Achieving PL/SQL Excellence

Oracle PL/SQL Advanced Techniques
Oracle7 thru Oracle8i
Steven Feuerstein
www.StevenFeuerstein.com www.Quest.com www.OReilly.com
and contributions most excellent from Bill Pribyl and Dick Bolz

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 1

Objective & Outline 

Objective
± Expand your knowledge and awareness of important and new features of the PL/SQL language. 

Outline
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± Building with Packages (Oracle7+) PL/SQL Collections (Oracle7 and Oracle8+) Cursor Variables (Oracle7 and Oracle8+) Dynamic SQL: DBMS_SQL and Native Dynamic SQL (8i) Calling Java from PL/SQL (Oracle8i) and C (Oracle8) Oracle Advanced Queuing with DBMS_AQ (Oracle8) Managing Large Objects with DBMS_LOB (Oracle8) Other Oracle8i New Features
» Autonomous Transactions (Oracle8i) » Invoker Rights Model (Oracle8i) » Row Level Security: DBMS_RLS

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

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Software Used in Training 

PL/Vision: a library of packages installed on top of PL/SQL.
± PL/Vision Lite - use it, copy, change it for free -- unless you build software to be sold commercially. ± Active PL/SQL Knowledge Base: contains PL/Vision Professional, the fully supported and enhanced version. 

Demonstration scripts executed in the training can be found on the RevealNet PL/SQL Pipeline:
± http://www.revealnet.com/Pipelines/PLSQL/index.htm ± Archives surfboard, Miscellaneous, PL/SQL Seminar Files ± See filedesc.doc for a listing of many of the files.
plsql_ides.txt 

The PL/SQL IDE (Integrated Development Environment).
± You no longer have to use SQL*Plus and a crude editor! Choose from among the many listed in plsql_ides.txt.

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Achieving PL/SQL Excellence

Building with PL/SQL Packages 
 

Overview Initialization section Overloading

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What is a Package? 

A collection of code elements, from procedures and functions to TYPE, variable and cursor declarations.
± Single-most important structure within PL/SQL, and almost certainly one of the most under-utilized. ± Conceptually very simple, it can take some time to fully grasp the implications and potential of the package. 

The method of choice by Oracle and other software developers for extending the PL/SQL language.
± You will find packages in the database, in Oracle Developer/2000, in Oracle Application Server. 

Let¶s review some of the benefits of packages.
tmr.pkg dbparm.pkg

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pkg  Improve transaction integrity by hiding data structures behind the package interface. ± Can lead to performance improvements.When to Build a Package  Join physically logically-related code.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .pkb  Construct very flexible and usable utilities for developers. ± Puts more structure and organization in your body of code.pks te_employee. ± There's a big difference between a bunch of separate programs and a coherent. you call the packaged procedures and functions instead. custrules.page 6 . ± Instead of writing SQL directly in your programs. te_employee.pkg insga. watch. package-based "component".

Package Initialization  The initialization section is a block of code at the end of the package body that is executed once per session.page 7 . the first time any package element is referenced. ± The PL/SQL runtime engine determines when and if this code should be run. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Program references package element the first time in each session. Does the package have an init section? yes Run initialization code. no Complete request for packaged element.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein BEGIN after/outside of any program defined in the pkg.page 8 . In fact. ± Setting up package data which does not change for the duration of a session. ± Can have its own exception handling section.  Useful for: ± Performing complex setting of default or initial values. FUNCTION func RETURN BEGIN END.Package Initialization Structure  The initialization section: ± Is defined after and outside of any programs in the package. ± Is not required. ± Confirming that package is properly instantiated. BEGIN END pkg. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . most packages you build won't have one. PACKAGE BODY pkg IS PROCEDURE proc IS BEGIN END.

*/ 'Y'. END sessinit. EXCEPTION WHEN NO_DATA_FOUND THEN /* No record for show_lov := show_toolbar := printer := PACKAGE sessinit IS show_lov CHAR(1). show_toolbar. */ SELECT lov_flag. Section  An unusual package! ± Specification contains only variables. init.. show_toolbar CHAR(1). tb_flag. defprinter INTO show_lov.page 9 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . printer FROM user_config WHERE user_id = USER. END sessinit. 'lpt1'..Configure Session with Init. 'No profile for ' || USER). printer VARCHAR2(60). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Also a package with many design flaws.pkg init. PACKAGE BODY sessinit IS /* No declared package elements at all! */ BEGIN /* Get user preferences for this user. ± Body contains only initialization section.tst this user. WHEN OTHERS THEN RAISE_APPLICATION_ERROR (-20000. 'Y'.

employs several PL/SQL tables to convert strings and to perform date arithmetic. Initialization section populates a PL/SQL table. fmts(3) := 'DD-MON'. PLVdate. ± The datemgr. fmts(2) := 'DD-MON-YYYY'.pkg file demonstrates the basic technique (and the reliance on an initialization section) used to achieve this flexibility.. fmts(9) := 'MM/DD/YYYY'. fmt_count := 12. ± This increases the flexibility of the date conversion process.page 10 . fmts(11) := 'YYYYMMDD'.. fmts(10) := 'MMDDYYYY'. fmts(4) := 'MM/DD'.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END dt. fmts(12) := 'RRMMDD'. datemgr.Populate Collections  The PL/Vision Date package. .pkg dates. BEGIN fmts(1) := 'DD-MON-RR'.

± Overloading transfers the "need to know" from the user to the overloaded program.page 11 . ± You can overload modules in any declaration section and in packages.Program Overloading  When you overload programs. myproc myproc 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . you give two or more programs the same name. ± If you want others to use your code. myproc  Overloading is a critical feature when building comprehensive programmatic interfaces (APIs) or components using packages. you need to make that code as smart and as easy to use as possible.

'MMDDYY'). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . number_string := TO_CHAR (10000). ± But Oracle couldn't offer that level of convenience without overloading. you would have to deal with something like this: date_string := TO_CHAR_FROM_DATE (SYSDATE. ± You just probably never gave it a thought.page 12 . date_string := TO_CHAR (SYSDATE. Without overloading. 'MMDDYY'). number_string := TO_CHAR_FROM_NUMBER (10000). and took functions like TO_CHAR and TO_DATE totally for granted.Overloading in PL/SQL Built-ins  PL/SQL uses overloading in many common functions.

± Their formal parameters differ only in datatype and the datatypes are in the same family. OUT. IN OUT). the compiler must be able to distinguish between the two calls at compile-time. ± The programs are of different types: procedure and function. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .How Overloading Works  For two or more modules to be overloaded. ± Arguments differ only in their mode (IN. order or datatype family (CHAR vs. There are two different "compile times": ± 1. When you compile programs that use the overloaded code.  Undistinguishing characteristics: ± Functions differ only in their RETURN datatype. ± 2. VARCHAR2 is not different enough). When you compile the package or block containing the overloaded code.page 13 .  Distinguishing characteristics: ± The formal parameters of overloaded modules must differ in number.

PACKAGE only_returns IS FUNCTION func1 (val IN VARCHAR2) RETURN DATE. which one? param_modes. END param_modes.Examples of Invalid Overloadings PACKAGE too_similar IS PROCEDURE calc (reg_in IN CHAR).proc1 (v_value).func1 (v_value)). Only difference is parameter mode.PUT_LINE (only_returns.calc ('123'). which one? DBMS_OUTPUT. FUNCTION func1 (val IN VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2. Only difference is function RETURN type. which one? too_similar. PROCEDURE proc1 (val IN OUT VARCHAR2). PACKAGE param_modes IS PROCEDURE proc1 (val IN VARCHAR2). END only_returns. Parameter data types cause conflict.page 14 . PROCEDURE calc (reg_in IN VARCHAR2). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END too_many_cals.

In this case.PUT_LINE procedure illustrates this technique -and the PL/Vision p. so much as providing different ways of requesting the same activity. ± The DBMS_OUTPUT.Overload Wherever Possible  Supporting Many Data Combinations ± Apply the same action to different kinds or combinations of data. you may construct different versions of the ³same´ program which correspond to different patterns of use. not Value ± A less common application of overloading. You use the type of data and not its value to determine which of the overloaded programs should be executed.  Overloading by Type.  Fitting the Program to the User ± To make your code as useful as possible.l substitute does an even better job. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . the overloading does not provide a single name for different activities.page 15 .

allowing the user to pass data to the "display engine" without writing "pre-processing" code.spb PROCEDURE l (boolean_in IN BOOLEAN). PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2). date_in IN DATE. YYYY .page 16 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . YYYY .sps p. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2.HH:MI:SS PM').A "Classic" Overloaded Package  Many different datatype combinations. PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2. PROCEDURE l (number_in IN NUMBER). mask_in IN VARCHAR2 := 'Month DD. mask_in IN VARCHAR2 := µMonth DD. number_in IN NUMBER). p.HH:MI:SS PM'). END p. boolean_in IN BOOLEAN). PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2. PACKAGE p IS PROCEDURE l (date_in IN DATE.

PUT_LINE (TO_CHAR (SYSDATE. DBMS_OUTPUT. END IF. p.PUT_LINE (SQLERRM || ': ' || TO_CHAR (SQLCODE)). p.l ('So what is different?').. DBMS_OUTPUT. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein ‡Extended overloadings are more likely to meet user needs.l (print_report_fl). DBMS_OUTPUT. p.l (SYSDATE). p.PUT_LINE ('So what is different?').PUT_LINE ('FALSE'). SQLCODE).Advantage of Extended Overloading ‡ Minimal overloading means lots of extra coding.page 17 .PUT_LINE ('TRUE'). IF print_report_fl THEN DBMS_OUTPUT. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .l (SQLERRM. 'MM/DD/YY HH:MI:SS')). ELSE DBMS_OUTPUT..

In my experience.Fitting the Program to the User Writing "unnecessary" code? Time to overload!  A single piece of functionality. the user of your package can benefit from writing less code. think about the way it will be used. such as "display data" or "create a file". If you take these different circumstances into account when you design your package specification. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Your code is a a more natural "fit" under a variety of requirements. few developers are considerate enough of their users to try to anticipate their needs.page 18   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein ..and taken completely for granted. can be applied or needed under very different circumstances. appreciated.. ± If you want to write software that is admired.

± She doesn't care what's in it. Of course. It just needs to be present. sometimes you will want to create a file and then perform additional operations.FCLOSE (fid).FOPEN ('tmp/flags'. ± Here is the code required by UTL_FILE: DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.PUT_LINE (fid. 'W'). you have to declare the record to hold the file handle. END.page 19  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . 'blah'). even though you are simply going to close the file immediately after opening it.Creating a File for a Quick Touch  Suppose a developer needs to create a file to be used as a "flag" in the operating system.flg'. UTL_FILE. 'exists. so this is just the way it has to be.FILE_TYPE. UTL_FILE.  In other words. BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE. right? WRONG! PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Use as Procedure BEGIN PLVfile. custrules.fcreate ('exists.FILE_TYPE. PLVfile. END PLVfile. BEGIN fid := PLVfile.page 20 .pkg PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Procedure and Function Overloaded  Why not overload a "create file" program so that you can pick the one that most closely fits your situation? Consider the PLVfile package of PL/Vision. TO_CHAR (SYSDATE)). END.flg').ini'.  Overloading of FCreate PACKAGE PLVfile IS /* Procedure */ PROCEDURE fcreate (file_in IN VARCHAR2. line_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) RETURN UTL_FILE. /* Function */ FUNCTION fcreate (file_in IN VARCHAR2. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Use as Function DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.fcreate ('temp. line_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL).put_line (fid.FILE_TYPE. v_user).

± Pass a piece of data of the right type. but the type of data.  There are three ways to accomplish this: ± Don't overload. Define a different program name for each datatype. ± For example. when you use DBMS_SQL to set up a dynamic query. ± Pass a string ³name´ of the datatype. the user does not need to pass data. you must call the DEFINE_COLUMN procedure to define the datatype of the Nth column in the cursor. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 21 ."By-Type" Overloading  In some situations.

..DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. 2. 30).page 22 . 1. 2.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. 30).DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. 1.DEFINE_COLUMN ± PLVgen.DEFINE_INTEGER_COLUMN (cur.. lotsa names. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL.. Lotsa typing...func 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..  Nasty hard-coding..VARCHAR2_TYPE.. 30). 1).Options for Specifying Column Type  Don't even bother overloading. ± DBMS_SQL. 2. DBMS_SQL.  So many program names to remember! Pass a literal value.  Now let's look at two examples of overloading by datatype. DBMS_SQL. Pass a named constant. 'NUMBER'). BEGIN DBMS_SQL. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.. DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL.NUMBER_TYPE). 'STRING'..DEFINE_VARCHAR2_COLUMN (cur..

DBMS_SQL. v_empno). you only need to pass a value -. 1).DEFINE_COLUMN procedure defines the datatype of a column.DEFINE_COLUMN.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.any value -.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. DBMS_SQL. 2. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .of the correct type.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. 30).DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. 1. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.GET_TIME).Defining Dynamic SQL Columns  The DBMS_SQL.page 23 . 1. DBMS_SQL. 2. 30). 1. 'a'. 30). from the perspective of DBMS_SQL. v_ename.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. 2. ± To make it easier to accomplish this task. ± The three code blocks below are equivalent. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. DBMS_UTILITY. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. USER.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.

func ('total_salary'. please! 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . type_in IN NUMBER). any date. 1) A date function. SQL> exec plvgen. any Boolean will do. PROCEDURE func (name_in IN VARCHAR2. Any number. PACKAGE PLVgen IS PROCEDURE func (name_in IN VARCHAR2. the user indicates the type of function to be generated by providing a value.Generating Functions by Value  In PLVgen. please! A number function. type_in IN DATE). PROCEDURE func (name_in IN VARCHAR2. ± The particular value itself is of no importance.page 24 .func ('last_date'. type_in IN VARCHAR2). any string. SYSDATE) SQL> exec plvgen.

comp_id%TYPE). ± When I compile profits. PROCEDURE calc (comp_id_IN IN company. I rely on an anchored type (%TYPE) to establish the datatype of the second calc¶s parameter.The Frustrations of Overloading  Watch out! An overloading can compile successfully. END.page 25 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .  In the above example. but you might later found out that you cannot actually call any of the overloaded programs. PL/SQL does not sense a conflict with above overloading even though comp_id is a numeric column. PACKAGE profits IS PROCEDURE calc (comp_id_IN IN NUMBER). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Quiz! Nuances of Overloading PACKAGE sales IS PROCEDURE calc_total (zone_in IN VARCHAR2). how would you do it? (Don't peek at the next page!) BEGIN sales. PROCEDURE calc_total (reg_in IN VARCHAR2). sales.calc_total ('NORTHWEST').  Can I overload two programs which have parameters that differ only by name.calc_total ('ZONE2'). END sales. like calc_totals shown above? ± If not. why not? ± If so.pkg ? 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 26 . END. sales.

DBMS_JOB.sql  Advantages 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .''TENK''' || '. next_date => TRUNC (SYSDATE + 1).Using Named Notation <formal parameter name> => <expression>  Explicit association between the formal parameter (the "name") with the actual parameter (the "value"). interval => 'TRUNC(SYSDATE+1)').'. This is especially useful when working with infrequently used built-in programs. That way you don't have to know and pass default values.page 27 . what => 'DBMS_DDL.submit ( job => v_jobno. namednot.estimate_percent=>50).''LOAD1''.ANALYZE_OBJECT ' || '(''TABLE''. of named notation include: ± Code is more "self-documenting".''ESTIMATE''. ± You can skip over (not specify values for) any IN parameters that have default values.null.

originally called PL/SQL tables) ± Nested tables (Oracle8 and above) ± Variable arrays (VARRAYs.page 28 .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence PL/SQL Collections   Collections are single-dimensioned lists of information. Three types of collections: ± Index-by tables (Oracle7 only. Oracle8 and above) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

page 29     1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . which are otherwise not supported in PL/SQL Cache data in session-level memory for faster access. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Avoid mutating table errors in database triggers. Build hash tables (custom indexing structures).  Emulate bi-directional cursors. Improve query performance by avoiding joins.When to Use Collections  Maintain any kind of list of related information for use in your programs.

page 30 . Valid row numbers range: -2.  Characteristics of an index-by table: ± Unbounded » Practically speaking. ± Homogeneous » Data in each row has the same structure. this broad range allows you to employ the row number as an intelligent key. emp_copy inmem_emp_t. Instead.Index-By Tables TYPE <table_type> IS TABLE OF <datatype> INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. ± Available only in PL/SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .147.147.647 » You will not actually create tables this large.483. DECLARE TYPE inmem_emp_t IS TABLE OF emp%ROWTYPE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER.647 to 2.483. ± Sparse » Data does not have to be stored in consecutive rows of information.

