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Solar power might be a solution

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       How many solar panels you will need based on the
amount of sunshine available daily in your area
Using solar power to produce electricity is not the same
as using solar to produce heat. Solar thermal principles It is presumed that at "peak sun", J  of power
are applied to produce hot fluids or air. reaches the surface of the earth.

Photovoltaic principles are used to produce electricity. A One hour of full sun provides J      J
solar panel (PV panel) is made of the natural element,  -representing the solar energy received in one
silicon, which becomes charged electrically when hour on a cloudless summer day on a one-square meter
subjected to sun light. surface directed towards the sun.

Solar panels are directed at solar south in the northern To put this in some other perspective, the Indian
hemisphere and solar north in the southern hemisphere Department of Energy indicates the amount of solar
(these are slightly different than magnetic compass energy that hits the surface of the earth every +/- hour is
north-south directions) at an angle dictated by the greater than the total amount of energy that the entire
geographic location and latitude of where they are to be human population requires in a year. Another
installed. perspective is that roughly 100 miles square of solar
panels placed in the southwestern U.S. could power the
Typically, the angle of the solar array is set within a country.
range of between site-latitude-plus 15 degrees and site-
latitude-minus 15 degrees, depending on whether a The intensity of the Sun's radiation changes with the
slight winter or summer bias is desirable in the system. hour of the day, time of the year and weather conditions.
To be able to make calculations in planning a system,
Many solar arrays are placed at an angle equal to the the total amount of solar radiation energy is expressed in
site latitude with no bias for seasonal periods. hours of full sunlight per m², or Peak Sun Hours. This
term, Peak Sun Hours, represents the average amount
of sun available per day throughout the year.

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A color coded map of INDIA that displays the
daily average hours of solar radiation
(sunshine). This information will assist you in
calculating the number of solar panels you
will need for your solar power system. a
short explanation of Watts, Watt Hours, and
Amp Hours

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Electrical charge is consolidated in the PV panel and directed to the output terminals to produce low
voltage (Direct Current) - usually 6 to 24 volts. The most common output is intended for nominal 12
volts, with an effective output usually up to 17 volts.

A 12 volt nominal output is the reference voltage, but the operating voltage can be 17 volts or higher
much like your car alternator charges your 12 volt battery at well over 12 volts. So there's a difference
between the reference voltage and the actual operating voltage.

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"# ! 
A. PV technology produces electricity directly from electrons freed by the interaction of
sunlight with a solar panel made of semiconductor material. The power provided is
direct current (DC) electricity. The basic building block is known as a cell. Many cells
put together are known as a module, and many modules assembled together form an
array. A PV system will consist of an array of modules generating DC electricity, an
inverter, and sometimes battery storage back up with charge controller.
"#   !!   
# The amount of power produced will depend upon how large the system is. In California
the average residential customer purchases 6,500 kilowatt-hours (kWh) per year.
There is enough sunshine falling upon on the average home to produce this and a
system can be designed to offset all electrical needs. The cost to accomplish a 100%
system may be prohibitive and sometimes it makes more sense to simply reduce or
'shave' your consumption. Some utilities use tiered rates when they charge for
consumption which means that the more energy you use the higher is the cost per
kilo-watt-hour. The most economically feasible size is usually between 50% and 75%
of your annual household needs.

a centre for application of renewable energy preparation by s.r.kushero


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At today's prices a single solar panel, rated at 1 Watts sells for about Rs.250-
Rs.350 depending on brand.

If your system uses several of these panels, this would seem to be quite
expensive.

The good news is that today's solar panels have a life expectancy of 25 to 30
years or more. And just think, they'll be making FREE electricity that whole time!

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Understanding Parts of a Solar Energy System Overview of the individual components required
to assemble a solar power system and produce free electricity from the sun for energy
independence.

1.Solar Panels which generate the electricity,


2.Charge Controller to control battery charging,
3.the Power Inverter that makes 220 volts AC from the batteries to run your appliances,
4.Storage batteries which store the excess power for use when the sun is weak or not available,
5. AC generators for back-up power.

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For electricity from the sun. You will need one or more
Solar Panels, a Charger Controller, a Power Inverter,
and of course, Batteries.

The first component needed is one or more Solar Panels.


They supply the electricity and charge the batteries. A
very small system could get away with a couple 80 watt
panels but figure at least 4 to 8 for a small to medium
system..

A Charge Controller. is needed to prevent overcharging


of the batteries. Proper charging will prevent damage
and increase the life and performance of the batteries.

The Power Inverter is the heart of the system. It makes


220 volts AC from the 12 volts DC stored in the batteries.
It can also charge the batteries if connected to a
generator or the AC line.

Last are the storage Batteries. They store the electrical


power in the form of a chemical reaction. Without storage
you would only have power when the sun was shining or
the generator was running.

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A Solar Power energy system can be used by anyone to    


supply all their electrical needs, provide back-up power, This device is necessary to protect the batteries from over
or even just as a supplement to the normal electrical grid charging and supply them with the proper amount of
connection to a utility company. It is ideal for remote energy to promote long battery life.
locations where power is unavailable or too expensive to
hook-up to.    '  
The power inverter converts your storage battery power
|    into the 220 volts AC that runs your appliances. It is the
The Solar Panels tutorial will give you a simple heart of your solar energy system. Unless you only run 12
explanation of this most basic electric power generator volt DC appliances you will need a power inverter to supply
for solar energy systems. Fixed, Adjustable, and your AC.
Tracking type mounting systems are also covered.
Getting power from the sun's energy is not only ( , but | 
  
it's ( to setup a solar energy system and be your own Without Storage Batteries to store energy you would only
utility company have power when the sun was shining or the generator as
running. Here we discuss 4 major categories of batteries
for solar power systems. The batteries in your system are
very important. The care & feeding section of this tutorial is
a must read to ensure long battery life and good
performance.

)   
Even the largest Solar Energy System would not have
enough power for many consecutive days of no sun. The
AC Generator tutorial will tell you what size generator you'll
need

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Solar panels generate free power from the sun by converting sunlight to electricity with no moving
parts, zero emissions, and no maintenance. The solar panel, the first component of a electric solar
energy system, is a collection of individual silicon cells that generate electricity from sunlight. The
photons (light particles) produce an electrical current as they strike the surface of the thin silicon
wafers.

A single solar cell produces only about 1/2 (.5) of a volt. However, a typical 12 volt panel about 25
inches by 54 inches will contain 36 cells wired in series to produce about 17 volts peak output.

If the solar panel can be configured for 24 volt output, there will be 72 cells so the two 12 volt groups
of 36 each can be wired in series, usually with a jumper, allowing the solar panel to output 24 volts.
When under load (charging batteries for example), this voltage drops to 12 to 14 volts (for a 12 volt
configuration) resulting in 75 to 100 watts for a panel of this size.

Multiple solar panels can be wired in parallel to increase current capacity (more power) and wired in
series to increase voltage for 24, 48, or even higher voltage systems. The advantage of using a higher
voltage output at the solar panels is that smaller wire sizes can be used to transfer the electric power
from the solar panel array to the charge controller & batteries. Since copper has gone up considerably
in the last few years, purchasing large copper wiring and cables is quite expensive. (that's why
pennies are made of mostly zinc today).

a centre for application of renewable energy preparation by s.r.kushero


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An eco-friendly electric generator. Solar panels


generate free power from the sun by converting
sunlight to electricity with no moving parts, zero
emissions, and no maintenance. The solar panel,
the first component of a electric solar energy
system, is a collection of individual silicon cells that
generate electricity from sunlight.

