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Managing the Diverse Workforce


© 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Diversity: A Brief History 

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Managing diversity
recognizing the characteristics common to specific groups of employees while dealing with such employees as individuals and supporting, nurturing, and utilizing their differences to the organization¶s advantage  understanding and appreciating employee differences to build a more effective and profitable organization  µmelting pot¶ notion  companies are more accommodating of differences 


© 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Diversity Today  11 . All rights reserved.3 Diversity broad term used to refer to all kinds of differences  members of different groups share common values. attitudes. nurture. Inc. and utilize these differences to the organization¶s advantage  McGraw-Hill © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies. and perceptions   Managing diversity must be aware of characteristics common to a group  must manage employees as individuals  must support. .

4 Other Religious affiliation Veteran status Sexual orientation Expectations and values Lifestyle Skill level Educational level Economic class Workstyle Function and/or position within the company © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill .Components Of A Diversified Workforce Gender Age Racial and ethnic minorities Immigrants Physically and mentally disabled Workforce Diversity 11 .

.invisible barrier hindering women and minorities from moving beyond a certain level in the corporate hierarchy McGraw-Hill © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies.a growing number of women working outside the home  glass ceiling . Inc.5 Size of the workforce Current civilian labor force has reached more than 36 million  slowing in both the number of people joining the labor force and the rate of labor force growth  employers likely to outsource some work   Workers of the future  gender issues . All rights reserved.Diversity Today (cont.)  11 .

conduct of a sexual nature that has negative consequences for employment   quid pro quo harassment . Inc.)  11 .Diversity Today (cont. and lifestyles McGraw-Hill © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies. expectations.submission to or rejection of sexual conduct is used as a basis for employment decisions hostile environment .)  sexual harassment . or offensive working environment  the changing status of women has given men the opportunity to redefine their roles.unwelcome sexual conduct has the purpose or effect of reasonably interfering with job performance or creating an intimidating. .6 Workers of the future (cont.)  gender issues (cont. All rights reserved. hostile.

Inc.7 Women In The Workforce Women make up about 40 percent of the workforce  99 percent of women will work for pay at some point in their lives  Overall labor force participation rate of women continues increasing while the participation rate of men declines  The long-term increase in the female labor force largely reflects the greater frequency of paid work by mothers  One of every five married women who works outside the home earns more than her husband  McGraw-Hill © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies. . All rights reserved.11 .

7277 (Magna Carta for Disabled Persons)    disabled lack access to educational and workplace environments attitudes of employers an important barrier to employment © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies. McGraw-Hill .largest unemployed minority population  Republic Act No.8 Workers of the future (cont.)  minorities and immigrants .)  11 .) mentally and physically disabled .Diversity Today (cont. Inc. All rights reserved.growing percentage of the workforce   troubling disparities organizations are trying to provide more opportunities for minoritiesWorkers of the future (cont.

Inc. All rights reserved.)  11 . .Diversity Today (cont.9 Age of the workforce  average age is increasing   people of ages 16 to 24 will increase people of ages 56 to 64 is expected to drop  entry-level workers will be over supplied  Future jobs and workforce qualifications people without high school diplomas are at a distinct disadvantage  gap is growing between the knowledge and skills jobs require and those many employees and applicants possess  McGraw-Hill © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies.

All rights reserved.Managing Diversity Versus Affirmative Action  11 . religion.10 Affirmative action (AA)  refers to policies that take factors including "race. Inc. sex or national origin" into consideration in order to benefit an underrepresented group at the expense of a majority group  Managing diversity means moving beyond legislated mandates to embrace a proactive business philosophy that values differences  eliminates barriers that hinder attainment of full potential  McGraw-Hill © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies. . color.

)  11 .11 Competitive advantage through diversity original impetus to diversity workforces was social responsibility and legal necessity  today. many organizations are also approaching diversity from a more practical.Managing Diversity Versus Affirmative Action (cont. Inc. McGraw-Hill . All rights reserved. and committed © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies. productive. business-oriented perspective  ability to attract and retain motivated employees     companies with reputation for diversity have competitive advantage in the labor market companies will be sought out by most qualified employees employees who believe that their differences are valued may become more loyal.

so does the customer base of these companies a multicultural workforce can provide a company with greater knowledge of the preferences and consuming habits of this diversified marketplace  ability to leverage creativity and innovation in problem solving   people from different backgrounds hold different perspectives diverse work groups are freer to deviate from traditional approaches © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc.)  11 . McGraw-Hill . All rights reserved.Managing Diversity Versus Affirmative Action (cont.)  better perspective of a differentiated market   as the composition of the Philippine workforce changes.12 Competitive advantage through diversity (cont.

Inc.)  11 .)  enhancement of organizational flexibility   managing diversity requires a corporate culture that tolerates different styles and approaches less restrictive policies and procedures and less standardized operating methods enable organizations to become more flexible McGraw-Hill © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies.13 Competitive advantage through diversity (cont. All rights reserved.Managing Diversity Versus Affirmative Action (cont. .

lack of similarity in culture causes diverse groups to be less cohesive than homogeneous groups  communication problems .most common negative effect   diversity increases errors and misunderstandings mistrust and tension .mistrust and misunderstanding of those who are different due to a lack of contact and low familiarity  stereotyping . aspirations. . and motivations   McGraw-Hill stereotypes affect how people are treated © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies.inappropriately stereotype their ³different´ colleagues rather than accurately perceiving and evaluating those individuals¶ contributions.Managing Diversity Versus Affirmative Action (cont. capabilities.)  11 .14 Challenges of a diverse workforce lower cohesiveness . All rights reserved. Inc.

or other groups that differ from the majority    minority employees hold low status jobs minority employees must adopt the norms of the majority has a highly homogeneous employee population  Plural organizations  have a more diverse employee population  use an affirmative action approach to managing diversity  some acceptance of minorities into the informal network  much less discrimination and less prejudice McGraw-Hill © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. minorities. Inc.Multicultural Organizations  11 .15 Monolithic organizations  an organization that has a low degree of cultural integration  employs few women. .

