Achieving PL/SQL Excellence

Oracle PL/SQL Advanced Techniques
Oracle7 thru Oracle8i
Steven Feuerstein
www.StevenFeuerstein.com www.Quest.com www.OReilly.com
and contributions most excellent from Bill Pribyl and Dick Bolz

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 1

Objective & Outline 

Objective
± Expand your knowledge and awareness of important and new features of the PL/SQL language. 

Outline
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± Building with Packages (Oracle7+) PL/SQL Collections (Oracle7 and Oracle8+) Cursor Variables (Oracle7 and Oracle8+) Dynamic SQL: DBMS_SQL and Native Dynamic SQL (8i) Calling Java from PL/SQL (Oracle8i) and C (Oracle8) Oracle Advanced Queuing with DBMS_AQ (Oracle8) Managing Large Objects with DBMS_LOB (Oracle8) Other Oracle8i New Features
» Autonomous Transactions (Oracle8i) » Invoker Rights Model (Oracle8i) » Row Level Security: DBMS_RLS

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

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Software Used in Training 

PL/Vision: a library of packages installed on top of PL/SQL.
± PL/Vision Lite - use it, copy, change it for free -- unless you build software to be sold commercially. ± Active PL/SQL Knowledge Base: contains PL/Vision Professional, the fully supported and enhanced version. 

Demonstration scripts executed in the training can be found on the RevealNet PL/SQL Pipeline:
± http://www.revealnet.com/Pipelines/PLSQL/index.htm ± Archives surfboard, Miscellaneous, PL/SQL Seminar Files ± See filedesc.doc for a listing of many of the files.
plsql_ides.txt 

The PL/SQL IDE (Integrated Development Environment).
± You no longer have to use SQL*Plus and a crude editor! Choose from among the many listed in plsql_ides.txt.

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Achieving PL/SQL Excellence

Building with PL/SQL Packages 
 

Overview Initialization section Overloading

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What is a Package? 

A collection of code elements, from procedures and functions to TYPE, variable and cursor declarations.
± Single-most important structure within PL/SQL, and almost certainly one of the most under-utilized. ± Conceptually very simple, it can take some time to fully grasp the implications and potential of the package. 

The method of choice by Oracle and other software developers for extending the PL/SQL language.
± You will find packages in the database, in Oracle Developer/2000, in Oracle Application Server. 

Let¶s review some of the benefits of packages.
tmr.pkg dbparm.pkg

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te_employee.pkg insga.page 6 . you call the packaged procedures and functions instead.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .pkg  Improve transaction integrity by hiding data structures behind the package interface.pks te_employee. ± There's a big difference between a bunch of separate programs and a coherent.pkb  Construct very flexible and usable utilities for developers. custrules. ± Can lead to performance improvements.When to Build a Package  Join physically logically-related code. package-based "component". watch. ± Puts more structure and organization in your body of code. ± Instead of writing SQL directly in your programs.

Does the package have an init section? yes Run initialization code. Program references package element the first time in each session. the first time any package element is referenced. no Complete request for packaged element.Package Initialization  The initialization section is a block of code at the end of the package body that is executed once per session. ± The PL/SQL runtime engine determines when and if this code should be run.page 7 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

± Is not required.Package Initialization Structure  The initialization section: ± Is defined after and outside of any programs in the package. ± Can have its own exception handling section. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein BEGIN after/outside of any program defined in the pkg. most packages you build won't have one. PACKAGE BODY pkg IS PROCEDURE proc IS BEGIN END. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 8 . BEGIN END pkg.  Useful for: ± Performing complex setting of default or initial values. ± Confirming that package is properly instantiated. In fact. FUNCTION func RETURN BEGIN END. ± Setting up package data which does not change for the duration of a session.

defprinter INTO show_lov.tst this user. END sessinit. PACKAGE BODY sessinit IS /* No declared package elements at all! */ BEGIN /* Get user preferences for this user. tb_flag.  Also a package with many design flaws.. */ 'Y'. printer VARCHAR2(60). ± Body contains only initialization section. Section  An unusual package! ± Specification contains only variables.Configure Session with Init. */ SELECT lov_flag. WHEN OTHERS THEN RAISE_APPLICATION_ERROR (-20000. END sessinit.. 'No profile for ' || USER). 'lpt1'. show_toolbar. printer FROM user_config WHERE user_id = USER.pkg init. show_toolbar CHAR(1).page 9 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . init. EXCEPTION WHEN NO_DATA_FOUND THEN /* No record for show_lov := show_toolbar := printer := PACKAGE sessinit IS show_lov CHAR(1). 'Y'. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

BEGIN fmts(1) := 'DD-MON-RR'. Initialization section populates a PL/SQL table. PLVdate. fmts(3) := 'DD-MON'.. fmts(10) := 'MMDDYYYY'. fmts(11) := 'YYYYMMDD'. fmt_count := 12.pkg dates. employs several PL/SQL tables to convert strings and to perform date arithmetic.. fmts(4) := 'MM/DD'. fmts(2) := 'DD-MON-YYYY'.pkg file demonstrates the basic technique (and the reliance on an initialization section) used to achieve this flexibility.Populate Collections  The PL/Vision Date package. . ± This increases the flexibility of the date conversion process. ± The datemgr. END dt. fmts(12) := 'RRMMDD'.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . fmts(9) := 'MM/DD/YYYY'.page 10 . datemgr.

you need to make that code as smart and as easy to use as possible. ± If you want others to use your code. you give two or more programs the same name. ± Overloading transfers the "need to know" from the user to the overloaded program.Program Overloading  When you overload programs.page 11 . myproc  Overloading is a critical feature when building comprehensive programmatic interfaces (APIs) or components using packages. myproc myproc 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± You can overload modules in any declaration section and in packages.

'MMDDYY'). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Without overloading. you would have to deal with something like this: date_string := TO_CHAR_FROM_DATE (SYSDATE. and took functions like TO_CHAR and TO_DATE totally for granted. date_string := TO_CHAR (SYSDATE. number_string := TO_CHAR_FROM_NUMBER (10000). ± You just probably never gave it a thought.Overloading in PL/SQL Built-ins  PL/SQL uses overloading in many common functions. ± But Oracle couldn't offer that level of convenience without overloading.page 12 . 'MMDDYY'). number_string := TO_CHAR (10000).

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Undistinguishing characteristics: ± Functions differ only in their RETURN datatype. IN OUT). ± Their formal parameters differ only in datatype and the datatypes are in the same family. the compiler must be able to distinguish between the two calls at compile-time. VARCHAR2 is not different enough).  Distinguishing characteristics: ± The formal parameters of overloaded modules must differ in number. order or datatype family (CHAR vs. There are two different "compile times": ± 1. ± 2.How Overloading Works  For two or more modules to be overloaded. ± The programs are of different types: procedure and function. When you compile the package or block containing the overloaded code. When you compile programs that use the overloaded code.page 13 . OUT. ± Arguments differ only in their mode (IN.

Parameter data types cause conflict. FUNCTION func1 (val IN VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2. PACKAGE only_returns IS FUNCTION func1 (val IN VARCHAR2) RETURN DATE.PUT_LINE (only_returns. which one? param_modes. PACKAGE param_modes IS PROCEDURE proc1 (val IN VARCHAR2). PROCEDURE calc (reg_in IN VARCHAR2). which one? DBMS_OUTPUT. Only difference is parameter mode.proc1 (v_value). END only_returns. Only difference is function RETURN type. END too_many_cals. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . PROCEDURE proc1 (val IN OUT VARCHAR2).calc ('123').Examples of Invalid Overloadings PACKAGE too_similar IS PROCEDURE calc (reg_in IN CHAR).page 14 . END param_modes.func1 (v_value)). which one? too_similar.

In this case. You use the type of data and not its value to determine which of the overloaded programs should be executed.l substitute does an even better job.  Fitting the Program to the User ± To make your code as useful as possible. so much as providing different ways of requesting the same activity.  Overloading by Type. the overloading does not provide a single name for different activities.PUT_LINE procedure illustrates this technique -and the PL/Vision p. not Value ± A less common application of overloading. you may construct different versions of the ³same´ program which correspond to different patterns of use. ± The DBMS_OUTPUT. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Overload Wherever Possible  Supporting Many Data Combinations ± Apply the same action to different kinds or combinations of data.page 15 .

END p. PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2.sps p.A "Classic" Overloaded Package  Many different datatype combinations. p. boolean_in IN BOOLEAN). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2.page 16 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2. YYYY . allowing the user to pass data to the "display engine" without writing "pre-processing" code. mask_in IN VARCHAR2 := µMonth DD.HH:MI:SS PM'). PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2).HH:MI:SS PM').spb PROCEDURE l (boolean_in IN BOOLEAN). mask_in IN VARCHAR2 := 'Month DD. PROCEDURE l (number_in IN NUMBER). number_in IN NUMBER). date_in IN DATE. YYYY . PACKAGE p IS PROCEDURE l (date_in IN DATE.

'MM/DD/YY HH:MI:SS')).PUT_LINE ('FALSE'). IF print_report_fl THEN DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE ('TRUE').l (print_report_fl).page 17 . DBMS_OUTPUT. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein ‡Extended overloadings are more likely to meet user needs. END IF..Advantage of Extended Overloading ‡ Minimal overloading means lots of extra coding.PUT_LINE ('So what is different?'). DBMS_OUTPUT.l ('So what is different?'). p. p.l (SQLERRM. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . SQLCODE). DBMS_OUTPUT. p.PUT_LINE (SQLERRM || ': ' || TO_CHAR (SQLCODE)).. ELSE DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE (TO_CHAR (SYSDATE. p.l (SYSDATE).

± Your code is a a more natural "fit" under a variety of requirements. few developers are considerate enough of their users to try to anticipate their needs. If you take these different circumstances into account when you design your package specification. In my experience. such as "display data" or "create a file".page 18   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .. can be applied or needed under very different circumstances. the user of your package can benefit from writing less code. think about the way it will be used.Fitting the Program to the User Writing "unnecessary" code? Time to overload!  A single piece of functionality.and taken completely for granted.. appreciated. ± If you want to write software that is admired. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Of course. 'W'). 'blah'). you have to declare the record to hold the file handle. BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE. ± She doesn't care what's in it. It just needs to be present. even though you are simply going to close the file immediately after opening it.page 19  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . so this is just the way it has to be. sometimes you will want to create a file and then perform additional operations. END.FCLOSE (fid). 'exists.flg'. UTL_FILE. right? WRONG! PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Creating a File for a Quick Touch  Suppose a developer needs to create a file to be used as a "flag" in the operating system.  In other words.FILE_TYPE.FOPEN ('tmp/flags'.PUT_LINE (fid. ± Here is the code required by UTL_FILE: DECLARE fid UTL_FILE. UTL_FILE.

FILE_TYPE. END PLVfile. BEGIN fid := PLVfile.FILE_TYPE. Use as Procedure BEGIN PLVfile.ini'.  Overloading of FCreate PACKAGE PLVfile IS /* Procedure */ PROCEDURE fcreate (file_in IN VARCHAR2.page 20 . v_user). TO_CHAR (SYSDATE)).flg').put_line (fid.fcreate ('temp. END. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Use as Function DECLARE fid UTL_FILE. /* Function */ FUNCTION fcreate (file_in IN VARCHAR2.pkg PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . line_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) RETURN UTL_FILE. custrules.fcreate ('exists. line_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL).Procedure and Function Overloaded  Why not overload a "create file" program so that you can pick the one that most closely fits your situation? Consider the PLVfile package of PL/Vision. PLVfile.

Define a different program name for each datatype. when you use DBMS_SQL to set up a dynamic query."By-Type" Overloading  In some situations. ± Pass a piece of data of the right type.page 21 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . but the type of data. ± Pass a string ³name´ of the datatype. the user does not need to pass data. ± For example.  There are three ways to accomplish this: ± Don't overload. you must call the DEFINE_COLUMN procedure to define the datatype of the Nth column in the cursor.

NUMBER_TYPE).DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. ± DBMS_SQL. 2. DBMS_SQL.  So many program names to remember! Pass a literal value.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. 'STRING'. lotsa names...DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.DEFINE_INTEGER_COLUMN (cur. Lotsa typing. 2.  Nasty hard-coding.. 30).. 2.DEFINE_COLUMN ± PLVgen.. DBMS_SQL. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL.. Pass a named constant. 'NUMBER').Options for Specifying Column Type  Don't even bother overloading. 30). 30). BEGIN DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. 1. 1.  Now let's look at two examples of overloading by datatype. DBMS_SQL.. DBMS_SQL.VARCHAR2_TYPE.. BEGIN DBMS_SQL...page 22 . 1).func 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..DEFINE_VARCHAR2_COLUMN (cur..

30). DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. v_empno). v_ename.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.DEFINE_COLUMN procedure defines the datatype of a column. USER. from the perspective of DBMS_SQL. 2.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. ± The three code blocks below are equivalent. 2.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. 'a'. 2. DBMS_SQL.Defining Dynamic SQL Columns  The DBMS_SQL. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL.page 23 . ± To make it easier to accomplish this task.any value -. 1. 1). 30). 1.GET_TIME). BEGIN DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. you only need to pass a value -.of the correct type. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN. 30). 1. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . DBMS_UTILITY.

type_in IN NUMBER). PROCEDURE func (name_in IN VARCHAR2.Generating Functions by Value  In PLVgen. any Boolean will do. 1) A date function. type_in IN VARCHAR2). SYSDATE) SQL> exec plvgen. any date. please! A number function. the user indicates the type of function to be generated by providing a value.func ('last_date'. please! 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . any string. type_in IN DATE). ± The particular value itself is of no importance.func ('total_salary'.page 24 . PROCEDURE func (name_in IN VARCHAR2. SQL> exec plvgen. Any number. PACKAGE PLVgen IS PROCEDURE func (name_in IN VARCHAR2.

page 25 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . PACKAGE profits IS PROCEDURE calc (comp_id_IN IN NUMBER). ± When I compile profits. but you might later found out that you cannot actually call any of the overloaded programs.The Frustrations of Overloading  Watch out! An overloading can compile successfully.comp_id%TYPE). PL/SQL does not sense a conflict with above overloading even though comp_id is a numeric column.  In the above example. END. I rely on an anchored type (%TYPE) to establish the datatype of the second calc¶s parameter. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . PROCEDURE calc (comp_id_IN IN company.

sales.Quiz! Nuances of Overloading PACKAGE sales IS PROCEDURE calc_total (zone_in IN VARCHAR2).calc_total ('ZONE2'). like calc_totals shown above? ± If not. sales. END sales.  Can I overload two programs which have parameters that differ only by name. why not? ± If so.pkg ? 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . PROCEDURE calc_total (reg_in IN VARCHAR2). END. how would you do it? (Don't peek at the next page!) BEGIN sales.page 26 .calc_total ('NORTHWEST').

ANALYZE_OBJECT ' || '(''TABLE''. next_date => TRUNC (SYSDATE + 1). namednot. interval => 'TRUNC(SYSDATE+1)').''LOAD1''.sql  Advantages 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .''TENK''' || '. This is especially useful when working with infrequently used built-in programs. what => 'DBMS_DDL. ± You can skip over (not specify values for) any IN parameters that have default values.page 27 . DBMS_JOB.submit ( job => v_jobno.Using Named Notation <formal parameter name> => <expression>  Explicit association between the formal parameter (the "name") with the actual parameter (the "value"). That way you don't have to know and pass default values.'. of named notation include: ± Code is more "self-documenting".null.''ESTIMATE''.estimate_percent=>50).

Three types of collections: ± Index-by tables (Oracle7 only. originally called PL/SQL tables) ± Nested tables (Oracle8 and above) ± Variable arrays (VARRAYs. Oracle8 and above) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 28 .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence PL/SQL Collections   Collections are single-dimensioned lists of information.

which are otherwise not supported in PL/SQL Cache data in session-level memory for faster access. Improve query performance by avoiding joins.When to Use Collections  Maintain any kind of list of related information for use in your programs. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 29     1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . Build hash tables (custom indexing structures).  Emulate bi-directional cursors. Avoid mutating table errors in database triggers.

147.  Characteristics of an index-by table: ± Unbounded » Practically speaking. ± Sparse » Data does not have to be stored in consecutive rows of information.483.647 to 2.Index-By Tables TYPE <table_type> IS TABLE OF <datatype> INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. this broad range allows you to employ the row number as an intelligent key.647 » You will not actually create tables this large. Instead. Valid row numbers range: -2. ± Homogeneous » Data in each row has the same structure. emp_copy inmem_emp_t.147. DECLARE TYPE inmem_emp_t IS TABLE OF emp%ROWTYPE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER.page 30 .483. ± Available only in PL/SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Error: NO_DATA_FOUND 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . children (6904) := 'Lisa Nadezhka'.page 31 . children 6306 6412 6810 6904 µBarbara Anne¶ µGary Richard¶ µAdam Russell¶ µLisa Nadezhka¶ datemgr. Component Selection kid := children (4). Variable declaration children child_list_type.pkg children 6306 6412 6904 µBarbara Anne¶ µGary Richard¶ µLisa Marie¶ children (6810) := µAdam Russell.Index_by Tables TYPE declaration PACKAGE BODY family IS TYPE child_list_type IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2 (30) INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER.

