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File server Print server Application server Mail server Terminal Services server Streaming media server Remote Access/VPN server Domain controller Database server Web (IIS) server DNS server DHCP server WINS server
What is Active Directory?
± LDAP Directory Service ± Works with and requires DNS ± Incorporated into Windows 2000 and XP ± Centrally Managed ± Extensible ± Interoperable
How Boot Files Function
BIOS reads the contents 1 of the MBR Boot sector program reads the 2 root directory and loads Windows 2003 Loader NTLDR loads basic memory 3 configuration and switches to 32-bit mode (protected mode) NTLDR reads boot.ini 4 and runs OS NTLDR switches back to 16-bit 5 mode, loads ntdetect.com NTLDR loads into memory, 6 reads the resource map that NTDETECT builds NTLDR switches system back to
7 protected mode
NTLDR starts run process for 8 NTOSKRNL
it contacts the PDC Emulator and verifies it there ± This makes sure that a password change does not deny access .Active Directory Password Replication ± Password changes can happen on any DC ± When a password is changed on a DC it pushes that change immediately to the PDC Emulator ± Before a server actually rejects a bad password.
Common DNS Problems On Domain Members UserEnv 1000 unable to determine computer name or username ± Q261007 Group policies are not being applied Unable to resolve to Internet Unable to find and/or join domain ± Q247811 Logon delay while preparing network connections .
Common DNS Problems On Domain Controller Registration or deregistration of DNS records fails ± Q259277 Replication between DCs fails because of RPC error ± Q224544 Terminal Services unable to find Licensing server ± Q261110 .
Common DNS Problems On Domain Controller Unable to DCPROMO second DC because of DNS lookup failure Unable to establish trust between domains ± Q224370 DC fails to register SRV records because of incorrect FQDN Unable to add DNS forwarders ± Q229840 More than 15 IP address on DC ± Q261197 .
Backup Types Backup types include: ± Normal backup ± Incremental backup ± Differential backup ± Daily backup ± Copy backup .
Unlike a normal backup. the bit is turned off. A bit is set in the file directory to indicate the archive status. Incremental backups Designed to create backups of files that have changed since the most recent normal or incremental backup. However. Differential backups Designed to create backup copies of files that have changed since the last normal backup. the archive attribute on files isn't modified. The presence of the archive attribute indicates that the file has been modified and only files with this attribute are backed up. If a file has been modified on the same day as the backup. this attribute is set. If the file is later modified. Archive attribute A file classification that indicates whether the file has been updated since the last backup. which indicates that the file needs to be backed up. When a file is backed up. regardless of the setting of the archive attribute. The presence of the archive attribute indicates that the file has been modified and only files with this attribute are backed up. When a file is created or saved. If the file is later modified. which indicates that the file needs to be backed up. Copy backups All files that have been selected are backed up. the archive attribute is cleared. When a file is backed up. When it is backed up. the archive attribute is cleared. regardless of the setting of the archive attribute. the file will be backed up. See file attribute . this attribute is set. This allows you to perform other types of backups on the files at a later date. the archive attribute on files isn't modified. This technique doesn't change the archive attributes of files. Daily backups Designed to back up files using the modification date on the file itself. the bit is turned on. This allows you to perform other types of backups on the files at a later date. Normal/full backups All files that have been selected are backed up.
Normal Backup Default type of backup performed by Backup utility Backs up all selected files and folders and clears the archive attribute on each This type of backup can be inefficient because it does not take into account whether files have changed .
and also a very good combination. simply because you need the last normal backup set and all incremental backup sets. which can be stored on several backup drives or tapes . The disadvantage of this is that it¶s time-consuming to recover files. A combination of Normal backups and Incremental backups is common. It also marks the files as having been backed up. It also requires the least amount if storage space and is fast for backing up the data.Incremental Backup Backs up only files that have changed since last normal or incremental backup Clears the archive attributes of the files Reduces the size of backup jobs Restore process is more complicated ± Normal backup and all incremental backups must be restored in order The incremental back up only those files that have been created or changed since last incremental or normal backup.
