Achieving PL/SQL Excellence

Oracle PL/SQL Advanced Techniques
Oracle7 thru Oracle8i
Steven Feuerstein
www.StevenFeuerstein.com www.Quest.com www.OReilly.com
and contributions most excellent from Bill Pribyl and Dick Bolz

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

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Objective & Outline 

Objective
± Expand your knowledge and awareness of important and new features of the PL/SQL language. 

Outline
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± Building with Packages (Oracle7+) PL/SQL Collections (Oracle7 and Oracle8+) Cursor Variables (Oracle7 and Oracle8+) Dynamic SQL: DBMS_SQL and Native Dynamic SQL (8i) Calling Java from PL/SQL (Oracle8i) and C (Oracle8) Oracle Advanced Queuing with DBMS_AQ (Oracle8) Managing Large Objects with DBMS_LOB (Oracle8) Other Oracle8i New Features
» Autonomous Transactions (Oracle8i) » Invoker Rights Model (Oracle8i) » Row Level Security: DBMS_RLS

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

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Software Used in Training 

PL/Vision: a library of packages installed on top of PL/SQL.
± PL/Vision Lite - use it, copy, change it for free -- unless you build software to be sold commercially. ± Active PL/SQL Knowledge Base: contains PL/Vision Professional, the fully supported and enhanced version. 

Demonstration scripts executed in the training can be found on the RevealNet PL/SQL Pipeline:
± http://www.revealnet.com/Pipelines/PLSQL/index.htm ± Archives surfboard, Miscellaneous, PL/SQL Seminar Files ± See filedesc.doc for a listing of many of the files.
plsql_ides.txt 

The PL/SQL IDE (Integrated Development Environment).
± You no longer have to use SQL*Plus and a crude editor! Choose from among the many listed in plsql_ides.txt.

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Achieving PL/SQL Excellence

Building with PL/SQL Packages 
 

Overview Initialization section Overloading

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What is a Package? 

A collection of code elements, from procedures and functions to TYPE, variable and cursor declarations.
± Single-most important structure within PL/SQL, and almost certainly one of the most under-utilized. ± Conceptually very simple, it can take some time to fully grasp the implications and potential of the package. 

The method of choice by Oracle and other software developers for extending the PL/SQL language.
± You will find packages in the database, in Oracle Developer/2000, in Oracle Application Server. 

Let¶s review some of the benefits of packages.
tmr.pkg dbparm.pkg

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you call the packaged procedures and functions instead. ± Can lead to performance improvements.pks te_employee.pkb  Construct very flexible and usable utilities for developers. package-based "component".page 6 . te_employee.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± There's a big difference between a bunch of separate programs and a coherent.When to Build a Package  Join physically logically-related code. watch.pkg  Improve transaction integrity by hiding data structures behind the package interface. ± Puts more structure and organization in your body of code. ± Instead of writing SQL directly in your programs. custrules.pkg insga.

the first time any package element is referenced.page 7 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Does the package have an init section? yes Run initialization code. no Complete request for packaged element.Package Initialization  The initialization section is a block of code at the end of the package body that is executed once per session. Program references package element the first time in each session. ± The PL/SQL runtime engine determines when and if this code should be run.

FUNCTION func RETURN BEGIN END. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Setting up package data which does not change for the duration of a session. ± Confirming that package is properly instantiated. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein BEGIN after/outside of any program defined in the pkg. most packages you build won't have one.page 8 . In fact. ± Can have its own exception handling section. PACKAGE BODY pkg IS PROCEDURE proc IS BEGIN END. ± Is not required.  Useful for: ± Performing complex setting of default or initial values.Package Initialization Structure  The initialization section: ± Is defined after and outside of any programs in the package. BEGIN END pkg.

'No profile for ' || USER). printer VARCHAR2(60). ± Body contains only initialization section. init. show_toolbar CHAR(1). printer FROM user_config WHERE user_id = USER.pkg init.tst this user.. tb_flag. defprinter INTO show_lov. END sessinit. END sessinit. */ SELECT lov_flag.page 9 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .. PACKAGE BODY sessinit IS /* No declared package elements at all! */ BEGIN /* Get user preferences for this user. 'lpt1'.  Also a package with many design flaws. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . EXCEPTION WHEN NO_DATA_FOUND THEN /* No record for show_lov := show_toolbar := printer := PACKAGE sessinit IS show_lov CHAR(1). show_toolbar. WHEN OTHERS THEN RAISE_APPLICATION_ERROR (-20000. 'Y'. */ 'Y'. Section  An unusual package! ± Specification contains only variables.Configure Session with Init.

pkg dates. ± The datemgr. fmts(2) := 'DD-MON-YYYY'.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . fmts(4) := 'MM/DD'.. fmts(9) := 'MM/DD/YYYY'. ± This increases the flexibility of the date conversion process. . BEGIN fmts(1) := 'DD-MON-RR'. Initialization section populates a PL/SQL table. fmts(12) := 'RRMMDD'. employs several PL/SQL tables to convert strings and to perform date arithmetic. END dt.page 10 . fmt_count := 12.pkg file demonstrates the basic technique (and the reliance on an initialization section) used to achieve this flexibility. PLVdate. datemgr. fmts(3) := 'DD-MON'. fmts(10) := 'MMDDYYYY'.Populate Collections  The PL/Vision Date package.. fmts(11) := 'YYYYMMDD'.

you give two or more programs the same name. ± Overloading transfers the "need to know" from the user to the overloaded program. ± If you want others to use your code. ± You can overload modules in any declaration section and in packages.page 11 . myproc myproc 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . myproc  Overloading is a critical feature when building comprehensive programmatic interfaces (APIs) or components using packages.Program Overloading  When you overload programs. you need to make that code as smart and as easy to use as possible.

± But Oracle couldn't offer that level of convenience without overloading. and took functions like TO_CHAR and TO_DATE totally for granted. Without overloading. 'MMDDYY'). number_string := TO_CHAR (10000).page 12 .Overloading in PL/SQL Built-ins  PL/SQL uses overloading in many common functions. date_string := TO_CHAR (SYSDATE. number_string := TO_CHAR_FROM_NUMBER (10000). you would have to deal with something like this: date_string := TO_CHAR_FROM_DATE (SYSDATE. 'MMDDYY'). ± You just probably never gave it a thought. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

± 2. ± The programs are of different types: procedure and function.  Undistinguishing characteristics: ± Functions differ only in their RETURN datatype. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . IN OUT). VARCHAR2 is not different enough). OUT.  Distinguishing characteristics: ± The formal parameters of overloaded modules must differ in number. There are two different "compile times": ± 1. When you compile the package or block containing the overloaded code. order or datatype family (CHAR vs.How Overloading Works  For two or more modules to be overloaded. the compiler must be able to distinguish between the two calls at compile-time. When you compile programs that use the overloaded code.page 13 . ± Arguments differ only in their mode (IN. ± Their formal parameters differ only in datatype and the datatypes are in the same family.

page 14 .func1 (v_value)). which one? too_similar. which one? param_modes. PACKAGE param_modes IS PROCEDURE proc1 (val IN VARCHAR2).PUT_LINE (only_returns. which one? DBMS_OUTPUT.Examples of Invalid Overloadings PACKAGE too_similar IS PROCEDURE calc (reg_in IN CHAR).calc ('123'). PROCEDURE proc1 (val IN OUT VARCHAR2). Only difference is parameter mode. FUNCTION func1 (val IN VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2. PACKAGE only_returns IS FUNCTION func1 (val IN VARCHAR2) RETURN DATE. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END too_many_cals. PROCEDURE calc (reg_in IN VARCHAR2). END param_modes. Parameter data types cause conflict. END only_returns. Only difference is function RETURN type.proc1 (v_value).

PUT_LINE procedure illustrates this technique -and the PL/Vision p. ± The DBMS_OUTPUT.Overload Wherever Possible  Supporting Many Data Combinations ± Apply the same action to different kinds or combinations of data. In this case.l substitute does an even better job. you may construct different versions of the ³same´ program which correspond to different patterns of use.  Overloading by Type. the overloading does not provide a single name for different activities. so much as providing different ways of requesting the same activity. You use the type of data and not its value to determine which of the overloaded programs should be executed.  Fitting the Program to the User ± To make your code as useful as possible. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 15 . not Value ± A less common application of overloading.

YYYY . PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2. mask_in IN VARCHAR2 := 'Month DD.spb PROCEDURE l (boolean_in IN BOOLEAN). END p. p.HH:MI:SS PM'). boolean_in IN BOOLEAN). number_in IN NUMBER).sps p. date_in IN DATE. allowing the user to pass data to the "display engine" without writing "pre-processing" code.A "Classic" Overloaded Package  Many different datatype combinations.HH:MI:SS PM'). YYYY . mask_in IN VARCHAR2 := µMonth DD. PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2. PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2. PACKAGE p IS PROCEDURE l (date_in IN DATE. PROCEDURE l (number_in IN NUMBER).page 16 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2).

PUT_LINE (SQLERRM || ': ' || TO_CHAR (SQLCODE)). 'MM/DD/YY HH:MI:SS')). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . p. DBMS_OUTPUT.. p.. DBMS_OUTPUT. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein ‡Extended overloadings are more likely to meet user needs. DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE ('FALSE'). SQLCODE). ELSE DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE ('So what is different?').l (SQLERRM. p. IF print_report_fl THEN DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE ('TRUE').Advantage of Extended Overloading ‡ Minimal overloading means lots of extra coding.l ('So what is different?'). END IF.l (SYSDATE).l (print_report_fl).page 17 .PUT_LINE (TO_CHAR (SYSDATE. p.

± If you want to write software that is admired.. can be applied or needed under very different circumstances. the user of your package can benefit from writing less code. such as "display data" or "create a file". ± Your code is a a more natural "fit" under a variety of requirements.page 18   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .and taken completely for granted. think about the way it will be used. In my experience. appreciated.Fitting the Program to the User Writing "unnecessary" code? Time to overload!  A single piece of functionality. few developers are considerate enough of their users to try to anticipate their needs. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . If you take these different circumstances into account when you design your package specification..

UTL_FILE. right? WRONG! PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 'W'). 'exists.PUT_LINE (fid. ± Here is the code required by UTL_FILE: DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.flg'. 'blah'). BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE. ± She doesn't care what's in it.Creating a File for a Quick Touch  Suppose a developer needs to create a file to be used as a "flag" in the operating system.FCLOSE (fid).page 19  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .FILE_TYPE.FOPEN ('tmp/flags'. so this is just the way it has to be. even though you are simply going to close the file immediately after opening it. sometimes you will want to create a file and then perform additional operations. It just needs to be present.  In other words. you have to declare the record to hold the file handle. END. UTL_FILE. Of course.

 Overloading of FCreate PACKAGE PLVfile IS /* Procedure */ PROCEDURE fcreate (file_in IN VARCHAR2.put_line (fid.Procedure and Function Overloaded  Why not overload a "create file" program so that you can pick the one that most closely fits your situation? Consider the PLVfile package of PL/Vision.flg').FILE_TYPE.ini'.pkg PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . line_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) RETURN UTL_FILE. v_user). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Use as Function DECLARE fid UTL_FILE. /* Function */ FUNCTION fcreate (file_in IN VARCHAR2. custrules. PLVfile. BEGIN fid := PLVfile.fcreate ('temp.page 20 . END PLVfile.FILE_TYPE. END. line_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL). TO_CHAR (SYSDATE)). Use as Procedure BEGIN PLVfile.fcreate ('exists.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . when you use DBMS_SQL to set up a dynamic query.page 21 . ± Pass a piece of data of the right type. Define a different program name for each datatype.  There are three ways to accomplish this: ± Don't overload. you must call the DEFINE_COLUMN procedure to define the datatype of the Nth column in the cursor. ± For example. the user does not need to pass data. but the type of data. ± Pass a string ³name´ of the datatype."By-Type" Overloading  In some situations.

. 1).VARCHAR2_TYPE.NUMBER_TYPE)... BEGIN DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL.Options for Specifying Column Type  Don't even bother overloading. lotsa names. 2. DBMS_SQL.  So many program names to remember! Pass a literal value.. DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_VARCHAR2_COLUMN (cur....DEFINE_COLUMN (cur..func 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. 1.. DBMS_SQL.. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.DEFINE_COLUMN ± PLVgen. 30). 30). ± DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_INTEGER_COLUMN (cur.  Now let's look at two examples of overloading by datatype. Pass a named constant. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. 'NUMBER'). 1. 2.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.page 22 . 'STRING'... 2. DBMS_SQL. Lotsa typing. 30).  Nasty hard-coding.

DBMS_SQL. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 'a'.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.DEFINE_COLUMN procedure defines the datatype of a column. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.page 23 .DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.of the correct type.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.DEFINE_COLUMN. 30). 2. 1. ± The three code blocks below are equivalent.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. ± To make it easier to accomplish this task. 30). 1). DBMS_SQL. you only need to pass a value -. 1. from the perspective of DBMS_SQL. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. v_empno).Defining Dynamic SQL Columns  The DBMS_SQL. 2.GET_TIME). 2. 1. USER. 30).any value -. v_ename. DBMS_UTILITY.

func ('total_salary'. please! 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Any number. SQL> exec plvgen. type_in IN VARCHAR2). PROCEDURE func (name_in IN VARCHAR2. type_in IN DATE).Generating Functions by Value  In PLVgen. 1) A date function. PACKAGE PLVgen IS PROCEDURE func (name_in IN VARCHAR2.page 24 . PROCEDURE func (name_in IN VARCHAR2. type_in IN NUMBER). SYSDATE) SQL> exec plvgen. any string.func ('last_date'. any Boolean will do. ± The particular value itself is of no importance. please! A number function. the user indicates the type of function to be generated by providing a value. any date.

PROCEDURE calc (comp_id_IN IN company.  In the above example.comp_id%TYPE). END. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .The Frustrations of Overloading  Watch out! An overloading can compile successfully. PACKAGE profits IS PROCEDURE calc (comp_id_IN IN NUMBER).page 25 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . ± When I compile profits. PL/SQL does not sense a conflict with above overloading even though comp_id is a numeric column. I rely on an anchored type (%TYPE) to establish the datatype of the second calc¶s parameter. but you might later found out that you cannot actually call any of the overloaded programs.

 Can I overload two programs which have parameters that differ only by name. how would you do it? (Don't peek at the next page!) BEGIN sales. sales. END. sales.page 26 .Quiz! Nuances of Overloading PACKAGE sales IS PROCEDURE calc_total (zone_in IN VARCHAR2).pkg ? 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .calc_total ('ZONE2'). why not? ± If so.calc_total ('NORTHWEST'). like calc_totals shown above? ± If not. PROCEDURE calc_total (reg_in IN VARCHAR2). END sales.

estimate_percent=>50). next_date => TRUNC (SYSDATE + 1). ± You can skip over (not specify values for) any IN parameters that have default values.sql  Advantages 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .submit ( job => v_jobno. namednot. This is especially useful when working with infrequently used built-in programs. interval => 'TRUNC(SYSDATE+1)'). what => 'DBMS_DDL.''LOAD1''. That way you don't have to know and pass default values.'.Using Named Notation <formal parameter name> => <expression>  Explicit association between the formal parameter (the "name") with the actual parameter (the "value").''ESTIMATE''.null. of named notation include: ± Code is more "self-documenting". DBMS_JOB.''TENK''' || '.ANALYZE_OBJECT ' || '(''TABLE''.page 27 .

page 28 . Oracle8 and above) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Three types of collections: ± Index-by tables (Oracle7 only.Achieving PL/SQL Excellence PL/SQL Collections   Collections are single-dimensioned lists of information. originally called PL/SQL tables) ± Nested tables (Oracle8 and above) ± Variable arrays (VARRAYs.

page 29     1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .When to Use Collections  Maintain any kind of list of related information for use in your programs. which are otherwise not supported in PL/SQL Cache data in session-level memory for faster access. Build hash tables (custom indexing structures). Avoid mutating table errors in database triggers. Improve query performance by avoiding joins.  Emulate bi-directional cursors. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

 Characteristics of an index-by table: ± Unbounded » Practically speaking. ± Homogeneous » Data in each row has the same structure.483. Valid row numbers range: -2. Instead. this broad range allows you to employ the row number as an intelligent key. ± Sparse » Data does not have to be stored in consecutive rows of information.647 to 2.483. DECLARE TYPE inmem_emp_t IS TABLE OF emp%ROWTYPE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER.147. ± Available only in PL/SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 30 .147.Index-By Tables TYPE <table_type> IS TABLE OF <datatype> INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. emp_copy inmem_emp_t.647 » You will not actually create tables this large.

Variable declaration children child_list_type.Index_by Tables TYPE declaration PACKAGE BODY family IS TYPE child_list_type IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2 (30) INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. Error: NO_DATA_FOUND 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .pkg children 6306 6412 6904 µBarbara Anne¶ µGary Richard¶ µLisa Marie¶ children (6810) := µAdam Russell.page 31 . Component Selection kid := children (4). children (6904) := 'Lisa Nadezhka'. children 6306 6412 6810 6904 µBarbara Anne¶ µGary Richard¶ µAdam Russell¶ µLisa Nadezhka¶ datemgr.