Error: NO_DATA_FOUND 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . children (6904) := 'Lisa Nadezhka'.Index_by Tables TYPE declaration PACKAGE BODY family IS TYPE child_list_type IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2 (30) INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. Component Selection kid := children (4).page 31 . children 6306 6412 6810 6904 µBarbara Anne¶ µGary Richard¶ µAdam Russell¶ µLisa Nadezhka¶ datemgr. Variable declaration children child_list_type.pkg children 6306 6412 6904 µBarbara Anne¶ µGary Richard¶ µLisa Marie¶ children (6810) := µAdam Russell.

but only with explicit EXTEND requests » Practically speaking. birthdays when_t.147.page 32 . DECLARE TYPE when_t IS TABLE OF DATE.  Nested table characteristics ± Homogeneous » Each row contains the same structure of data. ± Unbounded. but can become sparse if you DELETE inner rows ± Available both in PL/SQL and SQL (as a column in a table) ± The order of elements is not preserved in the database 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Nested Tables [CREATE OR REPLACE] TYPE <table_type> IS TABLE OF <datatype> [NOT NULL]. Valid row numbers range: 1 to 2.483.647 ± Initially dense.

sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . For ORACLE's use only db_family surname kids BOLZ BOND Eric Thomas Max Richard Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Marie ntdemo. CREATE TABLE db_family (surname VARCHAR2 (30).Nested Tables CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE child_table_type IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2 (30).page 33 . kids child_table_type) NESTED TABLE kids STORE AS kids_ntab.

± Bounded » Upper limit established when the TYPE is defined.Variable Arrays [CREATE OR REPLACE] TYPE <table_type> IS VARRAY (N) OF <datatype> [NOT NULL].147. ± Available both in PL/SQL and SQL (as a column in a table) » And the order of elements are preserved in the database.  Characteristics of variable arrays: ± Homogeneous » Each row contains the same structure of data. salaries numbers_t.page 34 . DECLARE TYPE numbers_t IS VARRAY (10) OF NUMBER. Maximum value: 2.483. ± Variable arrays are actually stored in the DB table 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .647 ± Dense » Never any gaps between defined rows. can be EXTENDed or TRIMmed.

db_family surname kids BOLZ BOND 1 Barbara Anne 2 Gary Richard 3 Lisa Marie 1 Eric Thomas 2 Max Richard vademo. CREATE TABLE db_family (surname VARCHAR2 (30).sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Variable Arrays CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE child_va_type IS VARRAY (8) OF VARCHAR2 (30).page 35 . kids child_va_type).

END tabtypes. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . a collection. you define the TYPE of the collection. TYPE integer_vat IS VARRAY(10) OF INTEGER. from the TYPE.page 36 .Defining Collections  First. Best option: package specification. TYPE integer_nt IS TABLE OF INTEGER.. ± For nested tables and VARRAYs.  Then you declare an instance of that type. you can define the TYPE in the database with a CREATE statement. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE tabtypes IS TYPE integer_ibt IS TABLE OF INTEGER INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. ± For index-by tables. or in a PL/SQL declaration section.. this can only occur in a PL/SQL declaration section. . ± You can declare multiple collections from that TYPE.

all_type_attrs A T. colldd.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Obtaining Collection Information SELECT FROM WHERE AND AND AND A.type_name IN ('NAMES_VT'.elem_type_name = A.owner T.owner = USER T.attr_type_name Attributes all_coll_types T.page 37 . 'TMRS_VT') T.  ALL_COLL_TYPES ± The types you have created (or have access to) in the database  ALL_TYPE_ATTRS ± Attributes of the data type used in the TYPE definition.attr_name || ' . ± The code used to define the collection TYPE  There is no information in the data dictionary available for index-by tables.type_name.' || A.owner = A.

± Index-by tables are initialized automatically.Initializing Collections  Before you can use a collection. You must initialize them explicitly with a constructor. BEGIN CREATE TABLE employee_denorm ( employee_id INTEGER. DECLARE TYPE numbers_t IS VARRAY (10) OF NUMBER. 300). it must be initialized.page 38 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . 200. / DECLARE -. empty when declared. ± Nested tables and VARRAYs are atomically null. salaries numbers_t := numbers_t (100. BEGIN CREATE TYPE numbers_t IS VARRAY (10) OF NUMBER. salaries numbers_t := numbers_t (100. salary_history numbers_t). 200.Initialize the collection. 300). TYPE defined in PL/SQL TYPE defined in the database Collection used in a table PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

comp_tab comp_tabtype.comp_id := 1005. TYPE comp_tabtype IS TABLE OF comp_rectype INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER.page 39 .  Starting with Oracle8. the datatype for any of the collection types can also be an object. BEGIN comp_tab(1). Here we have a three step process. the ³homogeneous´ contents of an index-by table's row can be a record .Collections of Composites  Starting with Oracle 7. ± But you cannot have nested composite datatypes. DECLARE TYPE comp_rectype IS RECORD (comp_id company. Again.company_id%TYPE.3. ± Can easily create an index-by table with the same structure as a database table by declaring a record with %ROWTYPE. consider putting TYPEs in database or packages. total_rev NUMBER). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

).  Especially handy when caching data from relational tables in user memory. your collections will contain a row's worth of information. order by date. unless the order in which items are selected is of importance. ± In an index-by table. a row exists in the table only when a value is assigned to that row. In this way. ± Instead. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± You should not fill sequentially. ± In almost every case.  Rows do not have to be defined sequentially.page 40 . it is very similar to a database table. etc.Sparse is Nice  The sparse characteristic of index-by tables and nested tables can be put to good use. consider using the row value as "smart data" for your application (primary key.

Transferring DB Table to Collection CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE psemp IS TYPE emp_tabtype IS TABLE OF emp%ROWTYPE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY psemp IS BEGIN FOR rec IN (SELECT * FROM emp) LOOP emp_tab (rec.tst  PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END.page 41 .empno) := rec. emp_tab emp_tabtype.pkg psemp. Some questions: ± Why would I put this collection table in a package? ± When is the collection loaded with the data? ± What rows in that collection are utilized? psemp. END LOOP. END. Initialization section of package 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein  This package moves the entire contents of the emp table into its corresponding collection.

once extended. even if you haven't assigned a value explicitly. the row exists. BEGIN greedy_ceos(1) := 'Hamilton.  For index-by tables. / Error -6533! You've got to EXTEND first!  EXTEND before assigning a value to a row. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Jordan'. you must reference existing rows or a NO_DATA_FOUND exception is raised. ± For VARRAYs and nested tables. ± Use the EXISTS method to determine if a row existed.page 42 . but you must do it for VARRAYs and nested tables. ± Not necessary for index-by tables. / DECLARE greedy_ceos names_t := names_t (). END.Collection Gotchas CREATE TYPE names_t IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2(30).

page 43 .We are OK. -.EXISTS (v_employee_id) THEN -. optional argument.').Set the value of each new row to the contents of the first row.tst  Include a handler for NO_DATA_FOUND or use the EXISTS method to avoid these exceptions. salaries. END IF. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Extend by 10 since I know I will need that many.EXTEND (10.  You can EXTEND one or more rows. salaries(salaries. ± Pre-extending a large number of rows in advance can improve performance.Handling Collection Gotchas BEGIN -. preextend. ± Assign a default value with a second.PUT_LINE ('Data for employee not available. BEGIN IF salaries.FIRST)). ELSE DBMS_OUTPUT.

NEXT/PRIOR return the closest defined row after/before the specified row. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± TRIM removes rows from a VARRAY. number of elements allowed in a VARRAY. FIRST/LAST return lowest/highest numbers of defined rows.page 44 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .Collection Methods  Obtain information about the collection COUNT returns number of rows currently defined in the table. ± EXTEND adds rows to a nested table or VARRAY. ± ± ± ±  Modify the contents of the collection ± DELETE deletes one or more rows from the index-by table.  The built-in package plitblm (PL/sql Index-TaBLe Methods) defines these methods. ± LIMIT tells you the max. EXISTS returns TRUE if the specified row is defined.

DELETE (myCollection.page 45 .DELETE (1400.DELETE.Delete one (the last) row myCollection. 17255).The DELETE Method  You can delete one or more rows from a collection using DELETE: BEGIN -. END. -. but you may also want to call DBMS_SESSION.Delete a range of rows myCollection. -.FREE_UNUSED_USER_MEMORY.LAST).Delete all rows myCollection. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . DELETE releases memory.

Navigating Through Collections 


Use FIRST and NEXT to move from beginning to end. Use LAST and PRIOR to move from end to beginning.
rowind PLS_INTEGER := birthdays.FIRST; -- birthdays.LAST BEGIN LOOP EXIT WHEN rowind IS NULL; DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE (birthdays(rowind).best_present); rowind := birthdays.NEXT (rowind); -- birthdays.PRIOR END LOOP; END;

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Using Collections Inside SQL 

Nested tables and VARRAYs can be defined as columns of a table and referenced directly within SQL. You can also apply SQL operations to the contents of nested tables and VARRAYs with these operators:
± THE - Maps a single column value in a single row to a virtual database table ± CAST - Maps a collection of one type to a collection of another type ± MULTISET - Maps a database table to a collection ± TABLE - Maps a collection to a database table  

Index-by tables are programmatic constructs only.
± You cannot make a direct reference to an index-by table in SQL. ± Instead, so do indirectly with a PL/SQL function.

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Using Collections inside SQL
SELECT column_value FROM TABLE (SELECT children FROM db_family WHERE surname = 'BOLZ'); db_family surname children BOLZ BOND Eric Thomas Max Richard UPDATE TABLE (SELECT children FROM db_family WHERE SURNAME = 'BOLZ) SET column_value = 'Lisa Nadezhka' WHERE column_value = 'Lisa Marie'); db_family surname children BOLZ ...
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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 48

Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Marie

column_value Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Marie

Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Nadezhka

Using the THE Operator 

Use THE to manipulate (retrieve, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE) contents of a nested table in a database table.
± Can only use with nested tables, not VARRAYs or index-by tables. ± Only accessible from within SQL statements in PL/SQL.
CREATE TYPE action_list_t IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2(100); / CREATE TABLE inflation_beater ( focus_area VARCHAR2(100), activities action_list_t) NESTED TABLE activities STORE AS activities_tab; SELECT VALUE (act) FROM THE (SELECT activities FROM inflation_beater WHERE focus_area = 'FORTUNE 100') act; UPDATE THE (SELECT activities FROM inflation_beater WHERE focus_area = 'FORTUNE 100') SET COLUMN_VALUE = 'DISBAND OSHA' WHERE COLUMN_VALUE = 'SIDESTEP OSHA';

the.sql

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 49

Using the TABLE and CAST Operators 

Use CAST to convert a collection from one type to another, TABLE to convert a TYPE into a database table.
± Cannot use with index-by tables. ± Useful when you would like to apply SQL operations against a PL/SQL collection (ie, one not stored in a database table).
DECLARE nyc_devolution cutbacks_for_taxcuts := cutbacks_for_taxcuts ('Stop rat extermination programs', 'Fire building inspectors', 'Close public hospitals'); BEGIN DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE ( 'How to Make the NYC Rich Much, Much Richer:'); FOR rec IN (SELECT COLUMN_VALUE ohmy FROM TABLE (CAST (nyc_devolution AS cutbacks_for_taxcuts))) LOOP DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE (rec.ohmy); END LOOP; cast.sql END;

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 50

FETCH bird_curs into bird_row.Using the MULTISET Operator  MULTISET is the inverse of TABLE. END. CAST(MULTISET(SELECT bh. view. query) into a VARRAY or nested table. converting a set of data (table.species.species) AS country_tab_t) FROM birds b. OPEN bird_curs.species = b. Retrieves all detail bird_row bird_curs%ROWTYPE.genus AND bh. DECLARE CURSOR bird_curs IS SELECT b. b.country FROM bird_habitats bh WHERE bh. multiset. ± Cannot use with index-by tables. information for the BEGIN master in one trip.genus = b.genus. with potential client-server performance impact.page 51 .sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± You can use MULTISET to emulate or transform relational joins into collections.

CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY ibtab IS TYPE date_tab IS TABLE OF DATE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. call functions that retrieve the table's data. END. hiredates date_tab. Instead. Make accessible in SQL for Oracle8 and below.Referencing IB Tables inside SQL  You can't directly reference an index-by table's contents inside SQL. WNPS.page 52 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein ibtab_in_sql. but hide the index-by table structure. FUNCTION rowval (indx IN PLS_INTEGER) RETURN DATE IS BEGIN RETURN hiredates (indx).  CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE ibtab IS FUNCTION rowval (indx IN PLS_INTEGER) RETURN DATE. PRAGMA RESTRICT_REFERENCES (rowval. END.sql PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END. WNDS).

page 53 .Examples of Collections in Action  Emulation of bi-directional cursor operations Avoid mutating table problems in database triggers.  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± A talked-about feature for Oracle9i -.Bi-Directional Cursor Emulation  Oracle does not yet support the ability to move back and forth (and at random) through a cursor's result set. PROCEDURE prevRow.pkg bidir.  bidir. Notice that the collection itself is hidden. FUNCTION getRow RETURN employee_plus%ROWTYPE. deposit your data in a collection and then provide programs to access that data in the necessary fashion.nope. This is particularly useful (read: efficient) when you need to perform multiple passes against the data. didn't make it!  Instead. PROCEDURE nextRow.page 54 . END. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE bidir IS /* Iterate through rows in the result set */ PROCEDURE setRow (nth IN PLS_INTEGER).

you can use autonomous transactions to relax restrictions associated with queries.The Mutating Table Problem  Database triggers can be attached to the SQL statement and/or the individual row operations on a table. Statement Level UPDATE emp SET sal = 1000 UPDATE row 1 Row Level  UPDATE row N Row level triggers cannot query from or change the contents of the table to which it is attached.sql  Note: in Oracle8i. it is "mutating".page 55 . So what are you supposed to do when a row-level operation needs to "touch" that table? mutating. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

you have to remember what you needed to do.page 56 . Statement Trigger 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . If you are going to defer the work. ± an index-by table is an ideal repository for this reminder list. you need to defer the action until you get to the statement level.A Solution Based on Index-by Tables  Since you cannot perform the processing desired in the row-level trigger. 1st row trigger fires Nth row trigger fires Writes to list Writes to list Work List (PL/SQL Table)  Process data in the list.