Incremental Backup (continued) .
.Differential Backup Backs up only files that have changed since last normal or incremental backup Does not clear the archive attributes of those files ± A second differential backup will back up the same files since the first backup is not recorded by the archive attributes Reduces the size of backup jobs compared to normal backups but not incremental backups Restore process requires only the normal backup and the latest differential backup because differential backups does not mark files as having been backed up. But on the other hand it is faster to restore data because all you need is the last normal backup and the last differential backup. A combination of differential backups and normal backups is more time-consuming concerning the backup part then the incremental + normal backups are.
Differential Backup (continued) .
If you do this. You cannot back up or restore individual components of the System State data because of dependencies among the System State components. Cluster database information files. However. . and the COM+ Class Registration database are not restored if you designate an alternate location when you restore the System State data. and system boot files are restored to the alternate location. all of the System State data that is relevant to your computer is backed up or restored. only the registry files. the Certificate Services database. Active Directory.When you back up or restore the System State data. you can restore the System State data to an alternate location. SYSVOL directory files.
Copy Backup ± Exactly the same as a normal backup but doesn¶t change the archive attribute ± Intended as a backup that will not interrupt other backup procedures (perhaps an archival copy) ± A copy backup copies all the files you have selected. but does not mark the files as having been backed up.Daily Backup and Copy Backup Daily Backup ± Backs up selected files or folders that were created or changed on the day of the backup ± The archive attribute is not changed ± The daily backup copies all the files that you have selected that have been modified on the day. This backup type is useful when you must backup single files between normal and incremental backups because it does not affect these operations . without marking the files as having been backed up.
Using the Backup Utility Commonly used to back up critical data and operating system files Can be used in two modes: Wizard mode and Advanced mode Can be used to ± Back up System State data ± Restore Active Directory ± Access Automated System Restore feature .
Using the Backup Utility (continued) .
Activity 12-1: Backing Up Files and Folders Using the Backup Utility Objective: To explore the use of Windows Server 2003 Backup utility for backing up files and folders Start All Programs Accessories System Tools Backup Use Advanced Mode to back up the contents of a folder .
Activity 12-1 (continued) .
Activity 12-1 (continued) .
exe Advanced Mode Follow directions to restore the files backed up in Activity 12-1 to an alternate location Verify that the files have been restored .Activity 12-2: Restoring Files and Folders Using the Backup Utility Objective: To use Backup utility to restore previously backed up files Start Run type ntbackup.
Activity 12-2 (continued) .
predefined days . weekly. monthly. predefined times.Scheduling Backups Backups can be scheduled to occur without interaction from an administrator Can schedule backups daily.
Scheduling Backups (continued) .
Activity 12-3: Scheduling Backup Operations Using the Backup Utility Objective: Use the Windows Server 2003 Backup utility to schedule a backup Open the Backup utility and use the Backup and Restore Wizard Set the Schedule Job to Daily and select a time Confirm that the backup has been scheduled Confirm that the backup occurs as .
Activity 12-3 (continued) .
Backing Up and Restoring System State Data System State data includes: ± Registry (always) ± COM+ Class Registration database (always) ± Boot files (always) ± Certificate Services database (if installed) ± Active Directory (on domain controllers) ± SYSVOL directory (on domain controllers) ± Cluster service (if part of a cluster) ± IIS Metadirectory (if IIS is installed) ± System files (always) .
you must be a member of Enterprise Admins ± To raise domain functionality. you must be a member of Domain Admins or Enterprise Admins .Feature Highlights Active Directory Functional Levels ± Determines what OS DCs can run Forest ± Windows 2000 (NT/2000/2003) ± Default ± Windows Server 2003 interim (NT/2003) ± Windows Server 2003 (2003) Domain ± ± ± ± Windows 2000 mixed (NT/2000/2003) ± Default Windows 2000 native (2000/2003) Windows Server 2003 interim (NT/2003) Windows Server 2003 (2003) ± To raise forest functionality.