Valid row numbers range: 1 to 2. DECLARE TYPE when_t IS TABLE OF DATE.483.647 ± Initially dense. birthdays when_t.147.Nested Tables [CREATE OR REPLACE] TYPE <table_type> IS TABLE OF <datatype> [NOT NULL]. but can become sparse if you DELETE inner rows ± Available both in PL/SQL and SQL (as a column in a table) ± The order of elements is not preserved in the database 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . but only with explicit EXTEND requests » Practically speaking. ± Unbounded.  Nested table characteristics ± Homogeneous » Each row contains the same structure of data.page 32 .

kids child_table_type) NESTED TABLE kids STORE AS kids_ntab.Nested Tables CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE child_table_type IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2 (30).sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 33 . For ORACLE's use only db_family surname kids BOLZ BOND Eric Thomas Max Richard Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Marie ntdemo. CREATE TABLE db_family (surname VARCHAR2 (30).

 Characteristics of variable arrays: ± Homogeneous » Each row contains the same structure of data. ± Available both in PL/SQL and SQL (as a column in a table) » And the order of elements are preserved in the database.483. Maximum value: 2.147. DECLARE TYPE numbers_t IS VARRAY (10) OF NUMBER.647 ± Dense » Never any gaps between defined rows.Variable Arrays [CREATE OR REPLACE] TYPE <table_type> IS VARRAY (N) OF <datatype> [NOT NULL].page 34 . ± Bounded » Upper limit established when the TYPE is defined. ± Variable arrays are actually stored in the DB table 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . can be EXTENDed or TRIMmed. salaries numbers_t.

page 35 . kids child_va_type).Variable Arrays CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE child_va_type IS VARRAY (8) OF VARCHAR2 (30). CREATE TABLE db_family (surname VARCHAR2 (30). db_family surname kids BOLZ BOND 1 Barbara Anne 2 Gary Richard 3 Lisa Marie 1 Eric Thomas 2 Max Richard vademo.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

or in a PL/SQL declaration section.. ± For index-by tables. ± You can declare multiple collections from that TYPE. Best option: package specification..page 36 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . . CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE tabtypes IS TYPE integer_ibt IS TABLE OF INTEGER INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. TYPE integer_vat IS VARRAY(10) OF INTEGER. END tabtypes. you can define the TYPE in the database with a CREATE statement. from the TYPE. ± For nested tables and VARRAYs. TYPE integer_nt IS TABLE OF INTEGER. this can only occur in a PL/SQL declaration section.  Then you declare an instance of that type.Defining Collections  First. a collection. you define the TYPE of the collection.

colldd. ± The code used to define the collection TYPE  There is no information in the data dictionary available for index-by tables.  ALL_COLL_TYPES ± The types you have created (or have access to) in the database  ALL_TYPE_ATTRS ± Attributes of the data type used in the TYPE definition.attr_type_name Attributes all_coll_types T.' || A.attr_name || ' .type_name. 'TMRS_VT') T. all_type_attrs A T.page 37 .owner = A.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .owner = USER T.type_name IN ('NAMES_VT'.elem_type_name = A.Obtaining Collection Information SELECT FROM WHERE AND AND AND A.owner T.

± Nested tables and VARRAYs are atomically null.Initializing Collections  Before you can use a collection. / DECLARE -. ± Index-by tables are initialized automatically. You must initialize them explicitly with a constructor. salary_history numbers_t). 300). TYPE defined in PL/SQL TYPE defined in the database Collection used in a table PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 200. DECLARE TYPE numbers_t IS VARRAY (10) OF NUMBER. 200. BEGIN CREATE TYPE numbers_t IS VARRAY (10) OF NUMBER. empty when declared. 300).Initialize the collection. it must be initialized. salaries numbers_t := numbers_t (100.page 38 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . BEGIN CREATE TABLE employee_denorm ( employee_id INTEGER. salaries numbers_t := numbers_t (100.

the datatype for any of the collection types can also be an object.  Starting with Oracle8. ± But you cannot have nested composite datatypes.page 39 . Again. consider putting TYPEs in database or packages. BEGIN comp_tab(1). ± Can easily create an index-by table with the same structure as a database table by declaring a record with %ROWTYPE. the ³homogeneous´ contents of an index-by table's row can be a record .comp_id := 1005. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Collections of Composites  Starting with Oracle 7.company_id%TYPE. total_rev NUMBER). comp_tab comp_tabtype.3. DECLARE TYPE comp_rectype IS RECORD (comp_id company. TYPE comp_tabtype IS TABLE OF comp_rectype INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. Here we have a three step process.

 Especially handy when caching data from relational tables in user memory. ± You should not fill sequentially.Sparse is Nice  The sparse characteristic of index-by tables and nested tables can be put to good use. In this way.page 40 . order by date. your collections will contain a row's worth of information. consider using the row value as "smart data" for your application (primary key. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± In almost every case. unless the order in which items are selected is of importance. a row exists in the table only when a value is assigned to that row. etc.  Rows do not have to be defined sequentially. it is very similar to a database table. ± In an index-by table. ± Instead.).

page 41 . Initialization section of package 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein  This package moves the entire contents of the emp table into its corresponding collection.empno) := rec.Transferring DB Table to Collection CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE psemp IS TYPE emp_tabtype IS TABLE OF emp%ROWTYPE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY psemp IS BEGIN FOR rec IN (SELECT * FROM emp) LOOP emp_tab (rec.tst  PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END. Some questions: ± Why would I put this collection table in a package? ± When is the collection loaded with the data? ± What rows in that collection are utilized? psemp. END LOOP. emp_tab emp_tabtype.pkg psemp. END.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  For index-by tables. / DECLARE greedy_ceos names_t := names_t (). ± For VARRAYs and nested tables. even if you haven't assigned a value explicitly.page 42 . the row exists. / Error -6533! You've got to EXTEND first!  EXTEND before assigning a value to a row. you must reference existing rows or a NO_DATA_FOUND exception is raised. BEGIN greedy_ceos(1) := 'Hamilton. END. Jordan'. ± Use the EXISTS method to determine if a row existed. but you must do it for VARRAYs and nested tables. ± Not necessary for index-by tables. once extended.Collection Gotchas CREATE TYPE names_t IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2(30).

 You can EXTEND one or more rows. optional argument. salaries(salaries. END IF.EXTEND (10.Extend by 10 since I know I will need that many.page 43 . BEGIN IF salaries.tst  Include a handler for NO_DATA_FOUND or use the EXISTS method to avoid these exceptions.PUT_LINE ('Data for employee not available. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Set the value of each new row to the contents of the first row.Handling Collection Gotchas BEGIN -. ELSE DBMS_OUTPUT.EXISTS (v_employee_id) THEN -. salaries. preextend.').We are OK.FIRST)). -. ± Assign a default value with a second. ± Pre-extending a large number of rows in advance can improve performance.

page 44 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . FIRST/LAST return lowest/highest numbers of defined rows. ± EXTEND adds rows to a nested table or VARRAY. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . NEXT/PRIOR return the closest defined row after/before the specified row.  The built-in package plitblm (PL/sql Index-TaBLe Methods) defines these methods.Collection Methods  Obtain information about the collection COUNT returns number of rows currently defined in the table. ± TRIM removes rows from a VARRAY. number of elements allowed in a VARRAY. EXISTS returns TRUE if the specified row is defined. ± LIMIT tells you the max. ± ± ± ±  Modify the contents of the collection ± DELETE deletes one or more rows from the index-by table.

The DELETE Method  You can delete one or more rows from a collection using DELETE: BEGIN -.LAST).Delete a range of rows myCollection.page 45 . -. END. -.DELETE (myCollection.DELETE (1400.FREE_UNUSED_USER_MEMORY.DELETE. DELETE releases memory. 17255). but you may also want to call DBMS_SESSION.Delete one (the last) row myCollection. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Delete all rows myCollection.

Navigating Through Collections 


Use FIRST and NEXT to move from beginning to end. Use LAST and PRIOR to move from end to beginning.
rowind PLS_INTEGER := birthdays.FIRST; -- birthdays.LAST BEGIN LOOP EXIT WHEN rowind IS NULL; DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE (birthdays(rowind).best_present); rowind := birthdays.NEXT (rowind); -- birthdays.PRIOR END LOOP; END;

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Using Collections Inside SQL 

Nested tables and VARRAYs can be defined as columns of a table and referenced directly within SQL. You can also apply SQL operations to the contents of nested tables and VARRAYs with these operators:
± THE - Maps a single column value in a single row to a virtual database table ± CAST - Maps a collection of one type to a collection of another type ± MULTISET - Maps a database table to a collection ± TABLE - Maps a collection to a database table  

Index-by tables are programmatic constructs only.
± You cannot make a direct reference to an index-by table in SQL. ± Instead, so do indirectly with a PL/SQL function.

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Using Collections inside SQL
SELECT column_value FROM TABLE (SELECT children FROM db_family WHERE surname = 'BOLZ'); db_family surname children BOLZ BOND Eric Thomas Max Richard UPDATE TABLE (SELECT children FROM db_family WHERE SURNAME = 'BOLZ) SET column_value = 'Lisa Nadezhka' WHERE column_value = 'Lisa Marie'); db_family surname children BOLZ ...
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Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Marie

column_value Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Marie

Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Nadezhka

Using the THE Operator 

Use THE to manipulate (retrieve, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE) contents of a nested table in a database table.
± Can only use with nested tables, not VARRAYs or index-by tables. ± Only accessible from within SQL statements in PL/SQL.
CREATE TYPE action_list_t IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2(100); / CREATE TABLE inflation_beater ( focus_area VARCHAR2(100), activities action_list_t) NESTED TABLE activities STORE AS activities_tab; SELECT VALUE (act) FROM THE (SELECT activities FROM inflation_beater WHERE focus_area = 'FORTUNE 100') act; UPDATE THE (SELECT activities FROM inflation_beater WHERE focus_area = 'FORTUNE 100') SET COLUMN_VALUE = 'DISBAND OSHA' WHERE COLUMN_VALUE = 'SIDESTEP OSHA';

the.sql

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Using the TABLE and CAST Operators 

Use CAST to convert a collection from one type to another, TABLE to convert a TYPE into a database table.
± Cannot use with index-by tables. ± Useful when you would like to apply SQL operations against a PL/SQL collection (ie, one not stored in a database table).
DECLARE nyc_devolution cutbacks_for_taxcuts := cutbacks_for_taxcuts ('Stop rat extermination programs', 'Fire building inspectors', 'Close public hospitals'); BEGIN DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE ( 'How to Make the NYC Rich Much, Much Richer:'); FOR rec IN (SELECT COLUMN_VALUE ohmy FROM TABLE (CAST (nyc_devolution AS cutbacks_for_taxcuts))) LOOP DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE (rec.ohmy); END LOOP; cast.sql END;

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CAST(MULTISET(SELECT bh.genus AND bh.genus. multiset. with potential client-server performance impact.page 51 .species) AS country_tab_t) FROM birds b.species. b.species = b.country FROM bird_habitats bh WHERE bh. view. Retrieves all detail bird_row bird_curs%ROWTYPE. DECLARE CURSOR bird_curs IS SELECT b. ± You can use MULTISET to emulate or transform relational joins into collections. OPEN bird_curs. FETCH bird_curs into bird_row. END. information for the BEGIN master in one trip.genus = b. converting a set of data (table. ± Cannot use with index-by tables.Using the MULTISET Operator  MULTISET is the inverse of TABLE. query) into a VARRAY or nested table.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

hiredates date_tab. FUNCTION rowval (indx IN PLS_INTEGER) RETURN DATE IS BEGIN RETURN hiredates (indx). but hide the index-by table structure. WNPS.sql PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END. call functions that retrieve the table's data. END. WNDS).Referencing IB Tables inside SQL  You can't directly reference an index-by table's contents inside SQL. END. PRAGMA RESTRICT_REFERENCES (rowval. Make accessible in SQL for Oracle8 and below. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY ibtab IS TYPE date_tab IS TABLE OF DATE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER.  CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE ibtab IS FUNCTION rowval (indx IN PLS_INTEGER) RETURN DATE. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein ibtab_in_sql.page 52 . Instead.

Examples of Collections in Action  Emulation of bi-directional cursor operations Avoid mutating table problems in database triggers.  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 53 .

nope.Bi-Directional Cursor Emulation  Oracle does not yet support the ability to move back and forth (and at random) through a cursor's result set. FUNCTION getRow RETURN employee_plus%ROWTYPE. This is particularly useful (read: efficient) when you need to perform multiple passes against the data. PROCEDURE nextRow.pkg bidir. END. deposit your data in a collection and then provide programs to access that data in the necessary fashion. Notice that the collection itself is hidden. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE bidir IS /* Iterate through rows in the result set */ PROCEDURE setRow (nth IN PLS_INTEGER). ± A talked-about feature for Oracle9i -.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . PROCEDURE prevRow.page 54 .  bidir. didn't make it!  Instead.

it is "mutating". you can use autonomous transactions to relax restrictions associated with queries. So what are you supposed to do when a row-level operation needs to "touch" that table? mutating. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .sql  Note: in Oracle8i.The Mutating Table Problem  Database triggers can be attached to the SQL statement and/or the individual row operations on a table. Statement Level UPDATE emp SET sal = 1000 UPDATE row 1 Row Level  UPDATE row N Row level triggers cannot query from or change the contents of the table to which it is attached.page 55 .

1st row trigger fires Nth row trigger fires Writes to list Writes to list Work List (PL/SQL Table)  Process data in the list.A Solution Based on Index-by Tables  Since you cannot perform the processing desired in the row-level trigger. Statement Trigger 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 56 . you have to remember what you needed to do. ± an index-by table is an ideal repository for this reminder list. you need to defer the action until you get to the statement level. If you are going to defer the work.

± By storing the salesperson¶s department ids as they change. Department ID Salesperson ID Sales Amount Rank 1055 1055 1055 1047  64333 65709 65706 70904 74055. we then know which departments to re-rank. but preferable. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± As the sales amount is updated in this table.page 57 .An Example: Ranking Salespeople  A table holds the rankings based on the amount of annual sales of salespeople within a department. ± We might update more than one department within a statement so we must be able to retain multiple department numbers.91 109000.88 144533. the rankings must also change to show the new standings for that department only.25 3 1 2 6 "Deferred work" is not only necessary.25 65011.

sales_amt != NEW. Statement Level Trigger CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER Rank_Sales_Strg AFTER INSERT OR UPDATE OR DELETE ON rank_sales BEGIN rank.pkg All details of the ranking are hidden in the package body. Doesn't fire unless the sales_amt is actually changed.dept_id).sales_amt) BEGIN rank.Trigger Logic Required Row Level Trigger CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER Rank_Sales_Rtrg AFTER insert OR update OF sales_amt ON rank_sales FOR EACH ROW WHEN (OLD. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END.rank_depts.page 58 .add_dept (:new. ranking. END.

PACKAGE BODY rank IS in_process BOOLEAN := FALSE.The Ranking Package PACKAGE rank IS PROCEDURE add_dept (dept_id_in IN INTEGER). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END IF.page 59 . END add_dept 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Create row to indicate department to be ranked. PROCEDURE rank_depts. END rank. TYPE dept_tabtype IS TABLE OF BOOLEAN INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. Table holds indicator that department needs re-ranking. PROCEDURE add_dept (dept_id_in IN INTEGER) IS BEGIN IF NOT in_process THEN dept_tab (dept_id_in) := TRUE. dept_tab dept_tabtype.

FIRST.DELETE. BEGIN IF NOT in_process THEN in_process := TRUE. END IF. in_process := FALSE.NEXT (v_deptid).The Ranking Package.page 60 . END LOOP. Continued PROCEDURE rank_depts IS v_deptid PLS_INTEGER := dept_tab. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Clean up for next time. dept_tab. END rank_dept. v_deptid := dept_tab. LOOP EXIT WHEN v_deptid IS NULL. END rank. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Avoid recursive execution of logic Row number is department number. perform_ranking (v_deptid).

 VARRAYs ± ± ± ± You want to preserve the order in which elements are stored.  Nested tables ± You want to store large amounts of persistent data in a column.Which Collection Type Should I Use?  Index-by tables ± Need to use in both Oracle7 and Oracle8 applications ± Want to take advantage of sparse nature for "intelligent keys".page 61 . ± You want to use inside SQL. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . You want to use inside SQL. Set of data is relatively small (avoid row chaining). You don't want to have to worry about sparseness.

Tips for Using Collections 

Wrap access to your collections.
± In many cases, you will want to avoid direct access to (assigning and retrieving) rows in your collections. ± This will give you the flexibility to change your implementation. ± You can also hide complex rules for setting the row number. 

Get creative!
± Don't always fill and use the index-by table sequentially. ± If you can somehow translate your application data to an integer, it can be used as a row number, and therefore offers indexed access. ± Julian date formats and DBMS_UTILITY.GET_HASH_VALUE offer two different methods.

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Achieving PL/SQL Excellence

Cursor Variables

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 63

Architecture of Cursor Variables
With Hard-Coded Cursors
Hard-Coded Cursor

With Cursor Variables

PGA

Cursor Variable

Cursor Variable

Result Set

Shared Global Area

Cursor Object

Result Set 

A cursor variable points to an underlying cursor object in the database.
± The cursor object in turns points to (and keeps its place in) a result set. 