25 65011. but preferable. ± As the sales amount is updated in this table.25 3 1 2 6 "Deferred work" is not only necessary.An Example: Ranking Salespeople  A table holds the rankings based on the amount of annual sales of salespeople within a department. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± By storing the salesperson¶s department ids as they change. we then know which departments to re-rank. ± We might update more than one department within a statement so we must be able to retain multiple department numbers.page 57 . Department ID Salesperson ID Sales Amount Rank 1055 1055 1055 1047  64333 65709 65706 70904 74055. the rankings must also change to show the new standings for that department only.91 109000.88 144533.

ranking.sales_amt != NEW. Statement Level Trigger CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER Rank_Sales_Strg AFTER INSERT OR UPDATE OR DELETE ON rank_sales BEGIN rank.Trigger Logic Required Row Level Trigger CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER Rank_Sales_Rtrg AFTER insert OR update OF sales_amt ON rank_sales FOR EACH ROW WHEN (OLD.add_dept (:new.sales_amt) BEGIN rank. Doesn't fire unless the sales_amt is actually changed. END.rank_depts. END.page 58 .dept_id).pkg All details of the ranking are hidden in the package body. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

page 59 . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END add_dept 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Create row to indicate department to be ranked. PACKAGE BODY rank IS in_process BOOLEAN := FALSE. Table holds indicator that department needs re-ranking. PROCEDURE rank_depts. END IF. PROCEDURE add_dept (dept_id_in IN INTEGER) IS BEGIN IF NOT in_process THEN dept_tab (dept_id_in) := TRUE. TYPE dept_tabtype IS TABLE OF BOOLEAN INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. END rank. dept_tab dept_tabtype.The Ranking Package PACKAGE rank IS PROCEDURE add_dept (dept_id_in IN INTEGER).

FIRST. LOOP EXIT WHEN v_deptid IS NULL. v_deptid := dept_tab.The Ranking Package. END rank_dept. END LOOP.NEXT (v_deptid).page 60 . END IF. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Avoid recursive execution of logic Row number is department number. in_process := FALSE. END rank. Clean up for next time. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .DELETE. perform_ranking (v_deptid). Continued PROCEDURE rank_depts IS v_deptid PLS_INTEGER := dept_tab. dept_tab. BEGIN IF NOT in_process THEN in_process := TRUE.

You want to use inside SQL.  Nested tables ± You want to store large amounts of persistent data in a column. ± You want to use inside SQL. Set of data is relatively small (avoid row chaining).Which Collection Type Should I Use?  Index-by tables ± Need to use in both Oracle7 and Oracle8 applications ± Want to take advantage of sparse nature for "intelligent keys". You don't want to have to worry about sparseness.  VARRAYs ± ± ± ± You want to preserve the order in which elements are stored.page 61 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Tips for Using Collections 

Wrap access to your collections.
± In many cases, you will want to avoid direct access to (assigning and retrieving) rows in your collections. ± This will give you the flexibility to change your implementation. ± You can also hide complex rules for setting the row number. 

Get creative!
± Don't always fill and use the index-by table sequentially. ± If you can somehow translate your application data to an integer, it can be used as a row number, and therefore offers indexed access. ± Julian date formats and DBMS_UTILITY.GET_HASH_VALUE offer two different methods.

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Achieving PL/SQL Excellence

Cursor Variables

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 63

Architecture of Cursor Variables
With Hard-Coded Cursors
Hard-Coded Cursor

With Cursor Variables

PGA

Cursor Variable

Cursor Variable

Result Set

Shared Global Area

Cursor Object

Result Set 

A cursor variable points to an underlying cursor object in the database.
± The cursor object in turns points to (and keeps its place in) a result set. 

The cursor variable can be passed between programs (even between, say, a Java servlet and a PL/SQL stored procedure).
± Static SQL only -- until Oracle8i.
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1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

Benefits of Cursor Variables 

Share cursor management between programs, even across the client-server divide.
± You don't have to pass the result sets of a cursor in order to allow the client-side program to have direct access to the data in the result set. ± Oracle Developer 2.1 utilizes cursor variables when you choose to construct a "base table block" around stored procedures instead of a database table. 

Share the same code across multiple, different queries.
± Since the cursor name is no longer hard-coded, you can use a single block of code (say, a reporting program) against different queries. ± We will try out this technique at the end of the section.

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Cursor Variable Example
DECLARE TYPE company_curtype IS REF CURSOR RETURN company%ROWTYPE;
Declare a variable cursor TYPE.

company_curvar company_curtype;

Declare cursor variable based on that type. Declare a record from cursor variable. OPEN cursor variable, specifying the query. FETCH from the cursor variable.

company_rec company_curvar%ROWTYPE; BEGIN OPEN company_curvar FOR SELECT * FROM company;

FETCH company_curvar INTO company_rec;
Close the cursor variable.

CLOSE company_curvar; END;
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Explicit Cursors and Cursor Variables 

Both hard-coded cursors and cursor variables work with static SQL.
± The SQL is fixed at compile-time. ± The difference is that with cursor variables, you get to decide which static query is opened. 

Many cursor operations are the same:
± Close a variable cursor with the same syntax as that for static cursors. ± Use cursor attributes (%ISOPEN, %FOUND, %NOTFOUND, %ROWCOUNT) with cursor variables (as of Release 2.3). ± Fetch data from the cursor result set through a cursor variable with the same syntax as that of static cursors. 

Let¶s focus on the new and different capabilities of cursor variables.
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1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

Declaring Cursor Types and Variables 

Cursors are declared in two steps, just like programmerdefined records and PL/SQL tables.
± 1. Define a cursor TYPE -- either "weak" or "strong". ± 2. Define a cursor variable.
DECLARE TYPE weak_curtype IS REF CURSOR; TYPE comp_curtype IS REF CURSOR RETURN company%ROWTYPE; curcmp_new comp_curtype; cur_any weak_curtype; BEGIN
Declare cursor variables from the TYPEs. Declare a STRONG referenced cursor TYPE. Declare a WEAK referenced cursor TYPE.

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Strong vs. Weak Cursor Types 

A strong (or constrained) cursor type has a defined return data specification.
± Can only reference cursor objects which return the same data specification, which can be any single SQL datatype or any previously defined record structure. ± Datatype mismatches are identified at compile time.

TYPE cur_typ_name IS REF CURSOR [ RETURN return_type ]; TYPE cur_typ_name IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE; /* Strong */ 

The weak (or unconstrained) cursor type does not have a RETURN clause.
± It can reference any cursor object, be opened FOR any query. ± Datatype mismatches can only be identified at runtime.

TYPE cur_typ_name IS REF CURSOR; /* Weak */
1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein
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Opening with the Cursor Variable
OPEN cursor_name FOR select_statement; 

When you open a cursor variable (whether of the weak or strong variety), you must provide the SQL query that identifies the result set.
± If the variable has not yet been assigned to cursor object, the OPEN FOR statement implicitly creates an object for the variable. ± If the variable is already pointing to a cursor object, the OPEN FOR reuses the existing object and attaches the new query to that cursor object. 

Remember, the cursor object is nothing more than a memory location.
± It is maintained independently of the query itself.
PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 70

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page 71 .. ± You can establish the return type based on a database table. Match Needed BEGIN OPEN emp_curvar FOR SELECT * from emp.. emp_curvar emp_curtype. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . . a cursor or a programmer-defined record. END.Opening with Strong Cursor Types DECLARE TYPE emp_curtype IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE.  STRONG cursor data specifications must match or be compatible with the structure of the SELECT statement.

END. RETURN retval. Verification will take ELSIF get_type_in = µDEPT¶ place at the FETCH.page 72 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .cv_type. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .cv_type IS retval pkg. FUNCTION open_emp_or_dept (get_type_in IN VARCHAR2) RETURN pkg. THEN OPEN retval FOR SELECT * FROM dept. you can associate any SELECT statement with a weak cursor variable.  A weak cursor TYPE doesn't define the RETURN structure. OPEN retval FOR SELECT * FROM emp. REF TYPE placed in package so that it is "globally" available. END IF.Opening with Weak Cursor Types PACKAGE pkg IS TYPE cv_type IS REF CURSOR. BEGIN IF get_type_in = µEMP¶ THEN Either query will "do". END.

± Fetching can continue with a different INTO clause.. var_name.Fetching from the Cursor Variable FETCH cursor_var_name INTO record_name. ± The ROWTYPE_MISMATCH exception is raised on failure. it match the cursor type data specification. FETCH cursor_var_name INTO var_name. mismatch. it match the OPEN FOR statement structure. ± FOR WEAK cursor types.  Fetching with cursor variables follows the same rules as those with static cursors..   Compatibility checks are performed prior to fetching row. The INTO structure must match in number and datatype to: ± FOR STRONG cursor types.page 73 .sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ..

since cursor names are "hard coded". but static cursors are more efficient than dynamic SQL and cursor variables are less complicated than DBMS_SQL. you have to repeat the code for each cursor.  hccursor.page 74 . ± With explicit cursors. ± You could use dynamic SQL to achieve this effect.  Define a base table block in Forms Builder (formerly Oracle Forms) on stored procedures rather than a table directly.When to Use Cursor Variables  Make it easier for calling programs (especially non-PL/SQL programs) to manipulate result sets. Use a single block of code to manipulate multiple queries.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± JDBC recognizes cursor variables.

/ allcurrs.page 75 .Consolidating Different Cursors  The following package specification hides the SQL behind a single open function.tst explcv.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . FUNCTION open (type_in IN INTEGER) RETURN cv_t. TYPE int_rt IS RECORD (key INTEGER). TYPE cv_t IS REF CURSOR RETURN int_rt. bysal CONSTANT INTEGER := 2. END. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE allcurs IS bydept CONSTANT INTEGER := 1. ± It also creates the data structures you will need to call the function.pkg allcurs.

END IF. BEGIN IF type_in = bydept THEN OPEN retval FOR SELECT empno FROM emp ORDER BY deptno.page 76 . RETURN retval. ELSIF type_in = bysal THEN OPEN retval FOR SELECT empno FROM emp ORDER BY SAL. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY allcurs IS FUNCTION open (type_in IN INTEGER) RETURN cv_t IS retval cv_t. END. END. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Consolidating Different Cursors  The open function simply opens FOR a different SELECT based on the criteria passed to it.

in this case. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . v_empno emp. change the ORDER BY clause -without having to change the code you write. LOOP FETCH cv INTO v_empno. END.open (&1). EXIT WHEN cv%NOTFOUND.empno%TYPE. DECLARE cv allcurs. CLOSE cv.Hiding SQL Variations in Resulting Code  The following block demonstrates that you can alter which SQL statement to query -.l (v_empno). p. BEGIN cv := allcurs. END LOOP.cv_t.page 77 "Report processor" is independent of the particular SELECT .

or a more general. unconstrained type.  Hide Variations in Underlying SQL ± You no longer have to repeat the same code for different cursors. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Strong and Weak Types ± Create REF CURSORs for specific queries.1.page 78 .Cursor Variables Let's summarize  Flexibility ± Choose which static SQL statement is executed at run-time.  Improve Client-Side Access to Data ± At least in Oracle Developer 2. you can build screens that access data using a cursor variable-based procedural API.

page 79 .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Dynamic SQL  Dynamic SQL and dynamic PL/SQL: ± The DBMS_SQL package ± Native dynamic SQL in Oracle8i 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

you no longer have to write SQL to generate SQL to get your job done.  Execute dynamically-constructed PL/SQL programs. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Construct powerful DBA utilities. ± Available in PL/SQL since Release 2. ± One example: implement indirect referencing in PL/SQL. ± Also supported with "native dynamic SQL" in Oracle8i.1 and DBMS_SQL.Dynamic SQL and PL/SQL Execution  "Dynamic SQL" mean that you construct the SQL statement or PL/SQL block at runtime and then execute it.  Execute DDL inside PL/SQL programs.page 80 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . What can you do with Dynamic SQL?  Build ad-hoc query and update applications. ± Very common requirement on the Web.

page 81 . If you can recognize the types.Four Methods of Dynamic SQL   Method 1: non-queries without host variables. Method 2: non-queries with a fixed number of host variables. Method 3: queries with a fixed number of items in the SELECT list and a fixed number of host variables. ± Different methods require the use of different programs in DBMS_SQL. ± NDS does not support method 4. executed a single time.    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . you can more quickly figure out how to code your solution. execute one or more times. Method 4: queries with a variable number of items in the SELECT list and/or non-queries with a variable number of host variables. These methods are in increasing order of complexity.

and relatively slow (performance did improve significantly as of Oracle8). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Native Dynamic SQL  Prior to Oracle8i. difficult to use. ± But this package is very complex. used for DDL. you would use the DBMS_SQL built-in package to execute dynamic SQL. used for multi-row queries.  The new "native dynamic SQL" or NDS of Oracle8i offers two native statements in the PL/SQL language to implement most of your dynamic SQL requirements: ± EXECUTE IMMEDIATE <sql string>. DML and single row fetches.page 82 . ± OPEN FOR <sql string>.

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . {IN | OUT | IN OUT] bind argument].EXECUTE IMMEDIATE EXECUTE IMMEDIATE sql-string [INTO {define_variable[. The INTO clause allows you to pass values from the select list of a single row query into local variables. | record }] [USING {IN | OUT | IN OUT] bind argument [.]. The USING clause allows you to specify bind arguments or variables to be passed into the SQL string before execution. including objects.  Use this statement to execute any dynamic SQL statement (including a PL/SQL block) except for multi-row queries. define_variables]. collections and records...page 83   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein ...

RETURN retval. 'insured = ''NO''') > 40.PUT_LINE ( 'Not the best health care system in the world.000.sf compare with: tabcount. WHERE clause. BEGIN EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'SELECT COUNT(*) FROM ' || NVL (sch...000 THEN DBMS_OUTPUT.' || tab || ' WHERE ' || NVL (whr. END IF.sf PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 84 . table and retval INTEGER. and not much of a democracy either!').. END. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein tabcount81.COUNT(*) For Any Table  Here's a handy and simple utility based on NDS: CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION tabCount ( tab IN VARCHAR2. sch IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) RETURN INTEGER IS Specify schema. whr IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. IF tabCount ('citizens'.. USER) || '. '1=1') INTO retval.

end_in.' || name_in || '..page 85 . end_in IN DATE. col_in IN VARCHAR2. name_in IN VARCHAR2) IS v_str VARCHAR2 (100). END.. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN pl ('Compile Error "' || SQLERRM || '" on: ' || v_str). BEGIN v_str := 'BEGIN ' || pkg_in || '. Pass in bind variables with USING clause. val_in IN NUMBER) IS BEGIN EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'UPDATE ' || tab_in || ' SET ' || col_in || ' = :val WHERE hiredate BETWEEN :lodate AND :hidate' USING val_in. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .'. start_in. PROCEDURE runprog (pkg_in IN VARCHAR2. EXECUTE IMMEDIATE v_str. start_in IN DATE. END.. END.  Execute a stored procedure..Other Execute Immediate Examples  Perform an update. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE updnumval ( tab_in IN VARCHAR2.

including objects and collections.. cond IN preexisting_conditions) IS BEGIN EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'INSERT INTO ' || tabname (hosp_name) || ' VALUES (:revenue_generator..pkg PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± In the following example. the USING clause allows me to pass an object and nested table to an INSERT statement with a variable table name. pers IN Person. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein health$.Using Objects and Collections in NDS  One of the key advantages to NDS over DBMS_SQL is that it works with Oracle8 datatypes. PROCEDURE add_profit_source ( hosp_name IN VARCHAR2.page 86 . ± No special syntax needed. END. cond. :revenue_inhibitors)' USING pers.

ndsutil. BEGIN OPEN cv FOR 'SELECT ' || col || ' FROM ' || tab || ' WHERE ' || NVL (whr. DBMS_OUTPUT. showcol.page 87 . col IN VARCHAR2. CLOSE cv. ± Here is a simple utility the displays the values of any date. cv cv_type. LOOP Familiar cursor FETCH cv INTO val.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .PUT_LINE (val). number or string column in any table.sp END. '1 = 1'). CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE showcol ( tab IN VARCHAR2. whr IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) IS TYPE cv_type IS REF CURSOR. val VARCHAR2(32767). variable syntax! EXIT WHEN cv%NOTFOUND.Multiple Row Queries and NDS  Oracle extends the cursor variable feature of Oracle7 to support multi-row dynamic queries. END LOOP.

str2list. You cannot pass the NULL literal directly in the USING clause. ± If dynamic PL/SQL. ± If dynamic SQL.pkg    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . etc. pass a variable with a NULL value. Instead.) through the USING clause. You can have duplicate placeholders (for bind arguments).Some Fine Print for NDS  You cannot pass schema elements (table names. provide a value for each distinct placeholder (by name). column names. then you provide a value for each placeholder (by position).page 88 . The USING clause for a query can only have IN bind arguments.

page 89 . DBMS_SQL is a very large and complex package. in particular method 4.     1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Supports all four methods of dynamic SQL. You should only use DBMS_SQL when you cannot use NDS. with many rules to follow and lots of code to write.Dynamic SQL using DBMS_SQL  Prior to Oracle8i. The overhead for using DBMS_SQL has decreased significantly in Oracle8 and again in Oracle8i. the only way to perform dynamic SQL was with the DBMS_SQL package.

