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The Necessity of Evaluation in Teaching
Teaching requires innumerable value judgments to be made by the teacher, the school administration, parents and the pupils themselves. The teachers judgments cannot be made solely on the basis of intuition, arbitrariness or custom. Instead teachers are obligated to assemble, analyze and utilize whatever relevant evidence can be brought forth to make the most effective decisions.
Among the decisions are: The nature of the subject matter that should be taught at each grade level Those aspects of the curriculum that need to be eliminated,modified or included, depending on current levels of student knowledge and attitudes and value of the society.
How instruction can be improved to ensure that students learn How students should be organized within the classroom to maximize learning How teachers can tell if students are able to retain knowledge Which student are in need of remedial or advanced work
. nurse or social worker How each pupil¶s progress can be understood and explained most clearly and effectively. psychologist. Which children should be referred to the school counselor. speech therapist. emotionally disturbed or physically disabled. Which students will benefit from placement in special programs for the mentally retarded.
Teachers want students to increase their knowledge and to decrease the rate and amount of forgetting. and attitudes of students. The relationships are: .The Relationship among Measurement. behaviors. Teaching and Evaluation The purpose of teaching is to improve the knowledge.
If the purpose of teaching is student improvement. . 1. Developing instructional objectives. Without a clear set of goals.the determination of improvement is impossible. teachers need to know what it is they want to accomplish.
which in turn implies that the teacher has some way to measure and evaluate student knowledge. Improvement implies that students are making progress toward clearly d3fined objectives. . Instructional objectives provide teachers and pupils with a goal. whereas measurement and evaluation judge how well objectives have been attained. behavior and attitudes.
instructional goals imply the way in which their attainment will be evaluated. they help the teacher recognize student improvement by clarifying what it is the teacher wants to accomplish. Instructional objectives serve at least two roles: First. Second. .
. These individual differences mean that some pupils may be well on their way to meet classroom objectives while others are greatly in need of different or additional instruction. attitudes and levels of competency. 2. Students enter each phase of instruction with different backgrounds. Determining Entry Behavior.
. it may be possible to modify instructions to capitalize on this information. Knowledge of each pupil¶s entry behavior is important for another reason. The evidence seems to indicate that teaching methods are effective only if they are considered in relationship to the background of the student. When teachers are aware of the background of their pupils.
. The problem with this belief is that the effectiveness of any form of instruction partly depends on the background of the students. 3. Selecting Teaching Strategies Many beginning teachers believe that their most important or only responsibility is to select effective instructional procedures.
If student background is important in selecting an instructional strategy. interest and achievement will have to become a part of each teacher¶s repertoire of professional instruments. . Tests of intelligence. the teacher will have to become familiar with those procedures used to measure and evaluate those backgrounds.personality. attitude.aptitudes.
or it could be the result of selecting an inappropriate teaching strategy. the problem could be the failure to determine an accurate level of entry required for the task. Program Evaluation Program evaluation is a crucial stage in teaching. If a student fails to attain some instructional objective. . 4.
it provides evidence that students have the necessary entry behavior and it helps to evaluate the adequacy of an instructional strategy. Evaluation can help determine whether instructional objectives have been met. .
Formative evaluation help current students learn more effectively. . Formative evaluation take place during instruction by letting the teacher or evaluator know if students are meeting instructional objectives. and if the program might be improved. if the program is on time.
objects. or events according to explicit formulations or rules. .Measurement Measurement is the process that assigns numbers to attributes or characteristics of persons. Educational measurement also requires the quantification of attributes according to specified rules.
. the interests of tenth-graders. Teachers can measure the attributes such as the heights of fifth-graders. the intelligence of special class students. What is measured are the attributes or characteristics of students. not the students themselves. or the achievement of pupils in different curricula.
Measurements are classified into one of four scales by their characteristics. No one would try to measure a table. its attributes) is measured. These scales are: Nominal Ordinal Interval Ratio . rather its length. height or hardness(that is.
.Tests A test is a task or series of tasks to obtain systematic observations presumed to be representative of educational or psychological traits or attributes. Tests require examinee to respond to items or tasks from which the examiner infers something about the attribute being measured.