The cursor variable can be passed between programs (even between, say, a Java servlet and a PL/SQL stored procedure).
± Static SQL only -- until Oracle8i.
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1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

Benefits of Cursor Variables 

Share cursor management between programs, even across the client-server divide.
± You don't have to pass the result sets of a cursor in order to allow the client-side program to have direct access to the data in the result set. ± Oracle Developer 2.1 utilizes cursor variables when you choose to construct a "base table block" around stored procedures instead of a database table. 

Share the same code across multiple, different queries.
± Since the cursor name is no longer hard-coded, you can use a single block of code (say, a reporting program) against different queries. ± We will try out this technique at the end of the section.

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Cursor Variable Example
DECLARE TYPE company_curtype IS REF CURSOR RETURN company%ROWTYPE;
Declare a variable cursor TYPE.

company_curvar company_curtype;

Declare cursor variable based on that type. Declare a record from cursor variable. OPEN cursor variable, specifying the query. FETCH from the cursor variable.

company_rec company_curvar%ROWTYPE; BEGIN OPEN company_curvar FOR SELECT * FROM company;

FETCH company_curvar INTO company_rec;
Close the cursor variable.

CLOSE company_curvar; END;
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Explicit Cursors and Cursor Variables 

Both hard-coded cursors and cursor variables work with static SQL.
± The SQL is fixed at compile-time. ± The difference is that with cursor variables, you get to decide which static query is opened. 

Many cursor operations are the same:
± Close a variable cursor with the same syntax as that for static cursors. ± Use cursor attributes (%ISOPEN, %FOUND, %NOTFOUND, %ROWCOUNT) with cursor variables (as of Release 2.3). ± Fetch data from the cursor result set through a cursor variable with the same syntax as that of static cursors. 

Let¶s focus on the new and different capabilities of cursor variables.
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1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

Declaring Cursor Types and Variables 

Cursors are declared in two steps, just like programmerdefined records and PL/SQL tables.
± 1. Define a cursor TYPE -- either "weak" or "strong". ± 2. Define a cursor variable.
DECLARE TYPE weak_curtype IS REF CURSOR; TYPE comp_curtype IS REF CURSOR RETURN company%ROWTYPE; curcmp_new comp_curtype; cur_any weak_curtype; BEGIN
Declare cursor variables from the TYPEs. Declare a STRONG referenced cursor TYPE. Declare a WEAK referenced cursor TYPE.

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Strong vs. Weak Cursor Types 

A strong (or constrained) cursor type has a defined return data specification.
± Can only reference cursor objects which return the same data specification, which can be any single SQL datatype or any previously defined record structure. ± Datatype mismatches are identified at compile time.

TYPE cur_typ_name IS REF CURSOR [ RETURN return_type ]; TYPE cur_typ_name IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE; /* Strong */ 

The weak (or unconstrained) cursor type does not have a RETURN clause.
± It can reference any cursor object, be opened FOR any query. ± Datatype mismatches can only be identified at runtime.

TYPE cur_typ_name IS REF CURSOR; /* Weak */
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Opening with the Cursor Variable
OPEN cursor_name FOR select_statement; 

When you open a cursor variable (whether of the weak or strong variety), you must provide the SQL query that identifies the result set.
± If the variable has not yet been assigned to cursor object, the OPEN FOR statement implicitly creates an object for the variable. ± If the variable is already pointing to a cursor object, the OPEN FOR reuses the existing object and attaches the new query to that cursor object. 

Remember, the cursor object is nothing more than a memory location.
± It is maintained independently of the query itself.
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emp_curvar emp_curtype. END.Opening with Strong Cursor Types DECLARE TYPE emp_curtype IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..page 71 . Match Needed BEGIN OPEN emp_curvar FOR SELECT * from emp. ± You can establish the return type based on a database table. .. a cursor or a programmer-defined record.  STRONG cursor data specifications must match or be compatible with the structure of the SELECT statement.

FUNCTION open_emp_or_dept (get_type_in IN VARCHAR2) RETURN pkg. END.  A weak cursor TYPE doesn't define the RETURN structure. OPEN retval FOR SELECT * FROM emp. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .cv_type. you can associate any SELECT statement with a weak cursor variable. REF TYPE placed in package so that it is "globally" available. RETURN retval. Verification will take ELSIF get_type_in = µDEPT¶ place at the FETCH. END IF. THEN OPEN retval FOR SELECT * FROM dept.cv_type IS retval pkg.page 72 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .Opening with Weak Cursor Types PACKAGE pkg IS TYPE cv_type IS REF CURSOR. END. BEGIN IF get_type_in = µEMP¶ THEN Either query will "do".

± Fetching can continue with a different INTO clause..Fetching from the Cursor Variable FETCH cursor_var_name INTO record_name.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .. ± The ROWTYPE_MISMATCH exception is raised on failure.page 73 . FETCH cursor_var_name INTO var_name. var_name. it match the OPEN FOR statement structure.   Compatibility checks are performed prior to fetching row. ± FOR WEAK cursor types. The INTO structure must match in number and datatype to: ± FOR STRONG cursor types. . mismatch. it match the cursor type data specification.  Fetching with cursor variables follows the same rules as those with static cursors..

sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± With explicit cursors. ± You could use dynamic SQL to achieve this effect. ± JDBC recognizes cursor variables. since cursor names are "hard coded".  hccursor. you have to repeat the code for each cursor.page 74 . Use a single block of code to manipulate multiple queries.  Define a base table block in Forms Builder (formerly Oracle Forms) on stored procedures rather than a table directly. but static cursors are more efficient than dynamic SQL and cursor variables are less complicated than DBMS_SQL.When to Use Cursor Variables  Make it easier for calling programs (especially non-PL/SQL programs) to manipulate result sets.

FUNCTION open (type_in IN INTEGER) RETURN cv_t. ± It also creates the data structures you will need to call the function. / allcurrs. END. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE allcurs IS bydept CONSTANT INTEGER := 1.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . TYPE cv_t IS REF CURSOR RETURN int_rt. bysal CONSTANT INTEGER := 2.pkg allcurs.page 75 .tst explcv. TYPE int_rt IS RECORD (key INTEGER).Consolidating Different Cursors  The following package specification hides the SQL behind a single open function.

END. RETURN retval. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY allcurs IS FUNCTION open (type_in IN INTEGER) RETURN cv_t IS retval cv_t.Consolidating Different Cursors  The open function simply opens FOR a different SELECT based on the criteria passed to it. END. ELSIF type_in = bysal THEN OPEN retval FOR SELECT empno FROM emp ORDER BY SAL. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 76 . END IF. BEGIN IF type_in = bydept THEN OPEN retval FOR SELECT empno FROM emp ORDER BY deptno.

in this case. END.l (v_empno).cv_t. DECLARE cv allcurs. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . v_empno emp.empno%TYPE. CLOSE cv.page 77 "Report processor" is independent of the particular SELECT . LOOP FETCH cv INTO v_empno.Hiding SQL Variations in Resulting Code  The following block demonstrates that you can alter which SQL statement to query -. BEGIN cv := allcurs. change the ORDER BY clause -without having to change the code you write. EXIT WHEN cv%NOTFOUND.open (&1). p. END LOOP.

unconstrained type. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .1.page 78 .  Strong and Weak Types ± Create REF CURSORs for specific queries. or a more general.Cursor Variables Let's summarize  Flexibility ± Choose which static SQL statement is executed at run-time.  Hide Variations in Underlying SQL ± You no longer have to repeat the same code for different cursors.  Improve Client-Side Access to Data ± At least in Oracle Developer 2. you can build screens that access data using a cursor variable-based procedural API.

Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Dynamic SQL  Dynamic SQL and dynamic PL/SQL: ± The DBMS_SQL package ± Native dynamic SQL in Oracle8i 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 79 .

± Very common requirement on the Web.Dynamic SQL and PL/SQL Execution  "Dynamic SQL" mean that you construct the SQL statement or PL/SQL block at runtime and then execute it. ± Available in PL/SQL since Release 2.  Execute dynamically-constructed PL/SQL programs.1 and DBMS_SQL. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Also supported with "native dynamic SQL" in Oracle8i. What can you do with Dynamic SQL?  Build ad-hoc query and update applications.  Execute DDL inside PL/SQL programs.page 80 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . you no longer have to write SQL to generate SQL to get your job done. ± Construct powerful DBA utilities. ± One example: implement indirect referencing in PL/SQL.

page 81 . executed a single time. Method 4: queries with a variable number of items in the SELECT list and/or non-queries with a variable number of host variables. Method 2: non-queries with a fixed number of host variables. ± NDS does not support method 4. ± Different methods require the use of different programs in DBMS_SQL. execute one or more times. you can more quickly figure out how to code your solution. If you can recognize the types. Method 3: queries with a fixed number of items in the SELECT list and a fixed number of host variables. These methods are in increasing order of complexity.Four Methods of Dynamic SQL   Method 1: non-queries without host variables.    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

difficult to use. ± OPEN FOR <sql string>. ± But this package is very complex.page 82 .  The new "native dynamic SQL" or NDS of Oracle8i offers two native statements in the PL/SQL language to implement most of your dynamic SQL requirements: ± EXECUTE IMMEDIATE <sql string>. used for multi-row queries.Native Dynamic SQL  Prior to Oracle8i. you would use the DBMS_SQL built-in package to execute dynamic SQL. DML and single row fetches. and relatively slow (performance did improve significantly as of Oracle8). used for DDL. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

{IN | OUT | IN OUT] bind argument].EXECUTE IMMEDIATE EXECUTE IMMEDIATE sql-string [INTO {define_variable[. define_variables]. | record }] [USING {IN | OUT | IN OUT] bind argument [. collections and records.. including objects.. The USING clause allows you to specify bind arguments or variables to be passed into the SQL string before execution.. The INTO clause allows you to pass values from the select list of a single row query into local variables..  Use this statement to execute any dynamic SQL statement (including a PL/SQL block) except for multi-row queries.page 83   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .]. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

. END.000. END IF. whr IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. and not much of a democracy either!'). USER) || '.page 84 ..000 THEN DBMS_OUTPUT.' || tab || ' WHERE ' || NVL (whr. IF tabCount ('citizens'. table and retval INTEGER. 'insured = ''NO''') > 40. BEGIN EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'SELECT COUNT(*) FROM ' || NVL (sch. RETURN retval..sf PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .COUNT(*) For Any Table  Here's a handy and simple utility based on NDS: CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION tabCount ( tab IN VARCHAR2. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein tabcount81. WHERE clause.sf compare with: tabcount.. sch IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) RETURN INTEGER IS Specify schema. '1=1') INTO retval.PUT_LINE ( 'Not the best health care system in the world.

Other Execute Immediate Examples  Perform an update. EXECUTE IMMEDIATE v_str. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN pl ('Compile Error "' || SQLERRM || '" on: ' || v_str). END. PROCEDURE runprog (pkg_in IN VARCHAR2.. val_in IN NUMBER) IS BEGIN EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'UPDATE ' || tab_in || ' SET ' || col_in || ' = :val WHERE hiredate BETWEEN :lodate AND :hidate' USING val_in. Pass in bind variables with USING clause. END... name_in IN VARCHAR2) IS v_str VARCHAR2 (100). start_in. end_in..  Execute a stored procedure.page 85 . end_in IN DATE. start_in IN DATE.'.' || name_in || '. END. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE updnumval ( tab_in IN VARCHAR2. col_in IN VARCHAR2. BEGIN v_str := 'BEGIN ' || pkg_in || '. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

PROCEDURE add_profit_source ( hosp_name IN VARCHAR2. ± No special syntax needed.Using Objects and Collections in NDS  One of the key advantages to NDS over DBMS_SQL is that it works with Oracle8 datatypes..pkg PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein health$. pers IN Person. :revenue_inhibitors)' USING pers. the USING clause allows me to pass an object and nested table to an INSERT statement with a variable table name.page 86 . including objects and collections. ± In the following example. cond. cond IN preexisting_conditions) IS BEGIN EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'INSERT INTO ' || tabname (hosp_name) || ' VALUES (:revenue_generator.. END.

col IN VARCHAR2. cv cv_type. val VARCHAR2(32767). number or string column in any table. LOOP Familiar cursor FETCH cv INTO val. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE showcol ( tab IN VARCHAR2.Multiple Row Queries and NDS  Oracle extends the cursor variable feature of Oracle7 to support multi-row dynamic queries. '1 = 1'). showcol.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . variable syntax! EXIT WHEN cv%NOTFOUND.sp END. DBMS_OUTPUT. CLOSE cv. whr IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) IS TYPE cv_type IS REF CURSOR. BEGIN OPEN cv FOR 'SELECT ' || col || ' FROM ' || tab || ' WHERE ' || NVL (whr.PUT_LINE (val). END LOOP. ± Here is a simple utility the displays the values of any date. ndsutil.page 87 .

pkg    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 88 .Some Fine Print for NDS  You cannot pass schema elements (table names. then you provide a value for each placeholder (by position). ± If dynamic PL/SQL. You cannot pass the NULL literal directly in the USING clause. The USING clause for a query can only have IN bind arguments. You can have duplicate placeholders (for bind arguments). str2list. Instead. provide a value for each distinct placeholder (by name). etc. pass a variable with a NULL value. column names. ± If dynamic SQL.) through the USING clause.

the only way to perform dynamic SQL was with the DBMS_SQL package. You should only use DBMS_SQL when you cannot use NDS.Dynamic SQL using DBMS_SQL  Prior to Oracle8i. DBMS_SQL is a very large and complex package.page 89 . with many rules to follow and lots of code to write. The overhead for using DBMS_SQL has decreased significantly in Oracle8 and again in Oracle8i. in particular method 4. Supports all four methods of dynamic SQL.     1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

page 90 .Learning Through Examples  DDL ± Create an index from within PL/SQL  DML ± Update rows in a table  DML with binding ± Update rows using bind variables  Queries ± Method 3 and a dynamic WHERE clause  PL/SQL Version of "SELECT *" ± Example of Method 4  PL/SQL ± Create a generic calculation program 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

which will be used to execute the DDL statement. DDL_statement VARCHAR2(200) := 'CREATE INDEX ' || index_in || ' ON ' || tab_in || ' ( ' || col_in || ')'.PARSE (cur. col_in IN VARCHAR2) IS cur INTEGER := DBMS_SQL. ± Open a cursor. DDL_statement. ± Parse and execute that DDL statement.EXECUTE (cur).  creind.DDL with Dynamic SQL PROCEDURE create_index (index_in IN VARCHAR2. tab_in IN VARCHAR2.sp Creates an index on any column(s) in any table in your schema. fdbk INTEGER. END. DBMS_SQL.CLOSE_CURSOR (cur).NATIVE). fdbk := DBMS_SQL. ± Construct the DDL statement as a string.page 91 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . BEGIN DBMS_SQL.OPEN_CURSOR. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . DBMS_SQL.

OPEN_CURSOR. DBMS_OUTPUT. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE updnumval ( col_in IN VARCHAR2.PUT_LINE ('Rows updated: ' || TO_CHAR (fdbk)). DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL.page 92 .ename%TYPE.PARSE (cur. fdbk := DBMS_SQL.NATIVE). ename_in IN emp. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.CLOSE_CURSOR (cur). END. fdbk PLS_INTEGER.Updates with Dynamic SQL  Update numeric column for specified employees. updnval1.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 'UPDATE emp SET ' || col_in || ' = ' || val_in || ' WHERE ename LIKE UPPER (''' || ename_in || ''')'.EXECUTE (cur). val_in IN NUMBER) IS cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL.

start_in IN DATE. end_in IN DATE.OPEN_CURSOR.CLOSE_CURSOR (cur). END. DBMS_SQL.PUT_LINE ('Rows updated: ' || TO_CHAR (fdbk)). DBMS_OUTPUT.PARSE (cur. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. start_in). 'lodate'. 'hidate'.EXECUTE (cur).NATIVE). CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE updnumval ( col_in IN VARCHAR2. val_in IN NUMBER) IS cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL. updnval2.Updates with Bind Variables  Update salaries for date range using binding. 'UPDATE emp SET ' || col_in || ' = ' || val_in || ' WHERE hiredate BETWEEN :lodate AND :hidate'. fdbk PLS_INTEGER. DBMS_SQL. fdbk := DBMS_SQL. end_in). DBMS_SQL.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 93 .sp updnval3.BIND_VARIABLE (cur. DBMS_SQL.BIND_VARIABLE (cur.

Processing Flow for a Dynamic Query Allocate cursor memory (OPEN_CURSOR) Fill cursor with data (EXECUTE) Make sure SELECT is well formed (PARSE) Fill buffer with data (FETCH_ROWS) (EXECUTE_AND_FETCH) Bind any variables (BIND_VARIABLE) (BIND_ARRAY) Retrieve the data (COLUMN_VALUE) Give cursor structure (DEFINE_COLUMN) (DEFINE_ARRAY) Release cursor memory (CLOSE_CURSOR) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 94 .

sp showemps. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE showemps (where_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) IS cur INTEGER := DBMS_SQL. 1). DBMS_SQL. fdbk INTEGER.OPEN_CURSOR. rec. END. 1. DBMS_OUTPUT. LOOP EXIT WHEN DBMS_SQL. fdbk := DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL.empno). BEGIN DBMS_SQL.COLUMN_VALUE (cur. END LOOP.ename).DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.empno) || '=' || rec. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein showemps. 1. 'a'.sp showemp2.NATIVE). DBMS_SQL.. rec.page 95 .tst PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .FETCH_ROWS (cur) = 0. '1=1').ename). 2.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.Queries with Dynamic SQL  Show employees using a dynamic WHERE clause.EXECUTE (cur). 2. 60). 'SELECT empno..COLUMN_VALUE (cur. rec emp%ROWTYPE. DBMS_SQL.PUT_LINE (TO_CHAR (rec. DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL. ename FROM emp ' || ' WHERE ' || NVL (where_in.PARSE (cur.CLOSE_CURSOR (cur).