± Unbounded. but can become sparse if you DELETE inner rows ± Available both in PL/SQL and SQL (as a column in a table) ± The order of elements is not preserved in the database 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .147. DECLARE TYPE when_t IS TABLE OF DATE.page 32 . but only with explicit EXTEND requests » Practically speaking.647 ± Initially dense.Nested Tables [CREATE OR REPLACE] TYPE <table_type> IS TABLE OF <datatype> [NOT NULL].483. birthdays when_t. Valid row numbers range: 1 to 2.  Nested table characteristics ± Homogeneous » Each row contains the same structure of data.

sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . kids child_table_type) NESTED TABLE kids STORE AS kids_ntab. CREATE TABLE db_family (surname VARCHAR2 (30).page 33 .Nested Tables CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE child_table_type IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2 (30). For ORACLE's use only db_family surname kids BOLZ BOND Eric Thomas Max Richard Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Marie ntdemo.

salaries numbers_t. DECLARE TYPE numbers_t IS VARRAY (10) OF NUMBER. ± Bounded » Upper limit established when the TYPE is defined. ± Available both in PL/SQL and SQL (as a column in a table) » And the order of elements are preserved in the database. can be EXTENDed or TRIMmed.page 34 . ± Variable arrays are actually stored in the DB table 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Characteristics of variable arrays: ± Homogeneous » Each row contains the same structure of data.483.647 ± Dense » Never any gaps between defined rows. Maximum value: 2.Variable Arrays [CREATE OR REPLACE] TYPE <table_type> IS VARRAY (N) OF <datatype> [NOT NULL].147.

page 35 . kids child_va_type).sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Variable Arrays CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE child_va_type IS VARRAY (8) OF VARCHAR2 (30). db_family surname kids BOLZ BOND 1 Barbara Anne 2 Gary Richard 3 Lisa Marie 1 Eric Thomas 2 Max Richard vademo. CREATE TABLE db_family (surname VARCHAR2 (30).

TYPE integer_nt IS TABLE OF INTEGER. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE tabtypes IS TYPE integer_ibt IS TABLE OF INTEGER INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. END tabtypes.. or in a PL/SQL declaration section. a collection. ± You can declare multiple collections from that TYPE.page 36 .Defining Collections  First. from the TYPE. you define the TYPE of the collection. TYPE integer_vat IS VARRAY(10) OF INTEGER. you can define the TYPE in the database with a CREATE statement.  Then you declare an instance of that type. ± For index-by tables. Best option: package specification. this can only occur in a PL/SQL declaration section.. . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± For nested tables and VARRAYs.

' || A.elem_type_name = A.attr_type_name Attributes all_coll_types T. colldd.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .owner = A.Obtaining Collection Information SELECT FROM WHERE AND AND AND A.owner T. ± The code used to define the collection TYPE  There is no information in the data dictionary available for index-by tables. all_type_attrs A T.owner = USER T.page 37 .type_name IN ('NAMES_VT'.type_name.attr_name || ' . 'TMRS_VT') T.  ALL_COLL_TYPES ± The types you have created (or have access to) in the database  ALL_TYPE_ATTRS ± Attributes of the data type used in the TYPE definition.

empty when declared. salaries numbers_t := numbers_t (100. 200. 200. 300). 300). / DECLARE -.Initialize the collection.page 38 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . salary_history numbers_t). You must initialize them explicitly with a constructor. TYPE defined in PL/SQL TYPE defined in the database Collection used in a table PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . salaries numbers_t := numbers_t (100. DECLARE TYPE numbers_t IS VARRAY (10) OF NUMBER. BEGIN CREATE TABLE employee_denorm ( employee_id INTEGER.Initializing Collections  Before you can use a collection. BEGIN CREATE TYPE numbers_t IS VARRAY (10) OF NUMBER. ± Nested tables and VARRAYs are atomically null. ± Index-by tables are initialized automatically. it must be initialized.

± Can easily create an index-by table with the same structure as a database table by declaring a record with %ROWTYPE.3. TYPE comp_tabtype IS TABLE OF comp_rectype INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. the ³homogeneous´ contents of an index-by table's row can be a record .page 39 . DECLARE TYPE comp_rectype IS RECORD (comp_id company. consider putting TYPEs in database or packages. BEGIN comp_tab(1).  Starting with Oracle8.company_id%TYPE. total_rev NUMBER). comp_tab comp_tabtype.Collections of Composites  Starting with Oracle 7. the datatype for any of the collection types can also be an object. Again. ± But you cannot have nested composite datatypes. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .comp_id := 1005. Here we have a three step process.

unless the order in which items are selected is of importance. ± In an index-by table. a row exists in the table only when a value is assigned to that row.page 40 . ± In almost every case. etc.  Rows do not have to be defined sequentially. ± You should not fill sequentially. your collections will contain a row's worth of information. it is very similar to a database table.).Sparse is Nice  The sparse characteristic of index-by tables and nested tables can be put to good use. ± Instead. consider using the row value as "smart data" for your application (primary key. order by date.  Especially handy when caching data from relational tables in user memory. In this way. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Transferring DB Table to Collection CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE psemp IS TYPE emp_tabtype IS TABLE OF emp%ROWTYPE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER.tst  PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . emp_tab emp_tabtype. END. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY psemp IS BEGIN FOR rec IN (SELECT * FROM emp) LOOP emp_tab (rec. END. Initialization section of package 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein  This package moves the entire contents of the emp table into its corresponding collection. END LOOP. Some questions: ± Why would I put this collection table in a package? ± When is the collection loaded with the data? ± What rows in that collection are utilized? psemp.page 41 .empno) := rec.pkg psemp.

END. BEGIN greedy_ceos(1) := 'Hamilton.  For index-by tables. / DECLARE greedy_ceos names_t := names_t (). once extended.page 42 . the row exists. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± For VARRAYs and nested tables. even if you haven't assigned a value explicitly.Collection Gotchas CREATE TYPE names_t IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2(30). Jordan'. / Error -6533! You've got to EXTEND first!  EXTEND before assigning a value to a row. but you must do it for VARRAYs and nested tables. you must reference existing rows or a NO_DATA_FOUND exception is raised. ± Use the EXISTS method to determine if a row existed. ± Not necessary for index-by tables.

ELSE DBMS_OUTPUT.  You can EXTEND one or more rows. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .PUT_LINE ('Data for employee not available.Set the value of each new row to the contents of the first row.We are OK.page 43 . BEGIN IF salaries.'). END IF.FIRST)). ± Assign a default value with a second. salaries. optional argument.Handling Collection Gotchas BEGIN -. -.tst  Include a handler for NO_DATA_FOUND or use the EXISTS method to avoid these exceptions. ± Pre-extending a large number of rows in advance can improve performance. salaries(salaries.EXTEND (10.EXISTS (v_employee_id) THEN -. preextend.Extend by 10 since I know I will need that many.

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . EXISTS returns TRUE if the specified row is defined. ± LIMIT tells you the max. ± EXTEND adds rows to a nested table or VARRAY. FIRST/LAST return lowest/highest numbers of defined rows. number of elements allowed in a VARRAY. ± TRIM removes rows from a VARRAY.Collection Methods  Obtain information about the collection COUNT returns number of rows currently defined in the table. NEXT/PRIOR return the closest defined row after/before the specified row. ± ± ± ±  Modify the contents of the collection ± DELETE deletes one or more rows from the index-by table.  The built-in package plitblm (PL/sql Index-TaBLe Methods) defines these methods.page 44 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .

DELETE releases memory. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . but you may also want to call DBMS_SESSION. -. -. 17255).page 45 .DELETE.Delete a range of rows myCollection.DELETE (myCollection.The DELETE Method  You can delete one or more rows from a collection using DELETE: BEGIN -.LAST).Delete one (the last) row myCollection.DELETE (1400. END.Delete all rows myCollection.FREE_UNUSED_USER_MEMORY.

Navigating Through Collections 


Use FIRST and NEXT to move from beginning to end. Use LAST and PRIOR to move from end to beginning.
rowind PLS_INTEGER := birthdays.FIRST; -- birthdays.LAST BEGIN LOOP EXIT WHEN rowind IS NULL; DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE (birthdays(rowind).best_present); rowind := birthdays.NEXT (rowind); -- birthdays.PRIOR END LOOP; END;

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Using Collections Inside SQL 

Nested tables and VARRAYs can be defined as columns of a table and referenced directly within SQL. You can also apply SQL operations to the contents of nested tables and VARRAYs with these operators:
± THE - Maps a single column value in a single row to a virtual database table ± CAST - Maps a collection of one type to a collection of another type ± MULTISET - Maps a database table to a collection ± TABLE - Maps a collection to a database table  

Index-by tables are programmatic constructs only.
± You cannot make a direct reference to an index-by table in SQL. ± Instead, so do indirectly with a PL/SQL function.

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Using Collections inside SQL
SELECT column_value FROM TABLE (SELECT children FROM db_family WHERE surname = 'BOLZ'); db_family surname children BOLZ BOND Eric Thomas Max Richard UPDATE TABLE (SELECT children FROM db_family WHERE SURNAME = 'BOLZ) SET column_value = 'Lisa Nadezhka' WHERE column_value = 'Lisa Marie'); db_family surname children BOLZ ...
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Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Marie

column_value Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Marie

Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Nadezhka

Using the THE Operator 

Use THE to manipulate (retrieve, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE) contents of a nested table in a database table.
± Can only use with nested tables, not VARRAYs or index-by tables. ± Only accessible from within SQL statements in PL/SQL.
CREATE TYPE action_list_t IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2(100); / CREATE TABLE inflation_beater ( focus_area VARCHAR2(100), activities action_list_t) NESTED TABLE activities STORE AS activities_tab; SELECT VALUE (act) FROM THE (SELECT activities FROM inflation_beater WHERE focus_area = 'FORTUNE 100') act; UPDATE THE (SELECT activities FROM inflation_beater WHERE focus_area = 'FORTUNE 100') SET COLUMN_VALUE = 'DISBAND OSHA' WHERE COLUMN_VALUE = 'SIDESTEP OSHA';

the.sql

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Using the TABLE and CAST Operators 

Use CAST to convert a collection from one type to another, TABLE to convert a TYPE into a database table.
± Cannot use with index-by tables. ± Useful when you would like to apply SQL operations against a PL/SQL collection (ie, one not stored in a database table).
DECLARE nyc_devolution cutbacks_for_taxcuts := cutbacks_for_taxcuts ('Stop rat extermination programs', 'Fire building inspectors', 'Close public hospitals'); BEGIN DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE ( 'How to Make the NYC Rich Much, Much Richer:'); FOR rec IN (SELECT COLUMN_VALUE ohmy FROM TABLE (CAST (nyc_devolution AS cutbacks_for_taxcuts))) LOOP DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE (rec.ohmy); END LOOP; cast.sql END;

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converting a set of data (table. Retrieves all detail bird_row bird_curs%ROWTYPE.species = b. DECLARE CURSOR bird_curs IS SELECT b.Using the MULTISET Operator  MULTISET is the inverse of TABLE. FETCH bird_curs into bird_row.country FROM bird_habitats bh WHERE bh. b. multiset.genus = b. CAST(MULTISET(SELECT bh. ± You can use MULTISET to emulate or transform relational joins into collections.species) AS country_tab_t) FROM birds b. with potential client-server performance impact. information for the BEGIN master in one trip.genus AND bh. END. ± Cannot use with index-by tables.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . OPEN bird_curs. view.genus.species.page 51 . query) into a VARRAY or nested table.

END.Referencing IB Tables inside SQL  You can't directly reference an index-by table's contents inside SQL.  CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE ibtab IS FUNCTION rowval (indx IN PLS_INTEGER) RETURN DATE. FUNCTION rowval (indx IN PLS_INTEGER) RETURN DATE IS BEGIN RETURN hiredates (indx). Make accessible in SQL for Oracle8 and below. but hide the index-by table structure.page 52 .sql PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein ibtab_in_sql. Instead. WNPS. call functions that retrieve the table's data. END. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY ibtab IS TYPE date_tab IS TABLE OF DATE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. END. WNDS). hiredates date_tab. PRAGMA RESTRICT_REFERENCES (rowval.

Examples of Collections in Action  Emulation of bi-directional cursor operations Avoid mutating table problems in database triggers.  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 53 .

FUNCTION getRow RETURN employee_plus%ROWTYPE.nope. ± A talked-about feature for Oracle9i -.page 54 .Bi-Directional Cursor Emulation  Oracle does not yet support the ability to move back and forth (and at random) through a cursor's result set.  bidir. Notice that the collection itself is hidden. deposit your data in a collection and then provide programs to access that data in the necessary fashion. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE bidir IS /* Iterate through rows in the result set */ PROCEDURE setRow (nth IN PLS_INTEGER). PROCEDURE prevRow.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .pkg bidir. didn't make it!  Instead. This is particularly useful (read: efficient) when you need to perform multiple passes against the data. PROCEDURE nextRow. END.

page 55 . you can use autonomous transactions to relax restrictions associated with queries. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .sql  Note: in Oracle8i. it is "mutating". So what are you supposed to do when a row-level operation needs to "touch" that table? mutating. Statement Level UPDATE emp SET sal = 1000 UPDATE row 1 Row Level  UPDATE row N Row level triggers cannot query from or change the contents of the table to which it is attached.The Mutating Table Problem  Database triggers can be attached to the SQL statement and/or the individual row operations on a table.

you have to remember what you needed to do. you need to defer the action until you get to the statement level. ± an index-by table is an ideal repository for this reminder list.A Solution Based on Index-by Tables  Since you cannot perform the processing desired in the row-level trigger. Statement Trigger 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 56 . If you are going to defer the work. 1st row trigger fires Nth row trigger fires Writes to list Writes to list Work List (PL/SQL Table)  Process data in the list.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . but preferable.page 57 .25 3 1 2 6 "Deferred work" is not only necessary.An Example: Ranking Salespeople  A table holds the rankings based on the amount of annual sales of salespeople within a department. ± We might update more than one department within a statement so we must be able to retain multiple department numbers.25 65011. the rankings must also change to show the new standings for that department only.88 144533. Department ID Salesperson ID Sales Amount Rank 1055 1055 1055 1047  64333 65709 65706 70904 74055. we then know which departments to re-rank.91 109000. ± As the sales amount is updated in this table. ± By storing the salesperson¶s department ids as they change.

END.add_dept (:new.dept_id). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .sales_amt) BEGIN rank.Trigger Logic Required Row Level Trigger CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER Rank_Sales_Rtrg AFTER insert OR update OF sales_amt ON rank_sales FOR EACH ROW WHEN (OLD. Statement Level Trigger CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER Rank_Sales_Strg AFTER INSERT OR UPDATE OR DELETE ON rank_sales BEGIN rank.pkg All details of the ranking are hidden in the package body. ranking.page 58 .rank_depts. END. Doesn't fire unless the sales_amt is actually changed.sales_amt != NEW.

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Table holds indicator that department needs re-ranking. PACKAGE BODY rank IS in_process BOOLEAN := FALSE. END IF. END rank.page 59 . PROCEDURE add_dept (dept_id_in IN INTEGER) IS BEGIN IF NOT in_process THEN dept_tab (dept_id_in) := TRUE. END add_dept 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Create row to indicate department to be ranked. PROCEDURE rank_depts.The Ranking Package PACKAGE rank IS PROCEDURE add_dept (dept_id_in IN INTEGER). dept_tab dept_tabtype. TYPE dept_tabtype IS TABLE OF BOOLEAN INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER.

page 60 . BEGIN IF NOT in_process THEN in_process := TRUE.NEXT (v_deptid). END rank. Clean up for next time. END rank_dept. perform_ranking (v_deptid). v_deptid := dept_tab. LOOP EXIT WHEN v_deptid IS NULL. END IF.FIRST.DELETE. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Avoid recursive execution of logic Row number is department number.The Ranking Package. in_process := FALSE. END LOOP. Continued PROCEDURE rank_depts IS v_deptid PLS_INTEGER := dept_tab. dept_tab. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Which Collection Type Should I Use?  Index-by tables ± Need to use in both Oracle7 and Oracle8 applications ± Want to take advantage of sparse nature for "intelligent keys".page 61 . ± You want to use inside SQL.  VARRAYs ± ± ± ± You want to preserve the order in which elements are stored. You want to use inside SQL. Set of data is relatively small (avoid row chaining).  Nested tables ± You want to store large amounts of persistent data in a column. You don't want to have to worry about sparseness. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Tips for Using Collections 

Wrap access to your collections.
± In many cases, you will want to avoid direct access to (assigning and retrieving) rows in your collections. ± This will give you the flexibility to change your implementation. ± You can also hide complex rules for setting the row number. 

Get creative!
± Don't always fill and use the index-by table sequentially. ± If you can somehow translate your application data to an integer, it can be used as a row number, and therefore offers indexed access. ± Julian date formats and DBMS_UTILITY.GET_HASH_VALUE offer two different methods.

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Achieving PL/SQL Excellence

Cursor Variables

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 63

Architecture of Cursor Variables
With Hard-Coded Cursors
Hard-Coded Cursor

With Cursor Variables

PGA

Cursor Variable

Cursor Variable

Result Set

Shared Global Area

Cursor Object

Result Set 

A cursor variable points to an underlying cursor object in the database.
± The cursor object in turns points to (and keeps its place in) a result set. 

