This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
King Saud University-Aflaj College
CHAPTER 2 Bacteriology
Nabeel Al-Mawajdeh RN.MCS 2
Bacteriology means the study of bacteria . Bacteria are prokaryotic cells (unicellular organisms with no a nucleus) with simple structures that typically range in size from about 0.5 to 20 micrometers.
Nabeel Al-Mawajdeh RN.MCS
4.Bacteria Characteristics 1. Bacterium cell are very small (approximately 0. and living bodies. 3. 2.0 m) Bacteria are widely distributed. Some bacteria live in our bodies as normal flora which harmless. It found in soil. Nabeel Al-Mawajdeh RN. air.MCS 4 . 5.1to 10. water. The bacterium cell is a prokaryotic cell. Some bacteria cause diseases for animals and plants.
MCS 5 . and vagina). Normal flora may cause some problems if it displaced or depleted because of using antibiotics. the skin. mucous membranes. Organisms of the normal flora are normally found on surface tissues (i..e. the gastrointestinal system. Nabeel Al-Mawajdeh RN.Normal Flora Normal flora: Species of bacteria that colonize the human body and do not normally cause disease.
Absorption of nutrients from the intestine. Interfere with bacterial adherence.g. c. b. They inhibit colonization and infection by pathogenic bacteria as they: a. a. 2. d. They perform important metabolic functions e. b. c.Functions of Normal Flora 1. Maintain inhibitory PH in vagina and skin. Conversion of bile pigments and bile acids. Compete for essential nutrients. Produce inhibitory substances e.MCS 6 . Nabeel Al-Mawajdeh RN. fatty acids and colicins.g. K. Synthesis of vit.
They lacks the nuclear envelope so there is no nucleus. Found in bacteria ad Cyanobacteria. b. Have simple enzyme system and lack most of the cellular organelles like mitochondria. Reproduce by binary fission (simple dividing process) e.Prokaryotic Prokaryotic cells characteristics: a. There is no nucleolus.MCS 7 . Nabeel Al-Mawajdeh RN. d. c.
e. Have nuclear envelope and cellular organelles. Nabeel Al-Mawajdeh RN. All the living cells are eukaryotic cells except that of bacteria. b. Have complex enzyme system. c.Eukaryotic Eukaryotic cells characteristics: a.MCS 8 . d. Reproduce by simple and complex processes. Have nucleolus.
Bacterial Structure 9 .
MCS 10 . Nabeel Al-Mawajdeh RN. proteins. 1. Cell envelope Cell membrane (plasma membrane) It is a semi permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm of all bacterial cells. and carbohydrate. it composed of two layers of phospholipids.Bacteria Structure A. Its main function is to maintain a constant environment within the interior of the cell by controlling the transport mechanism between the cell and the surrounding medium.
Nabeel Al-Mawajdeh RN. composed of Peptidoglycan (polysaccharides and proteins). Cell wall A structure surrounding the cell. Gram positive and Gram negative.MCS 11 . There are two main types of bacterial cell walls. which are differentiated by their Gram staining characteristics. Peptidoglycanis responsible for the rigidity of the bacterial cell wall and for the determination of cell shape.Bacteria Structure (Cont¶d) 2.
Capsules are not usually stained by gram stain.Bacteria Structure (Cont¶d) 3. Capsule It is a gelatinous layer outside the cell wall of some species. 4. Flagella Flagellum is an appendage of the cell membrane that helps in bacterial movement. It increase the Pathogenicity of bacteria because capsulated bacteria are not easy to be destroyed by host cell. It is composed of a single protein called flagellin. It is composed of polysaccharides. Nabeel Al-Mawajdeh RN.MCS 12 . and can play a role in the production of disease.
They are shorter and thinner that flagella and composed of a protein called pilin. They help bacteria to adhere together and to the surface of host cell. Pili (synonym: fimbriae) These are hair like filaments that extend from the cell surface. They are found mainly on gram negative bacteria.MCS 13 . Nabeel Al-Mawajdeh RN.Bacteria Structure (Cont¶d) 5.
Cytoplasm Which is a fluid that fills the cell. Nabeel Al-Mawajdeh RN. The ribosome and other internal structures are impeded in cytoplasm.Bacteria Structure (Cont¶d) B. Nuclear material Electron microscope showed that the bacterial genetic material is composed of a bundle of a double stranded DNA molecule (chromosome) that not surrounds by a nuclear membrane. All the internal biochemical activities are occur within it. 2. The chromosome carries the genetic information and it duplicates before cell division.MCS 14 . Intracellular Structures 1.
Nabeel Al-Mawajdeh RN.Bacteria Structure (Cont¶d) 3. It helps bacteria to resist antibiotics. Plasmids These are extra chromosomal double stranded circular DNA that are capable of replicating independent of the bacterial chromosome.MCS 15 .
They serve as energy and nutrient reservoirs. Its function is to synthesize proteins for the bacterial cell. Inclusion granules They are found in cytoplasm. Nabeel Al-Mawajdeh RN. 5. 4.Bacteria Structure (Cont¶d) Ribosomes Ribosome is cellular organelle that found is in cytoplasm. They may be rich in lipids and carbohydrates.MCS 16 .