FOR each-column-in-table LOOP DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. END LOOP. END LOOP. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . DBMS_SQL.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . END. LOOP fetch-a-row. select_string.PARSE (cur. BEGIN FOR each-column-in-table LOOP add-column-to-select-list. datatype). END LOOP. END LOOP.Dynamic SELECT * FROM Any Table  Method 4 example: the number of columns queried changes with each table.COLUMN_VALUE (cur. ± The resulting code is much more complicated.NATIVE). nth_col. FOR each-column-in-table LOOP DBMS_SQL. val). nth_col.page 96 Very simplified pseudo-code intab. DBMS_SQL.

TRUE).EXECUTE_AND_FETCH (cur). ± Even if the exception is raised. the first row will still be fetched and available. raises NO_DATA_FOUND or raises the TOO_MANY_ROWS exception.Using EXECUTE_AND_FETCH FUNCTION execute_and_fetch (cursor_in IN INTEGER. numrows := DBMS_SQL.  Makes it easy to execute and fetch a single row from a query.EXECUTE_AND_FETCH (cur. exact_match IN BOOLEAN DEFAULT FALSE) RETURN INTEGER. ± Very similar to the implicit SELECT cursor in native PL/SQL. then EXECUTE_AND_FETCH will raise the TOO_MANY_ROWS exception if more than one row is fetched by the SELECT. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . which returns a single row. ± If exact_match is TRUE. numrows := DBMS_SQL.page 97 .

± Using static PL/SQL. I would have to modify my screen every time a new formula was added.sf dyncalc. ± With DBMS_SQL. NULL.Dynamic Formula Execution  Suppose I am building a user interface that allows a user to select a formula for execution. NULL. NULL. nargs_in IN INTEGER := arg1_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg3_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg5_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg7_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg9_in IN VARCHAR2 := ) RETURN VARCHAR2. arg6_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. and enter the arguments. a single function will do the trick. FUNCTION dyncalc ( oper_in IN VARCHAR2. NULL. arg4_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL.page 98 . arg2_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. arg8_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 0. arg10_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL dyncalc. NULL.

EXECUTE (cur). fdbk := DBMS_SQL.More on Dynamic PL/SQL BEGIN cur := open_and_parse ('BEGIN get_max_sal (:deptin. my_salary).even OUT arguments which are not being bound to any values. END.'). my_salary). DBMS_SQL. v_deptin).page 99 . END. You must have a BEGIN-END around the code. Possibilities inherent in dynamic PL/SQL are mind-boggling! dynplsql. DBMS_SQL.BIND_VARIABLE (cur. Use VARIABLE_VALUE to extract a value from any variable you have bound.sql dynplsql. µdeptin¶. DBMS_SQL.  Use BIND_VARIABLE to bind any placeholders in the string -.BIND_VARIABLE (cur. :salout).tst    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .VARIABLE_VALUE (cur. µsalout¶. µsalout¶.sp dynplsql.

2000). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . PL/SQL does not support indirect referencing.NATIVE). BEGIN DBMS_SQL.PARSE (v_cur. retval PLV.VARIABLE_VALUE (v_cur.CLOSE_CURSOR (v_cur). retval).pkg dynvar. DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL.EXECUTE (v_cur). but you can accomplish much of the same thing with dynamic PL/SQL execution.Indirect Referencing with Dyn PL/SQL  Oracle Forms offers support for indirect referencing with the NAME_IN and COPY built-ins. 'val'. DBMS_SQL.dbmaxvc2.OPEN_CURSOR.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . 'a'. END.page 100  dynvar. 'val'.'. fdbk PLS_INTEGER.BIND_VARIABLE (v_cur. fdbk := DBMS_SQL. RETURN retval. END. Here is an example of a "PL/SQL NAME_IN": FUNCTION valbyname (nm IN VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2 IS v_cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL. 'BEGIN :val := ' || nm || '.

± Call these immediately after your usage to make sure they refer to your cursor.DBMS_SQL Status Built-ins  The package offers a set of modules to return information about the lastoperated cursor in your session.  LAST_ROW_ID ± Returns the ROWID of last row processed.  LAST_ROW_COUNT ± Returns the cumulative count of rows fetched from the cursor.  LAST_SQL_FUNCTION_CODE ± Returns SQL function code of cursor.  IS_OPEN ± Is the cursor already open?  LAST_ERROR_POSITION ± Returns relative column position in cursor of text causing error condition.page 101 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

COLUMN_VALUE_LONG   First. ± DBMS_SQL. dumplong.DEFINE_COLUMN_LONG ± DBMS_SQL. Then you retrieve the column using the special COLUMN_VALUE_LONG variant.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Working with LONG Values  DBMS_SQL provides special procedures so that you can extract values from a LONG column in a table. ± Transfer the LONG contents into an index-by table so that you can transfer a value of more than 32K bytes into your PL/SQL program.page 102 .pkg dumplong. you define the column as a LONG.

New DBMS_SQL Features PL/SQL8 Extensions to DBMS_SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 103 .

inserts. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .New Features in DBMS_SQL  The functionality of DBMS_SQL has been extended in Oracle8 in several ways: ± Parse very long SQL strings ± Describe cursor columns ± Use "array processing" to perform bulk updates. deletes and fetches.page 104 . ± Support for RETURNING clause to avoid unnecessary queries.

col_cnt OUT INTEGER.DESCRIBE_COLUMNS (c IN INTEGER. ± The record TYPE is also defined in DBMS_SQL.page 105 .DESCRIBE_COLUMNS.  Returns all of the column information in an index table of records.DESC_TAB). ± Now you can call the DBMS_SQL. desc_t OUT DBMS_SQL. it was not possible to determine the datatypes of the columns defined in a cursor.  Before PL/SQL8.Describing Cursor Columns PROCEDURE DBMS_SQL. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE show_columns IS cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. desccols.DESC_TAB.page 106 . cols). 'SELECT hiredate. cols DBMS_SQL. END LOOP.PUT_LINE (cols(colind). DBMS_SQL. FOR colind IN 1 .DESCRIBE_COLUMNS (cur.tst showcols. ncols LOOP DBMS_OUTPUT.pkg desccols. ncols.col_name). ncols PLS_INTEGER. END. empno FROM emp'.PARSE (cur.OPEN_CURSOR..CLOSE_CURSOR (cur). DBMS_SQL.Basic Steps to Describe Columns  The following script shows the individual steps you will need to perform in order to use this feature. DBMS_SQL.NATIVE).sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

It really isn't "array processing".page 107 . when you perform updates. index tables. Instead of providing a scalar value for an operation. you specify an index table.. ± In actuality. i. DBMS_SQL then repeats your action for every row in the table.    This technique still."Array Processing" in DBMS_SQL  PL/SQL8 now allows you to specify the use of "arrays". however. DBMS_SQL is executing the specified SQL statement N times. inserts. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . can offer a significant performance boost over Oracle7 dynamic SQL.e. deletes and fetches. where N is the number of rows in the table.

± Encapsulate DBMS_SQL. ± Otherwise that SQL will be executed under the authority of the owner of the code.Recommendations for Dynamic SQL  Bind (vs.pkg whichsch. ± Increased chance of reusing parsed SQL. etc. concatenate) whenever possible.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . though you could write variations for those as well. column names. ± With NDS. not the invoker of the code. only possible for statements that do not need USING and INTO clauses.) through the USING clause.PARSE so that you include the trace in that program.page 108 . and easier code to write.  Use the Oracle8i invoker rights model whenever you want to share your dynamic SQL programs among multiple schemas. ± But remember: you cannot pass schema elements (table names.  Encapsulate statements to improve error handling.sql openprse. effdsql.

± If. but DBMS_SQL is hard to use. of course. Both implementations will still come in handy.. you have upgraded to Oracle8i!  Major Advantages of NDS: ± Ease of use ± Performance ± Works with all SQL datatypes (including userdefined object and collection types) ± Fetch into records  When You'd Use DBMS_SQL: ± ± ± ± ± ± ± Method 4 Dynamic SQL DESCRIBE columns of cursor SQL statements larger than 32K RETURNING into an array Reuse of parsed SQL statements Bulk dynamic SQL Available from client-side PL/SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 109 .NDS or DBMS_SQL: Which is Best?  Dynamic SQL and PL/SQL is very useful..

persistent messaging subsytem of Oracle 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Oracle Advanced Queuing  The high performance.page 110 . asynchronous.

consistent manner.page 111 .Who Needs Messaging? Everyone!  In the distributed world of the Internet. systems are now heavily reliant on the ability of components to communicate with each other in a dependable. Distribution Center Coffee Beans Producer Shipping Service Retailer Consumer 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Applications Relying on Messaging     Stock trading system Airline reservation system Auction portals Any e-commerce application 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 112 .

scalability and reliability all carry over to queues ± Strong history and retention ± Backup and recovery ± Comprehensive journaliing  Rich message content increases usefulness of queueing ± Use object types to define highly structured payloads  New to Oracle8i. message propagation. AQ now offers a publish/subscribe style of messaging between applications. the listen feature and notification capabilities.page 113 . ± Rule-based subscribers. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Key Features of Oracle AQ  Leverage full power of SQL ± Messages are stored in database tables  Database high availability.

AQ architectural overview Queue Monitor process Queue table Queue ³Producers´ Enqueued messages Message 4 Message 3 Message 2 Message1 ³Consumers´ Dequeued messages Messages include both control information and ³payload´ (content) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 114 .

0.Oracle AQ Highlights  In 8.page 115 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . AQ supports: ± ± ± ± ± Multiple queues Resetting order and priority of queued items Queue management using only SQL & PL/SQL Multiple message recipients Propagation of queue to remote servers  Oracle8i adds: ± ± ± ± Rules-based publish & subscribe Listening on multiple queues Easier monitoring Native Java interface PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

page 116 . Underlying database tables and views The queue monitor (background process) ± Set # of processes with the AQ_TM_PROCESSES initialization parameter.    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .AQ Components  The DBMS_AQ package offers enqueue and dequeue capabilities The DBMS_AQADM package provides administrative functionality to manage queues and queue tables.

whether multiple consumers Drops table if all queues in the table have been stopped Associates queue table with queue. sort column. payload type. optionally waiting for outstanding transactions Adds an ³agent´ as a subscriber 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . assigns retry and retention properties to queue Drops a stopped queue Can also turn on/off enqueue and dequeue operations Stops queue. storage clause.DBMS_AQADM Highlights CREATE_QUEUE_TABLE DROP_QUEUE_TABLE CREATE_QUEUE DROP_QUEUE START_QUEUE STOP_QUEUE ADD_SUBSCRIBER Assigns name.page 117 .

CREATE_QUEUE_TABLE (queue_table => 'msg'. Define a queue in the queue table DBMS_AQADM. END.pkg Start the queue PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . / BEGIN DBMS_AQADM. queue_table => 'msg').START_QUEUE (queue_name => 'msgqueue').page 118 . queue_payload_type => 'message_type'). text VARCHAR2(2000)). Define the "payload" Create the queue table DBMS_AQADM. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein aq.Creating Queue Tables and Queues CREATE TYPE message_type AS OBJECT (title VARCHAR2(30).CREATE_QUEUE (queue_name => 'msgqueue'.

± Only two procedures.page 119   aq.  ENQUEUE puts a message into a specified queue. but lots of complexity buried inside the parameters of these procedures.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . and returns a RAW message handle DEQUEUE extracts a message from a specified queue Parameters control message properties such as: ± Visibility (ON_COMMIT or IMMEDIATE) ± ± ± ± Priority Delay Expiration Locking behavior PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .The "operational package": DBMS_AQ  DBMS_AQ is deceptively simple.

BEGIN my_msg := message_type ( 'First Enqueue'. my_msg message_type.msgid_type. msgid).. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Declare records to hold various enqueue and msg properties. msgid aq.Simple Enqueue Example DECLARE queueopts DBMS_AQ.ENQUEUE_OPTIONS_T. aqenq*.MESSAGE_PROPERTIES_T.ENQUEUE ( 'msgqueue'. DBMS_AQ. queueopts.* Place the message on the specified queue and get a msg ID in return. msgprops DBMS_AQ.. 'May there be many more.page 120 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . my_msg. END.'). msgprops. Set up the payload with an object constructor.

relative_msgid := msgid1. 'And this one goes first.. queueopts. Modify the dequeue sequence by changing the deviation field and relative msg ID.page 121 . msgprops.ENQUEUE ('msgqueue'. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . queueopts. DBMS_AQ.').. BEGIN my_msg := message_type ( 'First Enqueue'. DBMS_AQ. msgid1).. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Specify a delay before the payload is available. Same setup as previous page .. my_msg. msgprops...ENQUEUE ( 'msgqueue'.BEFORE. msgprops. my_msg. my_msg := message_type ( 'Second Enqueue'.delay := 3 * 60 * 60 * 24.More Interesting Enqueue Example DECLARE . queueopts.sequence_deviation := DBMS_AQ.'). END. 'May there be many more. msgid2). queueopts...

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . /* defined in aq.msgid_type. Dequeue operation isolated in local module. getmsg (DBMS_AQ. PROCEDURE getmsg (mode_in IN INTEGER) IS BEGIN queueopts. END. BEGIN getmsg (DBMS_AQ. Demonstrates destructive and non-destructive dequeuing.Dequeue Example DECLARE queueopts DBMS_AQ.REMOVE). DBMS_AQ. my_msg. msgid aq. msgid). queueopts. END.DEQUEUE_OPTIONS_T.REMOVE). msgprops.page 122 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .BROWSE). aqdeq*.* Declare records to hold various dequeue and msg properties.dequeue_mode := mode_in.DEQUEUE ( 'msgqueue'. msgprops DBMS_AQ.pkg */ my_msg message_type.MESSAGE_PROPERTIES_T. getmsg (DBMS_AQ.

the higher the priority.1.msgid_type.MESSAGE_PROPERTIES_T.ENQUEUE_OPTIONS_T.pkg priority.priority := g_priority. item_obj.  A stack implementation using AQ demonstrates this well. queueopts.page 123 .IMMEDIATE.visibility := DBMS_AQ. BEGIN item_obj := aqstk_objtype (item).* 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . g_priority := g_priority . DBMS_AQ.pkg aqstk2. PROCEDURE push (item IN VARCHAR2) IS queueopts DBMS_AQ. msgprops.ENQUEUE ( c_queue. msgprops. queueopts. ± The lower the numeric priority value. aqstk. msgid aq. msgid). item_obj aqstk_objtype. msgprops DBMS_AQ. END.Prioritized Payloads  You can assign priorities to individual payloads and then dequeue according to those priorities.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein aqmult*.* PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 124 . BEGIN DBMS_AQADM. Add subscribers for the queue. DBMS_AQADM.CREATE_QUEUE_TABLE ( queue_table => 'major_qtable'.Defining Message Subscribers  You can specify that a message is to be enqueued for a list of subscribers.  Steps to working with a subscriber list: ± 1. SYS. queue_payload_type => 'student_major_t'. ± 2. NULL. ± The message is then not removed from the queue until all subscribers have dequeued the message. The queue table must be defined to support multiple subscribers or consumers. multiple_consumers => TRUE).AQ$_AGENT (name_in. NULL)).ADD_SUBSCRIBER ( c_queue.

Oracle AQ . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . improved security. ± Crucial for Oracle to have a message-oriented middleware in order to offer an all-Oracle solution. ± Much more robust that DBMS_PIPE. supporting a publish-subscribe model. LISTEN capability. ± Significant enhancements in Oracle8i. ± Should be strongly supported "down the road".page 125 .Summary  Very powerful and flexible architecture.  Considered by Oracle to be a core component of its overall solution.

page 126 .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Managing Large Objects with DBMS_LOB 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

LOB Terms  LOB = Large OBject: a category of datatype allowing storage of ³unstructured´ data up to 4 gigabytes LOB datatype can be: ± Column in table ± Attribute in object type ± Element in nested table   Possible applications include office documents. video. sounds.  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Images. ± Oracle has announced deprecation of LONGs.page 127 . they should no longer be used. LOB datatypes are the successor to LONGs. though they will probably not be actually desupported. etc.

page 128 . external do not ± External LOBs are read-only from within Oracle 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Key programming differences: ± Internal LOBs participate in transactions.Types of Large Objects  ³Internal´ LOBs ± BLOB: unstructured binary data ± CLOB: single-byte fixedwidth character data ± NCLOB: multi-byte fixedwidth character data (or varying width in )  ³External´ LOBs ± BFILE: pointer to an operating system file  Temporary LOBs ± Internal LOBs that do not participate in transactions. improving performance.

