Group Members

Muhammad Imran Muhammad Shahid Wasim

A Network is de ned as the group of people or systems or organizations who tend to share their information collectively for their business purpose.

Types of Networks 
Wired Networks Wireless Networks

(Wide Area Network)

(Metropolitan Area Network)

(Local Area Network)

(Personal Area Network)

Types of Wireless Networks 
Infrastructure-based networks.  Infrastructure less (ad hoc) networks.

Ad Hoc Networks
It consists of a collection of nodes communicating without any fixed infrastructure such as access points or base stations.

Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
Also called short lived networks that can change locations and configure itself on the fly.

Characteristics and Advantages 
Wireless Ad-hoc-based Autonomous and infrastructure less Multihop routing Mobility Low cost of deployment

It is the act of moving information from a source to a destination in an inter network.

Routing protocols in MANETs
1. Table-driven protocols (Proactive protocols). 2. On-demand routing protocols (Reactive protocols). 3. Hybrid routing protocols (mixed protocol).

Table-driven protocols
In this protocol each node: 

Uses routing tables to store the location information of other nodes in the network.  Responds to changes in network topology by propagating updates throughout the network.

Types of Table driven protocols 
Wireless Routing Protocol (WRP)  Cluster head Gateway Switch Routing (CGSR)  Destination sequenced distance vector (DSDV)

DSDV Routing Protocol 
All possible destinations are recorded.  Each entry is marked with a sequence number.  Updates are transmitted throughout the network.  Tables can be updated by (incrementally or full dump).

Advantages of DSDV 
It guarantees loop free paths.  It maintains the best path maintaining multiple paths.
instead of

Limitations of DSDV 
Wastage of bandwidth due to unnecessary advertising. It doesn t support Multi path Routing. Di cult to determine a time delay for the advertisement. larger network leads to overhead, consuming more bandwidth.

On-demand routing Protocols 
Create routes when desired by source nodes.  Source node initiates a route discovery process.  Route is finished when destination becomes inaccessible or route is no longer desired.

Types of On-demand routing Protocols 
Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) Temporary Ordered Routing Algorithm (TORA) Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector routing (AODV)

AODV Routing Protocol 
Improved version of DSDV algorithm.  Minimizes the number of required broadcasts by creating routes on a demand basis.

Route Discovery in AODV
Shahid B A H I Z Y C G Imran K N E F J M L

Represents a node that has received RREQ for Imran

Shahid B A H I Z Y C



Imran N

Represents links on Reverse Path

Shahid B A H I Y Z C

M E F J G K Imran N L

Node Imran does not forward RREQ, because node Imran is the intended target of the RREQ

M Shahid B A H I Y Z C G K Imran N E F J L

Forward links are setup when RREP travels along the reverse path Represents a link on the forward path

Source Address Request ID Destination Source Destination Address Sequence # Sequence # Hope Count

Source Address Destination Address Destination Sequence # Hope Count Life Time

Hybrid Routing Protocols 
Inherits the characteristics of both reactive and proactive routing protocols.  Reduces delay of route discovery.  Avoids periodic updates for nodes which are at far distance.

Zone Routing Protocol (ZRP) 
The Intra Zone Routing Protocol (Pro-actively maintain state information within a short distance from any node).  The reactive Inter zone Routing Protocol (Determines routes to far away nodes).  Border cast Resolution Protocol (uses unicast routing to deliver packets directly to the border nodes).

Working principle 
Network is divided into zones.  Specifies a zone radius.  The nodes within a zone having an entry for every other node and exchange periodic route updates.

Shahid performs route discovery for Imran B Shahid A F C E Imran

Denotes route request

E knows route from E to Imran, so route request need not be forwarded to Imran from E

Table driven vs on demand routing protocols

Parameters Availability of Routing Information

Proactive/Table-driven Always available regardless of need

Reactive/On Demand driven

Available when needed

A long delay when no Application delay Minimal initial delay route to destination available Power consumption Greater than that of on demand routing Grows with increasing mobility of active routes

Parameters Periodic route update

Proactive/Table-driven Yes

Reactive/On Demand driven Not required

Inform other nodes to Coping with mobility achieve consistent routing table Inform only affected source nodes

Signaling traffic generated

Greater than that of on demand routing

Grows with increasing mobility of active routes

Applications of Mobile ad hoc Network
Tactical Networks:
Military communications and operations control in battlefield.

Educational Applications:
Virtual classrooms or conference rooms.

Multiuser games, robotic pets, and outdoor Internet access.

Emergency Services:
Search-and rescue operations as well as disaster recovery. Loss of infrastructure due to catastrophic disaster.

Home and Enterprise Networking:
Anywhere access for PDA. Personal area networks.

Disadvantages of MANETs
1. 2. 3. 4. MANET Bandwidth Constraints. MANET Energy Constraints. Dynamic topologies. Limited security.

Bandwidth Constraints Wide range of capacity levels. Lower capacity throughput than equivalent wired links. More error-prone than wired links.

Energy Constraints Rely on batteries.

Dynamic topology

Limited security.

Nodes are free Can easily be to move. hacked.

Data transmission Un prediction More prone to shut down due of next node security threats to power failure. due to mobility. than fixed. Low power required. Bi and unidirectional can be found. More insecure than wired links.

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