The cursor variable can be passed between programs (even between, say, a Java servlet and a PL/SQL stored procedure).
± Static SQL only -- until Oracle8i.
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1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

Benefits of Cursor Variables 

Share cursor management between programs, even across the client-server divide.
± You don't have to pass the result sets of a cursor in order to allow the client-side program to have direct access to the data in the result set. ± Oracle Developer 2.1 utilizes cursor variables when you choose to construct a "base table block" around stored procedures instead of a database table. 

Share the same code across multiple, different queries.
± Since the cursor name is no longer hard-coded, you can use a single block of code (say, a reporting program) against different queries. ± We will try out this technique at the end of the section.

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Cursor Variable Example
DECLARE TYPE company_curtype IS REF CURSOR RETURN company%ROWTYPE;
Declare a variable cursor TYPE.

company_curvar company_curtype;

Declare cursor variable based on that type. Declare a record from cursor variable. OPEN cursor variable, specifying the query. FETCH from the cursor variable.

company_rec company_curvar%ROWTYPE; BEGIN OPEN company_curvar FOR SELECT * FROM company;

FETCH company_curvar INTO company_rec;
Close the cursor variable.

CLOSE company_curvar; END;
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Explicit Cursors and Cursor Variables 

Both hard-coded cursors and cursor variables work with static SQL.
± The SQL is fixed at compile-time. ± The difference is that with cursor variables, you get to decide which static query is opened. 

Many cursor operations are the same:
± Close a variable cursor with the same syntax as that for static cursors. ± Use cursor attributes (%ISOPEN, %FOUND, %NOTFOUND, %ROWCOUNT) with cursor variables (as of Release 2.3). ± Fetch data from the cursor result set through a cursor variable with the same syntax as that of static cursors. 

Let¶s focus on the new and different capabilities of cursor variables.
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1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

Declaring Cursor Types and Variables 

Cursors are declared in two steps, just like programmerdefined records and PL/SQL tables.
± 1. Define a cursor TYPE -- either "weak" or "strong". ± 2. Define a cursor variable.
DECLARE TYPE weak_curtype IS REF CURSOR; TYPE comp_curtype IS REF CURSOR RETURN company%ROWTYPE; curcmp_new comp_curtype; cur_any weak_curtype; BEGIN
Declare cursor variables from the TYPEs. Declare a STRONG referenced cursor TYPE. Declare a WEAK referenced cursor TYPE.

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Strong vs. Weak Cursor Types 

A strong (or constrained) cursor type has a defined return data specification.
± Can only reference cursor objects which return the same data specification, which can be any single SQL datatype or any previously defined record structure. ± Datatype mismatches are identified at compile time.

TYPE cur_typ_name IS REF CURSOR [ RETURN return_type ]; TYPE cur_typ_name IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE; /* Strong */ 

The weak (or unconstrained) cursor type does not have a RETURN clause.
± It can reference any cursor object, be opened FOR any query. ± Datatype mismatches can only be identified at runtime.

TYPE cur_typ_name IS REF CURSOR; /* Weak */
1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein
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Opening with the Cursor Variable
OPEN cursor_name FOR select_statement; 

When you open a cursor variable (whether of the weak or strong variety), you must provide the SQL query that identifies the result set.
± If the variable has not yet been assigned to cursor object, the OPEN FOR statement implicitly creates an object for the variable. ± If the variable is already pointing to a cursor object, the OPEN FOR reuses the existing object and attaches the new query to that cursor object. 

Remember, the cursor object is nothing more than a memory location.
± It is maintained independently of the query itself.
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.page 71 . . a cursor or a programmer-defined record. END.. emp_curvar emp_curtype. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  STRONG cursor data specifications must match or be compatible with the structure of the SELECT statement. Match Needed BEGIN OPEN emp_curvar FOR SELECT * from emp. ± You can establish the return type based on a database table.Opening with Strong Cursor Types DECLARE TYPE emp_curtype IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE.

END. OPEN retval FOR SELECT * FROM emp. FUNCTION open_emp_or_dept (get_type_in IN VARCHAR2) RETURN pkg. END IF.cv_type. BEGIN IF get_type_in = µEMP¶ THEN Either query will "do". REF TYPE placed in package so that it is "globally" available.  A weak cursor TYPE doesn't define the RETURN structure. THEN OPEN retval FOR SELECT * FROM dept. END. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . you can associate any SELECT statement with a weak cursor variable.page 72 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .cv_type IS retval pkg.Opening with Weak Cursor Types PACKAGE pkg IS TYPE cv_type IS REF CURSOR. Verification will take ELSIF get_type_in = µDEPT¶ place at the FETCH. RETURN retval.

 Fetching with cursor variables follows the same rules as those with static cursors.. .   Compatibility checks are performed prior to fetching row. it match the OPEN FOR statement structure. ± Fetching can continue with a different INTO clause. The INTO structure must match in number and datatype to: ± FOR STRONG cursor types. it match the cursor type data specification. var_name. FETCH cursor_var_name INTO var_name.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Fetching from the Cursor Variable FETCH cursor_var_name INTO record_name.page 73 . mismatch. ± The ROWTYPE_MISMATCH exception is raised on failure. ± FOR WEAK cursor types...

 hccursor. but static cursors are more efficient than dynamic SQL and cursor variables are less complicated than DBMS_SQL.When to Use Cursor Variables  Make it easier for calling programs (especially non-PL/SQL programs) to manipulate result sets. you have to repeat the code for each cursor. Use a single block of code to manipulate multiple queries. ± With explicit cursors.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± You could use dynamic SQL to achieve this effect.  Define a base table block in Forms Builder (formerly Oracle Forms) on stored procedures rather than a table directly. ± JDBC recognizes cursor variables. since cursor names are "hard coded".page 74 .

/ allcurrs. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE allcurs IS bydept CONSTANT INTEGER := 1. FUNCTION open (type_in IN INTEGER) RETURN cv_t. bysal CONSTANT INTEGER := 2.tst explcv. TYPE cv_t IS REF CURSOR RETURN int_rt. END. ± It also creates the data structures you will need to call the function. TYPE int_rt IS RECORD (key INTEGER).page 75 .pkg allcurs.Consolidating Different Cursors  The following package specification hides the SQL behind a single open function.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

page 76 . END. RETURN retval. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY allcurs IS FUNCTION open (type_in IN INTEGER) RETURN cv_t IS retval cv_t. END. ELSIF type_in = bysal THEN OPEN retval FOR SELECT empno FROM emp ORDER BY SAL. BEGIN IF type_in = bydept THEN OPEN retval FOR SELECT empno FROM emp ORDER BY deptno. END IF.Consolidating Different Cursors  The open function simply opens FOR a different SELECT based on the criteria passed to it. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

BEGIN cv := allcurs.page 77 "Report processor" is independent of the particular SELECT . / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . EXIT WHEN cv%NOTFOUND.cv_t.in this case. change the ORDER BY clause -without having to change the code you write.l (v_empno). CLOSE cv. LOOP FETCH cv INTO v_empno. DECLARE cv allcurs. v_empno emp.open (&1). END. END LOOP.empno%TYPE. p.Hiding SQL Variations in Resulting Code  The following block demonstrates that you can alter which SQL statement to query -.

page 78 . unconstrained type.  Strong and Weak Types ± Create REF CURSORs for specific queries.  Improve Client-Side Access to Data ± At least in Oracle Developer 2. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .1. or a more general.Cursor Variables Let's summarize  Flexibility ± Choose which static SQL statement is executed at run-time.  Hide Variations in Underlying SQL ± You no longer have to repeat the same code for different cursors. you can build screens that access data using a cursor variable-based procedural API.

page 79 .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Dynamic SQL  Dynamic SQL and dynamic PL/SQL: ± The DBMS_SQL package ± Native dynamic SQL in Oracle8i 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

± Very common requirement on the Web. What can you do with Dynamic SQL?  Build ad-hoc query and update applications. you no longer have to write SQL to generate SQL to get your job done.page 80 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .Dynamic SQL and PL/SQL Execution  "Dynamic SQL" mean that you construct the SQL statement or PL/SQL block at runtime and then execute it. ± Also supported with "native dynamic SQL" in Oracle8i.  Execute dynamically-constructed PL/SQL programs. ± Construct powerful DBA utilities. ± One example: implement indirect referencing in PL/SQL. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Available in PL/SQL since Release 2.1 and DBMS_SQL.  Execute DDL inside PL/SQL programs.

± NDS does not support method 4. Method 4: queries with a variable number of items in the SELECT list and/or non-queries with a variable number of host variables. executed a single time. ± Different methods require the use of different programs in DBMS_SQL. Method 3: queries with a fixed number of items in the SELECT list and a fixed number of host variables. execute one or more times.    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . These methods are in increasing order of complexity.page 81 .Four Methods of Dynamic SQL   Method 1: non-queries without host variables. If you can recognize the types. Method 2: non-queries with a fixed number of host variables. you can more quickly figure out how to code your solution.

± But this package is very complex. and relatively slow (performance did improve significantly as of Oracle8). you would use the DBMS_SQL built-in package to execute dynamic SQL.page 82 .  The new "native dynamic SQL" or NDS of Oracle8i offers two native statements in the PL/SQL language to implement most of your dynamic SQL requirements: ± EXECUTE IMMEDIATE <sql string>. used for DDL. DML and single row fetches. ± OPEN FOR <sql string>. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . used for multi-row queries.Native Dynamic SQL  Prior to Oracle8i. difficult to use.

].. The USING clause allows you to specify bind arguments or variables to be passed into the SQL string before execution. collections and records. The INTO clause allows you to pass values from the select list of a single row query into local variables..EXECUTE IMMEDIATE EXECUTE IMMEDIATE sql-string [INTO {define_variable[.  Use this statement to execute any dynamic SQL statement (including a PL/SQL block) except for multi-row queries.page 83   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . {IN | OUT | IN OUT] bind argument]. including objects. define_variables].. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .. | record }] [USING {IN | OUT | IN OUT] bind argument [.

. 'insured = ''NO''') > 40.sf compare with: tabcount... IF tabCount ('citizens'.COUNT(*) For Any Table  Here's a handy and simple utility based on NDS: CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION tabCount ( tab IN VARCHAR2.sf PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . sch IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) RETURN INTEGER IS Specify schema.000. RETURN retval.PUT_LINE ( 'Not the best health care system in the world. WHERE clause. table and retval INTEGER. END. whr IN VARCHAR2 := NULL.000 THEN DBMS_OUTPUT.. USER) || '. BEGIN EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'SELECT COUNT(*) FROM ' || NVL (sch. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein tabcount81.page 84 . '1=1') INTO retval. END IF. and not much of a democracy either!').' || tab || ' WHERE ' || NVL (whr.

END.Other Execute Immediate Examples  Perform an update. END. val_in IN NUMBER) IS BEGIN EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'UPDATE ' || tab_in || ' SET ' || col_in || ' = :val WHERE hiredate BETWEEN :lodate AND :hidate' USING val_in. END. PROCEDURE runprog (pkg_in IN VARCHAR2. Pass in bind variables with USING clause. end_in IN DATE. start_in IN DATE. end_in.page 85 ... EXECUTE IMMEDIATE v_str. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .' || name_in || '..  Execute a stored procedure. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN pl ('Compile Error "' || SQLERRM || '" on: ' || v_str). name_in IN VARCHAR2) IS v_str VARCHAR2 (100). BEGIN v_str := 'BEGIN ' || pkg_in || '.'. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE updnumval ( tab_in IN VARCHAR2.. col_in IN VARCHAR2. start_in.

. ± In the following example. pers IN Person. END. ± No special syntax needed.page 86 . the USING clause allows me to pass an object and nested table to an INSERT statement with a variable table name. PROCEDURE add_profit_source ( hosp_name IN VARCHAR2. including objects and collections. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein health$. cond IN preexisting_conditions) IS BEGIN EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'INSERT INTO ' || tabname (hosp_name) || ' VALUES (:revenue_generator..Using Objects and Collections in NDS  One of the key advantages to NDS over DBMS_SQL is that it works with Oracle8 datatypes.pkg PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . :revenue_inhibitors)' USING pers. cond.

Multiple Row Queries and NDS  Oracle extends the cursor variable feature of Oracle7 to support multi-row dynamic queries.page 87 . ± Here is a simple utility the displays the values of any date. col IN VARCHAR2. END LOOP. cv cv_type.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . variable syntax! EXIT WHEN cv%NOTFOUND. '1 = 1'). whr IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) IS TYPE cv_type IS REF CURSOR. ndsutil. BEGIN OPEN cv FOR 'SELECT ' || col || ' FROM ' || tab || ' WHERE ' || NVL (whr. showcol. DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE (val). CLOSE cv. LOOP Familiar cursor FETCH cv INTO val. val VARCHAR2(32767).sp END. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE showcol ( tab IN VARCHAR2. number or string column in any table.

) through the USING clause. column names. ± If dynamic SQL.pkg    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . provide a value for each distinct placeholder (by name). ± If dynamic PL/SQL. etc. You cannot pass the NULL literal directly in the USING clause. You can have duplicate placeholders (for bind arguments). str2list.page 88 . pass a variable with a NULL value. Instead.Some Fine Print for NDS  You cannot pass schema elements (table names. The USING clause for a query can only have IN bind arguments. then you provide a value for each placeholder (by position).

the only way to perform dynamic SQL was with the DBMS_SQL package. Supports all four methods of dynamic SQL. The overhead for using DBMS_SQL has decreased significantly in Oracle8 and again in Oracle8i.page 89 . DBMS_SQL is a very large and complex package. in particular method 4. You should only use DBMS_SQL when you cannot use NDS. with many rules to follow and lots of code to write.     1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Dynamic SQL using DBMS_SQL  Prior to Oracle8i.

Learning Through Examples  DDL ± Create an index from within PL/SQL  DML ± Update rows in a table  DML with binding ± Update rows using bind variables  Queries ± Method 3 and a dynamic WHERE clause  PL/SQL Version of "SELECT *" ± Example of Method 4  PL/SQL ± Create a generic calculation program 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 90 .

tab_in IN VARCHAR2.DDL with Dynamic SQL PROCEDURE create_index (index_in IN VARCHAR2.PARSE (cur.page 91 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . DBMS_SQL.OPEN_CURSOR. ± Construct the DDL statement as a string. col_in IN VARCHAR2) IS cur INTEGER := DBMS_SQL. DDL_statement. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . fdbk := DBMS_SQL. END. DDL_statement VARCHAR2(200) := 'CREATE INDEX ' || index_in || ' ON ' || tab_in || ' ( ' || col_in || ')'. which will be used to execute the DDL statement.NATIVE). BEGIN DBMS_SQL.CLOSE_CURSOR (cur). DBMS_SQL. ± Parse and execute that DDL statement.sp Creates an index on any column(s) in any table in your schema. ± Open a cursor.  creind. fdbk INTEGER.EXECUTE (cur).

'UPDATE emp SET ' || col_in || ' = ' || val_in || ' WHERE ename LIKE UPPER (''' || ename_in || ''')'.page 92 .sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .OPEN_CURSOR. fdbk PLS_INTEGER. DBMS_SQL.ename%TYPE. END.CLOSE_CURSOR (cur). DBMS_OUTPUT.Updates with Dynamic SQL  Update numeric column for specified employees. val_in IN NUMBER) IS cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL.PARSE (cur. updnval1. ename_in IN emp.NATIVE).PUT_LINE ('Rows updated: ' || TO_CHAR (fdbk)).EXECUTE (cur). DBMS_SQL. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE updnumval ( col_in IN VARCHAR2. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. fdbk := DBMS_SQL.

CLOSE_CURSOR (cur).PUT_LINE ('Rows updated: ' || TO_CHAR (fdbk)). end_in). fdbk PLS_INTEGER. val_in IN NUMBER) IS cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL. END.Updates with Bind Variables  Update salaries for date range using binding.OPEN_CURSOR. DBMS_SQL.page 93 . DBMS_SQL.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . end_in IN DATE. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE updnumval ( col_in IN VARCHAR2. DBMS_SQL. updnval2.EXECUTE (cur). DBMS_OUTPUT. 'hidate'. DBMS_SQL. start_in IN DATE. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. fdbk := DBMS_SQL.BIND_VARIABLE (cur. 'lodate'. start_in). 'UPDATE emp SET ' || col_in || ' = ' || val_in || ' WHERE hiredate BETWEEN :lodate AND :hidate'.sp updnval3.NATIVE).PARSE (cur.BIND_VARIABLE (cur.

Processing Flow for a Dynamic Query Allocate cursor memory (OPEN_CURSOR) Fill cursor with data (EXECUTE) Make sure SELECT is well formed (PARSE) Fill buffer with data (FETCH_ROWS) (EXECUTE_AND_FETCH) Bind any variables (BIND_VARIABLE) (BIND_ARRAY) Retrieve the data (COLUMN_VALUE) Give cursor structure (DEFINE_COLUMN) (DEFINE_ARRAY) Release cursor memory (CLOSE_CURSOR) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 94 .

fdbk := DBMS_SQL. 1. LOOP EXIT WHEN DBMS_SQL. 2.COLUMN_VALUE (cur.. 60).sp showemps.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.sp showemp2. 'SELECT empno.NATIVE).page 95 .CLOSE_CURSOR (cur). 2. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. 1).empno) || '=' || rec. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE showemps (where_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) IS cur INTEGER := DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL. rec. rec..EXECUTE (cur). DBMS_SQL. END LOOP.FETCH_ROWS (cur) = 0. END. DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE (TO_CHAR (rec.tst PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL.ename).Queries with Dynamic SQL  Show employees using a dynamic WHERE clause.OPEN_CURSOR.empno).ename). DBMS_SQL.COLUMN_VALUE (cur.PARSE (cur. fdbk INTEGER. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein showemps.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. '1=1'). rec emp%ROWTYPE. 'a'. ename FROM emp ' || ' WHERE ' || NVL (where_in. 1.