What is important is that tests involve tasks and that these tasks be arranged to yield systematic observations concerning a trait. Tests can be classified in many ways: The extend to which test results can be compared with test results of similar groups outside the classroom(teacher-made and standardized tests) .
The group or domain to which the individual is being compared (normreferenced and criterion-referenced tests) The number of persons for whom test was designed (individual and group tests) Scoring standards (objective and subjective tests) .
and non language tests) The nature of the behavior sampled (sample and sign tests) . The amount of time permitted (power and speed tests) The degree and kind of language usage (verbal. performance.
Teacher-Made Tests Teacher-made test are constructed by teachers for use within their own classroom. . The effectiveness of these tests depends on the teachers¶ skill and knowledge of test construction.
Standardized Tests Standardized tests are constructed by test specialists working with curriculum experts and teachers. . These tests are administered and scored under standard and uniform testing conditions so that results from different classes and different schools can be compared.
or personality. or referred to the scores of another group. attitudes. and individuals are being compared with one another. The individual score is being compared with. interests. It is to describe what an individual has learned in some given content domain.Norm-Referenced tests A norm-referenced test is designed to measure individual differences in achievement. . intelligence.
and the student does not need to reach some specified level of competency. Norm-referenced interpretations are useful in the following circumstances: When the subject matter is not cumulative. norm-referenced feedback is useful if an institution is forced to accept only the highest performing students. For selection purposes. .
the should be normreferenced. . Because individuals can be expected to differ on whatever criterion is used to predict success. the test must be capable of distinguishing among students. When tests are used to predict different degrees of success.
. The measurement of complex understanding is facilitated more by normreferencing than by criterion-referenced interpretation.
Criterion-referenced interpretations are particularly useful in the following situations: .Criterion-Referenced Tests Criterion-referenced tests relate a student¶s score on an achievement test to a domain of knowledge rather than to another student¶s score.
Example. . In subject areas that are cumulative and progressively more complex. In subject areas that demand mastery. knowledge in multiplication table. students might have to reach some level of proficiency on preceding tasks before being advanced to higher level. criterion-referenced tests should be used.
. In diagnostic work. criterion-referenced feedback is more important than normreferenced feedback.
For selection purposes. norm-referenced feedback is useful if an institution is forced to accept only the highest-performing individuals. . and the student does not need to reach some specified level of competency.Norm-referenced tests Nor-referenced interpretations have have their greatest use under the following circumstances: Sometimes the subject matter is not cumulative.
When tests are used to predict different degrees of success.the test must be able of distinguishing among students. Because individuals can be expected to differ on whatever criterion is used to predict success. The measurement of complex understanding is facilitated more by norm-referenced interpretation. .
and students are asked to write their answers on paper. Tests that can be given to many persons at a time are called group tests.Individual and Group Tests Tests designed to be administered to one person at a time are called individual tests. Paper-and ±pencil tests are almost always given to groups. .
. that is independent scorers can agree on the number of points answer should receive. subjective judgments and opinions can be minimized. If observers can agree on scoring criteria. and the testis said to be objective.An objective test An objective test is any test having clear an unambiguous scoring criteria.
Power and Speed tests On speed tests. only the most exceptional students will complete the examination within the time constrained. Power tests demonstrate how much knowledge or information students have. . Speed tests reveal how rapidly they can respond within a restricted time limit to rather simple items.
Nonverbal. . Performance tests require examinees to perform a task other than answering questions.Verbal. Performance and Non language Tests Verbal tests emphasize the use of language as the primary means of responding to test items or questions. Nonverbal tests de-emphasize the role of reading in testing.
Most teacher-constructed tests are samples. . Sign tests diagnostically distinguish one group of individuals from another. but many psychological tests are used as signs of some underlying pathology.Sample and Sign Tests Sample tests measure only a partial aspect or sample of the student¶s total behavior.
. No matter how good tests may be. someone must interpret test results and decide on the course of action that can best help the student.Evaluation Evaluation is a process through which a value judgment or decision is made from a variety of observations and from the background and training of the evaluator.
. Summative evaluation occurs at the end of a program or course and determines its overall effectiveness.Formative and Summative Evaluation Formative evaluation of a program helps the teacher or administrator make effective decisions throughout the duration of the course or project.
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