Learning Through Examples  DDL ± Create an index from within PL/SQL  DML ± Update rows in a table  DML with binding ± Update rows using bind variables  Queries ± Method 3 and a dynamic WHERE clause  PL/SQL Version of "SELECT *" ± Example of Method 4  PL/SQL ± Create a generic calculation program 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 90 .

END. DBMS_SQL. DDL_statement.NATIVE). DDL_statement VARCHAR2(200) := 'CREATE INDEX ' || index_in || ' ON ' || tab_in || ' ( ' || col_in || ')'. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.  creind. fdbk := DBMS_SQL. ± Construct the DDL statement as a string. tab_in IN VARCHAR2.page 91 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .DDL with Dynamic SQL PROCEDURE create_index (index_in IN VARCHAR2. ± Parse and execute that DDL statement. ± Open a cursor. col_in IN VARCHAR2) IS cur INTEGER := DBMS_SQL. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . which will be used to execute the DDL statement. DBMS_SQL.OPEN_CURSOR.PARSE (cur.CLOSE_CURSOR (cur). fdbk INTEGER.EXECUTE (cur).sp Creates an index on any column(s) in any table in your schema.

val_in IN NUMBER) IS cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL.PUT_LINE ('Rows updated: ' || TO_CHAR (fdbk)). fdbk := DBMS_SQL.ename%TYPE. fdbk PLS_INTEGER. 'UPDATE emp SET ' || col_in || ' = ' || val_in || ' WHERE ename LIKE UPPER (''' || ename_in || ''')'. END.CLOSE_CURSOR (cur).OPEN_CURSOR. updnval1. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE updnumval ( col_in IN VARCHAR2.NATIVE).EXECUTE (cur). BEGIN DBMS_SQL. DBMS_OUTPUT.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Updates with Dynamic SQL  Update numeric column for specified employees. ename_in IN emp. DBMS_SQL.PARSE (cur.page 92 . DBMS_SQL.

DBMS_SQL. end_in IN DATE. 'lodate'.BIND_VARIABLE (cur.NATIVE).sp updnval3. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. start_in IN DATE. DBMS_SQL.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .OPEN_CURSOR. DBMS_SQL. fdbk := DBMS_SQL.PARSE (cur. start_in).page 93 . end_in). updnval2.CLOSE_CURSOR (cur). DBMS_SQL. fdbk PLS_INTEGER.EXECUTE (cur).PUT_LINE ('Rows updated: ' || TO_CHAR (fdbk)). 'hidate'. DBMS_OUTPUT.Updates with Bind Variables  Update salaries for date range using binding. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE updnumval ( col_in IN VARCHAR2. 'UPDATE emp SET ' || col_in || ' = ' || val_in || ' WHERE hiredate BETWEEN :lodate AND :hidate'. END.BIND_VARIABLE (cur. val_in IN NUMBER) IS cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL.

Processing Flow for a Dynamic Query Allocate cursor memory (OPEN_CURSOR) Fill cursor with data (EXECUTE) Make sure SELECT is well formed (PARSE) Fill buffer with data (FETCH_ROWS) (EXECUTE_AND_FETCH) Bind any variables (BIND_VARIABLE) (BIND_ARRAY) Retrieve the data (COLUMN_VALUE) Give cursor structure (DEFINE_COLUMN) (DEFINE_ARRAY) Release cursor memory (CLOSE_CURSOR) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 94 .

2. DBMS_SQL.FETCH_ROWS (cur) = 0. fdbk := DBMS_SQL.PUT_LINE (TO_CHAR (rec. LOOP EXIT WHEN DBMS_SQL.page 95 .OPEN_CURSOR. 2. DBMS_SQL. rec. DBMS_SQL. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.ename). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein showemps.EXECUTE (cur). 'SELECT empno.. DBMS_SQL. rec emp%ROWTYPE. '1=1').COLUMN_VALUE (cur. DBMS_SQL. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE showemps (where_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) IS cur INTEGER := DBMS_SQL. DBMS_OUTPUT. DBMS_SQL.ename).tst PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 1).Queries with Dynamic SQL  Show employees using a dynamic WHERE clause. 1.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.empno) || '=' || rec. END LOOP.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. END.COLUMN_VALUE (cur.sp showemp2..empno).PARSE (cur. 1. ename FROM emp ' || ' WHERE ' || NVL (where_in.sp showemps. fdbk INTEGER.CLOSE_CURSOR (cur).NATIVE). 60). rec. 'a'.

END LOOP. BEGIN FOR each-column-in-table LOOP add-column-to-select-list.page 96 Very simplified pseudo-code intab. datatype). nth_col. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END. ± The resulting code is much more complicated.COLUMN_VALUE (cur.NATIVE). val).sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . DBMS_SQL. select_string. FOR each-column-in-table LOOP DBMS_SQL. FOR each-column-in-table LOOP DBMS_SQL. END LOOP. END LOOP.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.PARSE (cur. nth_col. LOOP fetch-a-row.Dynamic SELECT * FROM Any Table  Method 4 example: the number of columns queried changes with each table. DBMS_SQL. END LOOP.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . which returns a single row. ± Very similar to the implicit SELECT cursor in native PL/SQL. TRUE).  Makes it easy to execute and fetch a single row from a query. ± Even if the exception is raised. raises NO_DATA_FOUND or raises the TOO_MANY_ROWS exception.EXECUTE_AND_FETCH (cur). then EXECUTE_AND_FETCH will raise the TOO_MANY_ROWS exception if more than one row is fetched by the SELECT. the first row will still be fetched and available. numrows := DBMS_SQL.EXECUTE_AND_FETCH (cur. numrows := DBMS_SQL.Using EXECUTE_AND_FETCH FUNCTION execute_and_fetch (cursor_in IN INTEGER. ± If exact_match is TRUE.page 97 . exact_match IN BOOLEAN DEFAULT FALSE) RETURN INTEGER.

arg10_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL dyncalc. arg2_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. arg6_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL.Dynamic Formula Execution  Suppose I am building a user interface that allows a user to select a formula for execution. NULL. ± Using static PL/SQL. ± With DBMS_SQL. I would have to modify my screen every time a new formula was added. and enter the arguments.sf dyncalc. nargs_in IN INTEGER := arg1_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg3_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg5_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg7_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg9_in IN VARCHAR2 := ) RETURN VARCHAR2.page 98 .pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . NULL. a single function will do the trick. NULL. arg4_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. FUNCTION dyncalc ( oper_in IN VARCHAR2. NULL. 0. arg8_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. NULL.

Use VARIABLE_VALUE to extract a value from any variable you have bound. my_salary). fdbk := DBMS_SQL. my_salary).'). DBMS_SQL.sp dynplsql. µdeptin¶.BIND_VARIABLE (cur. You must have a BEGIN-END around the code. v_deptin).EXECUTE (cur). µsalout¶.More on Dynamic PL/SQL BEGIN cur := open_and_parse ('BEGIN get_max_sal (:deptin.  Use BIND_VARIABLE to bind any placeholders in the string -.sql dynplsql. :salout). END. µsalout¶. DBMS_SQL.VARIABLE_VALUE (cur.tst    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .BIND_VARIABLE (cur. Possibilities inherent in dynamic PL/SQL are mind-boggling! dynplsql.even OUT arguments which are not being bound to any values. END.page 99 . DBMS_SQL.

DBMS_SQL.BIND_VARIABLE (v_cur.Indirect Referencing with Dyn PL/SQL  Oracle Forms offers support for indirect referencing with the NAME_IN and COPY built-ins. retval PLV. DBMS_SQL. 'val'.pkg dynvar.PARSE (v_cur. 'a'. DBMS_SQL.'. 'val'.NATIVE). END. RETURN retval.OPEN_CURSOR. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.EXECUTE (v_cur). 'BEGIN :val := ' || nm || '. fdbk PLS_INTEGER. DBMS_SQL.CLOSE_CURSOR (v_cur). PL/SQL does not support indirect referencing. retval). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . but you can accomplish much of the same thing with dynamic PL/SQL execution. 2000).tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .VARIABLE_VALUE (v_cur.page 100  dynvar. END. fdbk := DBMS_SQL.dbmaxvc2. Here is an example of a "PL/SQL NAME_IN": FUNCTION valbyname (nm IN VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2 IS v_cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL.

± Call these immediately after your usage to make sure they refer to your cursor.  LAST_ROW_COUNT ± Returns the cumulative count of rows fetched from the cursor.  LAST_ROW_ID ± Returns the ROWID of last row processed.  LAST_SQL_FUNCTION_CODE ± Returns SQL function code of cursor. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .DBMS_SQL Status Built-ins  The package offers a set of modules to return information about the lastoperated cursor in your session.page 101 .  IS_OPEN ± Is the cursor already open?  LAST_ERROR_POSITION ± Returns relative column position in cursor of text causing error condition.

page 102 . ± Transfer the LONG contents into an index-by table so that you can transfer a value of more than 32K bytes into your PL/SQL program. dumplong. Then you retrieve the column using the special COLUMN_VALUE_LONG variant.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .DEFINE_COLUMN_LONG ± DBMS_SQL.COLUMN_VALUE_LONG   First. you define the column as a LONG.pkg dumplong.Working with LONG Values  DBMS_SQL provides special procedures so that you can extract values from a LONG column in a table. ± DBMS_SQL.

page 103 .New DBMS_SQL Features PL/SQL8 Extensions to DBMS_SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

inserts. ± Support for RETURNING clause to avoid unnecessary queries.New Features in DBMS_SQL  The functionality of DBMS_SQL has been extended in Oracle8 in several ways: ± Parse very long SQL strings ± Describe cursor columns ± Use "array processing" to perform bulk updates. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 104 . deletes and fetches.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . it was not possible to determine the datatypes of the columns defined in a cursor.DESCRIBE_COLUMNS.Describing Cursor Columns PROCEDURE DBMS_SQL.page 105 .DESCRIBE_COLUMNS (c IN INTEGER. ± Now you can call the DBMS_SQL. col_cnt OUT INTEGER.  Before PL/SQL8. desc_t OUT DBMS_SQL.DESC_TAB). ± The record TYPE is also defined in DBMS_SQL.  Returns all of the column information in an index table of records.

desccols. ncols.PUT_LINE (cols(colind).DESCRIBE_COLUMNS (cur.NATIVE). ncols PLS_INTEGER. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL.pkg desccols.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Basic Steps to Describe Columns  The following script shows the individual steps you will need to perform in order to use this feature. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE show_columns IS cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL.OPEN_CURSOR. cols DBMS_SQL. ncols LOOP DBMS_OUTPUT.col_name). DBMS_SQL. END. empno FROM emp'. cols). FOR colind IN 1 .CLOSE_CURSOR (cur). END LOOP.page 106 .tst showcols. 'SELECT hiredate.DESC_TAB.PARSE (cur.. DBMS_SQL.

can offer a significant performance boost over Oracle7 dynamic SQL. It really isn't "array processing". 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .e. deletes and fetches. when you perform updates."Array Processing" in DBMS_SQL  PL/SQL8 now allows you to specify the use of "arrays".    This technique still.. you specify an index table. however. Instead of providing a scalar value for an operation. i. DBMS_SQL then repeats your action for every row in the table. inserts. where N is the number of rows in the table. DBMS_SQL is executing the specified SQL statement N times. ± In actuality. index tables.page 107 .

column names.page 108 . ± Encapsulate DBMS_SQL.PARSE so that you include the trace in that program. ± Increased chance of reusing parsed SQL. and easier code to write.  Use the Oracle8i invoker rights model whenever you want to share your dynamic SQL programs among multiple schemas. not the invoker of the code. ± But remember: you cannot pass schema elements (table names. effdsql.pkg whichsch. ± Otherwise that SQL will be executed under the authority of the owner of the code. concatenate) whenever possible.  Encapsulate statements to improve error handling. though you could write variations for those as well. etc.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± With NDS.sql openprse. only possible for statements that do not need USING and INTO clauses.) through the USING clause.Recommendations for Dynamic SQL  Bind (vs.

but DBMS_SQL is hard to use..NDS or DBMS_SQL: Which is Best?  Dynamic SQL and PL/SQL is very useful. you have upgraded to Oracle8i!  Major Advantages of NDS: ± Ease of use ± Performance ± Works with all SQL datatypes (including userdefined object and collection types) ± Fetch into records  When You'd Use DBMS_SQL: ± ± ± ± ± ± ± Method 4 Dynamic SQL DESCRIBE columns of cursor SQL statements larger than 32K RETURNING into an array Reuse of parsed SQL statements Bulk dynamic SQL Available from client-side PL/SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . of course.. ± If.page 109 . Both implementations will still come in handy.

Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Oracle Advanced Queuing  The high performance. asynchronous.page 110 . persistent messaging subsytem of Oracle 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Distribution Center Coffee Beans Producer Shipping Service Retailer Consumer 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . consistent manner.page 111 . systems are now heavily reliant on the ability of components to communicate with each other in a dependable.Who Needs Messaging? Everyone!  In the distributed world of the Internet.

Applications Relying on Messaging     Stock trading system Airline reservation system Auction portals Any e-commerce application 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 112 .

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Key Features of Oracle AQ  Leverage full power of SQL ± Messages are stored in database tables  Database high availability. the listen feature and notification capabilities. message propagation. AQ now offers a publish/subscribe style of messaging between applications. scalability and reliability all carry over to queues ± Strong history and retention ± Backup and recovery ± Comprehensive journaliing  Rich message content increases usefulness of queueing ± Use object types to define highly structured payloads  New to Oracle8i.page 113 . ± Rule-based subscribers.

AQ architectural overview Queue Monitor process Queue table Queue ³Producers´ Enqueued messages Message 4 Message 3 Message 2 Message1 ³Consumers´ Dequeued messages Messages include both control information and ³payload´ (content) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 114 .

AQ supports: ± ± ± ± ± Multiple queues Resetting order and priority of queued items Queue management using only SQL & PL/SQL Multiple message recipients Propagation of queue to remote servers  Oracle8i adds: ± ± ± ± Rules-based publish & subscribe Listening on multiple queues Easier monitoring Native Java interface PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Oracle AQ Highlights  In 8.page 115 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .0.

   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 116 .AQ Components  The DBMS_AQ package offers enqueue and dequeue capabilities The DBMS_AQADM package provides administrative functionality to manage queues and queue tables. Underlying database tables and views The queue monitor (background process) ± Set # of processes with the AQ_TM_PROCESSES initialization parameter.

page 117 .DBMS_AQADM Highlights CREATE_QUEUE_TABLE DROP_QUEUE_TABLE CREATE_QUEUE DROP_QUEUE START_QUEUE STOP_QUEUE ADD_SUBSCRIBER Assigns name. storage clause. whether multiple consumers Drops table if all queues in the table have been stopped Associates queue table with queue. assigns retry and retention properties to queue Drops a stopped queue Can also turn on/off enqueue and dequeue operations Stops queue. sort column. optionally waiting for outstanding transactions Adds an ³agent´ as a subscriber 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . payload type.