Endospores Spores are commonly found in the genera Bacillus and Clostridium. The spores formation occurs by the development of an ingrowth of the cytoplasmic membrane cutting off a portion if the cytoplasm.Bacteria Structure (Cont¶d) 6. Nabeel Al-Mawajdeh RN. Then a thick cortex and a tough spore coat are formed. heat. Endospores These are small thick walls formed in the cytoplasm that helps to resist the unfavorite environmental conditions like depletion of nutrients. and dryness.MCS 17 .
Spiral: Spirals range in size from 1 µm to over 100 µm in length.5-1.0 micrometer (µm) in diameter.0 µm wide by 1.5-1. Rod or bacillus: An average bacillus is 0. 2. Coccus: An average coccus is about 0. 3.Bacteria Shapes There are three basic shapes: 1.0 µm long.0-4. Nabeel Al-Mawajdeh RN.MCS 18 .
Bacteria Shapes Spiral Coccus Rod 19 .
Nabeel Al-Mawajdeh RN. and appear blue-black or purple when stained using Gram's method.Gram Reactions 1.MCS 20 . Gram-positive Gram-positive bacteria have a relatively thick layer of Peptidoglycan and can retain a crystal violet-iodine complex when treated with acetone or alcohol.
A Gram-positive cell 21 .
Gram Reactions (Cont¶d) 2.MCS 22 . Gram-negative Gram-negative bacteria have a thin layer of Peptidoglycan and cannot retain the crystal violetiodine complex. Nabeel Al-Mawajdeh RN.
A Gram-negative cell 23 .
b.Basic Nutritional Requirements 1. Facultative anaerobes: Grow in the presence or absence of O2. Nabeel Al-Mawajdeh RN. c. d. Microaerophilic: These bacteria will grow in low oxygen concentrations. Obligate anaerobe: Grow in the absence of free O2. a.MCS 24 . Oxygen Requirements Obligate aerobe: Bacteria grow only on the presence of O2.
Heterotrophs: Obtain carob and/or sugar from the environment.Nutritional Requirements (cont¶d) 2.Autotrophs: Obtain carob and/or sugar from sunlight or chemical reactions.MCS 25 . . Nutrient Requirements . Nabeel Al-Mawajdeh RN.
Temperature According to the optimal temperature.Nutritional Requirements (cont¶d) 3. a. bacteria are classified into 3 groups: Psychrophiles: These live in low temperature (< 20°C) Mesophiles: These live in moderate temperature(2040°C) Thermophiles: These live in high temperature (> 45°C) Nabeel Al-Mawajdeh RN.MCS 26 . c. b.
0) Alkaphiles prefer alkaline or basic conditions (pH > 7. b. Nabeel Al-Mawajdeh RN.0).MCS 27 . PH Most bacteria grow at narrow range of PH (7.7.6). Acidophiles are bacteria that grow optimally under acidic conditions (pH < 7.Nutritional Requirements (cont¶d) 4. a.2.
The number of bacterial cells remains constant. rapid cell division occurs and the number of the cells increase steadily by the time. The rate of the bacterial growth equals the rate of bacterial death.Bacteria. Logarithmic phase: After the cells adjusted to the new environment. Decline phase(Death phase): Bacteria run out of nutrients and die. The typical Bacterial Growth Curve includes 4 phases: 1. 4.MCS 28 . Growth & Reproduction Bacteria grow and replicate in a process known as binary fission. Nabeel Al-Mawajdeh RN. Stationary phase: The growth rate slows as nutrients become exhausted and waste products accumulate. 2. Bacterial cells adapt to the new environment so they don¶t divide but they are metabolically active. Lag phase: It is the first phase during which no cell division occurs. 3.
Bacterial Growth Curve 29 .
Bacteria can exchange genetic materials via conjugation.Binary Fission Binary fission is the process by which a bacteria grow and replicate.MCS 30 . Nabeel Al-Mawajdeh RN.
The bacterial chromosome attaches to the cell membrane. 4.Binary Fission (Cont¶d) Stages of binary fission: 1. 2. 3. The narrowing continue until the cell divides into two new cells. The bacterial cell begins narrowing at the middle. The 2 copies of the chromosome still attach to the cell membrane. The chromosome duplicates. 5.MCS 31 . Nabeel Al-Mawajdeh RN.
Binary Fission 32 .
MCS 33 .g. Pharyngitis. . Nabeel Al-Mawajdeh RN. e. . and rheumatic fever.g. impetigo. and furuncles (boils).N.S. . Streptococcus. .Common Bacterial Infections 1.N. aureus e.S.S. meningitides is a leading cause of adult meningitis. scarlet fever. 2. endocarditis. Neisseria. food poisoning. 3. pneumonia is a common cause of bacterial pneumonia and meningitis. a gram-positive bacteria. Staphylococcus: a gram-positive bacteria . . e.g. gonorrhoea is the causative agent of gonorrhoea. epidermidis.
cholera. Nabeel Al-Mawajdeh RN. E. E. 6. enteritis.C. . coli. . e. tetani e.g. g. Salmonella. gastroenteritis.Common Bacterial Infections (Cont¶d) Escherichia.MCS 34 .V. 7. .S. e. cholera. UTIs and neonatal meningitis. typhi . 5. tetanus (lockjaw) 4. typhoid fever.g. Vibrio. g. Clostridium.g. E.
MCS 35 .The End Nabeel Al-Mawajdeh RN.