Scope 
      

Introduction Smart Card Programming environment Internal structure Smart Card application software development Smart Card system design & architecture Security level and ISO standards Commercial applications of Smart Card Conclusion

They have their own OS. security & convenience. the smart card has the processing power to serve many different applications.Introduction     Smart card is one of the latest additions to the world of information technology. Smart card provides data portability. . When coupled with reader. temporary memory and file storage memory.

 Memory Cards  Memory cards simply store data & can be viewed as a small floppy disk with optional security. It has an input/output port.  Microprocessor Cards   . operating system and hard disk with built-in security features. delete & manipulate information in its memory on the card. Microprocessor card can add.

it makes contact with electrical connectors that transfer data to and from the chip. . When the card is inserted into a smart card reader.Types of Smart cards  Contact Smart Card   They have a small gold plate about ½ in diameter on the front.

They look just like plastic credit cards. Contactless Smart Cards   They use low frequency radio waves to provide power and to communicate with smart card reader. . except that they have an electronic microchip and an antenna embedded inside.

They are more like on-card commands to which smart card responds.Smart Card Programming Environment.  Smart card operating systems     Smart card OS is not like Windows or Unix. Smart card OS implements some of ISO 7816 and CEN 726 standards. . Smart card OS support either character or block transfer.

Smart card File System  Smart card file is just a contiguous block of smart card memory. delete. write and update. Smart card file system is a singly rooted directory-based hierarchical file system. Smart card is an access control list. Smart card OS supports all set of file operations such as create. read.    .

Java programs can be also implemented on a smart card. Schlumberger introduced the first smart card that could accept and run highlevel language programs.High-level language card Programs  In 1996. Some smart card manufacturers used highlevel languages such as Forth and C to create card software.   .

Packaging of individual chips.Internal structure of a Smart card  Smart Card contains   Integrated Circuit chips. Coprocessors Fabrication of the chip. Fabrication of the card. Printing of the card. or many chips in the form of wafer. Personalization. Insertion of the chip into the card.  Manufacturing Process :       .

The newly introduced smart cards has OS that supports a wide variety of applications. Program stored into ROM during fabrication process is referred as hard mask. Software for smart cards is highly specialized for each new application on a chip.Smart card application s/w development  Mask development    Program stored into the chip on a smart card are referred as a masks. Program stored on EEPROM after the card manufacturing process is called as soft mask.  Code development   .

Chip simulators improves the s/w development process but still leaves many aspects of software unchecked. With an emulator a variant of memory is provided which can be accessed both by computer and chip processor.  . Chip simulators  Chip simulators are used for writing and debugging software on chip.   Chip emulators  Chip emulators improves testing environment without requiring the actual fabrication of chips.

Basically reader is a device which provides both power and clock signal to a card. Reader provides a connection between a smart card and another computer system.   . Interface devices (Readers)  Smart card don t have independent power source or clock signal to drive its embedded processor.

Smart card memory system. . Nonvolatile memory (NVM). the memory system and input/output line. Tiny amount of RAM.     8 KB to 32 KB ROM.Smart Card Hardware  The computer on a smart card is a single integrated circuit chip that includes CPU.

 Smart card CPU  CPU in a smart card chip is an 8-bit microcontroller. A smart card CPU will not execute code from all part of the smart card memory system. Smart card CPU executes machine instructions at the rate of about 400 KIP. using Motorola 6805 or Intel 8051 instruction set.   .

The smart card hardware can handle data up to 115. Smart card input/output.  All smart cards are integrated into larger system that themselves typically contains additional computers and data stores.   Smart card system architecture.  Input/output channel on a smart card is a unidirectional serial channel. .200 bps.

  PIN protection for smart card data. Hardware protection.Security level & ISO standards  Data security in smart card  Accessed only through dedicated reader. .

 Smart card standards   IS 7816-1 (1987) : Physical characteristics IS 7816-2 (1988) : Dimension and location of contacts IS 7816-3 (1989) : Electronic signal & transmission protocol. IS 7816-6 (1998) : Inter industry security commands ISO 7816-7 (1999) : Synchronous cards. IS 7816-4 (1995) : Inter industry commands & responses. IS 7816-5 (1994) : Data elements for interchange.      .

Bio-metric field. Banking.Commercial Applications         Application in the internet world. Vehicle access. Network Access. Use of smart card in Windows. Power usage device. . Transportation.

Because of security and data storage features that smart cards are rapidly being embraced as the consumer token.Conclusion  Smart card is standard credit card size plastic token.   . Smart cards are believed to be the most efficient and portable way of enabling the new world of e-trade.

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