The photons (light particles) produce an electrical


current as they strike the surface of the thin silicon
wafers. A single solar cell produces only about 1/2
(.5) of a volt.

However, a typical 12 volt panel about 25 inches by


54 inches will contain 36 cells wired in series to Multiple solar panels can be wired in parallel to
produce about 17 volts peak output. increase current capacity (more power) and wired
in series to increase voltage for 24, 48, or even
higher voltage systems.
If the solar panel can be configured for 24 volt
The advantage of using a higher voltage output at
output, there will be 72 cells so the two 12 volt the solar panels is that smaller wire sizes can be
groups of 36 each can be wired in series, usually used to transfer the electric power from the solar
with a jumper, allowing the solar panel to output 24 panel array to the charge controller & batteries.
volts. When under load (charging batteries for Since copper has gone up considerably in the last
example), this voltage drops to 12 to 14 volts (for a few years, purchasing large copper wiring and
12 volt configuration) resulting in 75 to 100 watts for cables is quite expensive. (that's why pennies are
a panel of this size. made of mostly zinc

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       : These are not really


+  !     : The most
crystals, but a thin layer of silicon deposited on a
efficient and expensive solar panels are base material such as metal or glass to create
made with Monocrystalline cells. These the solar panel. These Amorphous solar panels
solar cells use very pure silicon and are much cheaper, but their energy efficiency is
involve a complicated crystal growth also much less so more square footage is
process. Long silicon rods are produced required to produce the same amount of power
which are cut into slices of .2 to .4 mm as the Monocrystalline or Polycrystalline type of
solar panel. Amorphous solar panels can even
thick discs or wafers which are then
be made into long sheets of roofing material to
processed into individual cells that are cover large areas of a south facing roof surface.
wired together in the solar panel.

 !!     : Often called


Multi-crystalline, solar panels made with
Polycrystalline cells are a little less expensive &
slightly less efficient than Monocrystalline cells
because the cells are not grown in single crystals
but in a large block of many crystals. This is what
gives them that striking shattered glass
appearance. Like Monocrystalline cells, they are
also then sliced into wafers to produce the
individual cells that make up the solar panel.

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The output of a solar panel is usually stated Since the intensity of sunlight contacting
in watts, and the wattage is determined by the solar panel varies throughout the day,
multiplying the rated voltage by the rated we use the term "peak sun hours³ as a
amperage. method to smooth out the variations into a
daily average
The formula for wattage is VOLTS times
AMPS equals WATTS. Early morning and late-in-the-day sunlight
produces less power than the mid-day sun.

So for example, a 12 volt 60 watt solar panel Naturally, cloudy days will produce less
measuring about 20 X 44 inches has a rated power than bright sunny days as well.
voltage of 17.1 and a rated 3.5 amperage.
When planning a system your
VxA=W geographical area is rated in average peak
17.1 volts times 3.5 amps equals 60 watts sun hours per day based on yearly sun
data.

If an average of 6 hours of peak sun per day Average peak sun hours for various
is available in an area, then the above solar geographical areas is listed in the above
panel can produce an average 360 watt section.
hours of power per day; 60w times 6 hrs. =
360 watt-hours.

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Solar panels can be wired in series or in parallel to increase
voltage or amperage respectively, and they can be wired
both in series and in parallel to increase both volts and
amps.

|   wiring refers to connecting the positive terminal of +


one panel to the negative terminal of another. The resulting -
outer positive and negative terminals will produce voltage
the sum of the two panels, but the amperage stays the same  
as one panel. So two 12 volt/3.5 amp panels wired in series
produces 24 volts at 3.5 amps. Four of these wired in series
would produce 48 volts at 3.5 amps.

  wiring refers to connecting positive terminals to


positive terminals and negative to negative. The result is that +
voltage stays the same, but amperage becomes the sum of
-
the number of panels. So two 12 volt/3.5 amp panels wired
in parallel would produce 12 volts at 7 amps. Four panels |   
would produce 12 volts at 14 amps.

|    wiring refers to doing both of the above -


increasing volts and amps to achieve the desired voltage as
in 24 or 48 volt systems. The following diagram reflects this.
In addition, the four panels below can then be wired in
parallel to another four and so on to make a larger array.

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Where a building is at a considerable distance from the public electricity supply (or grid)
- in remote or mountainous areas ± PV may be the preferred possibility for generating
electricity, or PV may be used together with wind, diesel generators and/or
hydroelectric power. In such off-grid circumstances batteries are usually used
to store the electric power.

In locations near the grid, however, feeding the grid using PV panels is more practical,
and leads to optimum use of the investment in the photovoltaic system. This requires
both regulatory and commercial preparation, including net-metering and feed-in
agreements. To provide for possible power failure, some grid tied systems are set up to
allow local use disconnected from the grid. Most photovoltaics are grid connected. In
the event the grid fails, the local system must not feed the grid to prevent the possible
creation of dangerous islanding.

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When deciding on a location for your solar As previously discussed, you want to mount
panels, make sure no shadows will fall on the solar panels in a sunny and non-shaded location
solar panel array during peak sunlight hours to get maximum sun. But, heat build-up is also a
(say, 9am to 4pm). Not only will shading of the problem. Because the efficiency of solar panels
solar panels significantly reduce their output, but decreases as temperature increases, the solar
also could cause damage. Some solar panel panel mounting system should allow for spacing
manufacturers advertise panels that can around the individual solar panels for air
withstand shading but they use internal diodes circulation. The idea is to allow air cooling in the
which in themselves reduce the power hot sun to reduce the temperature of the solar
somewhat. I recommend simply choosing a good panels. Another consideration is wind loading. By
location to start with, even if it means cutting allowing air to flow around the solar panels, not
down a few trees or otherwise removing only will they remain cooler,
obstacles.

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In all systems there are losses due to such things as voltage losses as the electricity is
carried across the wires, batteries and inverters not being 100 percent efficient, and other
factors. These efficiency losses vary from component to component, and from system to
system and can be as high as 25 percent.

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$!  % |    ! + 

 (. / 01 / - $ Fixed solar panel


mounts : If you use the most simple and least expensive
type of solar panel mounting system, it will be completely
stationary. The solar panels should always face the
equator. (due south in the northern hemisphere). Don't
forget that true south varies from magnetic south. This
can make a huge difference. For example, true south in
eastern Washington state is 161 on a compass instead
of 180. The angle of inclination (tilt) in degrees should be
set to about your latitude. Slightly more than your latitude
will favor the winter sun and slightly less will favor the
summer sun. (for a seasonal cabin for example).

Adjustable solar panel mounts : The angle of inclination


(tilt) of an adjustable solar panel mount can be changed
2 or more times during the year to account for the lower
angle of the sun in winter as the earth orbits the sun
causing seasonal change. A good rule of thumb is
latitude + 15 degrees in the winter and latitude ± 15
degrees in the summer. This will increase overall solar
panel output by approximately 25%. I adjust my solar
panel array 4 times per year. (Shown here in its summer
position). An easy approach that works pretty good is to
set the tilt for the winter position in about mid October
and back to summer position in mid.