PL/SQL built-ins for LOBs  Package DBMS_LOB ± Supports for all LOBs: Reading. comparison and length checking ± For internal LOBs: Write. trim ± For external LOBs: File existence test. close  Other built-in functions ± LOADFROMFILE (load an external BFILE into a BLOB) ± EMPTY_LOB().page 129 . substring and instring searches. erase. append. open. copy. EMPTY_CLOB() ± BFILENAME 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Deceptively simple example  BLOB-typed column in a table CREATE TABLE incoming_faxes (fax_id INTEGER. BEGIN OPEN fax_cur. FETCH fax_cur INTO the_fax.  Retrieve record with BLOB into PL/SQL variable DECLARE CURSOR fax_cur IS SELECT fax FROM incoming_faxes. END. fax BLOB). Question: What¶s in the_fax? 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 130 . the_fax BLOB. received DATE. CLOSE fax_cur.

page 131 . tt LOBs <lob segment> fax_id 281937 received 12-JAN-98 fax <lob locator> Updati  t e LOB anges t e pointer is ompli ates se of LOBs ± LOB locators cannot span transactions ± Programs must lock records containing LOBs efore updating ± Programs performing L must accommodate dynamic LOB locator alues 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .The ³LOB locator´ LOB t l sel es [ ll ] t i i t r .

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .. EMPTY_CLOB()) RETURNING htmlloc INTO the_loc.Example: Piecewise CLOB programmatic insert  Create a table CREATE TABLE web_pages ( url VARCHAR2(512) PRIMARY KEY. .page 132 . 1 of 2  Must get a new LOB locator before writing into the LOB: DECLARE the_url web_pages. the_loc CLOB.com'.oodb.url%TYPE := 'http://www.. htmlloc CLOB). BEGIN INSERT INTO web_pages VALUES (the_url.

END.COUNT LOOP piece_length := LENGTH(html_tab(the_piece_no)).com'.oodb. END LOOP..url%TYPE := 'http://www. running_total := running_total + piece_length. several likely exceptions offset => running_total. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . into a CLOB column html_tab := UTL_HTTP. piece_length PLS_INTEGER. This block retrieves INSERT INTO web_pages VALUES (the_url. EMPTY_CLOB()) and loads a web page RETURNING htmlloc INTO the_loc. html_tab UTL_HTTP.Example: Piecewise CLOB programmatic insert DECLARE the_url web_pages. Note: We are ignoring amount => piece_length. buffer => html_tab(the_piece_no)). DBMS_LOB.WRITE(lob_loc => the_loc.page 133 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein BEGIN .HTML_PIECES. the_loc CLOB. FOR the_piece_no IN 1.REQUEST_PIECES(url => the_url). running_total PLS_INTEGER := 1.html_tab.

IF str_offset != 0 THEN DBMS_LOB. the_loc CLOB. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 134 . END.Example: Piecewise CLOB programmatic update DECLARE Program must lock the record explicitly CURSOR hcur IS SELECT htmlloc FROM web_pages WHERE url = 'http://www.com' FOR UPDATE. offset => str_offset. str_offset INTEGER. FETCH hcur INTO the_loc.WRITE(lob_loc => the_loc. pattern => 'oodb'). BEGIN OPEN hcur.INSTR(lob_loc => the_loc. str_offset := DBMS_LOB.oodb. amount => 4. END IF. buffer => 'cool'). CLOSE hcur.

ut IRECTORY namespace is global  Syntax: CREATE OR REPLACE DIRECTORY <directory name> AS '<full path to directory>'. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 135 .Preparing to use BFILEs  You must first create an Oracle I ORY´ ± Creates logical alias for full directory pat ± imilar to LIBRARY (used for C "external procedures").  Example: CREATE DIRECTORY web_pix AS 'D:\bill\training\pix'.

Using BFILE datatype in DDL  In a table. phones Phone_tab_t... addresses Address_tab_t. CREATE TABLE web_graphics ( image_id INTEGER.. scanned_card_image BFILE ). CREATE TYPE Business_card_t AS OBJECT ( name Name_t..  In an object type. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 136 . image BFILE).

END.  Example: DECLARE picture BFILE := BFILENAME('WEB_PIX'. Spec: FUNCTION BFILENAME(directory_exprn. 'prodicon.gif'). picture).The built-in BFILENAME function  Returns value of datatype BFILE. BEGIN INSERT INTO web_graphics VALUES (100015. file_exprn) RETURN BFILE.page 137 . /  Notes: ± No automatic file checking or synchronization ± No participation in transactions 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

DBMS_LOB. / loadblob.FILE_READONLY).FILECLOSE(pic_file). image BLOB). DBMS_LOB.LOADFROMFILE(dest_lob => pic_blob_loc. BEGIN INSERT INTO web_graphic_blobs VALUES (1. DBMS_LOB.FILEOPEN(pic_file. pic_blob_loc BLOB := EMPTY_BLOB().Loading File into Database BLOB CREATE TABLE web_graphic_blobs ( image_id INTEGER. pic_blob_loc) RETURNING image INTO pic_blob_loc.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . DBMS_LOB. 'prodicon.GETLENGTH(pic_file)).gif'). amount => DBMS_LOB. END. DECLARE pic_file BFILE := BFILENAME('WEB_PIX'. src_lob => pic_file.page 138 .

that can mean less I/O » Trigger will not fire until CLOSE » Indexes will not update until CLOSE ± ISOPEN 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . call. or transaction  Ability to retrieve LOB ³chunk size´ ± Allows programmer to tune READs and WRITEs  For all internal LOBs ± OPEN & CLOSE allow control over timing.page 139 .New DBMS_LOB APIs in 8i  Support for temporary LOBs ± No logging or rollback faster! ± Lifespan: session.

. ± LOB locator behavior slightly abstruse ± Inability to modify BFILEs directly from within PL/SQL.Summary  LOB support in Oracle is now significantly improved.page 140 . COLD 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Complete support in PL/SQL (and other APIs) ± Much better performance and control than with LONGs ± Usable in object types HOT  Some weaknesses..Large Object .

page 141 .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Leveraging Java Inside PL/SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

.. mid-tier.page 142 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . triggers in Java Distinct Java & PL/SQL namespaces  But first... PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . or server Not covered in this seminar  PL/SQL can call Java inside 8i server ± ± ± ± Command-line tools load Java classes DDL extensions publish Java classes Writing stored procedures.a BRIEF introduction to Java. functions.Overview of Java interoperability  Java inside or outside 8i server can call PL/SQL ± Standard JDBC and SQLJ calls with Oracle extensions ± Same Java on client.

page 143 . slickest piece of software ever designed by human beings? ± Just the latest in a series of "silver bullets" promoted by software vendors in order to prop up quarterly sales? ± The first and only successful O-O language? ± None of the above?  We don't really need to take a vote.. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± The end of programming history as we know it? ± The easiest.Question 1: What is Java?  Could it be. ± We just need to keep a firm grip on common sense and stay focused on delivering solutions. fastest..

± Ubiquitous in thousands of production applications and millions of lines of code. PL/SQL will still be: ± Faster and more productive than Java for database operations.  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 144 . it is very unlikely and totally unthinkable for years to come. ± A language in which hundreds of thousands of developers are trained.and very aggressively. to boot. ± Supported and improved by Oracle -.Question 2: Will Java Replace PL/SQL?  While that scenario is certainly possible.

 Everything is a class (or an object instantiated from a class). ± Well. everything exception the primitive datatypes. ± Don't get overwhelmed by all the classes and all the strange quirks.. ± Before you can call a (non-static) class method. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .. ± string is definitely not the same as String... you have to instantiate an object from that class..page 145 .Some Important Things to Remember  Java is a case sensitive language..  You don't have to know how to do everything with Java to get lots of value out of it.

Oh. no methods.Building a Java Class  Let's start from the very beginning. ± Used to test or run stand-alone a class.. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE hello IS BEGIN DBMS_OUTPUT.. public class Hello { public static void main (String[] args) { System.out. } }  No members.page 146 . except the "special" main method. by the way: the PL/SQL version 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .PUT_LINE ('Hello world!').println ("Hello world!"). END.

SET CLASSPATH = d:\Oracle\Ora81\jdbc\lib\classes111.7b\lib\classes.zip.d:\java D:> javac Hello.1.java file to a .page 147 .zip. e:\jdk1. ± You must also either have set the CLASSPATH or include it in your javac call. ± This will convert the .class file. ± It will also automatically recompile any classes used by your class that has not been compiled since last change.java -classpath d:\java 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . you must compile it with the javac command.Compiling Classes  Before you can use a class.

Running a Class  Run a class? What does that mean? It means that if your class contains a method with this header: public static void main (String[] args)  then you can "run" the main method with the java command: d:\java> java Hello  You can also pass one or more arguments on the command line: d:\java> java Hello mom Hello2.java 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 148 .

Let's build a performance analyzer class to explore these ideas. however. Usually.Using a Class  The main method is handy for providing a built-in test mechanism of your class.   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 149 . you will use a class by instantiating objects from the class and then invoking class methods on the object.

currentTimeMillis to calculate elapsed time to nearest thousandth of a second.currentTimeMillis(). public void capture () { Gstart = System. } } p. } public void showElapsed () { p.l ("Elapsed time for " + context. System. elapsed()). class Tmr { private long Gstart = 0.java 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .java Tmr.Compare Performance of Methods  Use System.Gstart).currentTimeMillis() .page 150 .currentTimeMillis() . } public long elapsed () { return (System.java InFile.Gstart).l ("Elapsed time ". } public void showElapsed (String context) { p.

page 151 .  Abstract class ± The class can contain members and methods.  Inner class ± Classes that are defined inside other classes. but at least one method remains unimplemented..  Interface class ± The class only contains unimplemented methods. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . besides the "regular" kind we just saw..Types of Classes  There are several different kinds of classes in Java.

page 152 .  Polymorphism ± An object of a class can have "multiple" forms. ± Dynamic polymorphism: form is determined at run-time.java A Class Hierarchy Management NonManagement Corporation 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .And Now for Some Scary Buzzwords!  Inheritance ± Subclasses inherit methods and variables from extended superclasses. either as its own class or as any superclass. ± Static polymorphism: form is chosen at compile-time (PL/SQL overloading). supertype/"wider" Citizen Person Employee Hourly Worker Salaried Worker subtype/"narrower" War Criminal Person.

Language Basics  Comments // Single line comment /* Block comment */ /** Documentation comment */  Primitive datatypes ± So I lied.equals(YourName)) foundFamily(). you are actually allocating a new object. if you assign a new value to it.page 153 . if (myName. myName = "Steven". String myName. these are not objects instantiated from classes. ± Can't do a direct == comparison. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . boolean char byte short int long float double  Strings ± A String object is a read-only. myName = "Feuerstein".

NextElement()).nextElement()) } } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .println (args[indx]). System.out.hasMoreElements ()) { processIt (enum.Writing Loops in Java  Three kinds of loops: while. expression. for (initialize.length.out.page 154 . step) { lotsaStuff } while (expression) { lostsaStuff } do { lostsaStuff } while (expression). Examples: for (indx indx=0. indx++) System. indx < args. do-while and for ± Note: you need squiggly brackets only if there is more than one statement in the loop body.println ( (String)enum. static void processAll (Enumeration enum) { while (enum.

public PuterLingo (String name) { mname = name. you must supply a value for each parameter. ± No default values for arguments. } } class LotsALingos { public static void main (String args[]) { PuterLingo Java = new PuterLingo("Java").Passing Parameters  Some important differences from PL/SQL.. class PuterLingo { private String mname.out.name()).page 155 . } public String name () { return mname.println (Java. } } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Only positional notation is supported. ± If a method has no arguments. you still include the open and close parentheses.. System.

equals("")) throw new Exception ("Filename is NULL"). } catch (Exception e) { System.toString()). Put inside try clause File myFile = new File (filename). return myFile.println (e.length(). rather than raise and handle.out.page 156 .Exception Handling in Java  Very similar to PL/SQL. you "throw" and "catch" exceptions. Throwing my own public static int numBytes (String filename) { exception try { if (filename. } File-related catch (SecurityException e) { exceptions return -1. "WHEN OTHERS" } in Java } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

± So you can pass them as arguments and do anything and everything else you can do with objects. NoSuchFile { .page 157 .Differences Between Java & PL/SQL  Exceptions are objects derived directly or indirectly from the Exception class.. ± Use the throws clause in your specification. as in: public static int numBytes (String filename) throws SecurityException. } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  You must inform users of your method of which exceptions may be thrown..

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Java's Not So Tough!  You can learn enough Java in less than a week to: ± Build simple classes ± Leverage Java inside PL/SQL  Moving to the next level of expertise will be more of a challenge. ± Object oriented development (Java) is very different from procedural coding (PL/SQL).page 158 .  Now let's explore how you can put Java to work for you inside PL/SQL programs.

Java Stored Procedures (JSPs) Java applet or app.page 159 . using JDBC or SQLJ Oracle 8i server PL/SQL cover for Java method Java virtual machine running Java method Oracle Developer client (PL/SQL) Net8 OCI or Pro*C client VB or C++ via OO4O or ODBC 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

network communication in/out PL/SQL replacement ± More standard language ± Good performer for numeric processing tasks ± Beware database I/O & string manipulation performance Scaleable deployment of third party code ± Vertical application ± Web server ± XML parser/generator 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .JSPs: Some sample uses PL/SQL extender ± For example.page 160 . better file I/O ± RMI callouts.

Call from PL/SQL (or SQL) as if calling PL/SQL    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..page 161 .Creating JSP to call from PL/SQL   1... Create Java classes in your favorite IDE 2. Load into server using ³loadjava´ command-line tool 3. Publish PL/SQL cover using AS LANGUAGE JAVA.. Grant privileges as desired 5.END 4. rather than BEGIN.

println main method is used to test the class. }} 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Notes on Java classes  toString method automatically used by System. CEOCompensation = PceoComp. } public String toString () { return name + " is a transnational entity with " + layoffs + " laid-off employees. } public static void main (String[] args) { // A very scary company Corporation TheGlobalMonster = new Corporation ( "Northrup-Ford-Mattel-Yahoo-ATT".out. long PceoComp) { name = Pname.java Advanced Techniques . long CEOCompensation.println (TheGlobalMonster). 5000000. public Corporation ( String Pname. long Playoffs. layoffs = Playoffs. 50000000). System.Create Java class(es) class Corporation extends Person { long layoffs.page 162 PL/SQL . paying its" + " Chief Executive Officer " + CEOCompensation.out. Entry points must be public static in most cases Classes may call other classes Avoid GUI calls     person.

class file .Upload using ³loadjava´ utility .page 163 .jar file Oracle 8i server Java class Java source Java resource loadjava Example: loadjava loadjava -user scott/tiger -oci8 -resolve datacraft/bill/Hello.class options (abbreviated) -oci8 -resolve loadjava will connect using OCI driver Resolves external class references at compile time -resolver (shown later) Search path like CLASSPATH 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .java file Java resource file .

.page 164 . .String'..lang.Publish  Example (top-level call spec) CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION hello_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2 AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Hello.Emp(int) return java. /  Syntax (simplified) CREATE [ OR REPLACE PROCE URE FUNCTION <name> <sqlt pe> ] [ [ <ar s> ) ] [ AUTHID { DEFINER | CURRENT_USER } ] AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME '<met fullname> (<Ja a t pe fullname>.) [ return <Ja a t pe fullname> ]'.bill.

END.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 165 .Call the wrapped method  Method 1: Call as if PL/SQL module BEGIN DBMS_OUTPUT. PRINT :thename ± CALL avoids overhead of SELECT fn FROM DUAL jsp.  Method 2: Use 8i SQL CALL statement. for example.PUT_LINE(hello_emp(7499)). from SQL*Plus: VARIABLE thename VARCHAR2(12) CALL hello_emp(7499) INTO :thename.

more concepts Shape mapping ± Java methods declared ³void´ become PL/SQL procedures ± Signature mismatches detected only at runtime Type mapping (typical) VARCHAR2 DATE NUMBER user-defined object type user-defined object type object REFerence user-defined collection type java.BigDecimal oracle.STRUCT <named type> oracle.sql.ARRAY 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 166 .sql.sql.String java.REF oracle.Timestamp java.sql.math.lang.Publishing -.

String'. END. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE hello_pkg AS FUNCTION hi_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2 AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft. / (No package body required in this case) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Hello..page 167 .lang.Emp(int) return java..Publish in PL/SQL Package Spec  Designate Java module in PL/SQL package spec.util.

Hello.or in package body CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE hello_pkg2 AS FUNCTION hi_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2.Emp(int) return java.. END.page 168 .String'..util. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Publish as module in package body  . END.lang. / CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY hello_pkg2 AS FUNCTION hi_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2 IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.

util.util.lang.String'. / or in the body: CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE foo_t AS OBJECT ( bar VARCHAR2(30). / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Hello.lang.page 169 .String'). MEMBER FUNCTION hello_emp RETURN VARCHAR2). END.Hello. / CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE BODY foo_t AS MEMBER FUNCTION hello_emp RETURN VARCHAR2 IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.Emp(int) return java.Emp(int) return java. MEMBER FUNCTION hello_emp RETURN VARCHAR2 IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.Publish as object type method  Either in spec: CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE foo_t AS OBJECT ( bar VARCHAR2(30).

page 170 . JAVAIDPRIV. class.   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . or resource ± Can read file designated with BFILE() function  ALTER JAVA: compiles Java source.New DDL Statements and Roles  CREATE JAVA ± Alternative to ³loadjava´ utility ± Creates or replaces an Oracle ³library unit´ from Java source. JAVADEBUGPRIV ± You can also grant specific privileges. resolves Java class references. JAVASYSPRIV (needed for file IO operations). JAVA_ADMIN. DROP JAVA: drops a named Java library unit Several roles available for Java operations: ± JAVAUSERPRIV.

