‡

Injection Molding to manufacture Injection molding is the most important process used

plastic products. It is ideally suited to manufacture mass produced parts of complex shapes requiring precise dimensions. ‡ It is used for numerous products, ranging from boat hulls and lawn chairs, to bottle cups. Car parts, TV and computer housings are injection molded.

Injection Molding

Chee 490

26.1

It distributes polymer melt into and throughout the the cavities. ‡ The clamping unit: It¶s role is to open and close the mold. to inject the melt into the cavity and to maintain the holding pressure during cooling. Each mold can contain multiple cavities. to accumulate the melt in the screw chamber. and hold the mold tightly to avoid flash during the filling and holding. shapes the part.The Injection Molding Machine The injection molding machine is comprised of: ‡ The plasticating and injection unit: The major tasks of the plasticating unit are to melt the polymer.2 . Injection Molding Chee 490 26. Clamping can be mechanical and hydraulic ‡ The mold cavity: The mold is the central point in an injection molding machine. cools the melt and ejects the finished product.

The Injection Molding Machine Injection molding machines are classified by an international convention: Manufacturer T/P where T is the clamping force in metric tons.3 . Injection Molding Chee 490 26. and P is defined as: p max P! 1000 max Where Rmax is the maximum injection volume (cm3) and pmax is the maximum injection pressure (bar).

Machine parameters Shot size (cm3) Injection pressure and temperature Clamping pressure Mold temperature Hold time B. Mold design Cavity.4 . Polymer compound properties Viscosity .temperature and shear rate Thermal diffusivity and heat of fusion (if semi-crystalline) Density versus temperature profile C. gate and runner dimensions and layouts Injection Molding Chee 490 26.The Injection Molding Machine There are quite a few things to consider when developing an injection molding process: A.

inject the melt into the cavity. and maintain the holding pressure during cooling.The Plasticating Unit The plasticating unit is designed to ± ± ± ± melt the polymer pellets. accumulate the melt in the screw chamber. Injection Molding Chee 490 26.5 .

± generate enough pressure to prevent flash during mold filling and holding.The Clamping Unit The clamping unit is designed to ± open and close the mold.6 . Injection Molding Chee 490 26.

7 .The mold is designed to The Injection Mold ± ± ± ± Distribute the polymer melt into and throughout the cavities Shape the part Solidify the part by cooling / reaction Eject the finished product Injection Molding Chee 490 26.

Injection Molding Chee 490 26. and once the crystallization temperature is crossed. ± You don¶t have forever to get the mold filled ± inject too slowly and your material may not get past the sprue! The fundamental principles of polymer flow through channels are applicable to injection molding. injection molding performs these two processes simultaneously. ± Contact between the hot polymer melt and mold surfaces cools the material throughout the injection process. nor are they isothermal. creating unusual velocity gradients at cooled surfaces.8 . ± Viscosities increase with temperature.The Injection Mold Whereas extrusion shapes the material prior to stabilization through crystallization and/or vitrification. ± Chain mobility is completely lost at Tg+25oC. except one should recognize that the flows are not well-developed (non-steady state).

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