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A charge controller monitors the battery's state- Many charge controllers also offer Low Voltage
of-charge to insure that when the battery needs Disconnect (LVD) and Battery Temperature
charge-current it gets it, and also insures the Compensation (BTC) as an optional feature. The
battery isn't over-charged. Connecting a solar LVD feature permits connecting loads to the LVD
panel to a battery without a regulator seriously terminals which are then voltage sensitive. If the
risks damaging the battery and potentially battery voltage drops too far the loads are
causing a safety concern. disconnected - preventing
potential damage to both the battery and the
Charge controllers (or often called charge loads. BTC adjusts the charge rate based on the
regulator) are rated based on the amount of temperature of the battery since batteries are
amperage they can process from a solar array. If sensitive to
a controller is rated at 20 amps it means that you temperature variations above and below about
can connect up to 20 amps of solar panel output 75 F degrees.
current to this one controller. The most advanced
charge controllers utilize a charging principal
referred to as Pulse-Width-Modulation (PWM) - To Load Switched
which insures the most efficient battery charging
and extends the life of the battery.

Even more advanced controllers also include


Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) which
maximizes the amount of current going into the
battery from the solar array by lowering the To Load Always On
panel's output voltage, which increases the
charging amps to the battery - because if a panel From Solar Panel
can produce 60 watts with 17.2 volts and 2#3
amps, then if the voltage is lowered to say 14
volts then the amperage increases to 4#56 (14v
X 4.28 amps = 60 watts) resulting in a 19%
increase in charging amps for this example.

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After you connect the Solar Panels to the input   


  
terminals of the Charge Controller using the
above chart, you can use the same size wire to The batteries are last. They will also require very
connect the Charge Controller output to the large cables like the large battery cables in cars.
batteries since these wires will carry no more The full current to the loads and also the full
current than the solar panel wires and will charging current flow thru the entire battery
probably be located pretty close to the batteries bank. Connect all the batteries with large high
anyway. quality cables. Check out the Battery Wiring
Diagrams tutorial for examples of Series and
      '   Parallel wiring techniques that allow the use of
battery voltages of 2, 4, 6, or 12 volts. Our new
The Power Inverter is next. Both the Power
Battery Bank Designer tool will show you how to
Inverter and the Batteries require the largest
connect the batteries for these various voltage
wires in the system. During operation, the AC
produced by the Power Inverter draws
considerable amps from the batteries. Not only
are very large wires required, but they should not
exceed 6 feet in length to reach the batteries.
These wires are like the large battery cables in
cars. Use the largest size possible. An AC
appliance drawing 10 amps (like a microwave or
vacuum cleaner) will require 100 amps at 12
volts DC. Even large cables will get warm. Don't
skimp here.

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To prevent dangerous overheating or inefficient


 !  
transfer of power, the wires and cables in a solar Learn how to use series and parallel wiring
power system must be correctly sized. A
convenient chart to determine wire size based on techniques to obtain exactly the power and
solar panel power output and the distance voltage you want using 2, 4, 6,or 12 volt
between the solar panels and the batteries. For batteries. Series wiring, parallel wiring and
safety and good performance of your solar using series/parallel combinations show you
power system you will have to use the how to build your battery bank into any
appropriate size wires when connecting the
components of your system.

+   - +  
This tutorial explains the importance of
monitoring your solar energy system. With the
included voltage chart, you can easily determine
the basic level of charge on your batteries using
just a simple voltmeter. Taking proper care of
your batteries will ensure good system
performance

    7  
This tutorial is a little more advanced, but
explains more about voltage, current, power, and
Ohm's Law. Find out about the relationship
between AC amps and DC amps. The
importance of energy conservation for a solar
power system is also covered.

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The Deep Cycle batteries used are designed to be


During planning, all of these factors are looked at, and discharged and then re-charged hundreds or thousands
the one requiring the largest capacity will dictate the of times. These batteries are rated in Amp Hours (ah) -
battery size. One of the biggest mistakes made by those usually at 20 hours and 100 hours. Simply stated, amp
just starting out is not understanding the relationship hours refers to the amount of current - in amps - which
between amps and amp-hour requirements of 120 volt can be supplied by the battery over the period of hours.
AC items versus the effects on their DC low voltage
batteries. For example, say you have a 24 volt nominal
system and an inverter powering a load of 3 amps, For example, a 350ah battery could supply 17.5
120VAC, which has a duty cycle of 4 hours per day. You continuous amps over 20 hours or 35 continuous amps
would have a 12 amp hour load (3A X 4 hrs=12 ah). for 10 hours. To quickly express the total watts
However, in order to determine the true drain on your potentially available in a 6 volt 360ah battery; 360ah
batteries you have to divide your nominal battery voltage times the nominal 6 volts equals 2160 watts or 2.16kWh
(24v) into the voltage of the load (120v), which is 3, and (kilowatt-hours).
then multiply this times your
Like solar panels, batteries are wired in series and/or
120vac amp hours (3 x J5 ). So in this case the parallel to increase voltage to the desired level and
calculation would be 8    drained from your increase amp hours.
batteries - not the 12 ah. Another simple way is to take
the total 9  of your 120VAC device and divide The battery should have sufficient amp hour capacity to
by nominal system voltage. supply needed power during the longest expected
period "no sun" or extremely cloudy conditions. A lead-
Using the above example; 3 amps x 120 volts x 4 hours acid battery should be sized at least 20% larger than
= 1440 watt-hours divided by 24 DC volts = 60 amp this amount. If there is a source of back-up power, such
hours. Lead-acid batteries are the most common in PV as a standby generator along with a battery charger, the
systems because their initial cost is lower and because battery bank does not have to be sized for worst case
they are readily available nearly everywhere in the world. weather conditions. The size of the battery bank
There are many different sizes and designs of lead-acid required will depend on the storage capacity required,
batteries, but the most important designation is that they the maximum discharge rate, the maximum charge rate,
are deep cycle batteries. Lead-acid batteries are and the minimum temperature at which the batteries will
available in both wet-cell (requires maintenance) and be used.
sealed no-maintenance versions. AGM and Gel-cell
deep-cycle batteries are also popular because they are
maintenance free and they last a lot longer.

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Wiring up your battery bank. Use 2, 4, 6, or 12


volt batteries to build a system voltage of 12,
24, or 48 volts using series and parallel wiring
with just 4 clicks. Battery bank capacities from
300 Amp/Hours to over 4000 Amp/Hours

‡AWG (American Wire Gauge)


Based on the distance to your solar panel array
& the amount of amperage your panels put out.
Configurations are possible for Amp/Hour
capacities from as little as 300 Amp/Hours to
over 4000.

To use the Designer, follow these 4 simple


steps : Click 2, 4, 6, or 12 volt batteries to build
your Battery
1.Battery Bank.
2. Select the closest Amp/Hour rating for 1
Battery.
3. Choose your System Battery Bank voltage.
(your inverter input voltage)
4. Select the size of the Battery Bank capacity
in Amp/Hours.

To determine the Amp/Hour capacity you will


need, use System Sizing Estimator which will
calculate the Amp/Hour capacity of your battery
bank and also the number of solar panels
required.

