POORNIMA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, JAIPUR
A  SUMMER TRAINING PRESENTATION  ON  SESSION (2010-2011)

 “HYDROELECTRIC POWER PLANT & TURBINES” 

Presented by: Mitesh Kumar (ME/07/52) Final Year
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING POORNIMA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

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Introduction Growth in renewable energy Classification of power plant Benefits Working Company profile Location , Layout , Boundary Silent Features Power plant & Sections Turbine , governor n parts of power plant Generator , transformer & auxiliary power power house & switch yard Turbine & various mechanical parts

CONCEPT OF HYDRO ELECTRIC POWER
 HYDRO SYSTEM MAKES USE OF FALLING WATER IN A STREAM OR RIVER OR STORAGE DAM  HYDRAULLIC ENERGY ----------- MECHANICAL ENERGY------- ELECTRICAL ENERGY  WATER ---RENEWABLE SOURCE  POWER IS EXPRESSED AS KW OR MW. • AMOUNT OF WATER FLOW IS CALLED DISCHARGE (Q) EXPRESSED IN LITRES /SEC OR CUMECS OR CUSECS • NET HEAD = GROSS HEAD - FRICTION LOSS
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Potential Energy

Electrical Energy Electricity

Kinetic Energy

Mechanical Energy

BASED ON POWER RATING CLASSIFICTION MICRO-HYDRO MINI-HYDRO SMALL-SCALE HYDRO POWER RATING < 100 kW 100 kW – 3MW 3 MW – 25 MW BASED ON HEAD AVAILABLE ULTRA LOW HEAD MEDIUM HEAD HIGH HEAD BELOW 3 METRES FROM 30–75 METRES ABOVE 75 METRES .

wood industries –saw mills  No waste disposal problem . air pollutants or any waste products.  Energy in remote and hilly areas where extension of grid system un-economical  Non polluting and environmental friendly  Water supply  Small scale irrigation  Small scale agriculture industry – rice & oil mills.• No greenhouse.

A control mechanism to provide.      Water from the reservoir flows due to gravity to drive the turbine. A water turbine that cover the energy of flowing or falling water into mechanical energy that drives a generator. Turbine is connected to a generator. . stable electrical power. which generates electrical power. This is a heart of hydropower power plant. Power generated is transmitted over power lines. It is called governor Electrical transmission line to deliver the power to its destination.

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Kms.Hindustan steel CONSTUCTION LTD . Total installed capacity of plant :15 mw Number of units :3 • • Type of units                              Generting equipments :Bulb : M/S FUJI ELECTRIC.• Name of the company Total capacity Name of plant Name of barrage Location • • • • • • • • : BIHAR STATE HYDROELECTRIC POWER CORPORATION LIMITED :52.80 mw :East gandak canal project : Gandak barrage :VALMIKI NAGAR.410 sq. JAPAN • Power house : M/s.BIHAR-NEPAL border Year of construction :1975 Catchment area : 37.

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C.S.3 mtrs Water requirements :-> 321 m^3/sec (cumecs) Area of powerhouse building :-> 54.L • • .304*20 mtrs sqr Water conductor system : i) power channel :-> 1400 mtrs ii) tail channel :-> 4223 mtrs Generating equipment supplied by :-> M/S FUJI ELECTRIC.CHAMPARAN) Total installed capacity :-> 3*5 mw Annual generation :-> 98 million units Rated head :-> 5.• • • • • • • Name of place :-> VALMIKINAGAR (W.JAPAN Power house constucted by :-> M/S H.

  NORTH: SOUTH  EAST WEST  Hilly region of NEPAL : GOPALGANJ & part of purbi CHAMPARAN district : Purbi CHAMPARAN district : PADRUNA & DEORIA district of uttar pradesh .

00 MTRS .35mtrs Survice bay : 106.95 mtrs Turbine floor : 105.• • • Gandak : Masan : Pandai : meets masan North west bihar from nepal Budhi gandak down south Flows from nepal into bihar & HIGH WITH RESPECT TO SEA: Bottom level of water floor : 94.30mtrs Top roof of building : 122.95 mtrs Control room : 110.50 mtrs Centre line of shaft : 99.964 mtrs Turbine gallery : 95.

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1 rpm Runaway speed :->310 rpm .95 m^3/s Speed :-> 107.3 m Rated flow :-> 106.         Turbine used is Bulb kaplan turbine Turbine having 3(three) blades Coupled with generator through shaft Type :-> hk-1rt Output :-> 5155 kw Net head :-> 5.

rotor & stator Type : gdh6435t-28 Output : 5556/6112 kva Voltage : 660 v Current : 486 a Power factor : 0.9 Direction of rotation : Clockwise view from upstream Rating : Continuous • • • • • • • • .• SYNCHRONOUS Generator is used Consist of shaft.exictor.

         Type of coupling :-Onan Kind :.double bound Frequency :-50 hz Core & coil mass :-14000 kg Tank & fitting mass :-7800 kg Mass of oil :-7500 kg Total mass :-29.306 kg Volume of oil :-8600 l Connection :-STAR & DELTA .