CREATE_QUEUE (queue_name => 'msgqueue'. queue_payload_type => 'message_type'). Define a queue in the queue table DBMS_AQADM.START_QUEUE (queue_name => 'msgqueue'). queue_table => 'msg'). END.CREATE_QUEUE_TABLE (queue_table => 'msg'.pkg Start the queue PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Define the "payload" Create the queue table DBMS_AQADM. / BEGIN DBMS_AQADM. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein aq.page 118 .Creating Queue Tables and Queues CREATE TYPE message_type AS OBJECT (title VARCHAR2(30). text VARCHAR2(2000)).

and returns a RAW message handle DEQUEUE extracts a message from a specified queue Parameters control message properties such as: ± Visibility (ON_COMMIT or IMMEDIATE) ± ± ± ± Priority Delay Expiration Locking behavior PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  ENQUEUE puts a message into a specified queue.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . ± Only two procedures. but lots of complexity buried inside the parameters of these procedures.page 119   aq.The "operational package": DBMS_AQ  DBMS_AQ is deceptively simple.

MESSAGE_PROPERTIES_T. my_msg message_type. aqenq*.ENQUEUE_OPTIONS_T. msgprops DBMS_AQ. Set up the payload with an object constructor. 'May there be many more.').* Place the message on the specified queue and get a msg ID in return.msgid_type. DBMS_AQ. Declare records to hold various enqueue and msg properties.page 120 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .. msgid aq. BEGIN my_msg := message_type ( 'First Enqueue'. END. my_msg.Simple Enqueue Example DECLARE queueopts DBMS_AQ. queueopts. msgprops.. msgid). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .ENQUEUE ( 'msgqueue'.

BEFORE. DBMS_AQ.ENQUEUE ( 'msgqueue'.. Same setup as previous page .More Interesting Enqueue Example DECLARE ... 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Specify a delay before the payload is available.delay := 3 * 60 * 60 * 24. msgid1). my_msg := message_type ( 'Second Enqueue'. END..'). queueopts. DBMS_AQ. msgprops... my_msg. queueopts. 'May there be many more. BEGIN my_msg := message_type ( 'First Enqueue'.relative_msgid := msgid1.. Modify the dequeue sequence by changing the deviation field and relative msg ID. msgprops.ENQUEUE ('msgqueue'.'). queueopts.. msgprops. msgid2). my_msg. 'And this one goes first. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .sequence_deviation := DBMS_AQ.page 121 . queueopts.

PROCEDURE getmsg (mode_in IN INTEGER) IS BEGIN queueopts.page 122 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . END. getmsg (DBMS_AQ.msgid_type.pkg */ my_msg message_type. msgprops DBMS_AQ.Dequeue Example DECLARE queueopts DBMS_AQ.DEQUEUE ( 'msgqueue'. END. msgprops.BROWSE). Demonstrates destructive and non-destructive dequeuing.* Declare records to hold various dequeue and msg properties. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . msgid aq.REMOVE). msgid). /* defined in aq. Dequeue operation isolated in local module.REMOVE). aqdeq*.DEQUEUE_OPTIONS_T. BEGIN getmsg (DBMS_AQ.dequeue_mode := mode_in. getmsg (DBMS_AQ. my_msg.MESSAGE_PROPERTIES_T. DBMS_AQ. queueopts.

pkg aqstk2. DBMS_AQ.msgid_type. queueopts. aqstk. BEGIN item_obj := aqstk_objtype (item).ENQUEUE ( c_queue.visibility := DBMS_AQ.* 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . PROCEDURE push (item IN VARCHAR2) IS queueopts DBMS_AQ. msgprops. msgprops DBMS_AQ. msgid).pkg priority.MESSAGE_PROPERTIES_T. item_obj.  A stack implementation using AQ demonstrates this well. END. msgid aq.1.Prioritized Payloads  You can assign priorities to individual payloads and then dequeue according to those priorities.page 123 . ± The lower the numeric priority value. g_priority := g_priority . queueopts. msgprops. the higher the priority.ENQUEUE_OPTIONS_T.priority := g_priority. item_obj aqstk_objtype.IMMEDIATE.

± 2.page 124 . ± The message is then not removed from the queue until all subscribers have dequeued the message.Defining Message Subscribers  You can specify that a message is to be enqueued for a list of subscribers.* PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .CREATE_QUEUE_TABLE ( queue_table => 'major_qtable'. DBMS_AQADM. BEGIN DBMS_AQADM. Add subscribers for the queue.AQ$_AGENT (name_in. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein aqmult*. The queue table must be defined to support multiple subscribers or consumers. queue_payload_type => 'student_major_t'. NULL)).ADD_SUBSCRIBER ( c_queue. NULL.  Steps to working with a subscriber list: ± 1. SYS. multiple_consumers => TRUE).

 Considered by Oracle to be a core component of its overall solution. supporting a publish-subscribe model.Oracle AQ . improved security.Summary  Very powerful and flexible architecture. ± Should be strongly supported "down the road". 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 125 . ± Significant enhancements in Oracle8i. ± Crucial for Oracle to have a message-oriented middleware in order to offer an all-Oracle solution. LISTEN capability. ± Much more robust that DBMS_PIPE.

page 126 .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Managing Large Objects with DBMS_LOB 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

± Oracle has announced deprecation of LONGs. they should no longer be used. etc.LOB Terms  LOB = Large OBject: a category of datatype allowing storage of ³unstructured´ data up to 4 gigabytes LOB datatype can be: ± Column in table ± Attribute in object type ± Element in nested table   Possible applications include office documents.  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Images. LOB datatypes are the successor to LONGs. video.page 127 . sounds. though they will probably not be actually desupported.

improving performance. external do not ± External LOBs are read-only from within Oracle 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Key programming differences: ± Internal LOBs participate in transactions.Types of Large Objects  ³Internal´ LOBs ± BLOB: unstructured binary data ± CLOB: single-byte fixedwidth character data ± NCLOB: multi-byte fixedwidth character data (or varying width in )  ³External´ LOBs ± BFILE: pointer to an operating system file  Temporary LOBs ± Internal LOBs that do not participate in transactions.page 128 .

close  Other built-in functions ± LOADFROMFILE (load an external BFILE into a BLOB) ± EMPTY_LOB(). comparison and length checking ± For internal LOBs: Write. erase. trim ± For external LOBs: File existence test. open. copy. append.page 129 . EMPTY_CLOB() ± BFILENAME 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .PL/SQL built-ins for LOBs  Package DBMS_LOB ± Supports for all LOBs: Reading. substring and instring searches.

received DATE. FETCH fax_cur INTO the_fax. BEGIN OPEN fax_cur.  Retrieve record with BLOB into PL/SQL variable DECLARE CURSOR fax_cur IS SELECT fax FROM incoming_faxes. the_fax BLOB. Question: What¶s in the_fax? 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 130 . fax BLOB). END. CLOSE fax_cur.Deceptively simple example  BLOB-typed column in a table CREATE TABLE incoming_faxes (fax_id INTEGER.

tt LOBs <lob segment> fax_id 281937 received 12-JAN-98 fax <lob locator> Updati  t e LOB anges t e pointer is ompli ates se of LOBs ± LOB locators cannot span transactions ± Programs must lock records containing LOBs efore updating ± Programs performing L must accommodate dynamic LOB locator alues 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 131 .The ³LOB locator´ LOB t l sel es [ ll ] t i i t r .

.oodb. BEGIN INSERT INTO web_pages VALUES (the_url.. htmlloc CLOB).com'. EMPTY_CLOB()) RETURNING htmlloc INTO the_loc.url%TYPE := 'http://www. 1 of 2  Must get a new LOB locator before writing into the LOB: DECLARE the_url web_pages. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Example: Piecewise CLOB programmatic insert  Create a table CREATE TABLE web_pages ( url VARCHAR2(512) PRIMARY KEY. the_loc CLOB.page 132 ..

HTML_PIECES. END LOOP.html_tab.page 133 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein BEGIN . buffer => html_tab(the_piece_no)). running_total := running_total + piece_length. This block retrieves INSERT INTO web_pages VALUES (the_url.WRITE(lob_loc => the_loc. EMPTY_CLOB()) and loads a web page RETURNING htmlloc INTO the_loc. the_loc CLOB. Note: We are ignoring amount => piece_length. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END. FOR the_piece_no IN 1. into a CLOB column html_tab := UTL_HTTP.. running_total PLS_INTEGER := 1.REQUEST_PIECES(url => the_url). piece_length PLS_INTEGER.oodb. DBMS_LOB.Example: Piecewise CLOB programmatic insert DECLARE the_url web_pages. html_tab UTL_HTTP. several likely exceptions offset => running_total.COUNT LOOP piece_length := LENGTH(html_tab(the_piece_no)).url%TYPE := 'http://www.com'.

INSTR(lob_loc => the_loc. offset => str_offset. amount => 4. the_loc CLOB. END IF. buffer => 'cool'). pattern => 'oodb').WRITE(lob_loc => the_loc.page 134 .Example: Piecewise CLOB programmatic update DECLARE Program must lock the record explicitly CURSOR hcur IS SELECT htmlloc FROM web_pages WHERE url = 'http://www. BEGIN OPEN hcur.oodb. str_offset := DBMS_LOB.com' FOR UPDATE. CLOSE hcur. str_offset INTEGER. IF str_offset != 0 THEN DBMS_LOB. FETCH hcur INTO the_loc. END. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

page 135 .  Example: CREATE DIRECTORY web_pix AS 'D:\bill\training\pix'. ut IRECTORY namespace is global  Syntax: CREATE OR REPLACE DIRECTORY <directory name> AS '<full path to directory>'.Preparing to use BFILEs  You must first create an Oracle I ORY´ ± Creates logical alias for full directory pat ± imilar to LIBRARY (used for C "external procedures"). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . phones Phone_tab_t. CREATE TABLE web_graphics ( image_id INTEGER.page 136 . scanned_card_image BFILE ). image BFILE).  In an object type..Using BFILE datatype in DDL  In a table. addresses Address_tab_t... CREATE TYPE Business_card_t AS OBJECT ( name Name_t.

The built-in BFILENAME function  Returns value of datatype BFILE. Spec: FUNCTION BFILENAME(directory_exprn. file_exprn) RETURN BFILE. 'prodicon. picture).  Example: DECLARE picture BFILE := BFILENAME('WEB_PIX'.page 137 . /  Notes: ± No automatic file checking or synchronization ± No participation in transactions 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . BEGIN INSERT INTO web_graphics VALUES (100015. END.gif').

pic_blob_loc BLOB := EMPTY_BLOB(). pic_blob_loc) RETURNING image INTO pic_blob_loc.gif').sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .FILE_READONLY).Loading File into Database BLOB CREATE TABLE web_graphic_blobs ( image_id INTEGER. DBMS_LOB. END. DBMS_LOB.page 138 . DBMS_LOB.GETLENGTH(pic_file)). DECLARE pic_file BFILE := BFILENAME('WEB_PIX'.FILEOPEN(pic_file.FILECLOSE(pic_file).LOADFROMFILE(dest_lob => pic_blob_loc. 'prodicon. BEGIN INSERT INTO web_graphic_blobs VALUES (1. src_lob => pic_file. image BLOB). DBMS_LOB. / loadblob. amount => DBMS_LOB.

or transaction  Ability to retrieve LOB ³chunk size´ ± Allows programmer to tune READs and WRITEs  For all internal LOBs ± OPEN & CLOSE allow control over timing.New DBMS_LOB APIs in 8i  Support for temporary LOBs ± No logging or rollback faster! ± Lifespan: session. call.page 139 . that can mean less I/O » Trigger will not fire until CLOSE » Indexes will not update until CLOSE ± ISOPEN 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

page 140 . COLD 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .. ± LOB locator behavior slightly abstruse ± Inability to modify BFILEs directly from within PL/SQL.Summary  LOB support in Oracle is now significantly improved.Large Object .. ± Complete support in PL/SQL (and other APIs) ± Much better performance and control than with LONGs ± Usable in object types HOT  Some weaknesses.

Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Leveraging Java Inside PL/SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 141 .

triggers in Java Distinct Java & PL/SQL namespaces  But first.Overview of Java interoperability  Java inside or outside 8i server can call PL/SQL ± Standard JDBC and SQLJ calls with Oracle extensions ± Same Java on client... or server Not covered in this seminar  PL/SQL can call Java inside 8i server ± ± ± ± Command-line tools load Java classes DDL extensions publish Java classes Writing stored procedures..a BRIEF introduction to Java. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . functions..page 142 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . mid-tier.

. fastest. ± We just need to keep a firm grip on common sense and stay focused on delivering solutions.. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± The end of programming history as we know it? ± The easiest.Question 1: What is Java?  Could it be. slickest piece of software ever designed by human beings? ± Just the latest in a series of "silver bullets" promoted by software vendors in order to prop up quarterly sales? ± The first and only successful O-O language? ± None of the above?  We don't really need to take a vote.page 143 .

 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 144 .and very aggressively. ± Ubiquitous in thousands of production applications and millions of lines of code.Question 2: Will Java Replace PL/SQL?  While that scenario is certainly possible. ± A language in which hundreds of thousands of developers are trained. to boot. it is very unlikely and totally unthinkable for years to come. PL/SQL will still be: ± Faster and more productive than Java for database operations. ± Supported and improved by Oracle -.

..  Everything is a class (or an object instantiated from a class). ± Don't get overwhelmed by all the classes and all the strange quirks. you have to instantiate an object from that class.page 145 .. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Well.  You don't have to know how to do everything with Java to get lots of value out of it. ± Before you can call a (non-static) class method.. everything exception the primitive datatypes..Some Important Things to Remember  Java is a case sensitive language.. ± string is definitely not the same as String.

page 146 . by the way: the PL/SQL version 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . public class Hello { public static void main (String[] args) { System.println ("Hello world!"). CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE hello IS BEGIN DBMS_OUTPUT. ± Used to test or run stand-alone a class.. except the "special" main method.out. END.Building a Java Class  Let's start from the very beginning. Oh.PUT_LINE ('Hello world!'). } }  No members. no methods..

page 147 .java -classpath d:\java 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . e:\jdk1. SET CLASSPATH = d:\Oracle\Ora81\jdbc\lib\classes111. you must compile it with the javac command. ± This will convert the .1.zip. ± It will also automatically recompile any classes used by your class that has not been compiled since last change.java file to a .d:\java D:> javac Hello. ± You must also either have set the CLASSPATH or include it in your javac call.Compiling Classes  Before you can use a class.7b\lib\classes.class file.zip.

Running a Class  Run a class? What does that mean? It means that if your class contains a method with this header: public static void main (String[] args)  then you can "run" the main method with the java command: d:\java> java Hello  You can also pass one or more arguments on the command line: d:\java> java Hello mom Hello2.page 148 .java 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Using a Class  The main method is handy for providing a built-in test mechanism of your class. you will use a class by instantiating objects from the class and then invoking class methods on the object. Usually.page 149 . however. Let's build a performance analyzer class to explore these ideas.   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

} } p.Gstart).l ("Elapsed time for " + context. public void capture () { Gstart = System. elapsed()).page 150 .java Tmr.Compare Performance of Methods  Use System.currentTimeMillis() . } public long elapsed () { return (System.l ("Elapsed time ". } public void showElapsed () { p.currentTimeMillis().java 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Gstart). } public void showElapsed (String context) { p. System.currentTimeMillis() .currentTimeMillis to calculate elapsed time to nearest thousandth of a second.java InFile. class Tmr { private long Gstart = 0.

besides the "regular" kind we just saw. but at least one method remains unimplemented..  Abstract class ± The class can contain members and methods.Types of Classes  There are several different kinds of classes in Java. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Interface class ± The class only contains unimplemented methods.  Inner class ± Classes that are defined inside other classes..page 151 .

