# ELECTRICITY

CHAPTER 2

2.1 Electric Field and Charge Flow

2 kinds of electric charges Positive (+) Negative (-)

Electric field lines :
.Electric Field
A region in which an electric charge experience an electric force.

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Principles to draw electric field lines
Electric field lines always extend from a positively charged object to a negatively charged object. or from infinity to a negatively charged object Electric field lines never cross each other
. from a positively charged object to infinity.

Electric field lines are most dense around objects with the greatest amount of charge At locations where electric field lines meet the surface of an object. the lines are perpendicular to the surface
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Electric Current
Flow of charge per unit time Does not depend on the sign of the moving charges Produced by both positive and negative charges
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A or coulombs per second
.Current
=
Total charge flowing through a point Time taken
I
=
Q t
Unit Ampere.

Flow of current and electron in a circuit
Flow of electron
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2.2 The relationship between electric current and potential difference
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volt
.Potential Difference
Work done or energy that would be required to move one coulomb of charge from one point to another
Potential difference = Work done Quantity of charge
V
=
W Q SI unit V.

the greater the current flow
.Current and Potential Difference
The greater the potential difference or voltage.

Ohm¶s Law
Ohm¶s law states that the current that passes through an ohmic conductor is directly proportional to the potential difference applied across it if the temperature and other physical conditions are constant Ohmic conductor obeys ohm¶s law Non ohmic conductor does not obey ohm¶s law
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Ohm¶s law

VI

or

V I

=

R, a constant

I = current V = potential difference R = Resistance

Circuit Diagram

Battery Voltage ( V)

Total Resistance ( )

Current (Amps)

1. 2.

1.5 V 3.0 V

3 3

0.50 Amp 1 Amp

3. 4. 5.

4.5 V 1.5 V 3.0 V

3 6 6

1.5 Amp 0.25 Amp 0.5 Amp

6.

4.5 V

6

0.75 Amp

7.

4.5 V

9

0.50 Amp

Circuit Symbols
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I flowing trough it. V across the conductors to the current. R of a conductor is defined as the ratio of potential difference.
. Resistance.Resistance
Is the opposition of a conductor to the flow of electric current Term that describes the opposition experienced by the electrons as they flow in a conductor.

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Factors Affecting Resistance
Type of material Length Thickness temperature
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.Superconductors
Resistance become zero at very low temperature The metal superconduct only when below a certain critical temperature. Tc Conducts electricity without loss of energy.

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Advantages of superconductors
Able to sustain large currents Smaller power loss during transmission Less heat energy is wasted Small sized motors and generators can be used
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3 Series And Parallel Circuit
.2.

All electrons must flow through this single path
.Series Circuit
A single pathway is formed through which current flows.

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the flow of electricity to the other branches will not be disrupted More path are created for the current to flow
.Parallel Circuit
Designed so that if one branched is defective.

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The Effective Resistance Of Resistors Connected in Series
The current passing through each resistors is the same Potential difference across each resistor depends directly on its resistance The sum of the potential differences across each resistor is equal to the total potential difference of the source
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.Req = R1 + R2 + R3 + ...

Ibattery = I1 = I2 = I3 = .. Vbattery = V1 = V2 = V3 = ... Ibattery = I1 = I2 = I3 = Vbattery / Req
..

ANSWER THIS QUESTION :
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The Effective Resistance Of Resistors Connected in Parallel
The potential difference is the same across each resistor The current passing through each resistor is inversely proportional to the resistance of the resistor The current in the circuit equals to the sum of the currents passing through the resistors in its parallel branches
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.... 1 / Req = 1 / R1 + 1 / R2 + 1 / R3 + .. Itotal = I1 + I2 + I3 + ..Vbattery = V1 = V2 = V3 = .

ANSWER THIS QUESTION :
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Guideline to solve circuit problems
Determine whether the values you should substitute into the formula are for a single resistor or a group of resistors for the whole circuit It is always advisable not to take shortcuts in the solution especially for parallel circuits Draw circuit for every step. It will make the situation clear for you Memorise the rules for series and parallel circuits
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2.4 Electromotive Force And Internal Resistance
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m.f) . E
Work done by a source in driving a unit charge around a complete circuit e.
.f of a cell is the energy supplied to a unit of charge within the cell.m.Electromotive Force (e.

Potential Difference
Potential difference across a component in a circuit is the conversion of electrical energy into other forms of energy when a unit of charge passes through the component
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the potential difference V across the cell is the electromotive force.
.Internal Resistance. r
Resistance against the moving charge due to the electrolyte in the source or the cell In an open circuit when there is no current flow. E of the cell.

the potential difference.In a closed circuit when there is a current flow. V across the cell is smaller than the electromotive force. E of the cell This drop in potential difference across the cell is caused by the internal resistance of the cell
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Work is needed to drive a charge against the internal resistance This causes a drop in potential difference across the cell as the charge flows through it
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m.f . E connected in series with an internal resistors.Electromotive Force and Internal Resistance
A cell can be modeled as an e. r When a high resistance voltmeter is connected across the terminals of the cell . the reading of the voltmeter gives the e. E of the cell
.m.f.

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m. V across the resistor.If a resistor. R is connected to the terminals of the cell. R. V is less than the e. I through the internal resistor. the voltmeter reading is the potential difference. V across the terminals of the cell The value of potential difference.f. It is also the potential difference. r of the cell
. E of the cell. The difference between E and V is due to the potential difference need to drive the current.

E = V + Ir
E V Ir e.f of the cell Potential difference to the external circuit Drop in potential difference inside the cell
.m.

ANSWER THIS QUESTION:
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5 Electrical Energy and Power
.2.

It is a form of energy produced by the flow of electrons
Potential Difference Electrical energy dissipated = Charge E Unit Q joule
V
=
.Electrical Energy
The ability of the electric current to do work.

Electric Power
The rate at which energy is converted from one form to another
Power = Energy Time VIt P = t
Unit
Watt
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Tips
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ANSWER THE QUESTIONS :
1
2
3
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ANSWERS
1 2 3
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Paying for Electricity
Unit kilowatt-hour kWh
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Energy Efficiency
Usually expressed in percentage
Energy output Efficiency
= x
100%
Energy input
Output power Efficiency
= x
100%
Input Power
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