STRUCT ± oracle.CustomDatum ± oracle.page 171 .Passing Oracle8 objects Oracle8i server Object in O-R table Java application Java object   Harder than you¶d think Three different interfacing techniques ± oracle.sql.SQLData 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .jdbc2.sql.

page 172 .JPublisher utility Database server Definition of type or REF in data dictionary User-supplied JPublisher input file What does it do? ± Generates Java that encapsulates type and REF types of mapping supported for methods JPublisher ± ³Oracle mapping´ ± ³JDBC mapping´ ± ³Object JDBC mapping´ Three Generated Java file(s) for use in Java programs 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Passing object using JPub-generated Java  After generating and uploading classes with JPub.AccountRuntime.Account_t)'.bill.bill. they become available to use in mapping Example of passing an Account_t object: CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE account_save (new_acct IN Account_t) IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.save (datacraft.page 173 . /  jspobj.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

page 174 . Java offers many file-related classes with much greater capabilities. but that package is very limited.   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Let's see how we can make that great Java stuff available from within PL/SQL.Example: Improving File I/O  You can read/write files in PL/SQL with UTL_FILE.

± This is not available through UTL_FILE (though you can get it through DBMS_LOB)..page 175 .. ± The File class offers a length method that returns the number of bytes in a file. ± Instead build a static method that instantiates a Java object from the class and then invokes the relevant method against that object. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Let's start with something simple.Encapsulate Java Classes  You won't generally access native Java methods in your PL/SQL wrapper.

page 176 . ± Instantiate a File object for the specified name. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .java  Take each of these steps: ± Import the File class to resolve reference.length(). import java.io. ± Call the method of choice against that object and return the value.My Own Java Class for File Manipulation  Accept the name of a file and return its length. public class JFile2 { public static long length (String fileName) { File myFile = new File (fileName). } } JFile2.File. return myFile.

page 177 .String) return long'.Build a Package over Java Method  Let's put it in a package.lang. ± I translate the Java long to a PL/SQL NUMBER.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE xfile IS FUNCTION length (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN NUMBER.length (java. / xfile2. / CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY xfile IS FUNCTION length (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN NUMBER AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'JFile. END. END. we will certainly want to add more functionality over time.

you will need to take these steps: ± 1. Convert the Java boolean to a String or number and return that value. Write a "public" PL/SQL wrapper function to convert that number to a true PL/SQL Boolean.Mapping the Boolean Datatype  Both Java and PL/SQL support a native Boolean datatype. ± 3. ± 2.  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 178 . so you'd expect smooth sailing. Not so! To pass a Boolean back from Java to PL/SQL. Write a "hidden" PL/SQL wrapper function that returns the string or number.

} } JFile3. if (retval) return 1.Translate Boolean to Number  Accept the name of a file and return its length. public class JFile3 { public static int canRead (String fileName) { File myFile = new File (fileName). ± And don't forget: this is a boolean primitive.page 179 .canRead().java  Translate TRUE to 1 and FALSE to 0.io.File. not a Boolean class. import java. boolean retval = myFile. else return 0. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

String) return int'.java / xfile. JFile. xfile4.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .lang. / CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY xfile IS FUNCTION IcanRead (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN NUMBER AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'JFile3..java END.page 180 .Wrapper for Pseudo-Boolean function  Simple translation back to PL/SQL Boolean. ± Avoid the hard-codings with named constants.pkg END. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE xfile IS FUNCTION canRead (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN BOOLEAN. JFile4. FUNCTION canRead (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN BOOLEAN AS BEGIN xfile3.canRead (java. END.pkg RETURN IcanRead (file) = 1..

BigDecimal hourly_rate = (BigDecimal)(attribs[1]). // Access individual attributes by array index. throws java.tst PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Passing Objects to Java with STRUCT  You can pass Oracle object information to Java without relying on JPub by using the STRUCT class.out.page 181 .getAttributes(). // starting with 0 String laborType = (String)(attribs[0]). System.java passobj. Object[] attribs = e. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein UnionBuster. } } Extract individual attribute values from the array. public class UnionBuster { Obtain attributes of public static void wageStrategy (STRUCT e) the Oracle object.SQLException { // Get the attributes of the labor_source object.sql.println ( "Pay " + laborType + " $" + hourly_rate + " per hour").

STRUCT)'. 0)).page 182 .sql. bust_em_with ( labor_source ('Prisoners'.wageStrategy (oracle. END. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Fully specify the STRUCT class in parameter list. '5')). The Oracle object type definition CREATE TYPE labor_source_t AS OBJECT ( labor_type VARCHAR2(30).Wrapping a STRUCT-based Method  You can pass Oracle object information to Java without relying on JPub by using the STRUCT class. hourly_rate NUMBER). / CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE bust_em_with ( labor_source_in IN labor_source_t) AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'UnionBuster. / BEGIN bust_em_with ( labor_source ('Workfare'. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

HelloAll.java HelloAll.out. you can redirect the output to the DBMS_OUTPUT buffer. ± Here is a good nucleus for a login.println ( "Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello All!").sql file: SET SERVEROUTPUT ON SIZE 1000000 CALL DBMS_JAVA. i++) { System.println. i < count.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .out.SET_OUTPUT (1000000).page 183 . ± Call it within methods and output will display in your Java environment. }}}  When called within a PL/SQL wrapper.PUT_LINE: System.Viewing Output from Java Methods  Java provides a "print line" method similar to DBMS_OUTPUT. public class HelloAll { public static void lotsaText ( int count) { for (int i = 0.

 Any error not caught by the JVM (Java virtual machine) will be thrown back to the PL/SQL block or SQL statement. but more robust error handling mechanism than PL/SQL.sql. ± Instead of raising and handling. ± Use two methods.5).1. such as java. ± Exceptions are objects instantiated from the Exception class or a subclass of it. getErrorCode() and getMessage() to obtain information about the error thrown. ± And also spew out the entire Java error stack! (at least through 8.Error Handling with Java-PL/SQL  Java offers a very similar. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .SQLException.page 184 . you "throw" and "catch".

driver.java) at DropAny. BEGIN dropany ('TABLE'. / SQL> 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 java.tst ORA-29532: Java call terminated by uncaught Java exception: java.executeUpdate(OracleStatement.driver.java) at oracle.java) at oracle.OracleStatement.jdbc.jdbc.KprbDBAccess.driver.doExecuteWithBatch(OracleStatement.jdbc.PUT_LINE (SQLCODE).java:14) DropAny.parseExecuteFetch(KprbDBAccess.page 185 .tst ORA-00942: table or view does not exist 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .sql.doExecuteOther(OracleStatement.doExecute(OracleStatement.driver.SQLException: getErrInfo.OracleStatement.sp dropany2.kprb.SQLException: ORA-00942: table or view does not exist at oracle.java) at oracle.object(DropAny.jdbc. the entire Java stack is displayed on your screen.OracleStatement.driver.OracleStatement.OracleStatement.jdbc. END. and you have to do some digging to extract the Oracle error information.PUT_LINE (SQLERRM).java) at oracle.kprb.Trapping and Identifying Errors  Currently.java -29532 dropany. DBMS_OUTPUT.sql.KprbDBAccess.jdbc. 'blip'). EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN DBMS_OUTPUT.java) at oracle.java) at oracle.doExecuteWithTimeout(OracleStatement.check_error(KprbDBAccess.jdbc.

Achieving PL/SQL Excellence External Procedures  An external procedure is a 3GL routine that can serve as the ³body´ of a PL/SQL function. or method.  An Oracle8 feature that allowed relatively "native" callouts to C from PL/SQL for the first time. procedure.page 186 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Must be a shared object library on Unix or a dynamically linked library (DLL) on Windows.

DLL or .page 187 .Process & data flow Application Makes request Net8 External Procedure Listener spawns External Shared Library Calls PL/SQL Runtime Engine PL/SQL body Client or server-side application returns results calls routine from Routine in .so file extproc returns results returns results 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

sql diskspace.External procedures: Sample uses      Send email Invoke operating system command Invoke custom or legacy application Call C runtime library function Perform admin tasks email.page 188 .sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

dll ± For given drive letter. this function returns: » » » » » sectors per cluster bytes per sector number of free clusters total number of clusters ³return code´ indicating success or failure  First.dll'.page 189 . / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . create an Oracle8 ³library´: CREATE OR REPLACE LIBRARY nt_kernel AS 'c:\winnt\system32\kernel32.Determine free disk space on NT (1/4)  Use pre-existing routine: ± GetDiskFreeSpaceA in kernel32.

END disk_util. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 190 . bytes_per_sector OUT PLS_INTEGER.Package spec (2/4)  Nothing unexpected here: CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE disk_util AS FUNCTION get_disk_free_space (root_path IN VARCHAR2. sectors_per_cluster OUT PLS_INTEGER. number_of_free_clusters OUT PLS_INTEGER. total_number_of_clusters OUT PLS_INTEGER) RETURN PLS_INTEGER.

bytes_per_sector OUT PLS_INTEGER. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . number_of_free_clusters OUT pls_integer. bytes_per_sector BY REFERENCE LONG. sectors_per_cluster OUT PLS_INTEGER. total_number_of_clusters OUT PLS_INTEGER) RETURN PLS_INTEGER IS EXTERNAL LIBRARY nt_kernel NAME "GetDiskFreeSpaceA" LANGUAGE C CALLING STANDARD PASCAL PARAMETERS (root_path STRING. sectors_per_cluster BY REFERENCE LONG.Package body in Oracle 8. total_number_of_clusters BY REFERENCE LONG.page 191  All the magic is in the EXTERNAL section 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . RETURN LONG). END disk_util.0 (3/4) CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY disk_util AS FUNCTION get_disk_free_space (root_path IN VARCHAR2. number_of_free_clusters BY REFERENCE LONG.

Usage (4/4)
DECLARE lroot_path VARCHAR2(3) := 'C:\'; lsectors_per_cluster PLS_INTEGER; lbytes_per_sector PLS_INTEGER; lnumber_of_free_clusters PLS_INTEGER; ltotal_number_of_clusters PLS_INTEGER; return_code PLS_INTEGER; free_meg REAL; BEGIN return_code := disk_util.get_disk_free_space (lroot_path, lsectors_per_cluster, lbytes_per_sector, lnumber_of_free_clusters, ltotal_number_of_clusters); free_meg := lsectors_per_cluster * lbytes_per_sector * lnumber_of_free_clusters / 1024 / 1024; DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('free disk space, Mb = ' || free_meg); diskspace.sql END;
1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein
PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 192

Creating your own external procedure 

1. Identify or create shared library 2. Identify or CREATE LIBRARY within Oracle 3. Map the parameters using:
± EXTERNAL clause (Oracle8) or ± LANGUAGE clause (Oracle8i)  

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 193

1. Identify/create external routine 


Prerequisite: O/S must support shared libraries Some useful routines are pre-built in C runtime library
± On Unix: /lib/libc.so ± On NT: <systemroot>\system32\crtdll.dll 

Building a shared library of your own requires knowledge of:
± Appropriate language (typically C) ± Compiler & linker

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 194

2. Create the Oracle library 

Syntax:
CREATE OR REPLACE LIBRARY <library name> AS '<full path to file>'; 

Assigns a programmer-defined alias to a specific shared library file Notes
± Requires CREATE LIBRARY pri ilege ± Does not alidate directory ± Can¶t use symbolic link 

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 195

3. Map the parameters
This can get complicated, because«
± Must pass extra parameters to designate:
» NULL/NOT NULL state » String length » Maximum allocated length

± Six choices of parameter mode
» » » » » » IN RETURN IN BY REFERENCE RETURN BY REFERENCE OUT IN OUT

These details are better suited for close reading«
PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 196

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

page 197 .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Oracle8i New Features Autonomous Transactions Invoker Rights Model Row Level Security 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

± And the learning curve to take advantage of these features is generally not too steep.Oracle8i New Features  Oracle8i offers a number of PL/SQL-specific features that give you tremendous additional flexibility and capability.    Autonomous Transactions The Invoker Rights Model Row level security 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 198 .

± Any changes made within that block can be saved or reversed without affecting the outer or main transaction. ± There was only one transaction allowed per connection. a COMMIT or ROLLBACK in any program in your session committed or rolled back all changes in your session. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE loginfo ( code IN PLS_INTEGER. you can now define a PL/SQL block to execute as an "autonomous transaction".Autonomous Transactions  Prior to Oracle8i.page 199 .  With Oracle8i. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . msg IN VARCHAR2) AS PRAGMA AUTONOMOUS_TRANSACTION.

page 200 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . etc.When to Use Autonomous Transactions  Reusable Application Components ± ATs are more or less required in the new distributed application architecture of the Internet. ± Now you can avoid the complexities (need for ROLLBACK TO savepoints and so on).  Call functions within SQL that change the database.  Logging Mechanism ± Commonly developers lot to database tables. which can cause all sorts of complications: your log entry becomes a part of your transaction. software usage meter.  Tracing Code Usage ± Build retry mechanisms. something like a COMMIT) on other components. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± One component should not have any impact (esp.

USER. BEGIN INSERT INTO logtab VALUES (code_in.Logging with ATs  Don't forget that ROLLBACK in the exception section! CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY log IS PROCEDURE putline ( code_in IN INTEGER. END. let's add some session information.tst PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . While we're at it. logger.program ).tst retry.pkg retry.pkg log81*. text_in IN VARCHAR2 ) IS PRAGMA AUTONOMOUS_TRANSACTION. SYSDATE. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN ROLLBACK. USER. rec.sp log81. rec. END. SYSDATE. text_in.machine.page 201 . COMMIT. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Avoid interdependencies with the main transaction.

sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .sql auton_in_sql.   The AT PRAGMA goes in the body of packages.sql autontrigger*. ± You cannot define an entire package as an AT. ± You can use the SET TRANSACTION ISOLATION LEVEL SERIALIZABLE to indicate that you do not want the changes visible until the outer transaction commits. ± You cannot tell by looking at the package spec if you are calling ATs or not -and this info is not available in the data dictionary. The AT PRAGMA can be used only with individual programs and toplevel anonymous blocks.Tips and Gotchas with ATs  An AT program must COMMIT or ROLLBACK before terminating. ± Place the SET TRANSACTION statement in the outer transaction. or an error is raised.  Any changes committed in an AT are visible in the outer transaction. autonserial.page 202 . ± You cannot define a nested anonymous block to be an AT.

it ran under the privileges of the account in which the program was defined.The Invoker Rights Model  Prior to Oracle8i. you can now decide at compilation time whether your program or package will execute in the definer's schema (the default) or the schema of the invoker of the code. ± This is called the « Definer Rights Model  With Oracle8i. ± This is called the « Invoker Rights Model PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . whenever you executed a stored program.page 203 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .

Note: Oracle built-in packages have long had the capability of running under the invoker's authority.page 204 . OE Code Order_Mgt Place Cancel Sam_Sales Close Old Orders  OE Data X  Orders Cannot alter table directly. Ignores roles and relies on directly-granted privileges. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . But it can be a source of confusion and architectural problems.About Definer Rights  Allows you to centralize access to and control of underlying data structures.

± Can bypass 8i¶s ³fine-grained´ access features (see the DBMS_RLS package) ± Difficult to audit privileges  Sure would be nice to have a choice..and now you do! 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . unless you write code in the package to essentially recreate roles programmatically.it's all or nothing.Problems with Definer Rights  Deployment & maintenance ± Must install module in all remote databases where needed ± In some databases. requiring copy of stored module  Security ± No declarative way to restrict privileges on certain modules in a package -.page 205 . each user has own copy of table(s)..

Synonyms may be necessary if modules use object names not qualified by schema. ± At run-time..  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Oracle8i Invoker Rights Syntax  For top level modules: CREATE [ OR REPLACE ] <module type> [ AUTHID { DEFINER | CURRENT_USER } ] AS .. AUTHID goes only in spec. You could also create local.  For modules with separate spec and body. the objects referenced may well be different from those against which it compiled. ± In other words. do what it takes to get the code to compile.page 206 . and must be at the package level. "dummy" objects.

END...).FROM accounts WHERE. you can execute code owned by another schema.page 207 . code. Central Code schema PACKAGE acct_mgr make AUTHID CURRENT_USER User/Data schema PROCEDURE mng_account IS BEGIN ... yet have all references to data structures "reflect back" into your own schema.."Reflection" Capability of Invoker Rights  With invoker rights...destroy(. modify destroy . accounts table 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..acct_mgr.

all other calls in stack are resolved according to definer rights.sql  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 208 . Note: cannot use with wrapped code. ± AUTHID CURRENT_USER is ignored. oneversion. the definer rights model is always applied to resolve the reference.Tips and Gotchas for Invoker Rights  Does not apply to code objects. taking advantage of the invoker rights model whenever possible? ± A creative use of SQL*Plus substitution variables comes in very invdefinv. ± Both static and dynamic SQL is supported.  Information about the rights model is not available in the data dictionary What if you want to maintain a single version of your code for both pre-Oracle8i and Oracle8i installations.  Once a definer rights program is called. only data ± When your stored code references another stored code element.sql handy.

page 209 . authid.sql whichsch*. but you want their own directly-granted privileges to determine access.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .When to Invoke Invoker Rights  You want to reuse the same code among many users. National HQ Check City Statistics New York Schema stolenlives Chicago Schema stolenlives  Especially handy with dynamic SQL. ± Share a program that uses dynamic SQL (whether DBMS_SQL or the new native implementation) and you end up taking the most unexpected DDL and DML detours.