And Now for Some Scary Buzzwords!  Inheritance ± Subclasses inherit methods and variables from extended superclasses. ± Dynamic polymorphism: form is determined at run-time. ± Static polymorphism: form is chosen at compile-time (PL/SQL overloading).  Polymorphism ± An object of a class can have "multiple" forms. either as its own class or as any superclass. supertype/"wider" Citizen Person Employee Hourly Worker Salaried Worker subtype/"narrower" War Criminal Person.java A Class Hierarchy Management NonManagement Corporation 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 152 .

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Language Basics  Comments // Single line comment /* Block comment */ /** Documentation comment */  Primitive datatypes ± So I lied. boolean char byte short int long float double  Strings ± A String object is a read-only. these are not objects instantiated from classes. ± Can't do a direct == comparison.page 153 . if you assign a new value to it. String myName. you are actually allocating a new object. myName = "Feuerstein".equals(YourName)) foundFamily(). myName = "Steven". if (myName.

out.Writing Loops in Java  Three kinds of loops: while. for (initialize. do-while and for ± Note: you need squiggly brackets only if there is more than one statement in the loop body.hasMoreElements ()) { processIt (enum.page 154 . System.NextElement()).println ( (String)enum.out.println (args[indx]).length. step) { lotsaStuff } while (expression) { lostsaStuff } do { lostsaStuff } while (expression).nextElement()) } } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . static void processAll (Enumeration enum) { while (enum. Examples: for (indx indx=0. indx < args. expression. indx++) System.

page 155 . ± Only positional notation is supported. public PuterLingo (String name) { mname = name. ± No default values for arguments.println (Java. you still include the open and close parentheses. } } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Passing Parameters  Some important differences from PL/SQL. you must supply a value for each parameter..out. } } class LotsALingos { public static void main (String args[]) { PuterLingo Java = new PuterLingo("Java"). System..name()). } public String name () { return mname. ± If a method has no arguments. class PuterLingo { private String mname.

Put inside try clause File myFile = new File (filename).println (e. } File-related catch (SecurityException e) { exceptions return -1. rather than raise and handle. return myFile. } catch (Exception e) { System.Exception Handling in Java  Very similar to PL/SQL.equals("")) throw new Exception ("Filename is NULL").page 156 . Throwing my own public static int numBytes (String filename) { exception try { if (filename. you "throw" and "catch" exceptions.toString()). "WHEN OTHERS" } in Java } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .out.length().

page 157 . as in: public static int numBytes (String filename) throws SecurityException. NoSuchFile { .Differences Between Java & PL/SQL  Exceptions are objects derived directly or indirectly from the Exception class. ± So you can pass them as arguments and do anything and everything else you can do with objects. } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ...  You must inform users of your method of which exceptions may be thrown. ± Use the throws clause in your specification.

 Now let's explore how you can put Java to work for you inside PL/SQL programs.Java's Not So Tough!  You can learn enough Java in less than a week to: ± Build simple classes ± Leverage Java inside PL/SQL  Moving to the next level of expertise will be more of a challenge. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 158 . ± Object oriented development (Java) is very different from procedural coding (PL/SQL).

page 159 .Java Stored Procedures (JSPs) Java applet or app. using JDBC or SQLJ Oracle 8i server PL/SQL cover for Java method Java virtual machine running Java method Oracle Developer client (PL/SQL) Net8 OCI or Pro*C client VB or C++ via OO4O or ODBC 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

page 160 . better file I/O ± RMI callouts.JSPs: Some sample uses PL/SQL extender ± For example. network communication in/out PL/SQL replacement ± More standard language ± Good performer for numeric processing tasks ± Beware database I/O & string manipulation performance Scaleable deployment of third party code ± Vertical application ± Web server ± XML parser/generator 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

..END 4.Creating JSP to call from PL/SQL   1.. Load into server using ³loadjava´ command-line tool 3.page 161 . rather than BEGIN.. Create Java classes in your favorite IDE 2. Publish PL/SQL cover using AS LANGUAGE JAVA. Grant privileges as desired 5. Call from PL/SQL (or SQL) as if calling PL/SQL    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

long Playoffs. public Corporation ( String Pname.page 162 PL/SQL .println main method is used to test the class. paying its" + " Chief Executive Officer " + CEOCompensation. long PceoComp) { name = Pname. 50000000).println (TheGlobalMonster). long CEOCompensation. CEOCompensation = PceoComp. 5000000. System.java Advanced Techniques . layoffs = Playoffs.Create Java class(es) class Corporation extends Person { long layoffs. } public static void main (String[] args) { // A very scary company Corporation TheGlobalMonster = new Corporation ( "Northrup-Ford-Mattel-Yahoo-ATT". Entry points must be public static in most cases Classes may call other classes Avoid GUI calls     person. }} 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Notes on Java classes  toString method automatically used by System.out. } public String toString () { return name + " is a transnational entity with " + layoffs + " laid-off employees.out.

class file .class options (abbreviated) -oci8 -resolve loadjava will connect using OCI driver Resolves external class references at compile time -resolver (shown later) Search path like CLASSPATH 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Upload using ³loadjava´ utility .jar file Oracle 8i server Java class Java source Java resource loadjava Example: loadjava loadjava -user scott/tiger -oci8 -resolve datacraft/bill/Hello.page 163 .java file Java resource file .

bill.lang. /  Syntax (simplified) CREATE [ OR REPLACE PROCE URE FUNCTION <name> <sqlt pe> ] [ [ <ar s> ) ] [ AUTHID { DEFINER | CURRENT_USER } ] AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME '<met fullname> (<Ja a t pe fullname>.Emp(int) return java.) [ return <Ja a t pe fullname> ]'. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Hello. .page 164 .String'...Publish  Example (top-level call spec) CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION hello_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2 AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.

 Method 2: Use 8i SQL CALL statement.page 165 .Call the wrapped method  Method 1: Call as if PL/SQL module BEGIN DBMS_OUTPUT.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END.PUT_LINE(hello_emp(7499)). PRINT :thename ± CALL avoids overhead of SELECT fn FROM DUAL jsp. for example. from SQL*Plus: VARIABLE thename VARCHAR2(12) CALL hello_emp(7499) INTO :thename.

BigDecimal oracle.sql.REF oracle.more concepts Shape mapping ± Java methods declared ³void´ become PL/SQL procedures ± Signature mismatches detected only at runtime Type mapping (typical) VARCHAR2 DATE NUMBER user-defined object type user-defined object type object REFerence user-defined collection type java.Publishing -.page 166 .STRUCT <named type> oracle.math.sql.Timestamp java.sql.ARRAY 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .sql.lang.String java.

Publish in PL/SQL Package Spec  Designate Java module in PL/SQL package spec. END.lang.String'.util.Hello. / (No package body required in this case) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 167 ...Emp(int) return java. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE hello_pkg AS FUNCTION hi_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2 AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.

Publish as module in package body  . / CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY hello_pkg2 AS FUNCTION hi_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2 IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.lang.String'. END.Hello.or in package body CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE hello_pkg2 AS FUNCTION hi_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2.util.. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Emp(int) return java.. END.page 168 .

page 169 . / CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE BODY foo_t AS MEMBER FUNCTION hello_emp RETURN VARCHAR2 IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.String'. END.String').util.util. MEMBER FUNCTION hello_emp RETURN VARCHAR2).lang.Hello. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .lang.Hello. / or in the body: CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE foo_t AS OBJECT ( bar VARCHAR2(30).Emp(int) return java.Emp(int) return java. MEMBER FUNCTION hello_emp RETURN VARCHAR2 IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.Publish as object type method  Either in spec: CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE foo_t AS OBJECT ( bar VARCHAR2(30).

page 170 . or resource ± Can read file designated with BFILE() function  ALTER JAVA: compiles Java source. resolves Java class references. JAVADEBUGPRIV ± You can also grant specific privileges.New DDL Statements and Roles  CREATE JAVA ± Alternative to ³loadjava´ utility ± Creates or replaces an Oracle ³library unit´ from Java source.   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . DROP JAVA: drops a named Java library unit Several roles available for Java operations: ± JAVAUSERPRIV. JAVAIDPRIV. JAVA_ADMIN. class. JAVASYSPRIV (needed for file IO operations).

jdbc2.STRUCT ± oracle.sql.CustomDatum ± oracle.page 171 .sql.Passing Oracle8 objects Oracle8i server Object in O-R table Java application Java object   Harder than you¶d think Three different interfacing techniques ± oracle.SQLData 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

page 172 .JPublisher utility Database server Definition of type or REF in data dictionary User-supplied JPublisher input file What does it do? ± Generates Java that encapsulates type and REF types of mapping supported for methods JPublisher ± ³Oracle mapping´ ± ³JDBC mapping´ ± ³Object JDBC mapping´ Three Generated Java file(s) for use in Java programs 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . they become available to use in mapping Example of passing an Account_t object: CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE account_save (new_acct IN Account_t) IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.page 173 .save (datacraft.Account_t)'.bill.Passing object using JPub-generated Java  After generating and uploading classes with JPub.AccountRuntime.bill. /  jspobj.

but that package is very limited.page 174 .Example: Improving File I/O  You can read/write files in PL/SQL with UTL_FILE. Java offers many file-related classes with much greater capabilities.   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Let's see how we can make that great Java stuff available from within PL/SQL.

. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 175 .. ± Instead build a static method that instantiates a Java object from the class and then invokes the relevant method against that object.Encapsulate Java Classes  You won't generally access native Java methods in your PL/SQL wrapper. ± This is not available through UTL_FILE (though you can get it through DBMS_LOB). ± The File class offers a length method that returns the number of bytes in a file.  Let's start with something simple.

} } JFile2.page 176 . ± Instantiate a File object for the specified name.java  Take each of these steps: ± Import the File class to resolve reference. import java.io.length(). public class JFile2 { public static long length (String fileName) { File myFile = new File (fileName).File. ± Call the method of choice against that object and return the value.My Own Java Class for File Manipulation  Accept the name of a file and return its length. return myFile. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

page 177 .pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . we will certainly want to add more functionality over time. / xfile2. / CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY xfile IS FUNCTION length (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN NUMBER AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'JFile. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE xfile IS FUNCTION length (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN NUMBER.length (java. ± I translate the Java long to a PL/SQL NUMBER.lang. END.Build a Package over Java Method  Let's put it in a package.String) return long'. END.

Not so! To pass a Boolean back from Java to PL/SQL.page 178 . Convert the Java boolean to a String or number and return that value. ± 2. Write a "hidden" PL/SQL wrapper function that returns the string or number.  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . so you'd expect smooth sailing.Mapping the Boolean Datatype  Both Java and PL/SQL support a native Boolean datatype. you will need to take these steps: ± 1. ± 3. Write a "public" PL/SQL wrapper function to convert that number to a true PL/SQL Boolean.

Translate Boolean to Number  Accept the name of a file and return its length.java  Translate TRUE to 1 and FALSE to 0.io. } } JFile3. public class JFile3 { public static int canRead (String fileName) { File myFile = new File (fileName). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . import java. if (retval) return 1.File. else return 0. not a Boolean class. ± And don't forget: this is a boolean primitive. boolean retval = myFile.page 179 .canRead().

pkg END.java END.Wrapper for Pseudo-Boolean function  Simple translation back to PL/SQL Boolean. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE xfile IS FUNCTION canRead (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN BOOLEAN.. END. ± Avoid the hard-codings with named constants.java / xfile.pkg RETURN IcanRead (file) = 1.page 180 . JFile. FUNCTION canRead (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN BOOLEAN AS BEGIN xfile3. xfile4.canRead (java.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .String) return int'. / CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY xfile IS FUNCTION IcanRead (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN NUMBER AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'JFile3.. JFile4.lang.

sql.java passobj. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein UnionBuster. public class UnionBuster { Obtain attributes of public static void wageStrategy (STRUCT e) the Oracle object.Passing Objects to Java with STRUCT  You can pass Oracle object information to Java without relying on JPub by using the STRUCT class. BigDecimal hourly_rate = (BigDecimal)(attribs[1]).page 181 . } } Extract individual attribute values from the array.tst PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .SQLException { // Get the attributes of the labor_source object. // Access individual attributes by array index.println ( "Pay " + laborType + " $" + hourly_rate + " per hour"). // starting with 0 String laborType = (String)(attribs[0]). Object[] attribs = e. throws java.getAttributes().out. System.

The Oracle object type definition CREATE TYPE labor_source_t AS OBJECT ( labor_type VARCHAR2(30). / BEGIN bust_em_with ( labor_source ('Workfare'. bust_em_with ( labor_source ('Prisoners'.STRUCT)'.wageStrategy (oracle.page 182 . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Wrapping a STRUCT-based Method  You can pass Oracle object information to Java without relying on JPub by using the STRUCT class. hourly_rate NUMBER). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Fully specify the STRUCT class in parameter list. END. 0)). / CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE bust_em_with ( labor_source_in IN labor_source_t) AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'UnionBuster.sql. '5')).

println.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . }}}  When called within a PL/SQL wrapper.PUT_LINE: System.out.Viewing Output from Java Methods  Java provides a "print line" method similar to DBMS_OUTPUT. HelloAll.println ( "Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello All!"). i < count. you can redirect the output to the DBMS_OUTPUT buffer.java HelloAll. public class HelloAll { public static void lotsaText ( int count) { for (int i = 0. ± Call it within methods and output will display in your Java environment.sql file: SET SERVEROUTPUT ON SIZE 1000000 CALL DBMS_JAVA.SET_OUTPUT (1000000). i++) { System.out.page 183 . ± Here is a good nucleus for a login.

getErrorCode() and getMessage() to obtain information about the error thrown. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Use two methods.page 184 . but more robust error handling mechanism than PL/SQL. ± Instead of raising and handling. ± And also spew out the entire Java error stack! (at least through 8.5).  Any error not caught by the JVM (Java virtual machine) will be thrown back to the PL/SQL block or SQL statement. such as java.SQLException.1. ± Exceptions are objects instantiated from the Exception class or a subclass of it.Error Handling with Java-PL/SQL  Java offers a very similar. you "throw" and "catch".sql.

jdbc.jdbc.jdbc.doExecute(OracleStatement.java) at oracle.doExecuteWithBatch(OracleStatement.object(DropAny.java) at oracle.kprb.kprb.tst ORA-29532: Java call terminated by uncaught Java exception: java.doExecuteOther(OracleStatement.sql. END.driver.jdbc. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN DBMS_OUTPUT. DBMS_OUTPUT.java -29532 dropany.executeUpdate(OracleStatement.doExecuteWithTimeout(OracleStatement. and you have to do some digging to extract the Oracle error information.tst ORA-00942: table or view does not exist 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .jdbc.Trapping and Identifying Errors  Currently.sp dropany2.KprbDBAccess.java) at oracle.KprbDBAccess.OracleStatement.PUT_LINE (SQLCODE). the entire Java stack is displayed on your screen.jdbc.driver.java) at oracle.PUT_LINE (SQLERRM). / SQL> 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 java.page 185 .parseExecuteFetch(KprbDBAccess. 'blip').OracleStatement.java:14) DropAny.OracleStatement.SQLException: getErrInfo. BEGIN dropany ('TABLE'.driver.driver.java) at oracle.check_error(KprbDBAccess.driver.OracleStatement.jdbc.java) at DropAny.SQLException: ORA-00942: table or view does not exist at oracle.sql.java) at oracle.OracleStatement.