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Configurations are possible for AmpHour


capacities from as little as 300 AmpHours to over
4000. To use the Designer, follow these 4 simple
steps :
1.Battery Bank. Batteries come in various
individual sizes. They can be connected to
increase the system voltage.
2. Select the closest Amp/Hour rating for 1
battery.
To determine the total Amp/Hour capacity of
your battery bank you must use the rating for 1
battery.
3. Choose your System Battery Bank voltage.
(your inverter input voltage) The System Voltage
is the combined voltage of the entire battery
bank.
The Solar Panels, the Charge Controller, and the
Inverter will all use this voltage.
4. Select the size of the Battery Bank capacity in
Amp/Hours.This is the total capacity required to
run your solar energy system.

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    (  / ) /  )+   
! 
1  
Without batteries to store energy you would only have power when
the sun was shining or the generator was running. This tutorial The next 3 types are the heavier industrial type batteries.
describes the 4 basic types of batteries & provides some good tips They are all also considered Deep Cycle and are usually Lead
on the care & feeding of your batteries tomaximize their performance Acid types with much thicker internal plates that can withstand
and life. many deep discharge cycles. These next 3 are all designed for
alternative energy systems.
1) RV / Marine / Golf Cart : RV or Marine type deep cycle batteries 2) Flooded types : These are Lead acid batteries that have caps to add
are basically for boats & campers and are suitable for only very water. Many manufacturers make these types for Solar Energy use.
small systems. They can be used but do not really have the capacity Trojan, Surrette, and Deka are probably the most well known. They are
for continous service with many charge/discharge cycles for many reasonably priced and work well for many years. All flooded batteries
years. Regular or Car type batteries should not be used at all release gas when charged and should not be used indoors. If installed
because they cannot be discharged very much without internal in an enclosure, a venting system should be used to vent out the gases
damage. A very popular battery for small systems is the Golf Cart which can be explosive.
battery.
3) Gel : Not to be confused with maintenance free batteries, sealed gel
They are somewhat more expensive than deep cycle recreational batteries have no vents and will not release gas during the charging
batteries but are probably the least expensive choice for a small process like flooded batteries do. Venting is therefore not required and
system on a budget. they can be used indoors. This is a big advantage because it allows the
batteries to maintain a more constant temperature and perform better.

4) AGM : Absorbed Glass Mat batteries are in my opinion the best


available for Solar Power use. A woven glass mat is used between the
plates to hold the electrolyte. They are leak/spill proof, do not out gas
when charging, and have superior performance. They have all the
advantages of the sealed gel types and are higher quality, maintain
voltage better, self discharge slower, and last longer. The Sun Xtender
series by Concorde Battery is an excellent example of AGM batteries.

They are more expensive, but you usually get what you pay for. You
will find this type of battery used in airplanes, hospitals, and remote
telephone/cell tower installations.

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  ( 
As a technician, I used to say that if you are not comfortable,
then neither is your equipment. I was mostly referring to
temperature and humidity. In fact battery capacity ratings are
usually specified at 77 degrees F. As batteries get colder
their voltage drops and performance suffers.

This is one major reason I prefer AGM batteries


because they can be stored indoors where the temperatures
vary less. Another important thing to consider is how deeply
you discharge your batteries. This is known as the DOD
(depth of discharge). In other words, how low you let the
voltage drop before the next charge cycle. Most battery
ratings talk about 50% or so, but they will last longer if you
keep them as charged as possible. I like the 70% range.

Lead acid batteries like to be fully charged. They will last


much longer if you do not discharge them too deeply. This is
known as shallow cycling and greatly extends their life.
However, they can withstand discharges down to 20% or so,
but I wouldn't do it too often

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To connect the components of a Solar Energy System, you


will need to use correct wire sizes to ensure low loss of
energy and to prevent overheating and possible damage
or even fire. Below is a chart showing the equired wire size
for wire lengths to connect the solar panels to the Charge
Controller.

Use these numbers for a 12 volt system to achieve a 3% or


less voltage drop.

The top row represents the Wire gauge size, the left
column the number of amps the solar panels are rated at,
and the grid cells show the distances in feet between the
Solar Panels and the Charge Controller.

This chart shows wire distances for a 3% voltage drop or


less.

These distances are calculated for a 12 volt system.


Multiply distances by 2 for a 24 volt system. Multiply
distances by 4 for a 48 volt system.

&$ : This chart is an approximate distance reference


and is a little conservative. For a much more accurate wire
sizing, use our new Wire Size Calculator tool. It can
calculate wire size using 3%, 4%, or 5% losses plus you
can select 12, 24, or 48 volt systems.

a centre for application of renewable energy preparation by s.r.kushero


|    

 %   J5          

:J5 :J  :6 :8 :4 :2 :5 :J :J :5 

4 55#; 28#2 3;#6 <J#8 J48 J64 525 5<5 28< 483
8 J3#5 54#5 26#8 8J#J <;#4 J55 J33 J<3 548 2J 
6 JJ#4 J6#5 56#< 43#6 ;2#J <J#6 JJ8 J48 J64 522
J  <#JJ4#3 52#J 28#; 36#4 ;2#3 <5#6 JJ; J46 J68
J5 ;#8J5#J J<#2 2 #8 46#; 8J#5 ;;#2 <;#4 J52 J33
J4 8#3J #4 J8#3 58#5 4J#; 35#3 88#2 62#3 J 3 J22
J8 3#; <#J J4#3 55#< 28#3 43#< 36#  ;2#  <5#  JJ8
J6 3#J 6#J J5#< 5 #4 25#3 4 #6 3J#8 84#< 6J#< J 2
5  4#8 ;#2 JJ#8 J6#2 5<#5 28#; 48#4 36#4 ;2#6 <2#J
53 2#8 3#6 <#2 J4#; 52#4 5<#4 2;#J 48#6 3<#J ;4#3
2  2#J 4#6 ;#; J5#5 J<#3 54#3 2 #< 26#< 4<#5 85#J
23 5#8 4#5 8#8 J #3 J8#; 5 #< 58#3 22#4 45#5 32#5
4  5#2 2#8 3#6 <#5 J4#8 J6#4 52#5 5<#5 28#< 48#3

If you have 3 solar panels rated at 6 amps each, mounted 30 feet from the Charge Controller, then you would move down the
chart to 18 amps (3 panels * 6 amps), and across to 32.5 (closest to 30), and then up the chart to #4. You would need at
least #4 gauge wire (awg) to move 18 amps 30 feet with a minimum voltage drop of 3% or less, an acceptable loss. If you
can't find the exact numbers, choose either a larger gauge wire (smaller number) or select a distance longer than your actual
distance.

a centre for application of renewable energy preparation by s.r.kushero


|   '  