Rely on definer rights to access centralized data from any schema. HQ Chicago Check City Statistics  New York stolenlives Analyze Pattern stolenlives perpetrators perp.page 210 .Combining Invoker & Definer Rights  Rely on invoker rights to allow centralized code to work with schema-specific data.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Row Level Security DBMS_RLS Row-Level Security 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 211 .

DBMS_RLS.page 212   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . with which to implement automated row-level security (also referred to as "fine grained access control"). Row Level Security  The establishment of security policies on (restricted access to) individual rows of a table. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . you could achieve this only partially through the use of views. The DBMS_RLS package (along with "system contexts") now allow you to do so in a foolproof manner.Row-Level Security with DBMS_RLS  Oracle8i offers a new package. Prior to Oracle8i.

page 213 .  DBMS_RLS ± Use programs in DBMS_RLS to associate your security policies with tables. the system context is a named set of attributevalue pairs global to your session.  Security Policy Packages ± You will need to write a package containing functions that establish the security policies to be applied to a particular table. their context information is set properly. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Components Needed for RLS  System Contexts ± A new feature in Oracle8i.  Let's step through a simple example to see how all these pieces tie together.  Database Logon Triggers ± I want to make sure that when a person logs in.

no more private insurance companies soaking up 30 cents on the dollar. all pregnant women receive excellent prenatal care. clinic and regulator. The main tables are patient.  We need a top-notch. fgac. highly secure database for NHCS. ± Patients can only see information about themselves.A National Health Care System  The year is 2010. all children are vaccinated. No more for-profit hospitals pulling billions of dollars out of the system.page 214 . Here are some rules: ± Doctors can only see patients who are assigned to their clinic.sql  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . popular uprising in the United States has forced the establishment of a national healthcare system. ± A massive. ± Regulators can only see patients who reside in the same state. doctor.

doc_rec. PROCEDURE set_context IS This is a simplification. DBMS_SESSION.SET_CONTEXT ( 'patient_restriction'. DBMS_SESSION.Set the Context  Define a context in the database. END.doctor_id). 'DOCTOR'). sets the context accordingly.page 215 . BEGIN OPEN doc_cur. See CURSOR doc_cur IS fgac. c_person_type_attr. doc_rec doc_cur%ROWTYPE. and create a procedure that will set the context attributes (type and ID) upon login.sql for logic that identifies SELECT doctor_id FROM doctor different types of people and WHERE schema_name = USER. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . c_person_id_attr. CREATE CONTEXT patient_restriction USING nhc_pkg.SET_CONTEXT ( 'patient_restriction'. FETCH doc_cur INTO doc_rec.

information for this retval VARCHAR2(2000). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . person. ''' || clause for each type of c_person_id_attr || '''))'. name_in VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2 IS l_context VARCHAR2(100) := Extract the context SYS_CONTEXT (c_context. c_person_type_attr). FUNCTION person_predicate ( schema_in VARCHAR2. connection. BEGIN IF l_context = 'DOCTOR' THEN retval := 'home_clinic_id IN (SELECT home_clinic_id FROM doctor We need a different string WHERE doctor_id = SYS_CONTEXT (''' || to modify the WHERE c_context || '''.page 216 .Define the Predicate  A predicate is a string that will be appended to the WHERE clause of the table to which this security policy is associated (see next page).

ADD_POLICY OBJECT_SCHEMA OBJECT_NAME POLICY_NAME FUNCTION_SCHEMA POLICY_FUNCTION STATEMENT_TYPES END. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ( => => => => => => 'SCOTT'. 'patient_privacy'.person_predicate'.PATIENT table will be modified by the string returned by the person_predicate function of the SCOTT. 'nhc_pkg.nhc_pkg package. BEGIN DBMS_RLS.UPDATE. 'patient'. 'SCOTT'. update or delete against the SCOTT.DELETE').ADD_POLICY procedure.Create the Security Policy  Use the DBMS_RLS. 'SELECT.page 217 . ± The following procedure call specifies that the WHERE clause of any query.

sql Exception handling in trigger is critical! If you allow an exception to go unhandled. we guarantee that the context is set (and the predicate applied) no matter which product is the entry point to Oracle. CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER set_id_on_logon AFTER LOGON ON DATABASE BEGIN nhc_pkg.page 218 . END. Setting Context  By setting the context in the logon trigger. logon is disabled.set_context. fgac.PUT_LINE ( 'Error ' || SQLCODE || ' setting context for ' || USER'). EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN DBMS_OUTPUT. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Create Logon Trigger.

'person_id')) Patients Visible to "SWALLACE": CSILVA .IL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Patient sees only himself.IL VSILVA .Chris Silva .Chris Silva . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .IL Context Information for "CSILVA": Type: PATIENT ID: Predicate: schema_name = 'CSILVA' Patients Visible to "CSILVA": CSILVA . Predicate: home_clinic_id IN (SELECT home_clinic_id FROM doctor WHERE doctor_id = SYS_CONTEXT ('patient_restriction'.Veva Silva .page 219 .Queries Transparently Filtered  What you see is determined automatically by who you are. Context Information for "SWALLACE": Type: DOCTOR Doctor sees only her ID: 1060 patients.

and play a new tune with PL/SQL! 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . and you use only what you know. Jump out of your rut . April....Take Full Advantage of PL/SQL! January.  ± You learn what you need to get the job done. May.. It's so easy to fall into a rut with a programming language...page 220 .. February.... March.

k.a. If time permits«)     UTL_FILE ± file IO DBMS_JOB ± Job scheduling DBMS_PIPE ± Pipe-based communication DBMS_UTILITY ± the kitchen sink package 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 221 ..Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Appendices (a.

. Physical Files 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 222 ..Built-in Packages: UTL_FILE UTL_FILE Server-side File I/O Application FOPEN GET_LINE PUT_LINE .

A "version 1" (fairly primitive) utility. ± Limitations on files you can access (no mapped files. when it jumps to 32K. ± Maximum of 1023 bytes per line (read or write) until Oracle 8. random access to contents). copy. delete.UTL_FILE: Server-side I/O  Allows you to read from and write to operating system files on the database server.0.page 223 .5.. no use of environmental variables). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± No higher-level file operations supported (change privileges..   But you can read lines from a file and write lines to a file.

Puts formatted text into the buffer PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 224 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .UTL_FILE Module Outline FCLOSE FCLOSE_ALL FFLUSH FOPEN GET_LINE IS_OPEN NEW_LINE PUT PUT_LINE PUTF Close the specified file Close all open files in your session Flush all data from the UTL_FILE buffer to your file Open a file Get the next line from a file Returns TRUE if the file is open (sort of) Insert a new line character in file at the end of current line Puts text into the UTL_FILE buffer Puts text and new line character into UTL_FILE buffer.

 Follow these rules to avoid many headaches. ± You do this by adding lines to the instance parameter file. utl_file_dir = /tmp utl_file_dir = /accounts/newdev  And don't do either of the following: utl_file_dir = .page 225 Allows read & write for current directory. no trailing delimiter. there is no subdirectory recursion). utl_file_dir = * Allows read & write for any directory.Authorizing Directory Access  Oracle requires you to list explicitly those directories you wish to be able to read/write with UTL_FILE. ± Use a separate entry for each directory (and subdirectory. ± No single or double quotes around directory. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

FCLOSE (fid). So before you write anything fancy.Test UTL_FILE Access  About the hardest part to working with UTL_FILE is simply getting started.page 226 .tst  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .PUT_LINE (fid. restart your database. END. */ fid := UTL_FILE. UTL_FILE.txt'. BEGIN /* Change the directory name to one to which you at least || THINK you have read/write access. 'W'). and then run the following test script (it can't get much simpler than this): DECLARE fid UTL_FILE. 'hello'). UTL_FILE. 'test.FILE_TYPE.FOPEN ('c:\temp'. / utlfile. modify your initialization file.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 'test.FOPEN ('c:\temp'.FILE_TYPE. 'W' for Write and 'A' for Append.  The FOPEN function returns a record ("file handle") based on the UTL_FILE.. ± Types are 'R' for Read. Test to see if file is open with the IS_OPEN function. name and operation type.Opening a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.FILE_TYPE. ± Currently contains a single ID field. 'W').  Specify file location. Not much of a test. BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE.txt'. END. ± In actuality.. this function simply returns TRUE if the file handle's id field is NOT NULL.page 227 .   Maximum of 10 files may be opened in each user session.

± You might want to build your own GET_LINE which handles the exception and returns an EOF Boolean status flag. the ceiling is raised to 32K.0.Reading from a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE. 'test. Lines in the file cannot be longer than 1023 bytes in length.GET_LINE (fid.5 and above.FCLOSE (fid).txt'. BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE.page 228 . 'R'). myline). END.   Can only read from a file opened with the "R" mode.FOPEN ('c:\temp'.  The NO_DATA_FOUND exception is raised if you read past the end of the file. getnext. UTL_FILE. UTL_FILE.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± In Oracle8 Release 8.FILE_TYPE.

'UTL_FILE'). ± PUTF is like the C printf program.  Call FFLUSH to make sure that everything you have written to the buffer is flushed out to the file.FILE_TYPE. ' that I never\nwant to %s'.PUTF (fid. 'is so much fun'). PUT_LINE or PUTF.Writing to a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE. UTL_FILE.txt'. 'W').page 229 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .FCLOSE (fid). ± The file buffers are automatically flushed when you close a file or exit your session.FOPEN ('c:\temp'. END. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . UTL_FILE. allowing for some formatting.PUT (fid. 'test. UTL_FILE.PUT_LINE (fid. BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE. UTL_FILE. '&1'). UTL_FILE is so much fun that I never want to stop Resulting Text  You can use PUT.

BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE. EXCEPTION WHEN UTL_FILE. 'R').  If you do not close the file.Closing a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.READ_ERROR THEN UTL_FILE. END. UTL_FILE.FCLOSE (fid).FILE_TYPE. myline).GET_LINE (fid.page 230   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . You should close files in exception handlers to make sure that files are not left "hanging" open.FCLOSE (fid).FOPEN ('c:\temp'. You can close a single file with FCLOSE or all open files with FCLOSE_ALL. you will not see the data you have (supposedly) written to that file.txt'. 'test. UTL_FILE.

± NO_DATA_FOUND when you try to read past the end of the file.page 231 . EXCEPTION.  You have to take special care to trap and handle the named exceptions. EXCEPTION. EXCEPTION. ± UTL_FILE-named exceptions in other cases. ± They all share a common SQLCODE of 1. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . EXCEPTION.Error Handling in UTL_FILE PACKAGE UTL_FILE IS invalid_path invalid_mode invalid_filehandle invalid_operation read_error write_error internal_error END. EXCEPTION.  UTL_FILE relies on a combination of user-defined exceptions and STANDARD exceptions to communicate errors. EXCEPTION. EXCEPTION.

RAISE. record the error.Recommended Exception Section EXCEPTION WHEN UTL_FILE.c_invalid_mode).INVALID_OPERATION THEN recNgo (PLVfile.INTERNAL_ERROR THEN recNgo (PLVfile.READ_ERROR THEN recNgo (PLVfile.c_invalid_filehandle).c_write_error). RAISE. RAISE. Re-raise exception if you want it to propagate from that block.c_invalid_path). END.INVALID_PATH THEN recNgo (PLVfile. RAISE.c_read_error).c_invalid_operation). WHEN UTL_FILE. WHEN UTL_FILE. utlflexc. RAISE.c_internal_error).INVALID_FILEHANDLE THEN recNgo (PLVfile. WHEN UTL_FILE.page 232  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .INVALID_MODE THEN recNgo (PLVfile. WHEN UTL_FILE. RAISE. WHEN UTL_FILE.WRITE_ERROR THEN recNgo (PLVfile. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .sql  Trap locally by name. WHEN UTL_FILE. translating the generic user-defined exception into an understandable message. RAISE.

. Background Process DBA_JOBS Oracle Job Queue Subsystem 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Built-in Packages: DBMS_JOB DBMS_JOB Scheduled Execution of Stored Procedures Application SUBMIT RUN REMOVE .page 233 ..

page 234 .Overview of DBMS_JOB  DBMS_JOB provides an API to the Oracle job queues. Schedule regular maintenance on instances. Made its debut in PL/SQL Release 2. Schedule large batch jobs to run on "off hours". but only ³publicly available´ and supported in PL/SQL Release 2. Create a listener program to poll the contents of a pipe and take action. Built by Oracle to support snapshots and replication. which in turn offers job scheduling capabilities within the Oracle Server. You can use DBMS_JOB to: Replicate data between different database instances.2. ± Spawn background processes to avoid blocking client process. ± ± ± ±    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .1.

Changes when a queued job will run.page 235 CHANGE INTERVAL ISUBMIT NEXT_DATE REMOVE RUN SUBMIT USER_EXPORT WHAT 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . Returns the job string for a job number. Submits a job to the queue using a predefined job number. Changes the job string of a job. Broken jobs will not run as scheduled. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Submits a job to the queue returning a unique job number. Removes the job from the queue.DBMS_JOB Module Outline BROKEN Marks the job as either FIXED or BROKEN. Changes the interval between executions of a job. Changes one or all attributes of a job. Forces immediate execution of the specified job number.

'calculate_totals. while the interval is a string (this is dynamic PL/SQL!)  You can also call DBMS_JOB. SYSDATE.  When you submit a job. I run calculate_totals immediately and then on a daily basis thereafter. instead of having DBMS_JOB generate one for you. and then the job¶s execution interval (frequency of execution). BEGIN DBMS_JOB.ISUBMIT and supply the job number. ± In the above example. Notice that the start time is a DATE expression.Submitting a Job DECLARE job# BINARY_INTEGER. END.  A job is a call to a stored procedure or an anonymous block ± It must end with a semi-colon and can contain ³hard-coded´ arguments.SUBMIT (job#.'.page 236 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . you specify the date on which it should next execute. 'SYSDATE + 1').

''LOAD1''.page 237 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . interval => 'TRUNC(SYSDATE+1)' ).ANALYZE_OBJECT ' || '(''TABLE''.'. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . what => 'DBMS_DDL. BEGIN DBMS_JOB. /  This block submits a job that uses a built-in procedure.estimate_percent=>50).''ESTIMATE''.l (v_jobno). DBMS_DDL. p.Submit Job Example DECLARE v_jobno INTEGER. next_date => TRUNC (SYSDATE + 1).''TENK''' || '. END.ANALYZE_OBJECT.null.submit ( job => v_jobno. to analyze a specific table every evening at midnight.

'BEGIN null.SYSDATE. 'my_job2(date_IN=>SYSDATE). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . DBMS_JOB. ± Job 2 passes a date into procedure MY_JOB2. /  This block submits three jobs to the job queue.2. numbered 1.' .DBMS_JOB. END. ± Job 1 passes a string and number into procedure MY_JOB1. ± Job 3 is a PL/SQL block which does nothing. executes for the first time tomorrow and every 10 minutes thereafter. END.what => 'my_job1(''string_parm_value''.SYSDATE+1.ISUBMIT(3.ISUBMIT (2.interval => 'SYSDATE +1').null). executes immediately.next_date => SYSDATE + 1/24 . DBMS_JOB.ISUBMIT (job => 1 .page 238 . runs it in one hour and executes every day thereafter.'SYSDATE+10/1440').' .120). and will be removed from the queue automatically.'. and 3.ISubmit Job Example BEGIN DBMS_JOB.

3). Every hour Every Sunday at 2 AM First Monday of each quarter. ''FRIDAY''))) + 18/24' PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . NEXT_DAY (SYSDATE. ± Use date arithmetic to request intervals smaller than a day. NEXT_DAY (SYSDATE.page 239 + 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . ± Since it's a string. Wednesday and Friday at 6 PM 'SYSDATE + 1/24' 'NEXT_DAY (TRUNC (SYSDATE).Specifying Job Times & Frequencies  Probably the most complicated part of using DBMS_JOB is to get the string expression of the job interval right. ''Q''). ''MONDAY''). ''WEDNESDAY''). ''SATURDAY'') 2/24' 'NEXT_DAY ( ADD_MONTHS (TRUNC (SYSDATE. you must use 2 single quotes to embed strings. at 9 AM Every Monday. ''MONDAY'') + 9/24' 'TRUNC (LEAST ( NEXT_DAY (SYSDATE.

± Only if the job was submitted from same schema BEGIN FOR rec IN (SELECT * FROM USER_JOBS) LOOP DBMS_JOB.page 240 . retaining current job number. expjob.Other Job Queue Operations  Remove a job from the queue.  Export jobs from the queue.job). ± Performs an implicit COMMIT in current session. DBMS_JOB. ± Produces a string that can be used to recreate an existing job in the job queue. END LOOP.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .RUN (my_job#).  Run a job immediately.ISUBMIT.REMOVE (rec. Remove all jobs for current schema. ± Uses DBMS_JOB.