       Oil storage & purification plant Gravity tank :-1800 L Pressure tank :-280 L Sump tank :-7500 L Pressure tank :-4000L Lubricant tank :-5000L Leakage return tank:-630L .

     Water is emptied out from the sump tank(base of plant) to the tail race channel DG(diesel generator) is used for this purpose Water is generally accumulated in rainy season & through seapage Water is passed to tail race channel through dewatering system Battery system(110 v) is also used for dewatering purpose .

    DG(diesel generating) system is used for emergency purposes 55*2volt=110 volt is used through battery 55 cells each 2 volt are connected in series It help when there is lack of power supply from nearby substation .

• • • • • • CENTRIFUGAL GOVERNOR IS USED Controls opening & closing of guide vane Connected to guide vane by the help of servomotor Automatic governors are also used Controls the speed of water going into the runner Controls the speed of turbine by the help of fluid .

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 Two units of 5 mw each Each unit having Power transformer (6.6/132 kv) Lighting arreste : 12 Current transformer (ratio 75/1) : 12 Voltage transformer: 3 Breaker(132 kv) : 5 Isolator : 8  .

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   Turbine? Types of turbines Water turbine section in the plant Construction of water turbine  Governor & operation control device  Pressure oil system  Lubricating oil system  .

• • • • • • • • Stay cone & stay column Runner Main shaft Main shaft seal Main guide bearing Wicket gate Wicket gate operating mechanism Discharge ring .

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    4 m steel plates Consist of outer & inner stay cone &column Outer stay cone & column is installed in the concrete Inner stay cone is used as access shaft to the downstream side of the bulb .

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8mm Adjustable blade type-3 blades   Made of 13%Cr-4%Ni SS  Contains necessary mechanism for adjusting the blades  Hydraulic servomotor of cylinder movable type . Inlet diameter-4364.

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Of coupling flanges Runner coupling end1040 mm. Outside dia.    Total length . Contains two concentric pipes for carrying pressurized oil & lubricating oil .5208 mm.   Material-forged carbon steel(SF55A) Diameter-530 mm.  Generator coupling end-1030 mm.

  Type-double carbon ring type sealed on radial plane surafce Allows easy water leakage check and easy carbon ring replacement Main guide bearing:- .

  Bearing shell easily splits up in two halves Four thermometer s are also provided for temperature relay. Oil housing Bearing housing .

 Mounted on the upstream end of generator Controls the pressure oil flow to the concentric pipes installed inside the main shaft The oil supply inside the hub is also provided through the gravity tank   .

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     Material : fabricated plate steel 16 wicket gates are supported at their span by the bearings Have ample rigidity to minimize the clearance Wicket gate system is detachable from the inner distributor cone Wicket gate bearings Type: non grease lubricated type  Outer wicket gate bearings : spherical sliding surface  .

 Incorporates the thrust bearings  Wicket gates are connected to the wicket gate operating mechanism Designated to adjust the discharge according to turbine load  .

Gate ring servomotor s .

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• Movement of servomotors are converted into the rotating motion of gate ring •the links are equipped with eccentric pins .attached between the gate lever & the operating ring •Wicket gate & ring are coupled through breaking links •Operating ring has a counter weight to close the guide vanes in case of emergency .

-4924mm  Accessories -one counter weight & 16 grease inserts  . -5600mm  Inside dia.3186mm  Inside radius -1684.5mm  Clearance -1mm(outer) & 1.5 mm(inner)   Wicket gate operating ring section -2  Outside dia. Wicket gate bearing Outside radius.

 Governor .

 Turbine governors are equipment for the control and adjustment of the turbine power output and evening out deviations between power and the grid load as fast as possible. At load rejections or emergency stops the turbine admission have to be closed down according to acceptable limits of the rotational speed rise of the unit and the pressure rise in the water conduit . The turbine governors have to comply with two major purposes:  1. To keep the rotational speed stable and constant of the turbine-generator unit at any grid load and prevailing conditions in the water conduit.   2.

pendulum Floating lever Spool movemen t servomotor spool feedbac k Water inlet Turbine .

.-mechanical-hydraulic or electrohydraulic construction -Servo system-determined by the controller.. .A complete turbine governor system may be divided in three main components -The controller.The pressure oil supply system.

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oil sump tank  .relief valve  . oil pressure tank  .oil pump units  . e.accumulator.main oil valve  .check valves  .oil cooler  ..unloader valve .g.switches and indicators  .The main components can be summarised as follows:  .

Oil pumps Unloader valves Check valves Relief valve Sump tank Main oil valve Actuator oil supply Pressure oil tank Return oil .

It is for the student to see & adjust on working culture & environment to a sufficient period of time & to check the student’s adaptability & flexibility. Last not the least it provide student a platform to to shape their knowledge into practical work.Summer training plays a vital & effective role in a student’s life no matter whatever respective field he is working upon & want to expertise his\her skills in their field. . It gives the practical idea & picture of what we all have only theoretically gained.