± Must be a shared object library on Unix or a dynamically linked library (DLL) on Windows. or method.  An Oracle8 feature that allowed relatively "native" callouts to C from PL/SQL for the first time. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence External Procedures  An external procedure is a 3GL routine that can serve as the ³body´ of a PL/SQL function. procedure.page 186 .

page 187 .Process & data flow Application Makes request Net8 External Procedure Listener spawns External Shared Library Calls PL/SQL Runtime Engine PL/SQL body Client or server-side application returns results calls routine from Routine in .DLL or .so file extproc returns results returns results 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

sql diskspace.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .External procedures: Sample uses      Send email Invoke operating system command Invoke custom or legacy application Call C runtime library function Perform admin tasks email.page 188 .

Determine free disk space on NT (1/4)  Use pre-existing routine: ± GetDiskFreeSpaceA in kernel32. this function returns: » » » » » sectors per cluster bytes per sector number of free clusters total number of clusters ³return code´ indicating success or failure  First.dll'. create an Oracle8 ³library´: CREATE OR REPLACE LIBRARY nt_kernel AS 'c:\winnt\system32\kernel32.dll ± For given drive letter. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 189 .

total_number_of_clusters OUT PLS_INTEGER) RETURN PLS_INTEGER. bytes_per_sector OUT PLS_INTEGER. sectors_per_cluster OUT PLS_INTEGER. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 190 . number_of_free_clusters OUT PLS_INTEGER.Package spec (2/4)  Nothing unexpected here: CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE disk_util AS FUNCTION get_disk_free_space (root_path IN VARCHAR2. END disk_util.

page 191  All the magic is in the EXTERNAL section 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . total_number_of_clusters OUT PLS_INTEGER) RETURN PLS_INTEGER IS EXTERNAL LIBRARY nt_kernel NAME "GetDiskFreeSpaceA" LANGUAGE C CALLING STANDARD PASCAL PARAMETERS (root_path STRING. bytes_per_sector BY REFERENCE LONG. number_of_free_clusters OUT pls_integer.0 (3/4) CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY disk_util AS FUNCTION get_disk_free_space (root_path IN VARCHAR2. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Package body in Oracle 8. sectors_per_cluster OUT PLS_INTEGER. END disk_util. bytes_per_sector OUT PLS_INTEGER. total_number_of_clusters BY REFERENCE LONG. RETURN LONG). sectors_per_cluster BY REFERENCE LONG. number_of_free_clusters BY REFERENCE LONG.

Usage (4/4)
DECLARE lroot_path VARCHAR2(3) := 'C:\'; lsectors_per_cluster PLS_INTEGER; lbytes_per_sector PLS_INTEGER; lnumber_of_free_clusters PLS_INTEGER; ltotal_number_of_clusters PLS_INTEGER; return_code PLS_INTEGER; free_meg REAL; BEGIN return_code := disk_util.get_disk_free_space (lroot_path, lsectors_per_cluster, lbytes_per_sector, lnumber_of_free_clusters, ltotal_number_of_clusters); free_meg := lsectors_per_cluster * lbytes_per_sector * lnumber_of_free_clusters / 1024 / 1024; DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('free disk space, Mb = ' || free_meg); diskspace.sql END;
1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein
PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 192

Creating your own external procedure 

1. Identify or create shared library 2. Identify or CREATE LIBRARY within Oracle 3. Map the parameters using:
± EXTERNAL clause (Oracle8) or ± LANGUAGE clause (Oracle8i)  

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 193

1. Identify/create external routine 


Prerequisite: O/S must support shared libraries Some useful routines are pre-built in C runtime library
± On Unix: /lib/libc.so ± On NT: <systemroot>\system32\crtdll.dll 

Building a shared library of your own requires knowledge of:
± Appropriate language (typically C) ± Compiler & linker

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 194

2. Create the Oracle library 

Syntax:
CREATE OR REPLACE LIBRARY <library name> AS '<full path to file>'; 

Assigns a programmer-defined alias to a specific shared library file Notes
± Requires CREATE LIBRARY pri ilege ± Does not alidate directory ± Can¶t use symbolic link 

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 195

3. Map the parameters
This can get complicated, because«
± Must pass extra parameters to designate:
» NULL/NOT NULL state » String length » Maximum allocated length

± Six choices of parameter mode
» » » » » » IN RETURN IN BY REFERENCE RETURN BY REFERENCE OUT IN OUT

These details are better suited for close reading«
PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 196

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

page 197 .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Oracle8i New Features Autonomous Transactions Invoker Rights Model Row Level Security 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

   Autonomous Transactions The Invoker Rights Model Row level security 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 198 .Oracle8i New Features  Oracle8i offers a number of PL/SQL-specific features that give you tremendous additional flexibility and capability. ± And the learning curve to take advantage of these features is generally not too steep.

± Any changes made within that block can be saved or reversed without affecting the outer or main transaction.Autonomous Transactions  Prior to Oracle8i.page 199 . CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE loginfo ( code IN PLS_INTEGER. a COMMIT or ROLLBACK in any program in your session committed or rolled back all changes in your session. msg IN VARCHAR2) AS PRAGMA AUTONOMOUS_TRANSACTION.  With Oracle8i. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± There was only one transaction allowed per connection. you can now define a PL/SQL block to execute as an "autonomous transaction".

 Tracing Code Usage ± Build retry mechanisms. which can cause all sorts of complications: your log entry becomes a part of your transaction.When to Use Autonomous Transactions  Reusable Application Components ± ATs are more or less required in the new distributed application architecture of the Internet.  Call functions within SQL that change the database.page 200 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .  Logging Mechanism ± Commonly developers lot to database tables. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . etc. ± One component should not have any impact (esp. ± Now you can avoid the complexities (need for ROLLBACK TO savepoints and so on). something like a COMMIT) on other components. software usage meter.

pkg log81*. text_in.sp log81. END. logger.machine.Logging with ATs  Don't forget that ROLLBACK in the exception section! CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY log IS PROCEDURE putline ( code_in IN INTEGER. let's add some session information.tst retry. text_in IN VARCHAR2 ) IS PRAGMA AUTONOMOUS_TRANSACTION. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Avoid interdependencies with the main transaction. COMMIT.pkg retry. BEGIN INSERT INTO logtab VALUES (code_in.page 201 .program ). USER. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN ROLLBACK.tst PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . USER. rec. END. SYSDATE. SYSDATE. rec. While we're at it.

± You can use the SET TRANSACTION ISOLATION LEVEL SERIALIZABLE to indicate that you do not want the changes visible until the outer transaction commits.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Any changes committed in an AT are visible in the outer transaction. autonserial.sql autontrigger*. ± You cannot define a nested anonymous block to be an AT.   The AT PRAGMA goes in the body of packages.page 202 . ± Place the SET TRANSACTION statement in the outer transaction.Tips and Gotchas with ATs  An AT program must COMMIT or ROLLBACK before terminating. ± You cannot tell by looking at the package spec if you are calling ATs or not -and this info is not available in the data dictionary.sql auton_in_sql. The AT PRAGMA can be used only with individual programs and toplevel anonymous blocks. or an error is raised. ± You cannot define an entire package as an AT.

whenever you executed a stored program.The Invoker Rights Model  Prior to Oracle8i. ± This is called the « Invoker Rights Model PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . it ran under the privileges of the account in which the program was defined.page 203 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . ± This is called the « Definer Rights Model  With Oracle8i. you can now decide at compilation time whether your program or package will execute in the definer's schema (the default) or the schema of the invoker of the code.

But it can be a source of confusion and architectural problems. OE Code Order_Mgt Place Cancel Sam_Sales Close Old Orders  OE Data X  Orders Cannot alter table directly. Note: Oracle built-in packages have long had the capability of running under the invoker's authority.page 204 . Ignores roles and relies on directly-granted privileges.About Definer Rights  Allows you to centralize access to and control of underlying data structures. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

requiring copy of stored module  Security ± No declarative way to restrict privileges on certain modules in a package -.. unless you write code in the package to essentially recreate roles programmatically.it's all or nothing. each user has own copy of table(s).Problems with Definer Rights  Deployment & maintenance ± Must install module in all remote databases where needed ± In some databases. ± Can bypass 8i¶s ³fine-grained´ access features (see the DBMS_RLS package) ± Difficult to audit privileges  Sure would be nice to have a choice.page 205 .and now you do! 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..

You could also create local. AUTHID goes only in spec.page 206 .  For modules with separate spec and body. and must be at the package level.. ± At run-time. the objects referenced may well be different from those against which it compiled. "dummy" objects. ± In other words.Oracle8i Invoker Rights Syntax  For top level modules: CREATE [ OR REPLACE ] <module type> [ AUTHID { DEFINER | CURRENT_USER } ] AS . do what it takes to get the code to compile. Synonyms may be necessary if modules use object names not qualified by schema.  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..

. you can execute code owned by another schema.FROM accounts WHERE....acct_mgr."Reflection" Capability of Invoker Rights  With invoker rights..destroy(. END.). modify destroy .. yet have all references to data structures "reflect back" into your own schema.page 207 .. code. Central Code schema PACKAGE acct_mgr make AUTHID CURRENT_USER User/Data schema PROCEDURE mng_account IS BEGIN . accounts table 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..

Note: cannot use with wrapped code. the definer rights model is always applied to resolve the reference.  Once a definer rights program is called.sql handy. all other calls in stack are resolved according to definer rights.sql  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Tips and Gotchas for Invoker Rights  Does not apply to code objects. ± AUTHID CURRENT_USER is ignored. taking advantage of the invoker rights model whenever possible? ± A creative use of SQL*Plus substitution variables comes in very invdefinv. only data ± When your stored code references another stored code element. oneversion.  Information about the rights model is not available in the data dictionary What if you want to maintain a single version of your code for both pre-Oracle8i and Oracle8i installations.page 208 . ± Both static and dynamic SQL is supported.

National HQ Check City Statistics New York Schema stolenlives Chicago Schema stolenlives  Especially handy with dynamic SQL.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .When to Invoke Invoker Rights  You want to reuse the same code among many users.sql whichsch*.page 209 . but you want their own directly-granted privileges to determine access. authid. ± Share a program that uses dynamic SQL (whether DBMS_SQL or the new native implementation) and you end up taking the most unexpected DDL and DML detours.

page 210 .sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Rely on definer rights to access centralized data from any schema. HQ Chicago Check City Statistics  New York stolenlives Analyze Pattern stolenlives perpetrators perp.Combining Invoker & Definer Rights  Rely on invoker rights to allow centralized code to work with schema-specific data.

page 211 .Row Level Security DBMS_RLS Row-Level Security 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

you could achieve this only partially through the use of views. Row Level Security  The establishment of security policies on (restricted access to) individual rows of a table.Row-Level Security with DBMS_RLS  Oracle8i offers a new package. with which to implement automated row-level security (also referred to as "fine grained access control").page 212   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . DBMS_RLS. The DBMS_RLS package (along with "system contexts") now allow you to do so in a foolproof manner. Prior to Oracle8i.

Components Needed for RLS  System Contexts ± A new feature in Oracle8i. the system context is a named set of attributevalue pairs global to your session.  Let's step through a simple example to see how all these pieces tie together.  Database Logon Triggers ± I want to make sure that when a person logs in.  Security Policy Packages ± You will need to write a package containing functions that establish the security policies to be applied to a particular table.page 213 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . their context information is set properly.  DBMS_RLS ± Use programs in DBMS_RLS to associate your security policies with tables.

A National Health Care System  The year is 2010. all pregnant women receive excellent prenatal care.sql  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . clinic and regulator. ± Patients can only see information about themselves. highly secure database for NHCS. ± A massive. all children are vaccinated. Here are some rules: ± Doctors can only see patients who are assigned to their clinic. No more for-profit hospitals pulling billions of dollars out of the system. The main tables are patient. no more private insurance companies soaking up 30 cents on the dollar. doctor. popular uprising in the United States has forced the establishment of a national healthcare system. ± Regulators can only see patients who reside in the same state. fgac.page 214 .  We need a top-notch.

c_person_id_attr. DBMS_SESSION.page 215 . BEGIN OPEN doc_cur.Set the Context  Define a context in the database.sql for logic that identifies SELECT doctor_id FROM doctor different types of people and WHERE schema_name = USER.SET_CONTEXT ( 'patient_restriction'.doctor_id). DBMS_SESSION. CREATE CONTEXT patient_restriction USING nhc_pkg. See CURSOR doc_cur IS fgac. FETCH doc_cur INTO doc_rec. 'DOCTOR'). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .SET_CONTEXT ( 'patient_restriction'. PROCEDURE set_context IS This is a simplification. and create a procedure that will set the context attributes (type and ID) upon login. sets the context accordingly. doc_rec. END. doc_rec doc_cur%ROWTYPE. c_person_type_attr.

''' || clause for each type of c_person_id_attr || '''))'. BEGIN IF l_context = 'DOCTOR' THEN retval := 'home_clinic_id IN (SELECT home_clinic_id FROM doctor We need a different string WHERE doctor_id = SYS_CONTEXT (''' || to modify the WHERE c_context || '''.Define the Predicate  A predicate is a string that will be appended to the WHERE clause of the table to which this security policy is associated (see next page). information for this retval VARCHAR2(2000). person. connection.page 216 . FUNCTION person_predicate ( schema_in VARCHAR2. name_in VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2 IS l_context VARCHAR2(100) := Extract the context SYS_CONTEXT (c_context. c_person_type_attr). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

UPDATE.Create the Security Policy  Use the DBMS_RLS.ADD_POLICY procedure. ( => => => => => => 'SCOTT'. 'SELECT.person_predicate'.nhc_pkg package. 'patient'. update or delete against the SCOTT. BEGIN DBMS_RLS. 'nhc_pkg. 'SCOTT'.DELETE').PATIENT table will be modified by the string returned by the person_predicate function of the SCOTT. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 'patient_privacy'. ± The following procedure call specifies that the WHERE clause of any query.page 217 .ADD_POLICY OBJECT_SCHEMA OBJECT_NAME POLICY_NAME FUNCTION_SCHEMA POLICY_FUNCTION STATEMENT_TYPES END.

set_context. Setting Context  By setting the context in the logon trigger. CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER set_id_on_logon AFTER LOGON ON DATABASE BEGIN nhc_pkg.page 218 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .PUT_LINE ( 'Error ' || SQLCODE || ' setting context for ' || USER').sql Exception handling in trigger is critical! If you allow an exception to go unhandled.Create Logon Trigger. END. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN DBMS_OUTPUT. we guarantee that the context is set (and the predicate applied) no matter which product is the entry point to Oracle. logon is disabled. fgac.

Queries Transparently Filtered  What you see is determined automatically by who you are.IL VSILVA .IL Context Information for "CSILVA": Type: PATIENT ID: Predicate: schema_name = 'CSILVA' Patients Visible to "CSILVA": CSILVA .Chris Silva .IL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Patient sees only himself. Predicate: home_clinic_id IN (SELECT home_clinic_id FROM doctor WHERE doctor_id = SYS_CONTEXT ('patient_restriction'. 'person_id')) Patients Visible to "SWALLACE": CSILVA . Context Information for "SWALLACE": Type: DOCTOR Doctor sees only her ID: 1060 patients.Veva Silva . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Chris Silva .page 219 .

.. February...  ± You learn what you need to get the job done.. and you use only what you know. May..... March.and play a new tune with PL/SQL! 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . It's so easy to fall into a rut with a programming language..page 220 .Take Full Advantage of PL/SQL! January. Jump out of your rut . April.

If time permits«)     UTL_FILE ± file IO DBMS_JOB ± Job scheduling DBMS_PIPE ± Pipe-based communication DBMS_UTILITY ± the kitchen sink package 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .a.Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Appendices (a.page 221 ..k.

.Built-in Packages: UTL_FILE UTL_FILE Server-side File I/O Application FOPEN GET_LINE PUT_LINE .page 222 .. Physical Files 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

when it jumps to 32K.5. ± No higher-level file operations supported (change privileges. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . no use of environmental variables).   But you can read lines from a file and write lines to a file.UTL_FILE: Server-side I/O  Allows you to read from and write to operating system files on the database server. delete.. A "version 1" (fairly primitive) utility.. ± Limitations on files you can access (no mapped files.0. copy. random access to contents).page 223 . ± Maximum of 1023 bytes per line (read or write) until Oracle 8.