COLUMN_VALUE (cur. nth_col.Dynamic SELECT * FROM Any Table  Method 4 example: the number of columns queried changes with each table.PARSE (cur. LOOP fetch-a-row. val). END LOOP. END LOOP.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .NATIVE). select_string. END LOOP. BEGIN FOR each-column-in-table LOOP add-column-to-select-list. ± The resulting code is much more complicated. DBMS_SQL. END LOOP. nth_col. END.page 96 Very simplified pseudo-code intab. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. FOR each-column-in-table LOOP DBMS_SQL. FOR each-column-in-table LOOP DBMS_SQL. datatype).

which returns a single row. ± Very similar to the implicit SELECT cursor in native PL/SQL.Using EXECUTE_AND_FETCH FUNCTION execute_and_fetch (cursor_in IN INTEGER.page 97 . then EXECUTE_AND_FETCH will raise the TOO_MANY_ROWS exception if more than one row is fetched by the SELECT. raises NO_DATA_FOUND or raises the TOO_MANY_ROWS exception. exact_match IN BOOLEAN DEFAULT FALSE) RETURN INTEGER.EXECUTE_AND_FETCH (cur. ± If exact_match is TRUE. the first row will still be fetched and available. numrows := DBMS_SQL.  Makes it easy to execute and fetch a single row from a query. ± Even if the exception is raised. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . numrows := DBMS_SQL. TRUE).EXECUTE_AND_FETCH (cur).

NULL. NULL. a single function will do the trick.page 98 . FUNCTION dyncalc ( oper_in IN VARCHAR2. NULL. ± With DBMS_SQL. NULL. and enter the arguments. 0. arg8_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. I would have to modify my screen every time a new formula was added.sf dyncalc.Dynamic Formula Execution  Suppose I am building a user interface that allows a user to select a formula for execution. nargs_in IN INTEGER := arg1_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg3_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg5_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg7_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg9_in IN VARCHAR2 := ) RETURN VARCHAR2. ± Using static PL/SQL. arg10_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL dyncalc. arg6_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. arg4_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. NULL. arg2_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

:salout). µdeptin¶. END.BIND_VARIABLE (cur. v_deptin).More on Dynamic PL/SQL BEGIN cur := open_and_parse ('BEGIN get_max_sal (:deptin. DBMS_SQL.BIND_VARIABLE (cur.VARIABLE_VALUE (cur.EXECUTE (cur). DBMS_SQL.tst    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . DBMS_SQL. END. Use VARIABLE_VALUE to extract a value from any variable you have bound. µsalout¶.sql dynplsql. Possibilities inherent in dynamic PL/SQL are mind-boggling! dynplsql.page 99 .  Use BIND_VARIABLE to bind any placeholders in the string -. my_salary).sp dynplsql. my_salary).').even OUT arguments which are not being bound to any values. You must have a BEGIN-END around the code. fdbk := DBMS_SQL. µsalout¶.

END. fdbk PLS_INTEGER.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .Indirect Referencing with Dyn PL/SQL  Oracle Forms offers support for indirect referencing with the NAME_IN and COPY built-ins. 'BEGIN :val := ' || nm || '. 'val'.NATIVE). DBMS_SQL. fdbk := DBMS_SQL.PARSE (v_cur. Here is an example of a "PL/SQL NAME_IN": FUNCTION valbyname (nm IN VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2 IS v_cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL. RETURN retval. END. retval PLV. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.BIND_VARIABLE (v_cur. but you can accomplish much of the same thing with dynamic PL/SQL execution.OPEN_CURSOR. 'val'.'. retval).page 100  dynvar. 2000). DBMS_SQL. PL/SQL does not support indirect referencing.pkg dynvar. DBMS_SQL. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . DBMS_SQL.VARIABLE_VALUE (v_cur.dbmaxvc2. 'a'.CLOSE_CURSOR (v_cur).EXECUTE (v_cur).

± Call these immediately after your usage to make sure they refer to your cursor.page 101 .DBMS_SQL Status Built-ins  The package offers a set of modules to return information about the lastoperated cursor in your session.  LAST_ROW_COUNT ± Returns the cumulative count of rows fetched from the cursor.  LAST_ROW_ID ± Returns the ROWID of last row processed. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  LAST_SQL_FUNCTION_CODE ± Returns SQL function code of cursor.  IS_OPEN ± Is the cursor already open?  LAST_ERROR_POSITION ± Returns relative column position in cursor of text causing error condition.

dumplong.pkg dumplong.DEFINE_COLUMN_LONG ± DBMS_SQL. ± Transfer the LONG contents into an index-by table so that you can transfer a value of more than 32K bytes into your PL/SQL program.Working with LONG Values  DBMS_SQL provides special procedures so that you can extract values from a LONG column in a table.COLUMN_VALUE_LONG   First. you define the column as a LONG.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Then you retrieve the column using the special COLUMN_VALUE_LONG variant.page 102 . ± DBMS_SQL.

New DBMS_SQL Features PL/SQL8 Extensions to DBMS_SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 103 .

inserts.page 104 .New Features in DBMS_SQL  The functionality of DBMS_SQL has been extended in Oracle8 in several ways: ± Parse very long SQL strings ± Describe cursor columns ± Use "array processing" to perform bulk updates. deletes and fetches. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Support for RETURNING clause to avoid unnecessary queries.

DESC_TAB).page 105 . desc_t OUT DBMS_SQL.Describing Cursor Columns PROCEDURE DBMS_SQL.  Returns all of the column information in an index table of records. ± The record TYPE is also defined in DBMS_SQL. it was not possible to determine the datatypes of the columns defined in a cursor.DESCRIBE_COLUMNS (c IN INTEGER.  Before PL/SQL8.DESCRIBE_COLUMNS. ± Now you can call the DBMS_SQL. col_cnt OUT INTEGER. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Basic Steps to Describe Columns  The following script shows the individual steps you will need to perform in order to use this feature.col_name). END.DESCRIBE_COLUMNS (cur. END LOOP. 'SELECT hiredate.CLOSE_CURSOR (cur). cols DBMS_SQL.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .OPEN_CURSOR. FOR colind IN 1 . desccols. cols). ncols LOOP DBMS_OUTPUT. DBMS_SQL.. DBMS_SQL.DESC_TAB.page 106 . ncols. empno FROM emp'.pkg desccols.PUT_LINE (cols(colind). CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE show_columns IS cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL.PARSE (cur. DBMS_SQL.tst showcols. ncols PLS_INTEGER.NATIVE). BEGIN DBMS_SQL.

Instead of providing a scalar value for an operation. DBMS_SQL then repeats your action for every row in the table. you specify an index table. index tables. can offer a significant performance boost over Oracle7 dynamic SQL.e. however. when you perform updates. It really isn't "array processing"."Array Processing" in DBMS_SQL  PL/SQL8 now allows you to specify the use of "arrays". inserts.page 107 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . DBMS_SQL is executing the specified SQL statement N times. where N is the number of rows in the table.    This technique still. deletes and fetches.. ± In actuality. i.

page 108 .pkg whichsch. and easier code to write. not the invoker of the code. etc.Recommendations for Dynamic SQL  Bind (vs.  Use the Oracle8i invoker rights model whenever you want to share your dynamic SQL programs among multiple schemas.PARSE so that you include the trace in that program. ± Otherwise that SQL will be executed under the authority of the owner of the code. ± But remember: you cannot pass schema elements (table names.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .sql openprse.  Encapsulate statements to improve error handling. ± Encapsulate DBMS_SQL. though you could write variations for those as well.) through the USING clause. concatenate) whenever possible. ± Increased chance of reusing parsed SQL. ± With NDS. only possible for statements that do not need USING and INTO clauses. column names. effdsql.

.page 109 .NDS or DBMS_SQL: Which is Best?  Dynamic SQL and PL/SQL is very useful. ± If.. of course. but DBMS_SQL is hard to use. you have upgraded to Oracle8i!  Major Advantages of NDS: ± Ease of use ± Performance ± Works with all SQL datatypes (including userdefined object and collection types) ± Fetch into records  When You'd Use DBMS_SQL: ± ± ± ± ± ± ± Method 4 Dynamic SQL DESCRIBE columns of cursor SQL statements larger than 32K RETURNING into an array Reuse of parsed SQL statements Bulk dynamic SQL Available from client-side PL/SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Both implementations will still come in handy.

Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Oracle Advanced Queuing  The high performance. asynchronous.page 110 . persistent messaging subsytem of Oracle 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

page 111 .Who Needs Messaging? Everyone!  In the distributed world of the Internet. systems are now heavily reliant on the ability of components to communicate with each other in a dependable. Distribution Center Coffee Beans Producer Shipping Service Retailer Consumer 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . consistent manner.

page 112 .Applications Relying on Messaging     Stock trading system Airline reservation system Auction portals Any e-commerce application 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

page 113 . message propagation. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . AQ now offers a publish/subscribe style of messaging between applications. scalability and reliability all carry over to queues ± Strong history and retention ± Backup and recovery ± Comprehensive journaliing  Rich message content increases usefulness of queueing ± Use object types to define highly structured payloads  New to Oracle8i.Key Features of Oracle AQ  Leverage full power of SQL ± Messages are stored in database tables  Database high availability. the listen feature and notification capabilities. ± Rule-based subscribers.

page 114 .AQ architectural overview Queue Monitor process Queue table Queue ³Producers´ Enqueued messages Message 4 Message 3 Message 2 Message1 ³Consumers´ Dequeued messages Messages include both control information and ³payload´ (content) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

page 115 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .0. AQ supports: ± ± ± ± ± Multiple queues Resetting order and priority of queued items Queue management using only SQL & PL/SQL Multiple message recipients Propagation of queue to remote servers  Oracle8i adds: ± ± ± ± Rules-based publish & subscribe Listening on multiple queues Easier monitoring Native Java interface PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Oracle AQ Highlights  In 8.

AQ Components  The DBMS_AQ package offers enqueue and dequeue capabilities The DBMS_AQADM package provides administrative functionality to manage queues and queue tables.page 116 .    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Underlying database tables and views The queue monitor (background process) ± Set # of processes with the AQ_TM_PROCESSES initialization parameter.

sort column. assigns retry and retention properties to queue Drops a stopped queue Can also turn on/off enqueue and dequeue operations Stops queue.DBMS_AQADM Highlights CREATE_QUEUE_TABLE DROP_QUEUE_TABLE CREATE_QUEUE DROP_QUEUE START_QUEUE STOP_QUEUE ADD_SUBSCRIBER Assigns name.page 117 . storage clause. payload type. whether multiple consumers Drops table if all queues in the table have been stopped Associates queue table with queue. optionally waiting for outstanding transactions Adds an ³agent´ as a subscriber 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

queue_table => 'msg').Creating Queue Tables and Queues CREATE TYPE message_type AS OBJECT (title VARCHAR2(30).page 118 .pkg Start the queue PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .CREATE_QUEUE_TABLE (queue_table => 'msg'. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein aq. Define the "payload" Create the queue table DBMS_AQADM. Define a queue in the queue table DBMS_AQADM.CREATE_QUEUE (queue_name => 'msgqueue'. / BEGIN DBMS_AQADM.START_QUEUE (queue_name => 'msgqueue'). text VARCHAR2(2000)). queue_payload_type => 'message_type'). END.

The "operational package": DBMS_AQ  DBMS_AQ is deceptively simple. but lots of complexity buried inside the parameters of these procedures. and returns a RAW message handle DEQUEUE extracts a message from a specified queue Parameters control message properties such as: ± Visibility (ON_COMMIT or IMMEDIATE) ± ± ± ± Priority Delay Expiration Locking behavior PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 119   aq.  ENQUEUE puts a message into a specified queue.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . ± Only two procedures.

msgid aq. msgid). DBMS_AQ..MESSAGE_PROPERTIES_T.* Place the message on the specified queue and get a msg ID in return.'). Declare records to hold various enqueue and msg properties.msgid_type. 'May there be many more. queueopts. Set up the payload with an object constructor. END.ENQUEUE ( 'msgqueue'. aqenq*.Simple Enqueue Example DECLARE queueopts DBMS_AQ. msgprops.page 120 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . BEGIN my_msg := message_type ( 'First Enqueue'. my_msg message_type.ENQUEUE_OPTIONS_T. msgprops DBMS_AQ.. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . my_msg.

. queueopts. my_msg. BEGIN my_msg := message_type ( 'First Enqueue'.sequence_deviation := DBMS_AQ.More Interesting Enqueue Example DECLARE . queueopts.BEFORE. my_msg. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . msgprops. DBMS_AQ.. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Specify a delay before the payload is available. 'May there be many more.page 121 .ENQUEUE ( 'msgqueue'.delay := 3 * 60 * 60 * 24. END. queueopts.. my_msg := message_type ( 'Second Enqueue'... Same setup as previous page . 'And this one goes first. msgprops.. msgprops. queueopts.ENQUEUE ('msgqueue'.'). msgid2)..relative_msgid := msgid1.. DBMS_AQ.'). Modify the dequeue sequence by changing the deviation field and relative msg ID. msgid1).

BROWSE). PROCEDURE getmsg (mode_in IN INTEGER) IS BEGIN queueopts. Demonstrates destructive and non-destructive dequeuing.Dequeue Example DECLARE queueopts DBMS_AQ. msgprops DBMS_AQ. getmsg (DBMS_AQ.dequeue_mode := mode_in. /* defined in aq. msgid aq.DEQUEUE ( 'msgqueue'. queueopts. my_msg.MESSAGE_PROPERTIES_T. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . getmsg (DBMS_AQ. Dequeue operation isolated in local module. aqdeq*. msgprops. END.msgid_type.pkg */ my_msg message_type. DBMS_AQ.page 122 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .REMOVE). BEGIN getmsg (DBMS_AQ.REMOVE). msgid). END.DEQUEUE_OPTIONS_T.* Declare records to hold various dequeue and msg properties.

pkg priority.* 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . BEGIN item_obj := aqstk_objtype (item). queueopts. msgprops. queueopts. the higher the priority.page 123 . msgid). item_obj.1. msgid aq. PROCEDURE push (item IN VARCHAR2) IS queueopts DBMS_AQ.pkg aqstk2. aqstk.ENQUEUE_OPTIONS_T.MESSAGE_PROPERTIES_T. item_obj aqstk_objtype. DBMS_AQ.priority := g_priority. END. msgprops.  A stack implementation using AQ demonstrates this well.Prioritized Payloads  You can assign priorities to individual payloads and then dequeue according to those priorities.ENQUEUE ( c_queue.msgid_type.IMMEDIATE. g_priority := g_priority . ± The lower the numeric priority value.visibility := DBMS_AQ. msgprops DBMS_AQ.

± The message is then not removed from the queue until all subscribers have dequeued the message.ADD_SUBSCRIBER ( c_queue. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein aqmult*. The queue table must be defined to support multiple subscribers or consumers.* PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .CREATE_QUEUE_TABLE ( queue_table => 'major_qtable'.  Steps to working with a subscriber list: ± 1. Add subscribers for the queue. NULL.Defining Message Subscribers  You can specify that a message is to be enqueued for a list of subscribers. ± 2.page 124 . queue_payload_type => 'student_major_t'. SYS.AQ$_AGENT (name_in. BEGIN DBMS_AQADM. multiple_consumers => TRUE). DBMS_AQADM. NULL)).

supporting a publish-subscribe model.Oracle AQ .  Considered by Oracle to be a core component of its overall solution.Summary  Very powerful and flexible architecture. ± Crucial for Oracle to have a message-oriented middleware in order to offer an all-Oracle solution. ± Significant enhancements in Oracle8i. ± Much more robust that DBMS_PIPE.page 125 . ± Should be strongly supported "down the road". improved security. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . LISTEN capability.

page 126 .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Managing Large Objects with DBMS_LOB 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

sounds. etc.page 127 .LOB Terms  LOB = Large OBject: a category of datatype allowing storage of ³unstructured´ data up to 4 gigabytes LOB datatype can be: ± Column in table ± Attribute in object type ± Element in nested table   Possible applications include office documents. they should no longer be used. ± Oracle has announced deprecation of LONGs.  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . LOB datatypes are the successor to LONGs. Images. video. though they will probably not be actually desupported.

Types of Large Objects  ³Internal´ LOBs ± BLOB: unstructured binary data ± CLOB: single-byte fixedwidth character data ± NCLOB: multi-byte fixedwidth character data (or varying width in )  ³External´ LOBs ± BFILE: pointer to an operating system file  Temporary LOBs ± Internal LOBs that do not participate in transactions. external do not ± External LOBs are read-only from within Oracle 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Key programming differences: ± Internal LOBs participate in transactions. improving performance.page 128 .

page 129 . erase. close  Other built-in functions ± LOADFROMFILE (load an external BFILE into a BLOB) ± EMPTY_LOB(). trim ± For external LOBs: File existence test.PL/SQL built-ins for LOBs  Package DBMS_LOB ± Supports for all LOBs: Reading. open. copy. substring and instring searches. EMPTY_CLOB() ± BFILENAME 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . comparison and length checking ± For internal LOBs: Write. append.

