Installing and Configuring Dynamic DNS for Windows® 2000

Vic Singh Support Professional Microsoft Platforms Support Microsoft Corporation

Overview
    

DNS Review Domain Namespace Zones DNS Files Resource Records

2

DNS Review

Original name resolution through
 HOSTS.TXT

File  Flat name space

DNS Design Goals
 Hierarchical

name space  Distribution of data and administration  Extensible data types  Unlimited database size

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Domain Name Space
Managed by InterNIC

gov

com

mil

org

edu

whitehouse acme microsoft

navy

uw

mit

rhino

dev

support

Microsoft® Domain Managed by Microsoft
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Zones

microsoft.com. domain microsoft

com

org

mil

dev

ftp

microsoft.com. zone

dev.microsoft.com. zone
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DNS Files
   

Zone Database Files Cache File Reverse Lookup Files Boot File

DNS Manager can now be used with boot file

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Resource Record Types
    

RFC 1034 – SOA, A, NS, PTR, CNAME, MX, HINFO RFC 1876 – LOC RFC 2052 – SRV RFC 2168 – NAPTR Microsoft-specific – WINS, WINS-R

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Dynamic Domain Name System (DDNS)

DNS for Windows 2000 Server
      

SRV resource records Naming specification Name resolution Installation & configuration Zone transfers (AXFR & IXFR) Services integration Dynamic update

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Domain Controller (SRV) Records
Query to local name server for ldap.tcp.nt.microsoft .com.

Local Name Server

DNS Client

Finding a domain controller  SRV records
 

Domain Controller

The MS-DCS domain name Locating specific servers
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 

A records CNAME records

Windows 2000 DNS Naming Specifications

Naming Standards
 

RFC 1123 standards Unicode – support for non-ASCII character sets Primary DNS domain Possible to have one domain name per adapter May have multiple FQDNs Same as NetBIOS name
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Domain Names
 

Host Names
 

Client Name Resolution

Multiple Fully Qualified Domain Names
 

Primary DNS domain name Adapter DNS domain name Null Fully qualified Unqualified single-label Unqualified multi-label

Four different names possible in a query
   

Client caches query results
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Name Resolution Queries
2 4 5
Recursive Query

3

Root Name Server

gov Name Server

gov

8

7

6
whitehouse.gov Name Server whitehouse

1

Iterative Queries

www DNS Client
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Installing Microsoft Windows 2000 DNS Service

Installation Process
 

\%systemroot%\system32\DNS directory created for Zone file storage \HKLM\System\CurrentControlSet\Services\DNS registry key added

 

DNS Manager – now MMC Snap-in Root Server creates default in-addr zones
  

0.in-addr.arpa 127.in.addr.arpa 255.in-addr.arpa
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Cached lookups can be displayed

Customizing Microsoft Windows 2000 DNS Service
 

Interfaces Advanced
      

Disable Recursion Bind Secondaries Fail On Load If Bad Zone Data Enable Round Robin Enable Netmask Ordering Name Checking Boot Method

Statistics, Logging, and Monitoring
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Setting Up Zones and Domains
   

Configuring reverse lookup zones Configuring forward lookup zones Adding subdomains to the zone Adding host records to the zone

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Zone Transfers

Full Zone Transfers

Copy entire zone to secondary server Copy only changes to secondary server based upon cached history Must be supported at master and secondary servers

Incremental Zone Transfers
 

DNS Notify

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Dynamic DNS
Dynamic UPDATE request DNS Dynamic Update Client Local Name Server

Source: 157.57.64.198 Destination: 157.57.70.10 UPDATE: hostb.nt.microsoft.com. IN A 157.57.64.198 PREREQUISITES: Name is not in use: hostb.nt.microsoft.com.

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Secure Dynamic DNS Updates
 

 

Zones may be configured to use Secure Updates. Allows specified computers, users, and groups to add or modify zone entries. Secure Updates must be enabled in the Active Directory™. Modify specific containers as needed:
 

DnsZone Container DnsDomain Container

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Services Integration with Dynamic DNS

WINS Service DNS Service DHCP Service

Active Directory Service

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WINS Integration
Windows 2000 DNS Server 2
DNS Name Query: srv1.corp.com.
WINS Database

3 1 5 4
NetBIOS Name Query: srv1<00> DNS Client WINS Server
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DHCP Integration

FQDN Option (DHCP Option 81).
  

Clients can register A and have DHCP register PTR. DHCP registers both A and PTR record. Client can request to register A, but DHCP overrides request and registers both A and PTR records.

  

Microsoft clients will register A and have DHCP register PTR. DHCP is configurable to “clean up” A and PTR records upon lease expiration. DHCP is configurable to register A and PTR for legacy clients.
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Active Directory Service Integration

Benefits
 

Single name space and replication topology Multi-master replication System container at the root of the NT domain Administrator access by default Security

DNS Storage in the ADS
  

DNS Server Operations and the Active Directory
 

Primary, master, and secondary servers Client registrations
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Review
       

DNS review Domain controller records Naming specifications Client name resolution Installation Zone transfers Dynamic DNS Services integration

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