16 Multicultural organization values cultural diversity and seeks to utilize and encourage it  fully integrate gender.)  11 .Multicultural Organizations (cont. . racial. Inc. All rights reserved. and minority group members both formally and informally  absence of prejudice and discrimination  low levels of intergroup conflict  synergistic environment   all members contribute to their maximum potential and the advantages of diversity can be fully realized McGraw-Hill © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies.

How Organizations Can Cultivate A Diverse Workforce  11 . and objectives  establish corporate offices or committees to coordinate the companywide diversity effort that provides feedback to top management  minority advisory groups or task forces to monitor organizational policies. Inc. strategic plans. and attitudes    assess program impact on diverse groups provide feedback and suggestions to top management © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies.17 Top management leadership and commitment top management support for diversity programs is critical  incorporate the organization¶s attitudes toward diversity into the corporate mission statement. McGraw-Hill . practices. All rights reserved.

How Organizations Can Cultivate A Diverse Workforce (cont. culture. .)  11 . Inc. policies.18 Organizational assessment  establish an ongoing assessment of the organization¶s workforce. and practices    evaluate the demographics of the labor pool and customer base identify problem areas make recommendations where changes are needed  corporate values and norms should be identified and critically evaluated regarding their necessity and their impact on the diverse workforce McGraw-Hill © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

a company¶s image can be a strong recruiting tool   a reputation for hiring and promoting all types of people can be a competitive advantage many minorities and economically disadvantaged people are physically isolated from job opportunities   companies can bring information about job opportunities to the source of labor companies can transport labor to the jobs McGraw-Hill © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies.)  11 . .19 Attracting employees  recruitment . All rights reserved. Inc.How Organizations Can Cultivate A Diverse Workforce (cont.

Steps In Diversity Planning 11 .20 Set numerical standards Calculate percentages Identify qualified workers Match positions to census categories Set general qualifications McGraw-Hill © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies. . All rights reserved. Inc.

Inc.How Organizations Can Cultivate A Diverse Workforce (cont.21 Attracting employees (cont. McGraw-Hill .)  accommodating work and family needs   corporate work and family policies are now one of the most important recruiting tools providing child care leads to:   decreased turnover and absenteeism improved morale    assist with care for elderly parents offer time off to care for sick family members concerns for dual-career couples expressed by:   limiting relocation requirements providing job search assistance to relocated spouses © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies.)  11 . All rights reserved.

22 Attracting employees (cont.)  alternative work arrangements  offer flexible work schedules and arrangements     compressed workweeks job sharing . Inc. All rights reserved. .)  11 .How Organizations Can Cultivate A Diverse Workforce (cont.two part-time workers share one full-time job teleworking .working from home via computer hookup to the main worksite McGraw-Hill © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies.working from home telecommuting .

Inc. All rights reserved.)  11 .designed to increase awareness of the meaning and importance of valuing diversity      sensitize employees to assumptions they make about others become familiar with myths. and cultural differences become familiar with organizational barriers that inhibit the full contributions of all employees teach the unwritten ³rules´ or cultural values to those who need to know them © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies.How Organizations Can Cultivate A Diverse Workforce (cont. stereotypes. McGraw-Hill .23 Diversity training attempt to identify and reduce hidden biases and develop skills needed to effectively manage a diversified workforce  awareness building .

All rights reserved.24 Diversity training (cont.designed to allow all employees and managers to develop the skills they need to deal effectively with one another and customers in a diverse environment    most of the skills taught are interpersonal develop personal action plans before they leave the program experiential exercises and videotapes often are used McGraw-Hill © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies. .)  skill building .How Organizations Can Cultivate A Diverse Workforce (cont.)  11 . Inc.

25 Do needs analysis Incorporate diversity programs into training Diversity training Distinguish between education and training Thoroughly test training McGraw-Hill Use participative design process © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. . Inc.Guidelines For Diversity Training Position training in diversity strategy 11 .

All rights reserved.How Organizations Can Cultivate A Diverse Workforce (cont.form minority networks to promote information exchange and social support   provide emotional and career support help diverse employees understand work norms and cultures  mentoring . Inc. McGraw-Hill .26 Retaining employees  support groups .)  11 .higher-level managers help ensure that highpotential people are introduced to top management and socialized into the norms and values of the organization  help diverse employees enter the informal network  career development and promotion .establish teams to evaluate the career progress of diverse employees  devise ways to move them up through the ranks © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies.

27 Retaining employees (cont.)  11 .How Organizations Can Cultivate A Diverse Workforce (cont.recognize:     cultural and religious holidays differing modes of dress dietary restrictions needs of individuals with disabilities  accountability . . Inc. All rights reserved.)  systems accommodation .managers held accountable for workforce development  performance appraisal and reward systems reinforce the importance of effective diversity management McGraw-Hill © 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies.

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