An inverter is a device which changes DC power stored Motors and power supplies usually run warmer and less
in a battery to standard 120/240 VAC electricity (also efficiently on mod-sine wave power. Some things, like
referred to as 110/220). Most solar power systems fans, amplifiers, and cheap fluorescent lights, give off an
generate DC current which is stored in batteries. audible buzz on modified sine wave power. However,
modified sine wave inverters make the conversion from
DC to AC very efficiently. They are relatively
Nearly all lighting, appliances, motors, etc., are designed inexpensive, and many of the electrical devices we use
to use ac power, so it takes an inverter to make the every day work fine on them.
switch from battery-stored DC to standard power (120
VAC, 60 Hz).
Sine wave inverters can virtually operate anything. Your
utility company provides sine wave power, so a sine
In an inverter, direct current (DC) is switched back and wave inverter is equal to or even better than utility
forth to produce alternating current (AC). Then it is supplied power. A sine wave inverter can "clean up"
transformed, filtered, stepped, etc. to get it to an
acceptable output waveform. The more processing, the utility or generator supplied power because of its internal
cleaner and quieter the output, but the lower the processing. Inverters are made with various internal
efficiency of the conversion. The goal becomes to features and many permit external equipment interface.
produce a waveform that is acceptable to all loads Common internal features are internal battery chargers
without sacrificing too much power into the conversion which can rapidly charge batteries when an AC source
process. such as a generator or utility power is connected to the
inverter's INPUT terminals. Auto-transfer switching is
also a common internal feature which enables switching
Inverters come in two basic output designs - sine wave from either one AC source to another and/or from utility
and modified sine wave. Most 120VAC devices can use power to inverter power for designated loads.
the modified sine wave, but there are some notable
exceptions. Devices such as laser printers which use
triacs and/or silicon controlled rectifiers are damaged Battery temperature compensation, internal relays to
when provided mod-sine wave power. control loads, automatic remote generator starting /
stopping and many other programmable features are
available. Most inverters produce 120VAC, but can be
equipped with a step-up transformer to produce
120/240VAC. Some inverters can be series or parallel
"stacked-interfaced" to produce 120/240VAC or to
increase the available amperage.

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|   $    '  

|7 '    '   

This is the least expensive and least desirable


Unless you plan on using battery power for type. The square wave it produces is inefficient
everything, you will need a Power Inverter. Since and is hard on many types of equipment. These
the majority of modern conveniences all run on inverters are usually fairly inexpensive, 500 watts
220 volts AC, the Power Inverter will be the heart or less, and use an automotive cigarette lighter
of your Solar Energy System. It not only converts plug-in. Don't even consider one of these types
the low voltage DC to the 220 volts AC that runs of power inverters for a home system.
most appliances, but also can charge the
batteries if connected to the utility grid or a AC + %  | '    '   
Generator as in the case of a totally independent
This is probably the most popular and
stand-alone solar power system.
economical type of power inverter. It produces
an AC waveform somewhere between a square
wave and a pure sine wave. Modified Sine Wave
inverters, sometimes called Quasi-Sine Wave
inverters are not real expensive and work well in
all but the most demanding applications and
even most computers work well with a Modified
Sine Wave inverter. However, there are
exceptions. Some appliances that use motor
speed controls or that use timers may not work
quite right with a Modified Sine Wave inverter.
And since more and more consumer products
are using speed controls & timers, I would only
recommend this type of inverter for smaller
installations such as a camping cabin.

a centre for application of renewable energy preparation by s.r.kushero


|   $    '  

$ | '    '    ) $    '  


If you are connected to normal Utility company power
A True Sine Wave power inverter produces the closest to and just want to add some Free Sun Power electricity to
a pure sine wave of all power inverters and in many reduce your electric bill and you do not need a totally
cases produces cleaner power than the utility company independent system, it is possible that a Grid Tie power
itself. It will run practically any type of AC equipment and inverter will suit your needs. With a Grid Tie power
is also the most expensive. Many True Sine Wave power inverter, whatever electricity that your solar panels
inverters are computer controlled and will automatically produce will reduce the amount supplied by the utility
turn on and off as AC loads ask for service. I believe they company, in effect lowering your bill. And, if you are
are well worth the extra cost. I use a True Sine Wave producing more power than you are using, you can
power inverter myself and find that its automatic actually   the extra power back to the utility company!
capabilities makes it seem more like Utility Company For this type of setup a much smaller battery bank can
power. The Xantrex 2500 watt power inverter be installed just to cover short term outages from a few
minutes to an hour or two. In fact, if you don't have
I use has a search feature and checks every couple of frequent long term power outages and don't need back-
seconds for anything that wants AC, then it powers up up power, then you will not need any batteries at all.
automatically. You just flick on a light switch (or (But, really, what utility company never fails? :)
whatever) and it works. When you turn off the light or the
refrigerator kicks off for example, the power inverter
shuts down to save battery power.

While the Modified Sine Wave inverter (sometimes called


a Quasi Sine Wave inverter) is nearly half the price of a
True Sine Wave inverter, I would still recommend using a
True Sine Wave inverter if you want to supply automatic
power to a normal home using a wide variety of electrical
devices. Also, most appliances run more efficiently and
use less power with a True Sine Wave inverter as
opposed to a Modified Sine Wave power inverter.

a centre for application of renewable energy preparation by s.r.kushero


|   $    '  

   '      #


The Power Inverter is connected directly to the The main consideration when deciding on the
batteries and the ain AC breaker panel to supply input voltage (from your battery bank) of your
power from the batteries to the loads Inverter is the distance between your solar panel
appliances). Check out Wires & Cables for more array and your battery bank. The higher the
info on the necessary wire size for installing one voltage, the lower the current and the smaller the
or use our new Wire Size Calculator. The Power (expensive) cables need to be. Of course, when
Inverter converts the low oltage DC to 220 volts you decide on a system voltage, the Solar
AC. Power Inverters are available for use on 12, Panels, Inverter, and Battery Bank all need to
24, or 48 volt battery bank configurations. Most use the same voltage. More detailed information
Power Inverters can also charge the batteries if on voltage & current is explained in the tutorial
connected to the AC line. Alternatively, the AC on Power & Watts. To help decide on which
line input could be your own AC Generator in the voltage to use, check out our Wire Size
case of a stand-alone solar power system. When Calculator which can tell you what size wire is
using a AC Generator to charge the batteries, needed to connect the solar panels to your
equipment area. You can try all 3 different
voltages to see the change that it can make in
the Power Inverter transfers the AC Generator
wire size.
power to the loads via a relay. This way the AC
Generator not only charges the batteries but also
'  #|   J5/54/ 46' 
supplies your AC power while it is running. If
'  
your Generator is at least 5000 watts, you can
charge your batteries and have extra AC power
at the same time.

a centre for application of renewable energy preparation by s.r.kushero


|   $    '  

Two inverters can be installed in a configuration


known as stacking that can provide more power
or higher voltage. If two compatible inverters are
stacked in áerieá you can double the output
voltage. This would be the technique to use to
provide 220/240 volts AC. On the other hand, if
you configure them in arallel, you can double
your power. Two 4000 watt inverters in parallel
would give you 8000 watts (8KW) of Electricity

For a small system on a budget, a 2000 to 3000


watt Modified Sine Wave power inverter will do
the job for around Rs.2200 to Rs.1500. Expect to
pay up to Rs.1000 more for a True Sine Wave
power inverter if you want to be able to run
anything and have the automatic features. These
higher quality Power Inverters are computer
controlled and once set-up, can control your 220
volts AC, battery charging, and even auto-start
compatible AC Generators; all automatically. If
your goal is to provide real home power, A True
Sine Wave inverter is really your best choice.
The extra cost, in the long run, is a good
investment in performance and reliability. For a '  |= '  
small seasonal use cabin, a Modified Sine Wave
inverter would probably do the job.

a centre for application of renewable energy preparation by s.r.kushero


|       

  !      1  


>  
This will depend on how much electricity
you are going to need and how many days
you plan to be able to run on just battery
power alone (no sun at all). To assist you
in determining the size system you will
need, our System Sizing Estimator will
help you calculate the number of solar
panels you'll need and what size battery
bank is required. We also provide a
Battery Bank Designer tool to show you
how to wire your battery bank for a 12, 24,
or 48 volt system.

