# KAMAL ROOP CLASS IX ± C

In geometry, a circle is the set of all points in a plane at a fixed distance, called the radius, from a fixed point, the centre. The points can only be those that are part of a conic section; within the set of a plane bisecting a cone. Circles are simple closed curves, dividing the plane into an interior and exterior. Sometimes the word circle is used to mean the interior, with the circle itself called the circumference(C). Usually, however, the circumference means the length of the circle, and the interior of the circle is called a disk. An arc is any continuous portion of a circle.

The special point is the center. The center of a
circle is also the intersection of any two distinct diameters. Diameter is the maximum distance from one point on a circle to another. Radius is the distance from the center to any point on a circle. Therefore, the length of the radius is equal to half of the length of the diameter.

The segment that joins any two distinct
points on a circle is a chord. Hence, the diameter is also known as a chord that contains the center.

The curve that joins any two distinct points on a
circle is an arc. Hence, two different points on a circle can form two arcs: one major arc and one minor arc. If the two points are the endpoints of a diameter, then the two arcs are known as the semicircles.

The circumference of a circle is the product of
pi and the diameter (or twice the radius).

The area of a circle is the product of pi and

Circular sector
Circular sector or circle sector also known as a pie piece is the portion of a circle enclosed by two radii and an arc. Its area can be calculated as described below.

Let be the central angle, in radians, and R the radius. The total area of a circle is R2. The area of the sector can be obtained by multiplying the circle's area by the ratio of the angle and 2 (because the area of the sector is proportional to the angle, and 2 is the angle for the whole circle) Also, if refers to the central angle in degrees, a similar formula can be derived.

An alternative definition of a circle
Apollonius of Perga showed that a circle may also be defined as the set of points having a constant ratio of distances to two foci, A and B.

Inscribed angles An inscribed angle is exactly half of the corresponding central angle (see Figure). Hence, all inscribed angles that subtend the same arc have the same value (cf. the blue and green angles in the Figure). In particular, every inscribed angle that subtends a diameter is a right angle.

Sphere A sphere is a perfectly symmetrical geometrical object. In mathematics, the term refers to the surface or boundary of a ball, but in non-mathematical usage, the term is used to refer either to a three-dimensional ball or to its surface. This article deals with the mathematical concept of a sphere.

THEOREM: The chord theorem states that if two chords, CD and EF, intersect at G, then CG X DG = EG X FG If a tangent from an external point D meets the circle at C and a secant from the external point D meets the circle at G and E respectively, then . DC2 = DG X DE If two secants, DG and DE, also cut the circle at H and F respectively, then DH X DG = DF X DE two secants are inscribed in the circle like so then the measurement of angle A is equal to (measurement of arc DE Measurement of arc BC)/2

In mathematics, a unit circle is a circle with unit radius, i.e., a circle whose radius is 1. Frequently, especially in trigonometry, "the" unit circle is the circle of radius 1 centered at the origin (0, 0) in the Cartesian coordinate system in the Euclidean plane. The unit circle is often denoted S1; the generalization to higher dimensions is the unit sphere. If (x, y) is a point on the unit circle in the first quadrant, then x and y are the lengths of the legs of a right triangle whose hypotenuse has length 1. Thus, by the Pythagorean theorem, x and y satisfy the equation

The following is a proof for the area of a circle and an ellipse: A circle is a form of ellipse, denoted by the equation