V$SESSION WHERE s.DBA_JOBS .sql FROM DBA_JOBS_RUNNING .this_date. who owns them and when they began.sid AND jr. SELECT jr.page 241 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . DBA_JOBS and USER_JOBS views.job . ± The following query blends job information with session information to display currently-executing jobs.Job Queue Views  You can also view the job queue by looking at the DBA_JOBS_RUNNING.what job_id username start_date job_definition jr j s showjobs.jr.job = j.username .sid = jr.job ORDER BY jr.this_date .

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . The valid range is 0 through 36. You will have to take special DBA action if you want to restrict who can run jobs.  You will need to set three parameters in the init. ± The default is PUBLIC access. of one hour).page 242 . therefore.Setting up the Job Facility  Make sure that the correct access is set up for the DBMS_JOB package.ora (initialization) file for your database instance: ± job_queue_processes=N where n is the number of concurrent background processes permitted. The valid range is 1 to 3600 (a maximum. ± job_queue_interval=N where N is the interval in seconds to check the job queue.

Error Handling with DBMS_JOB  What if your stored procedure fails? ± After 16 attempts. it may cause the background processes to fail and no longer run any jobs at all. if your failure raises an unhandled exception.  To avoid unexpected and unhandled failures of scheduled jobs: ± Always use the RUN built-in to execute your job in a ³test´ mode. ± Do you want it to try 16 times? ± In addition. the job facility will mark your job as broken. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Then you can go ahead and submit it.page 243 . ± Always include a WHEN OTHERS exception handler in your job program which traps any and all problems and automatically sets the job status to broken.

spacelog. TRUE). µFAIL¶).Stopping the Job When It Fails PROCEDURE calc_totals IS BEGIN . ± Uses a call to BROKEN to set the status of the job to ³broken´. END.sql showspc. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN job# := job_pkg. ± Obtains the job number from a packaged function by passing the name of the procedure. ± Now the job facility will not try to run this program again.. job_pkg..log (µcalc_totals¶. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . You can go in and fix the problem.job (µcalc_totals¶) DBMS_JOB.page 244 . ± Calls log program of package to record that failure took place.BROKEN (job#.sql  The WHEN OTHERS exception handler of the calc_totals procedure traps any kind of failure.

When a job runs. If you find that you submit a job to run immediately and it does not start.    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . difficult to reproduce behavior at times with "straight" procedure calls. ± DBMS_JOB only allows you to modify characteristics and behavior of jobs submitted by the current schema."Good to Knows" for DBMS_JOB  You may find it useful to always wrap your stored procedure call (the what) inside a BEGIN-END block. perform a COMMIT after your submit. You can use the DBMS_IJOB to manage the jobs of other users.page 245 .  You will need to fully-qualify all database links (with user name and password) to get them to work properly. it picks up the current execution environment for the user. ± We've noticed some aberrant.

page 246 .Built-in Packages: DBMS_PIPE DBMS_PIPE Inter-session Communication 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

± More sophisticated debugging inside PL/SQL programs (work around fundamental limitations of DBMS_OUTPUT). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Perform and commit DML in a separate transaction space from your main transaction. Oracle uses database pipes to parallelize database operations. ± Interface PL/SQL-database activities with operating system functions and programs written in other languages. ± Operates outside of database transaction limitations.  Uses for DBMS_PIPE include: ± Parallelization of program execution.page 247 . You can parallelize your own code.DBMS_PIPE Overview  Allows communication between different Oracle sessions through a pipe in the RDBMS Shared Global Area.

which can be composed of one or more separate packets.page 248 . ± Names can be up to 128 chars long (do not use names beginning with ³ORA$´. They are reserved for Oracle use). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Architecture of DBMS_PIPE Shared Global Area ³Sue´ ³Bob´ Message Buffer Message Buffer Session A  Session B A pipe is a named object that uses the System Global Area to provide a non-transaction based conduit of information. ± The pipe sends/receives a message. using a maximum of 4096 bytes.

± There is just one message buffer per session.  Send the message to a named pipe. so you should always specify a timeout period.sql PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . date. ± Separate out the individual packets in the message (again: string.Processing Flow of DBMS_PIPE  Construct a message from packets of information.  Unpack the message packets and take action. you can wait for up to 1000 days (or 86400000 seconds) for the pipe to be cleared.page 249 . date or number). ± Each packet can be a string.  Receive a message from that pipe. ± You can wait for up to 1000 days for a message.sql pipex2. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein pipex1. ± If there isn¶t currently room in the pipe. number. ROWID or RAW. ± This is the default.

NEXT_ITEM_TYPE Returns the datatype of the next item in the piped message. UNIQUE_SESSION_NAME Returns name that is unique among all sessions in the database. SEND_MESSAGE Sends contents of message buffer to the specified pipe. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . RECEIVE_MESSAGE Receives a message from pipe and copies to local buffer. PURGE Empties the contents of a pipe into your local buffer freeing it for removal. PACK_MESSAGE Packs an item into the message buffer for your session. making it a candidate for removal with a LRU algorithm.DBMS_PIPE Module Outline Module Name CREATE_PIPE Description Creates a PUBLIC or PRIVATE pipe. UNPACK_MESSAGE Unpacks the next item from the local message buffer and deposits it into the specified local variable.page 250 . REMOVE_PIPE RESET_BUFFER Removes a pipe explicitly created via CREATE_PIPE. Clears your buffer so that PACK_MESSAGE and UNPACK_MESSAGE can work from the first item.

private => TRUE).  A public pipe is accessible as long as you know its name.  An explicit pipe can be private (accessible only to sessions with matching userID or SYSDBA privileges).CREATE_PIPE ( pipename => 'bbs'. maxpipesize => 20000. ± Implicitly-created pipes are always public. BEGIN stat := DBMS_PIPE. ± Specify TRUE for private argument of CREATE_PIPE. ± Use CREATE_PIPE to create a pipe explicitly.page 251 . ± Send messages to non-existent pipe implicitly create it. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Creating Public and Private Pipes  There are two ways to create pipes: implicitly and explicitly. PROCEDURE newpipe IS stat INTEGER.

Status of 0 means message was sent. END LOOP. and new max pipe size (you can make it bigger. IF pipe_stat != 0 THEN RAISE could_not_send. seconds you will wait.PACK_MESSAGE ( total_sales (month_num)). expanding pipe size to 40 Kbytes. timeout IN INTEGER DEFAULT maxwait. maxpipesize IN INTEGER DEFAULT 8192) RETURN INTEGER. 10 * 4096). 12 LOOP DBMS_PIPE. Send to "monthly" pipe. waiting up to 1 minute. FOR month_num IN 1 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Fill your message buffer with packets of data.Sending a Message Provide pipe name. 60. FUNCTION send_message (pipename IN VARCHAR2..SEND_MESSAGE ( µmonthly¶. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 252 . but not smaller). pipe_stat := DBMS_PIPE.

timeout IN INTEGER DEFAULT maxwait) RETURN INTEGER. ± You need to know the datatype of packet or check it using NEXT_ITEM_TYPE. PROCEDURE unpack_message (item OUT NUMBER). PROCEDURE unpack_message (item OUT DATE).  First you pull the message from the pipe and place it in buffer with RECEIVE_MESSAGE.page 253 .Receiving and Unpack a Message FUNCTION receive_message (pipename IN VARCHAR2. ± Pipe status of 0 means the message was read successfully. PROCEDURE unpack_message (item OUT VARCHAR2). ± Specify pipe and number of seconds you will wait before you time out.  Then you call UNPACK_MESSAGE to extract individual packets from the message. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

UNPACK_MESSAGE (prod_total). every_n_secs). LOOP pipe_status := DBMS_PIPE. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . DBMS_PIPE. If I got something.A Pipe-based Listener Program  Program wakes up every N seconds to read the data from the pipe and analyze results from assembly line (an intentional "infinite loop"!). Wait up to N prod_total NUMBER. 'Production data unavailable. data not received. END IF. analyze_production (SYSDATE. PROCEDURE analyze_assembly_data (every_n_secs IN INTEGER) IS pipe_status INTEGER.'). ELSE RAISE_APPLICATION_ERROR ( Stop process if -20000. END.page 254 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . pass it on to the IF pipe_status = 0 computation THEN program. seconds for the BEGIN next report. END LOOP. prod_total).RECEIVE_MESSAGE ( 'production'.

± Or you use the built-in NEXT_ITEM_TYPE to tell you in advance the datatype of the next packet in the message and take appropriate action. Returns one of the following values: Value 0 6 9 11 12 23 Description or Data type No more items in buffer NUMBER VARCHAR2 ROWID DATE RAW dbpipe. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Either: ± You know the datatype and therefore can ³hard-code´ the correct variable into the call to UNPACK_MESSAGE.sql dbpipe. you have to make sure that you unpack a packet into the right kind of variable.page 255 .Unpacking the Message FUNCTION next_item_type RETURN INTEGER.tst  Since a message can be composed of packets of different datatypes.

 Suppose I want to calculate my net profit. I must execute them sequentially and incur an elapsed time of 45 minutes before I calculate the profits. ± The CEO is decidedly unhappy about the delay.Parallelizing Your Code with Pipes  Oracle uses DBMS_PIPE to improve RDBMS performance.page 256 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± These programs each take 15 minutes. total office expenses and total compensation. you can do the same for your application if: ± You have multiple CPUs available. but are not dependent on each other. In order to do so I must first compute total sales.  Without pipes. ± You have processes which can run in parallel.

Parallel Execution Sequential Execution: Maximum Elapsed Time S t a r t E n d Process A Process B Process C Parallel Execution: Minimum Elapsed Time Start Process A Process B Process C End 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 257 .Sequential vs.

wait_for_confirmation. ± When each program is complete. ± Other programs running in the background grab the messages and start their corresponding calculation program.  The ³kick off´ programs pass their messages to separate pipes. it puts a message (perhaps even a value) into the pipe. calculate_net_profits. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Then net profits can be computed -. END.in a muchdecreased elapsed time.page 258 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .Parallelizing PL/SQL Execution BEGIN kick_off_sales_calc.  The ³wait´ program waits till it receives a message from each program. kick_off_totcomp_calc. kick_off_exp_calc.

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Code to Kick Off and Calculate PROCEDURE kick_off_sales_calc IS stat INTEGER. END IF. DBMS_PIPE. END.PACK_MESSAGE (NULL).SEND_MESSAGE (µsales¶).page 259 .SEND_MESSAGE (µsales¶).SEND_MESSAGE (µsales¶). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Send message to start calculations. stat := DBMS_PIPE.PACK_MESSAGE (1995). PROCEDURE calculate_sales IS stat INTEGER. END.RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µsales¶). Receive the year. stat := DBMS_PIPE. BEGIN stat := DBMS_PIPE. BEGIN DBMS_PIPE. ELSE DBMS_PIPE. stat := DBMS_PIPE. and send back the results.PACK_MESSAGE (sales$). calculate sales. IF stat = 0 THEN lots_of_number_crunching.

Waiting for Confirmation PROCEDURE wait_for_confirmation IS stat INTEGER.UNPACK_MESSAGE (comp$).offexp$ . Wait for all calculations to finish. PROCEDURE calculate_net_profits IS BEGIN net_profits := sales$ . DBMS_PIPE.RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µoffexp¶).UNPACK_MESSAGE (sales$). BEGIN stat := DBMS_PIPE.RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µcomp¶). END. Perform final calculation.page 260 . DBMS_PIPE. END. parallel. DBMS_PIPE. The order in which you wait is insignificant.UNPACK_MESSAGE (offexp$). stat := DBMS_PIPE.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µsales¶). stat := DBMS_PIPE.comp$.

obtains the data.page 261 . in-memory cache. watch.Other DBMS_PIPE Examples  Simple trace package that sends it output either to screen or to pipe.pkg p_and_l.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± A request for data is passed to a "central" pipe.pkg  Implementation of a system-wide. syscache. ± Demonstrates the use of toggles and switches in packages.pkg syscache. and sends it to the pipe. ± The requester reads the information from the pipe. ± A listener program grabs the request (including the return pipe name).

.page 262 . A µgrab-bag¶ of miscellaneous operations SCHEMA 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Built-in Packages: DBMS_UTILITY DBMS_UTILITY Application GET_TIME GET_HASH_VALUE FORMAT_CALL_STACK ..

Returns error stack. Returns hash value for string.pkg COMMA_TO_TABLE COMPILE_SCHEMA DATA_BLOCK_ADDRESS_BLOCK DATA_BLOCK_ADDRESS_FILE DB_VERSION EXEC_DDL_STATEMENT FORMAT_CALL_STACK FORMAT_ERROR_STACK GET_HASH_VALUE 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .page 263 dbver.pkg dbparm. Gets file number part of data block address. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Parses comma-delimited list to index-by table. Gets block number part of data block address. Returns execution call stack. Recompile INVALID objects in specified schema.DBMS_UTILITY Module Outline ANALYZE_DATABASE ANALYZE_PART_OBJECT Analyze objects in database Runs ANALYZE TABLE or ANALYZE INDEX for each partition of the object (Oracle8). Returns database version (Oracle8) Executes DDL statement (Oracle8).

Returns TRUE if in parallel server mode.DBMS_UTILITY Module Outline. Returns "current time" down to hundredth of second. GET_PARAMETER_VALUE GET_TIME IS_PARALLEL_SERVER MAKE_DATA_BLOCK_ADDRESS NAME_RESOLVE NAME_TOKENIZE PORT_STRING TABLE_TO_COMMA Retrieves value of database parameter (Oracle8). Returns platform and version of database. Converts list (in index-by-table) of elements into a comma-delimited list (string). Creates data block address from block & file numbers. cont. Resolves name of object into component parts. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Parses string object designator into components.page 264 .

BEGIN v_start := DBMS_UTILITY. so GET_TIME offers significant additional granularity. ± Useful when analyzing individual PL/SQL programs. Basic steps necessary to convert GET_TIME into a performance analysis tool. END.GET_TIME .Sub-Second Timings with GET_TIME  GET_TIME returns the number of 100ths of seconds that have elapsed since an arbitrary point in time.v_start).page 265 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .PUT_LINE (DBMS_UTILITY.  Compare results from consecutive calls to GET_TIME to determine the elapsed time of PL/SQL code execution. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . especially those that run in sub-second time.GET_TIME. calc_totals. DBMS_OUTPUT. DECLARE v_start BINARY_INTEGER. ± SYSDATE only reflects times down to the nearest second.

END PLVtmr.page 266 . PROCEDURE capture ( context_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) PROCEDURE show_elapsed (prefix_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. PLVtmr. Clean and lean timing code ovrhead.spb 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .sps plvtmr. PROCEDURE turn_off. PROCEDURE set_factor (factor_in IN NUMBER). calc_totals. END.capture.sql plvtmr. reset_in IN BOOLEAN := TRUE).Building a Layer Over GET_TIME Partial package specification PACKAGE PLVtmr IS PROCEDURE turn_on. adjust_in IN NUMBER := 0. BEGIN PLVtmr.show_elapsed.

± Most recent program at beginning of "report".FORMAT_CALL_STACK). END.page 267 . equivalent to CHR(10).COMPANY_TYPE procedure STEVEN.VALIDATE_REQUEST function STEVEN. ± Does not show package elements. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN DBMS_OUTPUT. only the package name. ----.PL/SQL Call Stack ----object line object handle number name 88ce3f74 88e49fc4 88e49390 88e2bd20 8 2 1 1 package STEVEN.CALC_NET_WORTH anonymous block  "Little known facts" about FORMAT_CALL_STACK: ± Contains embedded new-line characters.PUT_LINE ( DBMS_UTILITY. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Accessing the Execution Call Stack Use in the exception section to show context of error.

use a loop to read through the stack. 1). next_newline . next_newline INTEGER.pkg plvcs. startpos. startpos INTEGER := 1. CHR(10).PUT_LINE (next_line).sps DBMS_OUTPUT. next_line := SUBSTR ( stk. EXIT WHEN next_newline = 0.FORMAT_CALL_STACK || CHR(10).startpos + 1).tst callstack. next_line VARCHAR2(255). END. END LOOP. BEGIN stk := DBMS_UTILITY. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE dispcs IS stk VARCHAR2(10000). LOOP next_newline := INSTR (stk. startpos := next_newline + 1. startpos. dispcs.sp dispcs.Accessing Call Stack Contents  The call stack length can easily exceed 255 bytes. which means you cannot pass it to DBMS_OUTPUT directly.page 268 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . Instead. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

NAME_RESOLVE (name IN VARCHAR2. ± Use NAME_RESOLVE to break down an identifier string into its components easily. dblink OUT VARCHAR2. part2 OUT VARCHAR2. part1 OUT VARCHAR2..sp snc.for encapsulation! showcomp. schema OUT VARCHAR2.page 269 .Resolving Names of Stored Code  Code names have many components. part1_type OUT NUMBER. PROCEDURE DBMS_UTILITY.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . see it as an opportunity.but don't see it as a problem.. context IN NUMBER. object_number OUT NUMBER)... the way they are attached also follows a complicated syntax.  Possible "Part 1" Types 5 7 8 9 Synonym Procedure Function Package What a chore! All those arguments.

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