  %    1    


     %%    

The Wires & Cables tutorial covers this


question and provides a handy chart to
calculate the required wire sizes based on
the voltage of your system and the
distances between components. Also, our
new Wire Size Calculator tool will
calculate wires sizes for you.

a centre for application of renewable energy preparation by s.r.kushero


|   |   !  % 

|! |?  5#J  2#J3  4#5  3#53 


)   @*Day/KW A 8 - 10 12 -16 16 - 21 20 -25
)   @BAnnual/Kw) 2,900 - 3,690 4,300 - 5,100 5,800 - 6,500 7,300 ± 8
| +   175watts (12) 175watts (18) 175watts(24) 75watts (30)
'   2500 3300 3800 5000A

*KWh

This small energy efficient home uses


Solar Panels (6nos) * 80 W
Charge Controller 60 amp
Inverter 2500W Puresine wave
Batteries. (15 nos)* 105 AH

a centre for application of renewable energy preparation by s.r.kushero


|   |   !  % 

|! |?  5#J8  2#54  4#25  3# 4 

)   kWh/Day 8 -10 12 - 16 16 - 21 20 -25


)   kWh/annum 2,900 -3,690 4,300 - 5,100 5,800 - 6,500 7,300 - 8000
| +  @A Mono 180 Mono 180 Mono 180 Mono 180
(x 12) (x 18) (x 24) (x 30)
'  2500 2500 3300 4500 5000A

3#4C

2#5C

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|  

a centre for application of renewable energy preparation by s.r.kushero


|   , ) 1  '   

a centre for application of renewable energy preparation by s.r.kushero


|   ) 1|   '   

 
%%  %%  $  +  ! ( 9$%%
!      
    5 ;     =G
   # # 5 ; $ 
D D E E F

World 127.9 2,130 2,258 662.3 7,178 7,841 2.5±11.2 800±2,902 0±59.3

Germany 35 1,100 1,135 35 3,827 3,862 46.8 4.0±5.3 1,000±1,300[28] 51.8±56.8

Japan[29][27] 1.562 208.8 210.4 90.15 1,829 1,919 15 2.96 1,200±1,600 Ended(2005)

United States 55 151.5 206.5 325 505.5 830.5 2.8 2.98 900±2,150[28] 1.2±31.04(CA)

Spain] 22 490 512 29.8 625.2 655 15.1 3.0±4.5 1,600±2,200 18.38±44.04

Italy 0.3 69.9 70.2 13.1 107.1 120.2 2.1 3.2±3.6 1,400±2,200 36.0±49.0

Australia 5.91 6.28 12.19 66.45 16.04 82.49 4.1 4.5±5.4 1,450±2,902[33] 0±26.4(SA'08)

South Korea 0 42.87 42.87 5.943 71.66 77.60 1.6 3.50±3.84 1,500±1,600 56.5±59.3

France 0.993 30.31 31.30 22.55 52.68 75.23 1.2 3.2±5.1 1,100±2,000 30.0±55.0

Netherland 0.582 1.023 1.605 5.3 48 53.3 3.3 3.3±4.5 1,000±1,200 1.21±9.7

Switzerland 0.2 6.3 6.5 3.6 32.6 36.2 4.9 3.18±3.30 1,200±2,000 9.53±50.8

Austria 0.055 2.061 2.116 3.224 24.48 27.70 3.4 3.6±4.3 1,200±2,000 >0

Canada[ 3.888 1.403 5.291 22.86 2.911 25.78 0.8 3.76 900±1,750 0±29.48(ON)

Mexico] 0.869 0.15 1.019 20.45 0.3 20.75 0.2 5.44±6.42 1,700±2,600 None

United Kingdom 0.16 3.65 3.81 1.47 16.62 18.09 0.3 3.67±5.72 900±1,300 0±11.74(exprt)

Portugal 0.2 14.25 14.45 2.841 15.03 17.87 1.7 1,600±2,200

Norway 0.32 0.004 0.324 7.86 0.132 7.992 1.7 11.2 800±950 None

Sweden 0.271 1.121 1.392 4.566 1.676 6.242 0.7 3.24±7.02 900±1,050 None

Denmark 0.05 0.125 0.175 0.385 2.69 3.075 0.6 5.36±8.04 900±1,100 None

Israel 0.5 0 0.5 1.794 0.025 1.819 0.3 4.3 2,200±2,400 13.13±16.40

a centre for application of renewable energy preparation by s.r.kushero


|   !1

 !!1$  !    ! '  

The energy payback time is the time required to produce an amount of energy as great as what was
consumed during production. The energy payback time is determined from a life cycle analysis of
energy.

Another key indicator of environmental performance, tightly related to the energy payback time, is
the ratio of electricity generated divided by the energy required to build and maintain the equipment.
This ratio is called the energy returned on energy invested (EROEI). Of course, little is gained if it
takes as much energy to produce the modules as they produce in their lifetimes.

This should not be confused with the economic return on investment, which varies according to local
energy prices, subsidies available and metering techniques. Life-cycle analyses show that the
energy intensity of typical solar photovoltaic technologies is rapidly evolving. In 2000 the energy
payback time was estimated as 8 to 11 years[75], but more recent studies suggest that technological
progress has reduced this to 1.5 to 3.5 years for crystalline silicon PV systems

Thin film technologies now have energy pay-back times in the range of 1-1.5 years (S.EuropeWith
lifetimes of such systems of at least 30 years, the EROEI is in the range of 10 to 30.

They thus generate enough energy over their lifetimes to reproduce themselves many times (6-31
reproductions, the EROEI is a bit lower) depending on what type of material, balance of system (or
BOS), and the geographic location of the system.

a centre for application of renewable energy preparation by s.r.kushero


|   '    ' 5 ! %     

Paisa per kilowatt-hour of electricity generated by a photovoltaic system as function of the investment cost and the efficiency,
assuming some accounting parameters such as cost of capital and depreciation period. The row headings on the left show the
total cost, per peak kilowatt (kWp), of a photovoltaic installation.
$ column headings across the top refer to the annual energy output in kilowatt-hours expected from each installed peak
kilowatt. This varies by geographic region because the average insolation depends on the average cloudiness and the thickness
of atmosphere traversed by the sunlight. It also depends on the path of the sun relative to the panel and the horizon.
  can be mounted at an angle based on latitude, which can add to total energy output.[65] Solar tracking can also be
utilized to access even more perpendicular sunlight, thereby raising the total energy output. The calculated values in the table
reflect the total cost in Paisa per kilowatt-hour produced. They assume a 10% total capital cost (for instance 4% interest rate, 1%
operating and maintenance cost, and depreciation of the capital outlay over 20 years).