Feature Highlights Group Policy Many new settings (as in Windows XP Pro) RSOP ± Resultant Set of Policy Cross-Forest Support Modeling (calculate net effect of multiple GPOs) WMI Filters GPMC Coming Soon ± Enables ± ± ± ± ± ± ± Backup and restore of Group Policy objects (GPOs) Import/export and copy/paste of GPOs Reporting of GPO settings and Resultant Set of Policy (RSoP) data Use of templates for managed configurations All GPMC operations to be scripted Management of all sites and domains and multiple forests Drag-and-Drop support .
Users must belong to the Administrators or Remote Desktop Users group.TERMINAL SERVICES TROUBLESHOOTING Terminal Services uses TCP and UDP port number 3389. .
SECURING REMOTE DESKTOP Change the default RDP port 3389 ± HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\ System\ ± CurrentControlSet\ » Control\TerminalServer\WinStations\RDPTcp\PortNumber .
INSTALLING AND CONFIGURING REMOTE DESKTOP CONNECTION Remote Desktop Connection client software can be installed from the following locations: The Windows Server 2003 distribution CD The Systemroot\System32\Clients\Tsclient\Win 32 folder .
exe. it should be disabled. If the template is not a ³real´ user.exe. Windows Server 2003 includes command-line tools that you can use to create and manage Active Directory objects. and Dsmod. Domain user accounts are stored on Active Directory domain controllers and can provide users with access to resources all over the network. Only a subset of user properties is copied from templates. A user object template is an object that is copied to produce new users. .exe. User objects include the properties related to the individuals they represent. Dsadd.SUMMARY Local user accounts are stored on the local system and can provide users with access only to local resources. including Csvde.
A mandatory user profile is one that never changes. Windows Server 2003 generates an individual user profile for each person who logs on to the system. Auditing for authentication allows you to track logon activity for the network. providing the same desktop configuration each time the user logs on. . whereas a roaming user profile is stored on a network server. Local user profiles are stored on the local drive. A user profile is a collection of folders and data that make up the desktop environment for a specific user.
which groups can be nested. Security groups can be assigned permissions. The domain functional level determines which group types and scopes you can use. while distribution groups are used for query containers. All permissions assigned to the group are inherited by its members. such as e-mail distribution groups. and which group conversions you can perform. . A group is an object that consists of a list of users. and cannot be assigned permissions to a resource.
. You can create domain groups in any container or OU in the Active Directory tree. Global groups are used for gathering together users with similar resource requirements. Universal groups are used primarily to grant access to related resources in multiple domains. Domain local groups are used for assigning permissions to resources.
and Dsget.exe. Command-line tools such as Dsadd.SUMMARY (continued) Group nesting refers to the ability to make one group a member of another group. Dsmod.exe allow you to automate group management tasks. .exe.
will not affect the backup. files open appears to be closed. This consumption of disk space is however temporarily and will be free when the backup is completed. but you can disable it. . You should always backup when it¶s low. As you can imagine you need as much extra disk space as the file you will backup uses. So with this new feature users can access files during a backup. Data is then backed up from the shadow copy instead of the original volume. which is not changed. Volume Shadow Copy does not mean that you from now on can backup when the server usage is high.Volume Shadow Copy Technology This is a new technology in Windows Server 2003 that did not exist in Windows 2000 Server. To use this feature you must use NTFS as file system. By doing this. files are not skipped because they were in use. all activity such as file changes. If sufficient temporary disk space is not available Windows Server 2003 cannot complete shadow copy and the backup will skip open files. because it is using the shadow copy instead. for example at nights and weekends. You should use Volume Shadow Copy. This technology is used to create a copy of the original volume at the time a backup is initiated. The only time when you want to disable it is when you don¶t have enough free disk space.
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