BEGIN OPEN fax_cur. fax BLOB).  Retrieve record with BLOB into PL/SQL variable DECLARE CURSOR fax_cur IS SELECT fax FROM incoming_faxes. received DATE.Deceptively simple example  BLOB-typed column in a table CREATE TABLE incoming_faxes (fax_id INTEGER. END. the_fax BLOB. CLOSE fax_cur.page 130 . FETCH fax_cur INTO the_fax. Question: What¶s in the_fax? 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

The ³LOB locator´ LOB t l sel es [ ll ] t i i t r .page 131 . tt LOBs <lob segment> fax_id 281937 received 12-JAN-98 fax <lob locator> Updati  t e LOB anges t e pointer is ompli ates se of LOBs ± LOB locators cannot span transactions ± Programs must lock records containing LOBs efore updating ± Programs performing L must accommodate dynamic LOB locator alues 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

BEGIN INSERT INTO web_pages VALUES (the_url. .url%TYPE := 'http://www..page 132 .Example: Piecewise CLOB programmatic insert  Create a table CREATE TABLE web_pages ( url VARCHAR2(512) PRIMARY KEY. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . the_loc CLOB.. 1 of 2  Must get a new LOB locator before writing into the LOB: DECLARE the_url web_pages. htmlloc CLOB). EMPTY_CLOB()) RETURNING htmlloc INTO the_loc.com'.oodb.

COUNT LOOP piece_length := LENGTH(html_tab(the_piece_no)). buffer => html_tab(the_piece_no)). This block retrieves INSERT INTO web_pages VALUES (the_url.page 133 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein BEGIN . several likely exceptions offset => running_total. EMPTY_CLOB()) and loads a web page RETURNING htmlloc INTO the_loc.oodb.html_tab. FOR the_piece_no IN 1. END.WRITE(lob_loc => the_loc. END LOOP. into a CLOB column html_tab := UTL_HTTP.Example: Piecewise CLOB programmatic insert DECLARE the_url web_pages. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .HTML_PIECES.com'. the_loc CLOB. DBMS_LOB. running_total := running_total + piece_length. running_total PLS_INTEGER := 1.url%TYPE := 'http://www. Note: We are ignoring amount => piece_length. html_tab UTL_HTTP.. piece_length PLS_INTEGER.REQUEST_PIECES(url => the_url).

IF str_offset != 0 THEN DBMS_LOB. BEGIN OPEN hcur. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 134 .INSTR(lob_loc => the_loc. FETCH hcur INTO the_loc. str_offset INTEGER. pattern => 'oodb'). amount => 4. the_loc CLOB. str_offset := DBMS_LOB. END IF. CLOSE hcur.com' FOR UPDATE.oodb. offset => str_offset. END. buffer => 'cool').Example: Piecewise CLOB programmatic update DECLARE Program must lock the record explicitly CURSOR hcur IS SELECT htmlloc FROM web_pages WHERE url = 'http://www.WRITE(lob_loc => the_loc.

page 135 . ut IRECTORY namespace is global  Syntax: CREATE OR REPLACE DIRECTORY <directory name> AS '<full path to directory>'. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Preparing to use BFILEs  You must first create an Oracle I ORY´ ± Creates logical alias for full directory pat ± imilar to LIBRARY (used for C "external procedures").  Example: CREATE DIRECTORY web_pix AS 'D:\bill\training\pix'.

phones Phone_tab_t. scanned_card_image BFILE ).page 136 ... / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ... CREATE TABLE web_graphics ( image_id INTEGER. image BFILE).  In an object type. CREATE TYPE Business_card_t AS OBJECT ( name Name_t.Using BFILE datatype in DDL  In a table. addresses Address_tab_t.

'prodicon.gif'). picture). /  Notes: ± No automatic file checking or synchronization ± No participation in transactions 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Spec: FUNCTION BFILENAME(directory_exprn.The built-in BFILENAME function  Returns value of datatype BFILE. BEGIN INSERT INTO web_graphics VALUES (100015.page 137 .  Example: DECLARE picture BFILE := BFILENAME('WEB_PIX'. file_exprn) RETURN BFILE. END.

src_lob => pic_file. END. DBMS_LOB.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . DBMS_LOB. / loadblob.FILECLOSE(pic_file). 'prodicon.Loading File into Database BLOB CREATE TABLE web_graphic_blobs ( image_id INTEGER.LOADFROMFILE(dest_lob => pic_blob_loc.GETLENGTH(pic_file)). image BLOB).FILE_READONLY). amount => DBMS_LOB. pic_blob_loc) RETURNING image INTO pic_blob_loc. DBMS_LOB. BEGIN INSERT INTO web_graphic_blobs VALUES (1. DECLARE pic_file BFILE := BFILENAME('WEB_PIX'.FILEOPEN(pic_file.page 138 .gif'). DBMS_LOB. pic_blob_loc BLOB := EMPTY_BLOB().

page 139 .New DBMS_LOB APIs in 8i  Support for temporary LOBs ± No logging or rollback faster! ± Lifespan: session. call. that can mean less I/O » Trigger will not fire until CLOSE » Indexes will not update until CLOSE ± ISOPEN 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . or transaction  Ability to retrieve LOB ³chunk size´ ± Allows programmer to tune READs and WRITEs  For all internal LOBs ± OPEN & CLOSE allow control over timing.

± Complete support in PL/SQL (and other APIs) ± Much better performance and control than with LONGs ± Usable in object types HOT  Some weaknesses.Large Object ... ± LOB locator behavior slightly abstruse ± Inability to modify BFILEs directly from within PL/SQL. COLD 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Summary  LOB support in Oracle is now significantly improved.page 140 .

Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Leveraging Java Inside PL/SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 141 .

page 142 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .a BRIEF introduction to Java. mid-tier... or server Not covered in this seminar  PL/SQL can call Java inside 8i server ± ± ± ± Command-line tools load Java classes DDL extensions publish Java classes Writing stored procedures...Overview of Java interoperability  Java inside or outside 8i server can call PL/SQL ± Standard JDBC and SQLJ calls with Oracle extensions ± Same Java on client. triggers in Java Distinct Java & PL/SQL namespaces  But first. functions. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

± We just need to keep a firm grip on common sense and stay focused on delivering solutions. ± The end of programming history as we know it? ± The easiest. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . slickest piece of software ever designed by human beings? ± Just the latest in a series of "silver bullets" promoted by software vendors in order to prop up quarterly sales? ± The first and only successful O-O language? ± None of the above?  We don't really need to take a vote.Question 1: What is Java?  Could it be... fastest.page 143 .

and very aggressively. it is very unlikely and totally unthinkable for years to come. PL/SQL will still be: ± Faster and more productive than Java for database operations.Question 2: Will Java Replace PL/SQL?  While that scenario is certainly possible. ± Ubiquitous in thousands of production applications and millions of lines of code. to boot.page 144 . ± A language in which hundreds of thousands of developers are trained. ± Supported and improved by Oracle -.  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

.  You don't have to know how to do everything with Java to get lots of value out of it. you have to instantiate an object from that class... ± Before you can call a (non-static) class method. ± Don't get overwhelmed by all the classes and all the strange quirks. everything exception the primitive datatypes..  Everything is a class (or an object instantiated from a class).page 145 ... ± string is definitely not the same as String. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Well.Some Important Things to Remember  Java is a case sensitive language.

public class Hello { public static void main (String[] args) { System. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE hello IS BEGIN DBMS_OUTPUT.out. } }  No members..PUT_LINE ('Hello world!'). ± Used to test or run stand-alone a class. Oh. END.Building a Java Class  Let's start from the very beginning.page 146 . by the way: the PL/SQL version 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . except the "special" main method..println ("Hello world!"). no methods.

d:\java D:> javac Hello. SET CLASSPATH = d:\Oracle\Ora81\jdbc\lib\classes111.java -classpath d:\java 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .zip. ± It will also automatically recompile any classes used by your class that has not been compiled since last change. ± This will convert the .java file to a .7b\lib\classes. ± You must also either have set the CLASSPATH or include it in your javac call.class file. you must compile it with the javac command.page 147 . e:\jdk1.zip.Compiling Classes  Before you can use a class.1.

Running a Class  Run a class? What does that mean? It means that if your class contains a method with this header: public static void main (String[] args)  then you can "run" the main method with the java command: d:\java> java Hello  You can also pass one or more arguments on the command line: d:\java> java Hello mom Hello2.page 148 .java 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Using a Class  The main method is handy for providing a built-in test mechanism of your class. however. Let's build a performance analyzer class to explore these ideas. you will use a class by instantiating objects from the class and then invoking class methods on the object. Usually.   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 149 .

} public void showElapsed (String context) { p.java Tmr.Gstart).currentTimeMillis() . public void capture () { Gstart = System.currentTimeMillis to calculate elapsed time to nearest thousandth of a second.currentTimeMillis().java InFile. } public void showElapsed () { p.l ("Elapsed time for " + context. elapsed()). System.java 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Compare Performance of Methods  Use System. class Tmr { private long Gstart = 0.currentTimeMillis() .l ("Elapsed time ". } } p. } public long elapsed () { return (System.page 150 .Gstart).

.Types of Classes  There are several different kinds of classes in Java.  Inner class ± Classes that are defined inside other classes. but at least one method remains unimplemented.. besides the "regular" kind we just saw. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Interface class ± The class only contains unimplemented methods.  Abstract class ± The class can contain members and methods.page 151 .

And Now for Some Scary Buzzwords!  Inheritance ± Subclasses inherit methods and variables from extended superclasses.java A Class Hierarchy Management NonManagement Corporation 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Dynamic polymorphism: form is determined at run-time. supertype/"wider" Citizen Person Employee Hourly Worker Salaried Worker subtype/"narrower" War Criminal Person. either as its own class or as any superclass.page 152 .  Polymorphism ± An object of a class can have "multiple" forms. ± Static polymorphism: form is chosen at compile-time (PL/SQL overloading).

if you assign a new value to it. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Can't do a direct == comparison. myName = "Feuerstein". String myName. myName = "Steven". if (myName. you are actually allocating a new object. these are not objects instantiated from classes. boolean char byte short int long float double  Strings ± A String object is a read-only.page 153 .Language Basics  Comments // Single line comment /* Block comment */ /** Documentation comment */  Primitive datatypes ± So I lied.equals(YourName)) foundFamily().

Writing Loops in Java  Three kinds of loops: while.hasMoreElements ()) { processIt (enum.nextElement()) } } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .println ( (String)enum. static void processAll (Enumeration enum) { while (enum.NextElement()).page 154 .println (args[indx]). expression.length.out. indx++) System. Examples: for (indx indx=0. for (initialize. indx < args. System.out. do-while and for ± Note: you need squiggly brackets only if there is more than one statement in the loop body. step) { lotsaStuff } while (expression) { lostsaStuff } do { lostsaStuff } while (expression).

.page 155 .Passing Parameters  Some important differences from PL/SQL. you still include the open and close parentheses. } } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .. you must supply a value for each parameter. System. } public String name () { return mname. ± If a method has no arguments. ± Only positional notation is supported.out. class PuterLingo { private String mname.name()). public PuterLingo (String name) { mname = name. ± No default values for arguments.println (Java. } } class LotsALingos { public static void main (String args[]) { PuterLingo Java = new PuterLingo("Java").

Throwing my own public static int numBytes (String filename) { exception try { if (filename. rather than raise and handle. you "throw" and "catch" exceptions. return myFile.toString()). "WHEN OTHERS" } in Java } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 156 . } catch (Exception e) { System.equals("")) throw new Exception ("Filename is NULL"). } File-related catch (SecurityException e) { exceptions return -1.length().out. Put inside try clause File myFile = new File (filename).println (e.Exception Handling in Java  Very similar to PL/SQL.

} 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . as in: public static int numBytes (String filename) throws SecurityException. ± So you can pass them as arguments and do anything and everything else you can do with objects.page 157 ..  You must inform users of your method of which exceptions may be thrown. NoSuchFile { . ± Use the throws clause in your specification..Differences Between Java & PL/SQL  Exceptions are objects derived directly or indirectly from the Exception class.

page 158 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Java's Not So Tough!  You can learn enough Java in less than a week to: ± Build simple classes ± Leverage Java inside PL/SQL  Moving to the next level of expertise will be more of a challenge. ± Object oriented development (Java) is very different from procedural coding (PL/SQL).  Now let's explore how you can put Java to work for you inside PL/SQL programs.

page 159 . using JDBC or SQLJ Oracle 8i server PL/SQL cover for Java method Java virtual machine running Java method Oracle Developer client (PL/SQL) Net8 OCI or Pro*C client VB or C++ via OO4O or ODBC 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Java Stored Procedures (JSPs) Java applet or app.

network communication in/out PL/SQL replacement ± More standard language ± Good performer for numeric processing tasks ± Beware database I/O & string manipulation performance Scaleable deployment of third party code ± Vertical application ± Web server ± XML parser/generator 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 160 .JSPs: Some sample uses PL/SQL extender ± For example. better file I/O ± RMI callouts.

.. Load into server using ³loadjava´ command-line tool 3...Creating JSP to call from PL/SQL   1. rather than BEGIN.END 4.page 161 . Grant privileges as desired 5. Call from PL/SQL (or SQL) as if calling PL/SQL    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Create Java classes in your favorite IDE 2. Publish PL/SQL cover using AS LANGUAGE JAVA.

out. 50000000).println (TheGlobalMonster). } public String toString () { return name + " is a transnational entity with " + layoffs + " laid-off employees.page 162 PL/SQL . System.out.Create Java class(es) class Corporation extends Person { long layoffs. long Playoffs. }} 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Notes on Java classes  toString method automatically used by System. long PceoComp) { name = Pname. layoffs = Playoffs. } public static void main (String[] args) { // A very scary company Corporation TheGlobalMonster = new Corporation ( "Northrup-Ford-Mattel-Yahoo-ATT". long CEOCompensation. CEOCompensation = PceoComp. 5000000. paying its" + " Chief Executive Officer " + CEOCompensation. public Corporation ( String Pname.java Advanced Techniques .println main method is used to test the class. Entry points must be public static in most cases Classes may call other classes Avoid GUI calls     person.

class options (abbreviated) -oci8 -resolve loadjava will connect using OCI driver Resolves external class references at compile time -resolver (shown later) Search path like CLASSPATH 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .class file .java file Java resource file .Upload using ³loadjava´ utility .page 163 .jar file Oracle 8i server Java class Java source Java resource loadjava Example: loadjava loadjava -user scott/tiger -oci8 -resolve datacraft/bill/Hello.

. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .String'.page 164 .bill.Hello.Publish  Example (top-level call spec) CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION hello_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2 AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft. /  Syntax (simplified) CREATE [ OR REPLACE PROCE URE FUNCTION <name> <sqlt pe> ] [ [ <ar s> ) ] [ AUTHID { DEFINER | CURRENT_USER } ] AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME '<met fullname> (<Ja a t pe fullname>..) [ return <Ja a t pe fullname> ]'.Emp(int) return java.lang. .

PRINT :thename ± CALL avoids overhead of SELECT fn FROM DUAL jsp.PUT_LINE(hello_emp(7499)). for example. END. from SQL*Plus: VARIABLE thename VARCHAR2(12) CALL hello_emp(7499) INTO :thename.page 165 .  Method 2: Use 8i SQL CALL statement.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Call the wrapped method  Method 1: Call as if PL/SQL module BEGIN DBMS_OUTPUT.

BigDecimal oracle.sql.more concepts Shape mapping ± Java methods declared ³void´ become PL/SQL procedures ± Signature mismatches detected only at runtime Type mapping (typical) VARCHAR2 DATE NUMBER user-defined object type user-defined object type object REFerence user-defined collection type java.page 166 .sql.String java.Publishing -.REF oracle.Timestamp java.STRUCT <named type> oracle.ARRAY 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .sql.math.sql.lang.

util.String'.Publish in PL/SQL Package Spec  Designate Java module in PL/SQL package spec.page 167 .lang. END.Hello. / (No package body required in this case) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ...Emp(int) return java. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE hello_pkg AS FUNCTION hi_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2 AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.

END.lang.String'..or in package body CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE hello_pkg2 AS FUNCTION hi_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2.Emp(int) return java..util.page 168 . / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Hello.Publish as module in package body  . END. / CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY hello_pkg2 AS FUNCTION hi_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2 IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.

Hello.lang. END. / or in the body: CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE foo_t AS OBJECT ( bar VARCHAR2(30).String'. / CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE BODY foo_t AS MEMBER FUNCTION hello_emp RETURN VARCHAR2 IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft. MEMBER FUNCTION hello_emp RETURN VARCHAR2).lang.util. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Emp(int) return java.page 169 .util.Hello.String').Emp(int) return java.Publish as object type method  Either in spec: CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE foo_t AS OBJECT ( bar VARCHAR2(30). MEMBER FUNCTION hello_emp RETURN VARCHAR2 IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.