54 55 5 J6 J8 J4 J5 J 6
 H H H      
! ! ! H! H! H! H! H! H!
10000 Rs/kWp 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.3 1.4 1.7 2.0 2.5
30000 Rs/kWp 2.5 2.7 3.0 3.3 3.8 4.3 5.0 6.0 7.5
50000 Rs/kWp 4.2 4.5 5.0 5.6 6.3 7.1 8.3 10.0 12.5
70000 Rs/kWp 5.8 6.4 7.0 7.8 8.8 10.0 11.7 14.0 17.5
90000 Rs/kWp 7.5 8.2 9.0 10.0 11.3 12.9 15.0 18.0 22.5
110000 Rs/kWp 9.2 10.0 11.0 12.2 13.8 15.7 18.3 22.0 27.5
130000 Rs/kWp 10.8 11.8 13.0 14.4 16.3 18.6 21.7 26.0 32.5
150000 Rs/kWp 12.5 13.6 15.0 16.7 18.8 21.4 25.0 30.0 37.5
170000 Rs/kWp 14.2 15.5 17.0 18.9 21.3 24.3 28.3 34.0 42.5
190000 Rs/kWp 15.8 17.3 19.0 21.1 23.8 27.1 31.7 38.0 47.5
210000 Rs/kWp 17.5 19.1 21.0 23.3 26.3 30.0 35.0 42.0 52.5
230000 Rs/kWp 19.2 20.9 23.0 25.6 28.8 32.9 38.3 46.0 57.5
250000 Rs/kWp 20.8 22.7 25.0 27.8 31.3 35.7 41.7 50.0 62.5

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|     

a centre for application of renewable energy preparation by s.r.kushero


|   '   

Unlike fossil fuel based technologies, solar power does not lead to any harmful
emissions during operation, but the production of the panels leads to some amount
of pollution. This is often referred to as the energy input to output ratio. In some
analysis, if the energy input to produce it is higher than the output it produces it
can be considered environmentally more harmful than beneficial.

Also, placement of photovoltaics affects the environment. If they are located where
photosynthesizing plants would normally grow, they simply substitute one
potentially renewable resource (biomass) for another

It should be noted, however, that the biomass cycle converts áolar radiation
energy to electrical energy (plants make electricity? check again) with significantly
less efficiency than photovoltaic cells alone. And if they are placed on the sides of
buildings (such as in Manchester) or fences, or rooftops (as long as plants would
not normally be placed there), or in the desert they are purely additive to the
renewable power base.

a centre for application of renewable energy preparation by s.r.kushero


|   )    

Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions are now in the range of 25-32 g/kWh and
this could decrease to 15 g/kWh in the future

For comparison, a combined cycle gas-fired power plant emits some 400 g/kWh
and a coal-fired power plant 915 g/kWh and with carbon capture and storage
some 200 g/kWh.

Only nuclear power and wind are better, emitting 6-25 g/kWh and 11 g/kWh on
average. Using renewable energy sources in manufacturing and transportation
would further drop photovoltaic emissions.

a centre for application of renewable energy preparation by s.r.kushero


|   

One issue that has often raised concerns is the use of cadmium in cadmium
telluride solar cells (CdTe is only used in a few types of PV panels). Cadmium in
its metallic form is a toxic substance that has the tendency to accumulate in
ecological food chains.

The amount of cadmium used in thin-film PV modules is relatively small (5-10


g/m²) and with proper emission control techniques in place the cadmium
emissions from module production can be almost zero. Current PV technologies
lead to cadmium emissions of 0.3-0.9 microgram/kWh over the whole life-
cycle.[74] Most of these emissions actually arise through the use of coal power
for the manufacturing of the modules, and coal and lignite combustion leads to
much higher emissions of cadmium.

Life-cycle cadmium emissions from coal is 3.1 microgram/kWh, lignite 6.2, and
natural gas 0.2 microgram/kWh. Note that if electricity produced by photovoltaic
panels were used to manufacture the modules instead of electricity from
burning coal, cadmium emissions from coal power usage in the manufacturing
process could be entirely eliminated

a centre for application of renewable energy preparation by s.r.kushero


|   ' 

1. Cost may not cover lifespan savings unless a preferential feed-in tariff is offered
by the grid network. But this depends on location and energy prices.

2. Solar electricity is often initially more expensive than electricity generated by other
sources.

3. Solar electricity is not available at night and is less available in cloudy weather
conditions from conventional silicon based technologies. Therefore, a storage or
complementary power system is required. However, the use of germanium in
amorphous silicon-germanium thin film solar cells provides residual power
generating capacity at night due to background infrared radiation.

4. Limited power density: Average daily insolation in the contiguous U.S. is 3-7 and
on average lower in Europe.

5. Solar cells produce DC which must be converted to AC (using a grid tie inverter)
when used in currently existing distribution grids. This incurs an energy loss of 4-
12%.

a centre for application of renewable energy preparation by s.r.kushero


|   ' 

1. The 89 petawatts of sunlight reaching the earth's surface is plentiful - almost 6,000
times more than the 15 terawatts of average power consumed by humans.
Additionally, solar electric generation has the highest power density (global mean of
170 W/m²) among renewable energies.

2. Solar power is pollution free during use. Production end wastes and emissions are
manageable using existing pollution controls. End-of-use recycling technologies are
under development.

3. Facilities can operate with little maintenance or intervention after initial setup.

4. Solar electric generation is economically superior where grid connection or fuel


transport is difficult, costly or impossible. Examples include satellites, island
communities, remote locations and ocean vessels.

a centre for application of renewable energy preparation by s.r.kushero


|   ' 

5. When grid-connected, solar electric generation can displace the highest cost
electricity during times of peak demand (in most climatic regions), can reduce grid
loading, and can eliminate the need for local battery power for use in times of
darkness and high local demand; such application is encouraged by net metering.
Time-of-use net metering can be highly favorable to small photovoltaic systems.

6. Grid-connected solar electricity can be used locally thus reducing


transmission/distribution losses (transmission losses were approximately 7.2% in
1995).

7. Once the initial capital cost of building a solar power plant has been spent,
operating costs are extremely low compared to existing power technologies.

8. Compared to fossil and nuclear energy sources, very little research-money has
been invested in the development of solar cells, so there is much room for
improvement. Nevertheless, experimental high efficiency solar cells already have
efficiencies of over 40% and efficiencies are rapidly rising while mass production
costs are rapidly falling.

a centre for application of renewable energy preparation by s.r.kushero


|     '    

