Mu’awiyya Second Civil War
Date 661-680 680-694
UMAYYAD DYNASTY (661-750)
‘Abd al-Malik regains authority over dar al- 685-705 Islam Walid I 705-715
Event Abu’l Abbas Abu Ja'far al-Mansur Al Ma’amun Al Mu’tasim
Date 750-754 754-775 813-833 833-842
ABBASID DYNASTY (750-1258)
Decline of Abbasid Dynasty Ca. 900-1258
UMAYYAD PERIOD-ABBASID PERIOD
705: Abd al Malik’s Umayyad force lands at Julfar to bring Azd under Umayyad control with great difficulty
flee to east Africa
750: Azd reassert independence during Umayyad decline.
commander kills Julanda leadership and 10,000 supporters in battle at Julfar
Texts refer to burning of Julanda homes (arish)
From late 9th-13th Century Abbasid decline meant semi-autonomy of Gulf
C growth of towns in RAK
EARLY ISLAMIC SITES IN THE UAE
Sir Bani Yas (AUH) Dalma (AUH) Kush (RAK) Jazirat al Hulayla (RAK) Dibba (Fuj) Shimal (RAK) Jumeirah (Dubai) Suhar (Oman)
SIR BANI YAS
Continues into Umayyad period, abandoned before Abbasid period.
SITE CODE DA1 DA2 DA3 DA4 DA5 DA6 DA7 DA8 DA9 DA10 DA11 DA12 DA13 DA14 DA15 DA16 DA17 DA18 DA19 DA20 DA21 DA22
DESCRIPTION Late Islamic period Mosque of Muhammad b. Jasim al-Muraykhi, Dalma town. Late Islamic period House of Muhammad b. Jasim al-Muraykhi, Dalma town. Late Islamic period Al Dawsari mosque (formerly known as the Sa'id Jum'a al-Qubaysi mosque), Dalma town. Late Islamic period Al Muhannadi mosque (formerly known as the Sa'id 'Ali al-Qubaysi mosque), Dalma town. Islamic period grave, Dalma town. Old Dalma settlement, Dalma town. Islamic graveyard with associated settlement debris, shell middens and pottery scatters, Ghassan al-Ghossain's farm compound, NE of Dalma Motel roundabout. Islamic graveyard surrounded by walled enclosure, Dalma town. Islamic graveyard surrounded by rectangular walled compound, between old Dalma town and the southern peninsula. Islamic graves (ca 12 graves) inside the compound of the former Abu Dhabi Women's Federation compound in Dalma town. Ubaid-related settlement inside the compound of the former Abu Dhabi Women's Federation compound in Dalma town. This site dates to the late 6th-early 5th millennium BC. Continuation of the Ubaid-related site (DA11) outside the compound wall on the neighbouring traffic island. The same area also has traces of Islamic graves. Late Islamic period settlement on old shoreline NW of the Dalma Motel roundabout. Islamic period cistern and enclosure, north eastern outskirts of Dalma town. Large Islamic period well known locally as "al-Falaj", west Dalma. Late Islamic period village known as al-Biyada, west Dalma. Four ?Islamic period graves and pottery scatters, west Dalma. Sassanian-Early Islamic period stone buildings (now destroyed). This site was excavated by an Iraqi team in 1973. Located north of Dalma town. Large ?Islamic period spring or well known as "al-Fahahil", with 3-4 Islamic graves nearby. Located on the NW coast of Dalma. Islamic period stone scatter, formerly the site of a simple mosque, and pottery scatters, located north of Dalma town. ?Islamic period ore mining site located NE of Dalma town. Four ?Islamic period wells, known locally as "falaj Hazim" after the nearby wadi Sha'ba Hazim.
KUSH (3RD CENTURIES TO 14TH CENTURY)
LATE SASSANIAN/EARLY ISLAMIC TOWER AT KUSH
Small, simple tower indicates small community
ABBASID PERIOD OCCUPATION (9TH /10TH C- 14TH C)
Chinese/Indian/Islamic pottery 13th C coffee bean (earliest in Arabia) Earliest Julfar?
JEZIRAT AL HULAYLA
5th-11th C pottery from Iraq/Iran
EARLY ISLAMIC COPPER MINING
Mining sites in Hajar Slag in wadi surveys Smelting ovens (10th C/14th C)
UNDERSAMPLING OF EARLY ISLAMIC SITES?
Much probably lies beneath current occupation Evidence of irrigation systems in mountains difficult to date.