DROP JAVA: drops a named Java library unit Several roles available for Java operations: ± JAVAUSERPRIV.page 170 . resolves Java class references. JAVADEBUGPRIV ± You can also grant specific privileges.   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . class. or resource ± Can read file designated with BFILE() function  ALTER JAVA: compiles Java source. JAVAIDPRIV. JAVA_ADMIN.New DDL Statements and Roles  CREATE JAVA ± Alternative to ³loadjava´ utility ± Creates or replaces an Oracle ³library unit´ from Java source. JAVASYSPRIV (needed for file IO operations).

sql.sql.STRUCT ± oracle.CustomDatum ± oracle.page 171 .Passing Oracle8 objects Oracle8i server Object in O-R table Java application Java object   Harder than you¶d think Three different interfacing techniques ± oracle.SQLData 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .jdbc2.

JPublisher utility Database server Definition of type or REF in data dictionary User-supplied JPublisher input file What does it do? ± Generates Java that encapsulates type and REF types of mapping supported for methods JPublisher ± ³Oracle mapping´ ± ³JDBC mapping´ ± ³Object JDBC mapping´ Three Generated Java file(s) for use in Java programs 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 172 .

Passing object using JPub-generated Java  After generating and uploading classes with JPub.save (datacraft.AccountRuntime.bill.page 173 .sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Account_t)'. /  jspobj.bill. they become available to use in mapping Example of passing an Account_t object: CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE account_save (new_acct IN Account_t) IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.

page 174 .Example: Improving File I/O  You can read/write files in PL/SQL with UTL_FILE.   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Java offers many file-related classes with much greater capabilities. but that package is very limited. Let's see how we can make that great Java stuff available from within PL/SQL.

Encapsulate Java Classes  You won't generally access native Java methods in your PL/SQL wrapper.  Let's start with something simple. ± Instead build a static method that instantiates a Java object from the class and then invokes the relevant method against that object. ± The File class offers a length method that returns the number of bytes in a file. ± This is not available through UTL_FILE (though you can get it through DBMS_LOB).page 175 .. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..

import java.io. } } JFile2. ± Instantiate a File object for the specified name.File. ± Call the method of choice against that object and return the value.My Own Java Class for File Manipulation  Accept the name of a file and return its length.java  Take each of these steps: ± Import the File class to resolve reference. public class JFile2 { public static long length (String fileName) { File myFile = new File (fileName). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . return myFile.length().page 176 .

lang. / CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY xfile IS FUNCTION length (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN NUMBER AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'JFile.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . we will certainly want to add more functionality over time.page 177 .length (java. END.String) return long'. / xfile2. ± I translate the Java long to a PL/SQL NUMBER.Build a Package over Java Method  Let's put it in a package. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE xfile IS FUNCTION length (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN NUMBER. END.

± 2. Not so! To pass a Boolean back from Java to PL/SQL.Mapping the Boolean Datatype  Both Java and PL/SQL support a native Boolean datatype. Write a "public" PL/SQL wrapper function to convert that number to a true PL/SQL Boolean. Convert the Java boolean to a String or number and return that value. you will need to take these steps: ± 1. so you'd expect smooth sailing.page 178 . Write a "hidden" PL/SQL wrapper function that returns the string or number. ± 3.  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

import java. boolean retval = myFile.page 179 .Translate Boolean to Number  Accept the name of a file and return its length. ± And don't forget: this is a boolean primitive.canRead(). not a Boolean class.java  Translate TRUE to 1 and FALSE to 0. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . if (retval) return 1.io. } } JFile3. else return 0. public class JFile3 { public static int canRead (String fileName) { File myFile = new File (fileName).File.

pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .pkg END. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE xfile IS FUNCTION canRead (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN BOOLEAN.canRead (java.Wrapper for Pseudo-Boolean function  Simple translation back to PL/SQL Boolean. END. FUNCTION canRead (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN BOOLEAN AS BEGIN xfile3..page 180 . xfile4.String) return int'. ± Avoid the hard-codings with named constants..java END. / CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY xfile IS FUNCTION IcanRead (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN NUMBER AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'JFile3.pkg RETURN IcanRead (file) = 1. JFile4.java / xfile. JFile.lang.

tst PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . public class UnionBuster { Obtain attributes of public static void wageStrategy (STRUCT e) the Oracle object. // starting with 0 String laborType = (String)(attribs[0]). BigDecimal hourly_rate = (BigDecimal)(attribs[1]). // Access individual attributes by array index.Passing Objects to Java with STRUCT  You can pass Oracle object information to Java without relying on JPub by using the STRUCT class.java passobj.sql.page 181 . throws java.getAttributes().SQLException { // Get the attributes of the labor_source object.println ( "Pay " + laborType + " $" + hourly_rate + " per hour"). } } Extract individual attribute values from the array. System. Object[] attribs = e.out. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein UnionBuster.

Wrapping a STRUCT-based Method  You can pass Oracle object information to Java without relying on JPub by using the STRUCT class.wageStrategy (oracle. 0)).page 182 . '5')).sql. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Fully specify the STRUCT class in parameter list. bust_em_with ( labor_source ('Prisoners'. / CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE bust_em_with ( labor_source_in IN labor_source_t) AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'UnionBuster. / BEGIN bust_em_with ( labor_source ('Workfare'. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . hourly_rate NUMBER). The Oracle object type definition CREATE TYPE labor_source_t AS OBJECT ( labor_type VARCHAR2(30).STRUCT)'. END.

HelloAll.Viewing Output from Java Methods  Java provides a "print line" method similar to DBMS_OUTPUT.println.java HelloAll. i++) { System. ± Here is a good nucleus for a login.SET_OUTPUT (1000000).println ( "Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello All!").tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .PUT_LINE: System.page 183 . public class HelloAll { public static void lotsaText ( int count) { for (int i = 0. i < count.sql file: SET SERVEROUTPUT ON SIZE 1000000 CALL DBMS_JAVA. }}}  When called within a PL/SQL wrapper.out. ± Call it within methods and output will display in your Java environment.out. you can redirect the output to the DBMS_OUTPUT buffer.

you "throw" and "catch".page 184 . getErrorCode() and getMessage() to obtain information about the error thrown.1.Error Handling with Java-PL/SQL  Java offers a very similar. but more robust error handling mechanism than PL/SQL. such as java.  Any error not caught by the JVM (Java virtual machine) will be thrown back to the PL/SQL block or SQL statement.SQLException.5). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Exceptions are objects instantiated from the Exception class or a subclass of it. ± Instead of raising and handling. ± And also spew out the entire Java error stack! (at least through 8.sql. ± Use two methods.

DBMS_OUTPUT.sql.jdbc.sp dropany2.Trapping and Identifying Errors  Currently.java:14) DropAny.kprb.java) at oracle.parseExecuteFetch(KprbDBAccess.SQLException: getErrInfo.jdbc. and you have to do some digging to extract the Oracle error information.doExecuteWithBatch(OracleStatement. / SQL> 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 java.PUT_LINE (SQLERRM).jdbc.OracleStatement.java) at oracle.driver.OracleStatement.doExecuteOther(OracleStatement.java) at DropAny.doExecuteWithTimeout(OracleStatement.KprbDBAccess.jdbc.driver.OracleStatement.jdbc.java) at oracle. 'blip').OracleStatement. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN DBMS_OUTPUT.jdbc.driver.object(DropAny.tst ORA-00942: table or view does not exist 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .jdbc.sql.doExecute(OracleStatement. END. the entire Java stack is displayed on your screen. BEGIN dropany ('TABLE'.KprbDBAccess.executeUpdate(OracleStatement.check_error(KprbDBAccess.page 185 .java) at oracle.OracleStatement.driver.PUT_LINE (SQLCODE).java -29532 dropany.tst ORA-29532: Java call terminated by uncaught Java exception: java.java) at oracle.driver.kprb.SQLException: ORA-00942: table or view does not exist at oracle.java) at oracle.

page 186 .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence External Procedures  An external procedure is a 3GL routine that can serve as the ³body´ of a PL/SQL function. procedure. ± Must be a shared object library on Unix or a dynamically linked library (DLL) on Windows. or method.  An Oracle8 feature that allowed relatively "native" callouts to C from PL/SQL for the first time. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

page 187 .Process & data flow Application Makes request Net8 External Procedure Listener spawns External Shared Library Calls PL/SQL Runtime Engine PL/SQL body Client or server-side application returns results calls routine from Routine in .so file extproc returns results returns results 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .DLL or .

sql diskspace.External procedures: Sample uses      Send email Invoke operating system command Invoke custom or legacy application Call C runtime library function Perform admin tasks email.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 188 .

Determine free disk space on NT (1/4)  Use pre-existing routine: ± GetDiskFreeSpaceA in kernel32. this function returns: » » » » » sectors per cluster bytes per sector number of free clusters total number of clusters ³return code´ indicating success or failure  First. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .dll'.page 189 .dll ± For given drive letter. create an Oracle8 ³library´: CREATE OR REPLACE LIBRARY nt_kernel AS 'c:\winnt\system32\kernel32.

total_number_of_clusters OUT PLS_INTEGER) RETURN PLS_INTEGER.Package spec (2/4)  Nothing unexpected here: CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE disk_util AS FUNCTION get_disk_free_space (root_path IN VARCHAR2. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END disk_util. sectors_per_cluster OUT PLS_INTEGER. bytes_per_sector OUT PLS_INTEGER. number_of_free_clusters OUT PLS_INTEGER.page 190 .

bytes_per_sector BY REFERENCE LONG.Package body in Oracle 8.page 191  All the magic is in the EXTERNAL section 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . RETURN LONG). number_of_free_clusters BY REFERENCE LONG. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . total_number_of_clusters OUT PLS_INTEGER) RETURN PLS_INTEGER IS EXTERNAL LIBRARY nt_kernel NAME "GetDiskFreeSpaceA" LANGUAGE C CALLING STANDARD PASCAL PARAMETERS (root_path STRING.0 (3/4) CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY disk_util AS FUNCTION get_disk_free_space (root_path IN VARCHAR2. bytes_per_sector OUT PLS_INTEGER. number_of_free_clusters OUT pls_integer. total_number_of_clusters BY REFERENCE LONG. sectors_per_cluster OUT PLS_INTEGER. sectors_per_cluster BY REFERENCE LONG. END disk_util.

Usage (4/4)
DECLARE lroot_path VARCHAR2(3) := 'C:\'; lsectors_per_cluster PLS_INTEGER; lbytes_per_sector PLS_INTEGER; lnumber_of_free_clusters PLS_INTEGER; ltotal_number_of_clusters PLS_INTEGER; return_code PLS_INTEGER; free_meg REAL; BEGIN return_code := disk_util.get_disk_free_space (lroot_path, lsectors_per_cluster, lbytes_per_sector, lnumber_of_free_clusters, ltotal_number_of_clusters); free_meg := lsectors_per_cluster * lbytes_per_sector * lnumber_of_free_clusters / 1024 / 1024; DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('free disk space, Mb = ' || free_meg); diskspace.sql END;
1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein
PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 192

Creating your own external procedure 

1. Identify or create shared library 2. Identify or CREATE LIBRARY within Oracle 3. Map the parameters using:
± EXTERNAL clause (Oracle8) or ± LANGUAGE clause (Oracle8i)  

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 193

1. Identify/create external routine 


Prerequisite: O/S must support shared libraries Some useful routines are pre-built in C runtime library
± On Unix: /lib/libc.so ± On NT: <systemroot>\system32\crtdll.dll 

Building a shared library of your own requires knowledge of:
± Appropriate language (typically C) ± Compiler & linker

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 194

2. Create the Oracle library 

Syntax:
CREATE OR REPLACE LIBRARY <library name> AS '<full path to file>'; 

Assigns a programmer-defined alias to a specific shared library file Notes
± Requires CREATE LIBRARY pri ilege ± Does not alidate directory ± Can¶t use symbolic link 

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 195

3. Map the parameters
This can get complicated, because«
± Must pass extra parameters to designate:
» NULL/NOT NULL state » String length » Maximum allocated length

± Six choices of parameter mode
» » » » » » IN RETURN IN BY REFERENCE RETURN BY REFERENCE OUT IN OUT

These details are better suited for close reading«
PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 196

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

page 197 .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Oracle8i New Features Autonomous Transactions Invoker Rights Model Row Level Security 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Oracle8i New Features  Oracle8i offers a number of PL/SQL-specific features that give you tremendous additional flexibility and capability.    Autonomous Transactions The Invoker Rights Model Row level security 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± And the learning curve to take advantage of these features is generally not too steep.page 198 .

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . a COMMIT or ROLLBACK in any program in your session committed or rolled back all changes in your session.  With Oracle8i. msg IN VARCHAR2) AS PRAGMA AUTONOMOUS_TRANSACTION. ± There was only one transaction allowed per connection.page 199 . CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE loginfo ( code IN PLS_INTEGER.Autonomous Transactions  Prior to Oracle8i. you can now define a PL/SQL block to execute as an "autonomous transaction". ± Any changes made within that block can be saved or reversed without affecting the outer or main transaction.

± Now you can avoid the complexities (need for ROLLBACK TO savepoints and so on).page 200 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .When to Use Autonomous Transactions  Reusable Application Components ± ATs are more or less required in the new distributed application architecture of the Internet. something like a COMMIT) on other components. which can cause all sorts of complications: your log entry becomes a part of your transaction.  Logging Mechanism ± Commonly developers lot to database tables. software usage meter. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . etc.  Call functions within SQL that change the database.  Tracing Code Usage ± Build retry mechanisms. ± One component should not have any impact (esp.

EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN ROLLBACK. USER. USER.Logging with ATs  Don't forget that ROLLBACK in the exception section! CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY log IS PROCEDURE putline ( code_in IN INTEGER. COMMIT. END. text_in IN VARCHAR2 ) IS PRAGMA AUTONOMOUS_TRANSACTION. SYSDATE. let's add some session information.machine. text_in.tst retry. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Avoid interdependencies with the main transaction. rec. END. SYSDATE. logger. rec.pkg log81*.pkg retry. BEGIN INSERT INTO logtab VALUES (code_in.sp log81. While we're at it.page 201 .tst PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .program ).

± You cannot define an entire package as an AT.  Any changes committed in an AT are visible in the outer transaction.page 202 .Tips and Gotchas with ATs  An AT program must COMMIT or ROLLBACK before terminating. The AT PRAGMA can be used only with individual programs and toplevel anonymous blocks. ± You cannot define a nested anonymous block to be an AT.sql autontrigger*.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± You can use the SET TRANSACTION ISOLATION LEVEL SERIALIZABLE to indicate that you do not want the changes visible until the outer transaction commits.   The AT PRAGMA goes in the body of packages. ± You cannot tell by looking at the package spec if you are calling ATs or not -and this info is not available in the data dictionary. autonserial. or an error is raised. ± Place the SET TRANSACTION statement in the outer transaction.sql auton_in_sql.

you can now decide at compilation time whether your program or package will execute in the definer's schema (the default) or the schema of the invoker of the code. whenever you executed a stored program. ± This is called the « Invoker Rights Model PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . it ran under the privileges of the account in which the program was defined.The Invoker Rights Model  Prior to Oracle8i.page 203 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . ± This is called the « Definer Rights Model  With Oracle8i.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 204 . Ignores roles and relies on directly-granted privileges. OE Code Order_Mgt Place Cancel Sam_Sales Close Old Orders  OE Data X  Orders Cannot alter table directly. But it can be a source of confusion and architectural problems. Note: Oracle built-in packages have long had the capability of running under the invoker's authority.About Definer Rights  Allows you to centralize access to and control of underlying data structures.

requiring copy of stored module  Security ± No declarative way to restrict privileges on certain modules in a package -. unless you write code in the package to essentially recreate roles programmatically.and now you do! 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . each user has own copy of table(s).Problems with Definer Rights  Deployment & maintenance ± Must install module in all remote databases where needed ± In some databases.it's all or nothing... ± Can bypass 8i¶s ³fine-grained´ access features (see the DBMS_RLS package) ± Difficult to audit privileges  Sure would be nice to have a choice.page 205 .

± In other words. the objects referenced may well be different from those against which it compiled.page 206 . Synonyms may be necessary if modules use object names not qualified by schema. and must be at the package level.Oracle8i Invoker Rights Syntax  For top level modules: CREATE [ OR REPLACE ] <module type> [ AUTHID { DEFINER | CURRENT_USER } ] AS .  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .. ± At run-time. do what it takes to get the code to compile. You could also create local. "dummy" objects. AUTHID goes only in spec..  For modules with separate spec and body.

. you can execute code owned by another schema.FROM accounts WHERE.page 207 . accounts table 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..... Central Code schema PACKAGE acct_mgr make AUTHID CURRENT_USER User/Data schema PROCEDURE mng_account IS BEGIN .).acct_mgr.destroy(. END. yet have all references to data structures "reflect back" into your own schema.. modify destroy . code..."Reflection" Capability of Invoker Rights  With invoker rights.

all other calls in stack are resolved according to definer rights.sql  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . only data ± When your stored code references another stored code element.Tips and Gotchas for Invoker Rights  Does not apply to code objects.  Information about the rights model is not available in the data dictionary What if you want to maintain a single version of your code for both pre-Oracle8i and Oracle8i installations. taking advantage of the invoker rights model whenever possible? ± A creative use of SQL*Plus substitution variables comes in very invdefinv.sql handy. the definer rights model is always applied to resolve the reference. ± AUTHID CURRENT_USER is ignored. ± Both static and dynamic SQL is supported.page 208 . Note: cannot use with wrapped code. oneversion.  Once a definer rights program is called.