1. Some universities and institutes which have a photovoltaics research department.


2. Solar Energy Materials Research Group (http://emat-solar.lbl.gov/) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
3. The Center for Functional Nanomaterials (http://www.bnl.gov/cfn/) at Brookhaven National Laboratory
4. Solar Energy Laboratory (http://www.soton.ac.uk/~solar) at University of Southampton
5. National Renewable Energy Laboratory NREL (http://www.nrel.gov)
6. Energy & Environmental Technology Application Center (http://www.e2tac.org/) at the College of Nanoscale Science
and Engineering SUNY at Albany
7. Institut für Solare Energiesysteme ISE (http://www.ise.fhg.de) at the Fraunhofer Institute
8. Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN) (http://www.ecn.nl/en/zon/)
9. Imperial College London: Experimental Solid State Physics (http://www.imperial.ac.uk/research/exss/)
10. Instituto de Energía Solar (http://www.ies.upm.es/) , at Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (http://www.upm.es/)
11. Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology (http://www.lboro.ac.uk/departments/el/research/crest/) , at
Loughborough University (http://www.lboro.ac.uk)
12. School of Photovoltaic and Renewable Energy Engineering at The University of New South Wales
13. Centre for Sustainable Energy Systems (http://solar.anu.edu.au) at the Australian National University
14. Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (http://www.epfl.ch/) Prof. Graetzel invented dye sensitized cells here
15. Advanced Energy Systems (http://www.hut.fi/Units/AES) at Helsinki University of Technology
16. Institute of Materials Research, Salford University (http://www.imr.salford.ac.uk/)
17. The Centre for Electronic Devices and Materials (http://www.shu.ac.uk/research/meri/electronic/) at Sheffield Hallam
University
18. The Centre for Advanced Investigations on Electric Engineering (http://www.sees.cinvestav.mx/) at The National Polytechnic
Institute of Mexico
19. The Solar Caliometry Lab (http://me.queensu.ca/people/harrison/research/solar/index.htm) at Queen's University
20. Institute of microtechnology (http://www2.unine.ch/pv) at University of Neuchatel Switzerland (http://www2.unine.ch)
21. University of Konstanz (http://www.uni-konstanz.de/photovoltaics/)
22. Arizona State University Photovoltaic Testing Laboratory (http://www.poly.asu.edu/ptl/)
23. Institute of Energy Conversion (http://www.udel.edu/iec) at University of Delaware (http://www.udel.edu)
24. World Alliance for Decentralized Energy (http://www.localpower.org)
25. Florida Solar Energy Center at University of Central Florida (http://www.ucf.edu)
26. Linz Institute for Organic Solar Cells (LIOS) (http://www.lios.at)

a centre for application of renewable energy preparation by s.r.kushero


|  

This Solar Home runs a freezer, computer, 27 inch color


tv, microwave, and assorted other lights and devices. In
the winter I run my generator for 45 to 60 minutes per
day to charge the batteries up to about 90%. Since
some winter days are sunny, the generator is not used
every day.

For a small to medium sized Solar Energy System, a 4KW to


7KW watt generator will work nicely. The price range is Rs.
50,000 to 200,000 depending on brand & features. You can
spend much more on Auto-Start capability, diesel fueled, or
propane fueled generators but I believe only large systems
would make these generators economical.Although you can
buy a 7000 watt model with electric start at Home Depot for
Rs. 300,000 and after almost 5 years of use, realize it is bigger
than your need. Still, it's nice to have the extra power.

a centre for application of renewable energy preparation by s.r.kushero


|   ( 7 !  "  

          %       ?  !   


    The best indicator for sizing a PV system is your
The electrical outputs of PV cells are specified for a historical electrical usage, or the number of kilowatt
given temperature (usually +25C). The behaviour when hours (kWh) you consume each year. It is especially
the temperature rises above or falls below the optimum important to determine an annual average for your kWh
given by the manufacturer depends upon the physical usage, because many families experience seasonal
properties of the photovoltaic material used. As a general spikes in usage. This average gives you a starting point
rule, the output will drop. For precise information on a for comparing the energy output of various systems.
particular cell or module, see the manufacturer's data
sheet.     +  
If you take the AC output of your inverter and run it to the
 
      '  mains coming from your utility power meter, any excess
BIPV or 'Building Integrated PhotoVoltaics' is an industry power you generate will feed back into the utility grid and
buzz phrase, which indicates photovoltaic modules drive your power meter backwards. This is called Net
integrated into various construction materials. Solar roof Metering. Effectively, you will be paid the going retail
tiles are an example. Similar combination materials can price for your electricity up to the amount of energy you
be used on any other well illuminated surface. use per billing period. Any excess energy you generate
will be credited at a lower rate, or perhaps not at all.
   |  $ 
A Solar Tracker is a device which aims a solar panel In many countries, all PV electricity generated is
directly at the sun in order to maximize energy output. purchased by the utility company at a rate higher than
The mechanisms for achieving this can be as varied as the tariff applied for consumed electricity. In this case, a
human ingenuity allows. dedicated metering exists for PV generation, plus a
second metering for domestic consumption. Each applies
different tariffs. So, in this case, not only the excess
   %    >   electricity is remunerated, but so too is the total amount
Your PV system will continue to produce electricity of PV production.
during cloudy weather at a slower rate. At night or during
inclement weather, additional electricity is provided to
your home through your utility connection.

a centre for application of renewable energy preparation by s.r.kushero


|  
( 7 !  "  
   .     ! 1  ! !
Electric utilities in many countries give retail credit to solar customers          !   
who feed excess solar electricity back to the power grid. Known as Solar electric systems use PV technology to convert sunlight into
"net metering," this utility policy is implemented by letting your
electric meter spin backwards when you feed excess electricity into electricity during daylight hours. If your home or office requires more
the grid. In many countries, all PV electricity generated is purchased electricity than can be provided by your PV system, the balance is
by the utility company at a rate higher than the tariff applied for provided through your utility connection.
consumed electricity. In this case, a dedicated metering exists for PV
generation, plus a second metering for domestic consumption. Each
applies different tariffs. So, in this case, not only is the excess >   ! . ' 
electricity remunerated, but so too is the total amount of PV No. The cost of PV technology has dropped dramatically in the past
production. ten years and, thanks to government incentives or subsidies, a PV
system may be your most cost-effective power solution.
  !       !  '   1  
No. Batteries are only essential if you want 'back-up' power in the          ! 
case of a utility outage. Otherwise, your grid connected PV system
will send any excess generated electricity back to the utility, using Grid connected means that your system is connected to the utility
the utility grid (rather than batteries) as the storage medium. lines, or the "grid". A grid connected PV system is designed to meet
all, or a portion of your daily energy needs. This connection enables
   '   you to obtain the balance of your electricity from your local utility. It
also allows you to send excess solar electricity back to your power
An electrical device which converts direct current [DC] to alternating company for later use.
current [AC]. Solar cells produce a direct current. Unfortunately,
most of the electrical devices we commonly use expect a standard
AC power supply. An inverter takes the DC from the solar cells and  ! ' !   /  !      
creates a useable form of AC. Besides doing this, an inverter may
also be connected to the electric grid and/or a battery backup Photovoltaic systems allow you to lock your electricity rates at
system. today's prices. With fossil fuels likely to become more expensive in
the future, purchasing a PV system today is a smart economic move.
         !    19   In some countries, there is the possibility of enjoying feed-in tariffs,
  !      or investment incentives. PV systems also offer greater self-
A grid connected PV system can continue to provide electricity to sufficiency, reduce dependence on imported oil and are far better for
your home during an outage if it has an inverter and batteries. the environment than power from conventional power plants.

    '     !       1   


Solar electric systems use a technology called photovoltaics, or PV, PV has been used as the primary source of electricity on satellites
that converts sunlight into electricity. PV cells are made from since the 1950s. Since the 1970s, PV has been used more and more
semiconductive material, usually silicon. They are silent and non- for "earth-based" applications as costs declined tenfold. Today, the
polluting, utilise a source of energy that renews itself, and require no PV industry is a billion dollar per year industry with primary markets
special training to operate. in developing countries. In many countries, PV is the most reliable
and least costly form of electricity available.

a centre for application of renewable energy preparation by s.r.kushero