You are on page 1of 15


p    p 

Today s Objectives
ñ To Clarify the Concept of Social Stratification and
Discus its other relevant aspects.

ñ To Discus Related Theories and Consequences of

Social Stratification.

Definitions of Social Stratification
What is Social Stratification?

| Social Stratification is the division of society in permanent

groups or categories linked with each other by the
relationship of superior and subordination. 3 isbert)

m Stratification is a division of society into higher and lower

social units. 3Raymond W.Murray)

Conclusion of definition
| pocial stratification is À the division of society levels, steps
or positions.
m ptratification is, in essence, the structured inequality of
entire categories of People.
 ptratification is different than mere inequality, which refer to
the uneven distribution of opportunities and rewards to
individuals and groups.
¦ hen these inequalities becomes structured into society and
passed on from generation to generation, we have social

Dimensions of Social Stratification

|  he economic assets of an individual, including

income, monetary assets and other holdings.

m    The ability to attain goals and maintain influence

over others, even in the absence of their consent.

    The approval and respect received from other

members of society.

Consequences of Social Stratification


 ealth and illness

 hildbearing and Rearing

 rime and Criminal Justice Contacts

Theories of Social Stratification


|. Functionalist theory understands society as a ÀSystem or


m s functionalists, Kingsley Davis and Wilbert Moore

contended that stratification was a necessity for society

 pociety has numerous positions that must be fulfilled if it is

to function properly.

3 Continue) Functionalist Theory

¦ pome positions, however are more important for the

maintenance of society 3 e.g., physicians )

 Œinally, some positions require special talents that are not

generally prevalent in the population.

 ence, functionally important positions and/or positions

requiring rare talent are rewarded most highly.

Criticisms of Functional Theory

Judgment of Functional Importance of Positions

‡ Critics question the functional importance of certain highly
rewarded positions such as actors and sports figures, in contrast
to positions such as school teachers or social workers.

The stratification system itself Inhibits Talent and Abilities

‡ Many barriers are placed in the way of individuals from lower
classes to keep them from competing effectively.

Marxist Conflict Theory

| puggest that social stratification is determined by the

Relations of Production.
m ourgeoisie- capitalists who own the means of production.
 roletariat- wage laborers who sell their labor to
¦ nterests of these two classes are opposed.
 ower of the capitalists allows them to impose their will and
realize their interests.
 ccording to Marx, the proletariat will eventually develop a
class consciousness, and ultimately overthrow the


‡ Definition of Caste

ñ ÀWhen a class is somewhat strictly hereditary, we may call it a

Caste. 3Cooly, C.H)
ñ ÀWhen status is wholly predetermined, so that men are born to
their lot in life without any hope of changing it, then Class
takes the form of Caste. 3Maclver)
ñ ÀA Caste is an aggregate of persons whose share of obligations
and privileges is fixed by birth, sanctioned and supported by
magic and religion. À3 Martindale and Monachesi) .

3     Π    

Definition of Class

ÀA Social Class is any portion of community marked off

from the rest by Social Status. 3 Maclver )
It is the sense of status, sustained by the Economic,
Political or Power
A Social Class is the aggregate of persons having
essentially the same social status in a given Society. 3
Ogburn and Nimkoff ).


p ial lass i a ista
p i l gist are t agreed as t h w s ial lasses ph uld be
Disti guished.

M st mm ly, 5 lasses are Idetified:

‡ Upper lass
‡ Upper-Middle lass
‡ L wer-Middle lass
‡ W r ig lass
‡ L wer lass

Eah f these lasses represet Differees is b th I me ad

Lifestyle harateristis .

Thank you and oodbye,
Till next Class