When to Invoke Invoker Rights  You want to reuse the same code among many users. ± Share a program that uses dynamic SQL (whether DBMS_SQL or the new native implementation) and you end up taking the most unexpected DDL and DML detours.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . but you want their own directly-granted privileges to determine access.sql whichsch*. National HQ Check City Statistics New York Schema stolenlives Chicago Schema stolenlives  Especially handy with dynamic SQL.page 209 . authid.

page 210 . HQ Chicago Check City Statistics  New York stolenlives Analyze Pattern stolenlives perpetrators perp. Rely on definer rights to access centralized data from any schema.Combining Invoker & Definer Rights  Rely on invoker rights to allow centralized code to work with schema-specific data.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Row Level Security DBMS_RLS Row-Level Security 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 211 .

Row Level Security  The establishment of security policies on (restricted access to) individual rows of a table.page 212   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . DBMS_RLS. Prior to Oracle8i.Row-Level Security with DBMS_RLS  Oracle8i offers a new package. The DBMS_RLS package (along with "system contexts") now allow you to do so in a foolproof manner. with which to implement automated row-level security (also referred to as "fine grained access control"). you could achieve this only partially through the use of views. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

 Database Logon Triggers ± I want to make sure that when a person logs in. the system context is a named set of attributevalue pairs global to your session. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . their context information is set properly.  Let's step through a simple example to see how all these pieces tie together.  DBMS_RLS ± Use programs in DBMS_RLS to associate your security policies with tables.  Security Policy Packages ± You will need to write a package containing functions that establish the security policies to be applied to a particular table.Components Needed for RLS  System Contexts ± A new feature in Oracle8i.page 213 .

no more private insurance companies soaking up 30 cents on the dollar. doctor. Here are some rules: ± Doctors can only see patients who are assigned to their clinic. ± Patients can only see information about themselves. popular uprising in the United States has forced the establishment of a national healthcare system.sql  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . clinic and regulator. No more for-profit hospitals pulling billions of dollars out of the system. ± A massive. highly secure database for NHCS. ± Regulators can only see patients who reside in the same state.A National Health Care System  The year is 2010. all pregnant women receive excellent prenatal care.page 214 . all children are vaccinated. fgac.  We need a top-notch. The main tables are patient.

doc_rec. See CURSOR doc_cur IS fgac.Set the Context  Define a context in the database. doc_rec doc_cur%ROWTYPE. PROCEDURE set_context IS This is a simplification.page 215 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . and create a procedure that will set the context attributes (type and ID) upon login.SET_CONTEXT ( 'patient_restriction'. CREATE CONTEXT patient_restriction USING nhc_pkg. END. c_person_id_attr. 'DOCTOR').sql for logic that identifies SELECT doctor_id FROM doctor different types of people and WHERE schema_name = USER. FETCH doc_cur INTO doc_rec. DBMS_SESSION. DBMS_SESSION.doctor_id). c_person_type_attr.SET_CONTEXT ( 'patient_restriction'. sets the context accordingly. BEGIN OPEN doc_cur.

connection. name_in VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2 IS l_context VARCHAR2(100) := Extract the context SYS_CONTEXT (c_context. information for this retval VARCHAR2(2000). FUNCTION person_predicate ( schema_in VARCHAR2. ''' || clause for each type of c_person_id_attr || '''))'. BEGIN IF l_context = 'DOCTOR' THEN retval := 'home_clinic_id IN (SELECT home_clinic_id FROM doctor We need a different string WHERE doctor_id = SYS_CONTEXT (''' || to modify the WHERE c_context || '''.Define the Predicate  A predicate is a string that will be appended to the WHERE clause of the table to which this security policy is associated (see next page).page 216 . c_person_type_attr). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . person.

person_predicate'.PATIENT table will be modified by the string returned by the person_predicate function of the SCOTT.page 217 .ADD_POLICY OBJECT_SCHEMA OBJECT_NAME POLICY_NAME FUNCTION_SCHEMA POLICY_FUNCTION STATEMENT_TYPES END.ADD_POLICY procedure. ( => => => => => => 'SCOTT'. 'SELECT.nhc_pkg package.Create the Security Policy  Use the DBMS_RLS. 'nhc_pkg. 'patient'. 'patient_privacy'. BEGIN DBMS_RLS.UPDATE. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± The following procedure call specifies that the WHERE clause of any query. 'SCOTT'.DELETE'). update or delete against the SCOTT.

sql Exception handling in trigger is critical! If you allow an exception to go unhandled. we guarantee that the context is set (and the predicate applied) no matter which product is the entry point to Oracle. CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER set_id_on_logon AFTER LOGON ON DATABASE BEGIN nhc_pkg. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . logon is disabled.set_context.PUT_LINE ( 'Error ' || SQLCODE || ' setting context for ' || USER').Create Logon Trigger. Setting Context  By setting the context in the logon trigger.page 218 . END. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN DBMS_OUTPUT. fgac.

Veva Silva .Queries Transparently Filtered  What you see is determined automatically by who you are.Chris Silva . Context Information for "SWALLACE": Type: DOCTOR Doctor sees only her ID: 1060 patients.page 219 .IL Context Information for "CSILVA": Type: PATIENT ID: Predicate: schema_name = 'CSILVA' Patients Visible to "CSILVA": CSILVA .IL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Patient sees only himself. Predicate: home_clinic_id IN (SELECT home_clinic_id FROM doctor WHERE doctor_id = SYS_CONTEXT ('patient_restriction'. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .IL VSILVA . 'person_id')) Patients Visible to "SWALLACE": CSILVA .Chris Silva .

and play a new tune with PL/SQL! 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..page 220 . May..Take Full Advantage of PL/SQL! January.. and you use only what you know...... It's so easy to fall into a rut with a programming language.  ± You learn what you need to get the job done. March.. February.. April. Jump out of your rut .

If time permits«)     UTL_FILE ± file IO DBMS_JOB ± Job scheduling DBMS_PIPE ± Pipe-based communication DBMS_UTILITY ± the kitchen sink package 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 221 .k.Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Appendices (a.a..

Physical Files 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Built-in Packages: UTL_FILE UTL_FILE Server-side File I/O Application FOPEN GET_LINE PUT_LINE ...page 222 .

. ± Limitations on files you can access (no mapped files. ± No higher-level file operations supported (change privileges.5. delete. A "version 1" (fairly primitive) utility.UTL_FILE: Server-side I/O  Allows you to read from and write to operating system files on the database server. ± Maximum of 1023 bytes per line (read or write) until Oracle 8. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .0. copy. random access to contents). no use of environmental variables).   But you can read lines from a file and write lines to a file.page 223 .. when it jumps to 32K.

page 224 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .UTL_FILE Module Outline FCLOSE FCLOSE_ALL FFLUSH FOPEN GET_LINE IS_OPEN NEW_LINE PUT PUT_LINE PUTF Close the specified file Close all open files in your session Flush all data from the UTL_FILE buffer to your file Open a file Get the next line from a file Returns TRUE if the file is open (sort of) Insert a new line character in file at the end of current line Puts text into the UTL_FILE buffer Puts text and new line character into UTL_FILE buffer. Puts formatted text into the buffer PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Authorizing Directory Access  Oracle requires you to list explicitly those directories you wish to be able to read/write with UTL_FILE. ± Use a separate entry for each directory (and subdirectory. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . no trailing delimiter. ± You do this by adding lines to the instance parameter file. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . utl_file_dir = * Allows read & write for any directory.  Follow these rules to avoid many headaches. ± No single or double quotes around directory.page 225 Allows read & write for current directory. there is no subdirectory recursion). utl_file_dir = /tmp utl_file_dir = /accounts/newdev  And don't do either of the following: utl_file_dir = .

Test UTL_FILE Access  About the hardest part to working with UTL_FILE is simply getting started. restart your database. BEGIN /* Change the directory name to one to which you at least || THINK you have read/write access. So before you write anything fancy. 'test. 'W'). */ fid := UTL_FILE. / utlfile. and then run the following test script (it can't get much simpler than this): DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.PUT_LINE (fid.FOPEN ('c:\temp'.tst  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .txt'.FILE_TYPE.page 226 . END. modify your initialization file. 'hello'). UTL_FILE. UTL_FILE.FCLOSE (fid).

name and operation type. 'test.page 227 . 'W'). BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE.FILE_TYPE. ± Currently contains a single ID field. ± Types are 'R' for Read.FOPEN ('c:\temp'.  Specify file location.Opening a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.. Test to see if file is open with the IS_OPEN function.. this function simply returns TRUE if the file handle's id field is NOT NULL.  The FOPEN function returns a record ("file handle") based on the UTL_FILE. Not much of a test. 'W' for Write and 'A' for Append. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .FILE_TYPE.   Maximum of 10 files may be opened in each user session. END. ± In actuality.txt'.

FOPEN ('c:\temp'. BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE. 'R').  The NO_DATA_FOUND exception is raised if you read past the end of the file. UTL_FILE. END.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Lines in the file cannot be longer than 1023 bytes in length. ± In Oracle8 Release 8.FCLOSE (fid). UTL_FILE.0.FILE_TYPE.5 and above.page 228 . the ceiling is raised to 32K.GET_LINE (fid.   Can only read from a file opened with the "R" mode. getnext. ± You might want to build your own GET_LINE which handles the exception and returns an EOF Boolean status flag. myline). 'test.txt'.Reading from a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.

FCLOSE (fid).Writing to a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.FOPEN ('c:\temp'.  Call FFLUSH to make sure that everything you have written to the buffer is flushed out to the file. UTL_FILE.page 229 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . UTL_FILE. UTL_FILE.PUT (fid. ± PUTF is like the C printf program. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . UTL_FILE. ± The file buffers are automatically flushed when you close a file or exit your session. 'W'). BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE. 'is so much fun'). 'UTL_FILE'). UTL_FILE is so much fun that I never want to stop Resulting Text  You can use PUT.txt'. PUT_LINE or PUTF.FILE_TYPE.PUT_LINE (fid.PUTF (fid. 'test. allowing for some formatting. END. ' that I never\nwant to %s'. '&1').

'test. UTL_FILE. myline).READ_ERROR THEN UTL_FILE. EXCEPTION WHEN UTL_FILE. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .FILE_TYPE.  If you do not close the file.Closing a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.FCLOSE (fid). You should close files in exception handlers to make sure that files are not left "hanging" open. you will not see the data you have (supposedly) written to that file.FOPEN ('c:\temp'.page 230   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . END. 'R').txt'. You can close a single file with FCLOSE or all open files with FCLOSE_ALL.FCLOSE (fid). BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE.GET_LINE (fid. UTL_FILE.

page 231 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Error Handling in UTL_FILE PACKAGE UTL_FILE IS invalid_path invalid_mode invalid_filehandle invalid_operation read_error write_error internal_error END. EXCEPTION. EXCEPTION.  UTL_FILE relies on a combination of user-defined exceptions and STANDARD exceptions to communicate errors. EXCEPTION. EXCEPTION.  You have to take special care to trap and handle the named exceptions. ± They all share a common SQLCODE of 1. EXCEPTION. EXCEPTION. ± NO_DATA_FOUND when you try to read past the end of the file. EXCEPTION. ± UTL_FILE-named exceptions in other cases.

RAISE.c_write_error).READ_ERROR THEN recNgo (PLVfile. WHEN UTL_FILE. RAISE. translating the generic user-defined exception into an understandable message.INVALID_MODE THEN recNgo (PLVfile. Re-raise exception if you want it to propagate from that block. RAISE. WHEN UTL_FILE.WRITE_ERROR THEN recNgo (PLVfile.c_invalid_operation). END. WHEN UTL_FILE. WHEN UTL_FILE.c_invalid_mode). RAISE. WHEN UTL_FILE.c_internal_error).sql  Trap locally by name.INVALID_OPERATION THEN recNgo (PLVfile. record the error. WHEN UTL_FILE.INTERNAL_ERROR THEN recNgo (PLVfile. utlflexc.c_invalid_path).c_invalid_filehandle). RAISE. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 232  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . RAISE.Recommended Exception Section EXCEPTION WHEN UTL_FILE.INVALID_FILEHANDLE THEN recNgo (PLVfile.INVALID_PATH THEN recNgo (PLVfile. RAISE.c_read_error).

Background Process DBA_JOBS Oracle Job Queue Subsystem 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..page 233 ..Built-in Packages: DBMS_JOB DBMS_JOB Scheduled Execution of Stored Procedures Application SUBMIT RUN REMOVE .

but only ³publicly available´ and supported in PL/SQL Release 2. ± ± ± ±    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 234 . Schedule regular maintenance on instances. Built by Oracle to support snapshots and replication. Schedule large batch jobs to run on "off hours". Create a listener program to poll the contents of a pipe and take action.Overview of DBMS_JOB  DBMS_JOB provides an API to the Oracle job queues.1. Made its debut in PL/SQL Release 2. ± Spawn background processes to avoid blocking client process. which in turn offers job scheduling capabilities within the Oracle Server.2. You can use DBMS_JOB to: Replicate data between different database instances.

Broken jobs will not run as scheduled. Forces immediate execution of the specified job number. Returns the job string for a job number. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Changes the interval between executions of a job.page 235 CHANGE INTERVAL ISUBMIT NEXT_DATE REMOVE RUN SUBMIT USER_EXPORT WHAT 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . Removes the job from the queue. Changes one or all attributes of a job. Submits a job to the queue using a predefined job number. Changes the job string of a job. Submits a job to the queue returning a unique job number. Changes when a queued job will run.DBMS_JOB Module Outline BROKEN Marks the job as either FIXED or BROKEN.

I run calculate_totals immediately and then on a daily basis thereafter.Submitting a Job DECLARE job# BINARY_INTEGER.SUBMIT (job#. 'calculate_totals.ISUBMIT and supply the job number. BEGIN DBMS_JOB. you specify the date on which it should next execute.'. ± In the above example. 'SYSDATE + 1'). Notice that the start time is a DATE expression. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  When you submit a job. and then the job¶s execution interval (frequency of execution).page 236 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .  A job is a call to a stored procedure or an anonymous block ± It must end with a semi-colon and can contain ³hard-coded´ arguments. instead of having DBMS_JOB generate one for you. SYSDATE. while the interval is a string (this is dynamic PL/SQL!)  You can also call DBMS_JOB. END.

submit ( job => v_jobno.page 237 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . interval => 'TRUNC(SYSDATE+1)' ). BEGIN DBMS_JOB. to analyze a specific table every evening at midnight.ANALYZE_OBJECT ' || '(''TABLE''.''ESTIMATE''. p.''TENK''' || '. next_date => TRUNC (SYSDATE + 1). /  This block submits a job that uses a built-in procedure.Submit Job Example DECLARE v_jobno INTEGER.null. DBMS_DDL.'. END.ANALYZE_OBJECT.''LOAD1''. what => 'DBMS_DDL.estimate_percent=>50).l (v_jobno).

SYSDATE+1.SYSDATE. 'my_job2(date_IN=>SYSDATE). DBMS_JOB. DBMS_JOB. executes for the first time tomorrow and every 10 minutes thereafter. ± Job 2 passes a date into procedure MY_JOB2.120).ISUBMIT (job => 1 .'BEGIN null.DBMS_JOB. END. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . numbered 1. ± Job 3 is a PL/SQL block which does nothing. END.what => 'my_job1(''string_parm_value''.null). ± Job 1 passes a string and number into procedure MY_JOB1.ISUBMIT (2.' . /  This block submits three jobs to the job queue.next_date => SYSDATE + 1/24 .ISUBMIT(3. and 3. and will be removed from the queue automatically.'SYSDATE+10/1440').2. executes immediately.'.interval => 'SYSDATE +1').page 238 .ISubmit Job Example BEGIN DBMS_JOB.' . runs it in one hour and executes every day thereafter.

''MONDAY''). at 9 AM Every Monday. Wednesday and Friday at 6 PM 'SYSDATE + 1/24' 'NEXT_DAY (TRUNC (SYSDATE). NEXT_DAY (SYSDATE. ''SATURDAY'') 2/24' 'NEXT_DAY ( ADD_MONTHS (TRUNC (SYSDATE. Every hour Every Sunday at 2 AM First Monday of each quarter.page 239 + 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . ''WEDNESDAY''). ''MONDAY'') + 9/24' 'TRUNC (LEAST ( NEXT_DAY (SYSDATE. you must use 2 single quotes to embed strings. ± Since it's a string. ''FRIDAY''))) + 18/24' PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ''Q'').Specifying Job Times & Frequencies  Probably the most complicated part of using DBMS_JOB is to get the string expression of the job interval right. NEXT_DAY (SYSDATE. 3). ± Use date arithmetic to request intervals smaller than a day.

page 240 . ± Performs an implicit COMMIT in current session. END LOOP. ± Uses DBMS_JOB.Other Job Queue Operations  Remove a job from the queue. ± Only if the job was submitted from same schema BEGIN FOR rec IN (SELECT * FROM USER_JOBS) LOOP DBMS_JOB.job). expjob.REMOVE (rec. DBMS_JOB. retaining current job number.ISUBMIT. ± Produces a string that can be used to recreate an existing job in the job queue.  Export jobs from the queue.  Run a job immediately.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Remove all jobs for current schema.RUN (my_job#).

what job_id username start_date job_definition jr j s showjobs.job ORDER BY jr.DBA_JOBS . ± The following query blends job information with session information to display currently-executing jobs.job = j.sid AND jr.sid = jr.sql FROM DBA_JOBS_RUNNING .this_date . SELECT jr.V$SESSION WHERE s.job . who owns them and when they began.page 241 .jr. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Job Queue Views  You can also view the job queue by looking at the DBA_JOBS_RUNNING.username . DBA_JOBS and USER_JOBS views.this_date.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . The valid range is 1 to 3600 (a maximum. of one hour). ± job_queue_interval=N where N is the interval in seconds to check the job queue.Setting up the Job Facility  Make sure that the correct access is set up for the DBMS_JOB package. You will have to take special DBA action if you want to restrict who can run jobs.ora (initialization) file for your database instance: ± job_queue_processes=N where n is the number of concurrent background processes permitted. The valid range is 0 through 36.  You will need to set three parameters in the init. ± The default is PUBLIC access.page 242 . therefore.

± Always include a WHEN OTHERS exception handler in your job program which traps any and all problems and automatically sets the job status to broken.  To avoid unexpected and unhandled failures of scheduled jobs: ± Always use the RUN built-in to execute your job in a ³test´ mode. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Do you want it to try 16 times? ± In addition. it may cause the background processes to fail and no longer run any jobs at all.Error Handling with DBMS_JOB  What if your stored procedure fails? ± After 16 attempts. Then you can go ahead and submit it. the job facility will mark your job as broken. if your failure raises an unhandled exception.page 243 .

spacelog. ± Uses a call to BROKEN to set the status of the job to ³broken´. ± Obtains the job number from a packaged function by passing the name of the procedure..page 244 . You can go in and fix the problem.. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN job# := job_pkg. TRUE).log (µcalc_totals¶.sql showspc.BROKEN (job#. job_pkg. END.Stopping the Job When It Fails PROCEDURE calc_totals IS BEGIN .sql  The WHEN OTHERS exception handler of the calc_totals procedure traps any kind of failure.job (µcalc_totals¶) DBMS_JOB. µFAIL¶). ± Now the job facility will not try to run this program again. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Calls log program of package to record that failure took place.

   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . perform a COMMIT after your submit."Good to Knows" for DBMS_JOB  You may find it useful to always wrap your stored procedure call (the what) inside a BEGIN-END block. If you find that you submit a job to run immediately and it does not start. You can use the DBMS_IJOB to manage the jobs of other users. ± DBMS_JOB only allows you to modify characteristics and behavior of jobs submitted by the current schema.  You will need to fully-qualify all database links (with user name and password) to get them to work properly. When a job runs. ± We've noticed some aberrant.page 245 . it picks up the current execution environment for the user. difficult to reproduce behavior at times with "straight" procedure calls.

page 246 .Built-in Packages: DBMS_PIPE DBMS_PIPE Inter-session Communication 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

You can parallelize your own code. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .DBMS_PIPE Overview  Allows communication between different Oracle sessions through a pipe in the RDBMS Shared Global Area. ± Operates outside of database transaction limitations. ± Interface PL/SQL-database activities with operating system functions and programs written in other languages.  Uses for DBMS_PIPE include: ± Parallelization of program execution. ± More sophisticated debugging inside PL/SQL programs (work around fundamental limitations of DBMS_OUTPUT).page 247 . ± Perform and commit DML in a separate transaction space from your main transaction. Oracle uses database pipes to parallelize database operations.

± The pipe sends/receives a message. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Names can be up to 128 chars long (do not use names beginning with ³ORA$´.Architecture of DBMS_PIPE Shared Global Area ³Sue´ ³Bob´ Message Buffer Message Buffer Session A  Session B A pipe is a named object that uses the System Global Area to provide a non-transaction based conduit of information.page 248 . using a maximum of 4096 bytes. which can be composed of one or more separate packets. They are reserved for Oracle use).

± If there isn¶t currently room in the pipe. ± There is just one message buffer per session.sql PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . date or number). ROWID or RAW. ± You can wait for up to 1000 days for a message.  Unpack the message packets and take action. ± Each packet can be a string.page 249 . date. you can wait for up to 1000 days (or 86400000 seconds) for the pipe to be cleared. so you should always specify a timeout period.sql pipex2. ± Separate out the individual packets in the message (again: string. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein pipex1.Processing Flow of DBMS_PIPE  Construct a message from packets of information.  Receive a message from that pipe. number. ± This is the default.  Send the message to a named pipe.

REMOVE_PIPE RESET_BUFFER Removes a pipe explicitly created via CREATE_PIPE. Clears your buffer so that PACK_MESSAGE and UNPACK_MESSAGE can work from the first item. SEND_MESSAGE Sends contents of message buffer to the specified pipe.page 250 . PURGE Empties the contents of a pipe into your local buffer freeing it for removal. UNIQUE_SESSION_NAME Returns name that is unique among all sessions in the database.DBMS_PIPE Module Outline Module Name CREATE_PIPE Description Creates a PUBLIC or PRIVATE pipe. making it a candidate for removal with a LRU algorithm. RECEIVE_MESSAGE Receives a message from pipe and copies to local buffer. PACK_MESSAGE Packs an item into the message buffer for your session. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . NEXT_ITEM_TYPE Returns the datatype of the next item in the piped message. UNPACK_MESSAGE Unpacks the next item from the local message buffer and deposits it into the specified local variable.

± Implicitly-created pipes are always public.  A public pipe is accessible as long as you know its name. private => TRUE). ± Specify TRUE for private argument of CREATE_PIPE.page 251 . ± Send messages to non-existent pipe implicitly create it. ± Use CREATE_PIPE to create a pipe explicitly. maxpipesize => 20000. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . PROCEDURE newpipe IS stat INTEGER.CREATE_PIPE ( pipename => 'bbs'.  An explicit pipe can be private (accessible only to sessions with matching userID or SYSDBA privileges). BEGIN stat := DBMS_PIPE.Creating Public and Private Pipes  There are two ways to create pipes: implicitly and explicitly.

Sending a Message Provide pipe name. expanding pipe size to 40 Kbytes. FOR month_num IN 1 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Fill your message buffer with packets of data. FUNCTION send_message (pipename IN VARCHAR2. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . IF pipe_stat != 0 THEN RAISE could_not_send.SEND_MESSAGE ( µmonthly¶. maxpipesize IN INTEGER DEFAULT 8192) RETURN INTEGER. 60. timeout IN INTEGER DEFAULT maxwait. END LOOP.PACK_MESSAGE ( total_sales (month_num)). 10 * 4096).page 252 . 12 LOOP DBMS_PIPE. and new max pipe size (you can make it bigger. pipe_stat := DBMS_PIPE. Send to "monthly" pipe. Status of 0 means message was sent. but not smaller).. seconds you will wait. waiting up to 1 minute.

± You need to know the datatype of packet or check it using NEXT_ITEM_TYPE. timeout IN INTEGER DEFAULT maxwait) RETURN INTEGER. PROCEDURE unpack_message (item OUT VARCHAR2). ± Pipe status of 0 means the message was read successfully. ± Specify pipe and number of seconds you will wait before you time out. PROCEDURE unpack_message (item OUT NUMBER). PROCEDURE unpack_message (item OUT DATE).page 253 .  Then you call UNPACK_MESSAGE to extract individual packets from the message.  First you pull the message from the pipe and place it in buffer with RECEIVE_MESSAGE. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Receiving and Unpack a Message FUNCTION receive_message (pipename IN VARCHAR2.

'Production data unavailable. DBMS_PIPE.RECEIVE_MESSAGE ( 'production'. END. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . prod_total). PROCEDURE analyze_assembly_data (every_n_secs IN INTEGER) IS pipe_status INTEGER.'). If I got something. END LOOP. LOOP pipe_status := DBMS_PIPE. data not received. pass it on to the IF pipe_status = 0 computation THEN program. END IF. ELSE RAISE_APPLICATION_ERROR ( Stop process if -20000.page 254 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .UNPACK_MESSAGE (prod_total).A Pipe-based Listener Program  Program wakes up every N seconds to read the data from the pipe and analyze results from assembly line (an intentional "infinite loop"!). every_n_secs). Wait up to N prod_total NUMBER. seconds for the BEGIN next report. analyze_production (SYSDATE.

sql dbpipe. Either: ± You know the datatype and therefore can ³hard-code´ the correct variable into the call to UNPACK_MESSAGE. you have to make sure that you unpack a packet into the right kind of variable.Unpacking the Message FUNCTION next_item_type RETURN INTEGER. ± Or you use the built-in NEXT_ITEM_TYPE to tell you in advance the datatype of the next packet in the message and take appropriate action.page 255 . Returns one of the following values: Value 0 6 9 11 12 23 Description or Data type No more items in buffer NUMBER VARCHAR2 ROWID DATE RAW dbpipe.tst  Since a message can be composed of packets of different datatypes. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

 Without pipes. ± These programs each take 15 minutes. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . I must execute them sequentially and incur an elapsed time of 45 minutes before I calculate the profits. ± You have processes which can run in parallel.page 256 . you can do the same for your application if: ± You have multiple CPUs available. ± The CEO is decidedly unhappy about the delay. but are not dependent on each other.Parallelizing Your Code with Pipes  Oracle uses DBMS_PIPE to improve RDBMS performance. In order to do so I must first compute total sales. total office expenses and total compensation.  Suppose I want to calculate my net profit.

Sequential vs.page 257 . Parallel Execution Sequential Execution: Maximum Elapsed Time S t a r t E n d Process A Process B Process C Parallel Execution: Minimum Elapsed Time Start Process A Process B Process C End 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

 The ³wait´ program waits till it receives a message from each program.Parallelizing PL/SQL Execution BEGIN kick_off_sales_calc. END. ± Other programs running in the background grab the messages and start their corresponding calculation program.  The ³kick off´ programs pass their messages to separate pipes. Then net profits can be computed -. ± When each program is complete.page 258 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . wait_for_confirmation.in a muchdecreased elapsed time. calculate_net_profits. kick_off_totcomp_calc. kick_off_exp_calc. it puts a message (perhaps even a value) into the pipe.

page 259 . DBMS_PIPE. IF stat = 0 THEN lots_of_number_crunching.PACK_MESSAGE (1995).PACK_MESSAGE (NULL). PROCEDURE calculate_sales IS stat INTEGER. stat := DBMS_PIPE.PACK_MESSAGE (sales$).SEND_MESSAGE (µsales¶).SEND_MESSAGE (µsales¶). stat := DBMS_PIPE. and send back the results. END. calculate sales. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Send message to start calculations. Receive the year.SEND_MESSAGE (µsales¶). BEGIN stat := DBMS_PIPE. BEGIN DBMS_PIPE. stat := DBMS_PIPE. ELSE DBMS_PIPE.Code to Kick Off and Calculate PROCEDURE kick_off_sales_calc IS stat INTEGER. END. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µsales¶). END IF.

sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . DBMS_PIPE. Perform final calculation.comp$.page 260 . Wait for all calculations to finish. stat := DBMS_PIPE. DBMS_PIPE.UNPACK_MESSAGE (comp$).UNPACK_MESSAGE (sales$).RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µsales¶). PROCEDURE calculate_net_profits IS BEGIN net_profits := sales$ . parallel. END. DBMS_PIPE.RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µoffexp¶). BEGIN stat := DBMS_PIPE. The order in which you wait is insignificant.offexp$ .Waiting for Confirmation PROCEDURE wait_for_confirmation IS stat INTEGER.RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µcomp¶). END.UNPACK_MESSAGE (offexp$). stat := DBMS_PIPE.

tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .pkg syscache. ± A request for data is passed to a "central" pipe. in-memory cache. obtains the data. and sends it to the pipe. watch.page 261 . ± A listener program grabs the request (including the return pipe name). syscache. ± The requester reads the information from the pipe.pkg  Implementation of a system-wide.Other DBMS_PIPE Examples  Simple trace package that sends it output either to screen or to pipe.pkg p_and_l. ± Demonstrates the use of toggles and switches in packages.

A µgrab-bag¶ of miscellaneous operations SCHEMA 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Built-in Packages: DBMS_UTILITY DBMS_UTILITY Application GET_TIME GET_HASH_VALUE FORMAT_CALL_STACK .page 262 ...

pkg dbparm. Gets block number part of data block address. Returns hash value for string. Returns error stack.pkg COMMA_TO_TABLE COMPILE_SCHEMA DATA_BLOCK_ADDRESS_BLOCK DATA_BLOCK_ADDRESS_FILE DB_VERSION EXEC_DDL_STATEMENT FORMAT_CALL_STACK FORMAT_ERROR_STACK GET_HASH_VALUE 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .DBMS_UTILITY Module Outline ANALYZE_DATABASE ANALYZE_PART_OBJECT Analyze objects in database Runs ANALYZE TABLE or ANALYZE INDEX for each partition of the object (Oracle8). Parses comma-delimited list to index-by table. Gets file number part of data block address. Recompile INVALID objects in specified schema. Returns execution call stack.page 263 dbver. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Returns database version (Oracle8) Executes DDL statement (Oracle8).

GET_PARAMETER_VALUE GET_TIME IS_PARALLEL_SERVER MAKE_DATA_BLOCK_ADDRESS NAME_RESOLVE NAME_TOKENIZE PORT_STRING TABLE_TO_COMMA Retrieves value of database parameter (Oracle8).DBMS_UTILITY Module Outline. cont.page 264 . Returns TRUE if in parallel server mode. Resolves name of object into component parts. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Creates data block address from block & file numbers. Returns "current time" down to hundredth of second. Parses string object designator into components. Converts list (in index-by-table) of elements into a comma-delimited list (string). Returns platform and version of database.

END.v_start). especially those that run in sub-second time. DBMS_OUTPUT.Sub-Second Timings with GET_TIME  GET_TIME returns the number of 100ths of seconds that have elapsed since an arbitrary point in time. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .PUT_LINE (DBMS_UTILITY. ± SYSDATE only reflects times down to the nearest second.GET_TIME.  Compare results from consecutive calls to GET_TIME to determine the elapsed time of PL/SQL code execution. so GET_TIME offers significant additional granularity. BEGIN v_start := DBMS_UTILITY. ± Useful when analyzing individual PL/SQL programs. calc_totals.GET_TIME . Basic steps necessary to convert GET_TIME into a performance analysis tool.page 265 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . DECLARE v_start BINARY_INTEGER.

show_elapsed. reset_in IN BOOLEAN := TRUE). END.capture.page 266 . PROCEDURE capture ( context_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) PROCEDURE show_elapsed (prefix_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. PLVtmr. BEGIN PLVtmr. calc_totals. Clean and lean timing code ovrhead. PROCEDURE set_factor (factor_in IN NUMBER).sps plvtmr. END PLVtmr. adjust_in IN NUMBER := 0.spb 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Building a Layer Over GET_TIME Partial package specification PACKAGE PLVtmr IS PROCEDURE turn_on.sql plvtmr. PROCEDURE turn_off.

CALC_NET_WORTH anonymous block  "Little known facts" about FORMAT_CALL_STACK: ± Contains embedded new-line characters. ± Most recent program at beginning of "report".page 267 . equivalent to CHR(10).COMPANY_TYPE procedure STEVEN.FORMAT_CALL_STACK). END. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN DBMS_OUTPUT.PL/SQL Call Stack ----object line object handle number name 88ce3f74 88e49fc4 88e49390 88e2bd20 8 2 1 1 package STEVEN.Accessing the Execution Call Stack Use in the exception section to show context of error. ----. only the package name.PUT_LINE ( DBMS_UTILITY. ± Does not show package elements.VALIDATE_REQUEST function STEVEN.

END LOOP. startpos INTEGER := 1.Accessing Call Stack Contents  The call stack length can easily exceed 255 bytes. startpos := next_newline + 1. startpos. which means you cannot pass it to DBMS_OUTPUT directly. dispcs.PUT_LINE (next_line).pkg plvcs. use a loop to read through the stack.page 268 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .sps DBMS_OUTPUT. next_newline INTEGER. next_line VARCHAR2(255). CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE dispcs IS stk VARCHAR2(10000).FORMAT_CALL_STACK || CHR(10). CHR(10). 1). Instead. next_newline . next_line := SUBSTR ( stk.sp dispcs. BEGIN stk := DBMS_UTILITY.tst callstack. END. EXIT WHEN next_newline = 0. startpos. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . LOOP next_newline := INSTR (stk.startpos + 1).

.  Possible "Part 1" Types 5 7 8 9 Synonym Procedure Function Package What a chore! All those arguments. part1 OUT VARCHAR2. the way they are attached also follows a complicated syntax. part2 OUT VARCHAR2. schema OUT VARCHAR2.for encapsulation! showcomp. context IN NUMBER..but don't see it as a problem. see it as an opportunity..NAME_RESOLVE (name IN VARCHAR2.Resolving Names of Stored Code  Code names have many components.sp snc. PROCEDURE DBMS_UTILITY.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . object_number OUT NUMBER). ± Use NAME_RESOLVE to break down an identifier string into its components easily. part1_type OUT NUMBER.page 269 .. dblink OUT VARCHAR2.

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