Puts formatted text into the buffer PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 224 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .UTL_FILE Module Outline FCLOSE FCLOSE_ALL FFLUSH FOPEN GET_LINE IS_OPEN NEW_LINE PUT PUT_LINE PUTF Close the specified file Close all open files in your session Flush all data from the UTL_FILE buffer to your file Open a file Get the next line from a file Returns TRUE if the file is open (sort of) Insert a new line character in file at the end of current line Puts text into the UTL_FILE buffer Puts text and new line character into UTL_FILE buffer.

no trailing delimiter. ± You do this by adding lines to the instance parameter file. there is no subdirectory recursion).page 225 Allows read & write for current directory. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± No single or double quotes around directory.  Follow these rules to avoid many headaches.Authorizing Directory Access  Oracle requires you to list explicitly those directories you wish to be able to read/write with UTL_FILE. utl_file_dir = * Allows read & write for any directory. ± Use a separate entry for each directory (and subdirectory. utl_file_dir = /tmp utl_file_dir = /accounts/newdev  And don't do either of the following: utl_file_dir = . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .

tst  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . UTL_FILE. and then run the following test script (it can't get much simpler than this): DECLARE fid UTL_FILE. BEGIN /* Change the directory name to one to which you at least || THINK you have read/write access. So before you write anything fancy. modify your initialization file. 'hello'). UTL_FILE.FCLOSE (fid). / utlfile. */ fid := UTL_FILE. 'test. END.txt'.FILE_TYPE.page 226 .FOPEN ('c:\temp'.Test UTL_FILE Access  About the hardest part to working with UTL_FILE is simply getting started. 'W'). restart your database.PUT_LINE (fid.

txt'.. 'W').FILE_TYPE. ± Currently contains a single ID field..FOPEN ('c:\temp'.FILE_TYPE.Opening a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE. END. ± In actuality. BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE.   Maximum of 10 files may be opened in each user session. name and operation type.  The FOPEN function returns a record ("file handle") based on the UTL_FILE.  Specify file location. ± Types are 'R' for Read. this function simply returns TRUE if the file handle's id field is NOT NULL. 'test. Test to see if file is open with the IS_OPEN function. Not much of a test.page 227 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 'W' for Write and 'A' for Append.

END.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 'R').GET_LINE (fid. 'test. UTL_FILE.FOPEN ('c:\temp'.0. BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE.  The NO_DATA_FOUND exception is raised if you read past the end of the file. the ceiling is raised to 32K. ± In Oracle8 Release 8. myline).FCLOSE (fid).txt'. UTL_FILE. Lines in the file cannot be longer than 1023 bytes in length.page 228 . getnext.   Can only read from a file opened with the "R" mode.FILE_TYPE.5 and above. ± You might want to build your own GET_LINE which handles the exception and returns an EOF Boolean status flag.Reading from a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.

FILE_TYPE. 'W'). '&1').Writing to a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.PUT (fid. 'test. UTL_FILE. UTL_FILE. 'is so much fun'). ± PUTF is like the C printf program.FOPEN ('c:\temp'.PUT_LINE (fid. ± The file buffers are automatically flushed when you close a file or exit your session. UTL_FILE. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .PUTF (fid. allowing for some formatting. UTL_FILE.page 229 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE.  Call FFLUSH to make sure that everything you have written to the buffer is flushed out to the file.FCLOSE (fid). UTL_FILE is so much fun that I never want to stop Resulting Text  You can use PUT. ' that I never\nwant to %s'. END. PUT_LINE or PUTF. 'UTL_FILE').txt'.

'R').FCLOSE (fid). 'test.READ_ERROR THEN UTL_FILE. UTL_FILE. You can close a single file with FCLOSE or all open files with FCLOSE_ALL. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . You should close files in exception handlers to make sure that files are not left "hanging" open.  If you do not close the file. EXCEPTION WHEN UTL_FILE.FILE_TYPE. END. myline).FOPEN ('c:\temp'. UTL_FILE. you will not see the data you have (supposedly) written to that file.FCLOSE (fid).GET_LINE (fid. BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE.txt'.Closing a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.page 230   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .

± NO_DATA_FOUND when you try to read past the end of the file. EXCEPTION.Error Handling in UTL_FILE PACKAGE UTL_FILE IS invalid_path invalid_mode invalid_filehandle invalid_operation read_error write_error internal_error END. EXCEPTION. ± UTL_FILE-named exceptions in other cases. ± They all share a common SQLCODE of 1. EXCEPTION.  UTL_FILE relies on a combination of user-defined exceptions and STANDARD exceptions to communicate errors. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . EXCEPTION.page 231 . EXCEPTION.  You have to take special care to trap and handle the named exceptions. EXCEPTION. EXCEPTION.

WHEN UTL_FILE. RAISE.c_invalid_filehandle).c_invalid_path). RAISE.INVALID_PATH THEN recNgo (PLVfile.c_read_error).sql  Trap locally by name. WHEN UTL_FILE. RAISE. RAISE.READ_ERROR THEN recNgo (PLVfile. RAISE.c_write_error). WHEN UTL_FILE.c_internal_error). WHEN UTL_FILE.c_invalid_operation).WRITE_ERROR THEN recNgo (PLVfile.INVALID_OPERATION THEN recNgo (PLVfile. Re-raise exception if you want it to propagate from that block. WHEN UTL_FILE.INVALID_MODE THEN recNgo (PLVfile. utlflexc.c_invalid_mode). WHEN UTL_FILE. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Recommended Exception Section EXCEPTION WHEN UTL_FILE. translating the generic user-defined exception into an understandable message.INTERNAL_ERROR THEN recNgo (PLVfile. RAISE.INVALID_FILEHANDLE THEN recNgo (PLVfile. END. record the error.page 232  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . RAISE.

Background Process DBA_JOBS Oracle Job Queue Subsystem 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Built-in Packages: DBMS_JOB DBMS_JOB Scheduled Execution of Stored Procedures Application SUBMIT RUN REMOVE ...page 233 .

which in turn offers job scheduling capabilities within the Oracle Server. Create a listener program to poll the contents of a pipe and take action.page 234 . Schedule large batch jobs to run on "off hours".Overview of DBMS_JOB  DBMS_JOB provides an API to the Oracle job queues. ± ± ± ±    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . You can use DBMS_JOB to: Replicate data between different database instances. ± Spawn background processes to avoid blocking client process. Made its debut in PL/SQL Release 2. but only ³publicly available´ and supported in PL/SQL Release 2.2. Built by Oracle to support snapshots and replication.1. Schedule regular maintenance on instances.

DBMS_JOB Module Outline BROKEN Marks the job as either FIXED or BROKEN. Changes when a queued job will run. Changes the job string of a job. Removes the job from the queue. Submits a job to the queue using a predefined job number.page 235 CHANGE INTERVAL ISUBMIT NEXT_DATE REMOVE RUN SUBMIT USER_EXPORT WHAT 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . Returns the job string for a job number. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Changes the interval between executions of a job. Forces immediate execution of the specified job number. Broken jobs will not run as scheduled. Submits a job to the queue returning a unique job number. Changes one or all attributes of a job.

Notice that the start time is a DATE expression. you specify the date on which it should next execute. 'calculate_totals. SYSDATE. instead of having DBMS_JOB generate one for you.ISUBMIT and supply the job number. ± In the above example. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  A job is a call to a stored procedure or an anonymous block ± It must end with a semi-colon and can contain ³hard-coded´ arguments. END. and then the job¶s execution interval (frequency of execution).page 236 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . I run calculate_totals immediately and then on a daily basis thereafter. while the interval is a string (this is dynamic PL/SQL!)  You can also call DBMS_JOB. BEGIN DBMS_JOB.  When you submit a job.Submitting a Job DECLARE job# BINARY_INTEGER.'. 'SYSDATE + 1').SUBMIT (job#.

ANALYZE_OBJECT ' || '(''TABLE''.submit ( job => v_jobno.Submit Job Example DECLARE v_jobno INTEGER.'.''TENK''' || '.null. what => 'DBMS_DDL. BEGIN DBMS_JOB.''LOAD1''. p.''ESTIMATE''.ANALYZE_OBJECT. /  This block submits a job that uses a built-in procedure.estimate_percent=>50). DBMS_DDL. END.l (v_jobno). to analyze a specific table every evening at midnight. next_date => TRUNC (SYSDATE + 1).page 237 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . interval => 'TRUNC(SYSDATE+1)' ). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

SYSDATE+1.'SYSDATE+10/1440').' . ± Job 3 is a PL/SQL block which does nothing.next_date => SYSDATE + 1/24 . END.DBMS_JOB.ISUBMIT (job => 1 . numbered 1. executes for the first time tomorrow and every 10 minutes thereafter.'. and will be removed from the queue automatically. 'my_job2(date_IN=>SYSDATE).null).SYSDATE. ± Job 1 passes a string and number into procedure MY_JOB1. executes immediately.' . /  This block submits three jobs to the job queue. DBMS_JOB. runs it in one hour and executes every day thereafter. and 3. END.ISUBMIT(3. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .2.ISUBMIT (2. ± Job 2 passes a date into procedure MY_JOB2.page 238 . DBMS_JOB.120).'BEGIN null.ISubmit Job Example BEGIN DBMS_JOB.what => 'my_job1(''string_parm_value''.interval => 'SYSDATE +1').

3). Every hour Every Sunday at 2 AM First Monday of each quarter. ± Use date arithmetic to request intervals smaller than a day. ''SATURDAY'') 2/24' 'NEXT_DAY ( ADD_MONTHS (TRUNC (SYSDATE. ''MONDAY'') + 9/24' 'TRUNC (LEAST ( NEXT_DAY (SYSDATE. ''WEDNESDAY''). at 9 AM Every Monday. Wednesday and Friday at 6 PM 'SYSDATE + 1/24' 'NEXT_DAY (TRUNC (SYSDATE). ''Q''). NEXT_DAY (SYSDATE. ''MONDAY''). ''FRIDAY''))) + 18/24' PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 239 + 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . you must use 2 single quotes to embed strings. ± Since it's a string. NEXT_DAY (SYSDATE.Specifying Job Times & Frequencies  Probably the most complicated part of using DBMS_JOB is to get the string expression of the job interval right.

sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Only if the job was submitted from same schema BEGIN FOR rec IN (SELECT * FROM USER_JOBS) LOOP DBMS_JOB.page 240 . END LOOP.RUN (my_job#).  Export jobs from the queue. ± Uses DBMS_JOB. expjob. Remove all jobs for current schema.  Run a job immediately.job). retaining current job number. ± Performs an implicit COMMIT in current session. DBMS_JOB.REMOVE (rec.Other Job Queue Operations  Remove a job from the queue.ISUBMIT. ± Produces a string that can be used to recreate an existing job in the job queue.

DBA_JOBS and USER_JOBS views.Job Queue Views  You can also view the job queue by looking at the DBA_JOBS_RUNNING.DBA_JOBS . ± The following query blends job information with session information to display currently-executing jobs. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .job ORDER BY jr.job = j.jr.sid = jr.job .sql FROM DBA_JOBS_RUNNING .V$SESSION WHERE s.sid AND jr. SELECT jr. who owns them and when they began.this_date .this_date.what job_id username start_date job_definition jr j s showjobs.username .page 241 .

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . You will have to take special DBA action if you want to restrict who can run jobs. ± job_queue_interval=N where N is the interval in seconds to check the job queue. ± The default is PUBLIC access. The valid range is 1 to 3600 (a maximum. of one hour).  You will need to set three parameters in the init. The valid range is 0 through 36.Setting up the Job Facility  Make sure that the correct access is set up for the DBMS_JOB package.ora (initialization) file for your database instance: ± job_queue_processes=N where n is the number of concurrent background processes permitted.page 242 . therefore.

± Always include a WHEN OTHERS exception handler in your job program which traps any and all problems and automatically sets the job status to broken.page 243 .Error Handling with DBMS_JOB  What if your stored procedure fails? ± After 16 attempts.  To avoid unexpected and unhandled failures of scheduled jobs: ± Always use the RUN built-in to execute your job in a ³test´ mode. the job facility will mark your job as broken. Then you can go ahead and submit it. it may cause the background processes to fail and no longer run any jobs at all. if your failure raises an unhandled exception. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Do you want it to try 16 times? ± In addition.

sql  The WHEN OTHERS exception handler of the calc_totals procedure traps any kind of failure. spacelog.sql showspc. You can go in and fix the problem. job_pkg.. END.job (µcalc_totals¶) DBMS_JOB. ± Calls log program of package to record that failure took place. ± Now the job facility will not try to run this program again. ± Obtains the job number from a packaged function by passing the name of the procedure.BROKEN (job#. ± Uses a call to BROKEN to set the status of the job to ³broken´.page 244 . EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN job# := job_pkg.Stopping the Job When It Fails PROCEDURE calc_totals IS BEGIN .. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . TRUE).log (µcalc_totals¶. µFAIL¶).

   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± DBMS_JOB only allows you to modify characteristics and behavior of jobs submitted by the current schema. You can use the DBMS_IJOB to manage the jobs of other users.  You will need to fully-qualify all database links (with user name and password) to get them to work properly. ± We've noticed some aberrant. If you find that you submit a job to run immediately and it does not start. difficult to reproduce behavior at times with "straight" procedure calls. When a job runs.page 245 ."Good to Knows" for DBMS_JOB  You may find it useful to always wrap your stored procedure call (the what) inside a BEGIN-END block. it picks up the current execution environment for the user. perform a COMMIT after your submit.

page 246 .Built-in Packages: DBMS_PIPE DBMS_PIPE Inter-session Communication 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Perform and commit DML in a separate transaction space from your main transaction. ± Operates outside of database transaction limitations. ± Interface PL/SQL-database activities with operating system functions and programs written in other languages. You can parallelize your own code. Oracle uses database pipes to parallelize database operations.DBMS_PIPE Overview  Allows communication between different Oracle sessions through a pipe in the RDBMS Shared Global Area. ± More sophisticated debugging inside PL/SQL programs (work around fundamental limitations of DBMS_OUTPUT).  Uses for DBMS_PIPE include: ± Parallelization of program execution.page 247 .

using a maximum of 4096 bytes. ± Names can be up to 128 chars long (do not use names beginning with ³ORA$´. which can be composed of one or more separate packets.Architecture of DBMS_PIPE Shared Global Area ³Sue´ ³Bob´ Message Buffer Message Buffer Session A  Session B A pipe is a named object that uses the System Global Area to provide a non-transaction based conduit of information. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 248 . ± The pipe sends/receives a message. They are reserved for Oracle use).

ROWID or RAW. so you should always specify a timeout period. date.  Unpack the message packets and take action. date or number).sql PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . you can wait for up to 1000 days (or 86400000 seconds) for the pipe to be cleared. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein pipex1.  Receive a message from that pipe. ± This is the default. ± There is just one message buffer per session. number. ± Each packet can be a string. ± If there isn¶t currently room in the pipe.Processing Flow of DBMS_PIPE  Construct a message from packets of information.page 249 .  Send the message to a named pipe.sql pipex2. ± Separate out the individual packets in the message (again: string. ± You can wait for up to 1000 days for a message.

NEXT_ITEM_TYPE Returns the datatype of the next item in the piped message. RECEIVE_MESSAGE Receives a message from pipe and copies to local buffer. Clears your buffer so that PACK_MESSAGE and UNPACK_MESSAGE can work from the first item.DBMS_PIPE Module Outline Module Name CREATE_PIPE Description Creates a PUBLIC or PRIVATE pipe. PURGE Empties the contents of a pipe into your local buffer freeing it for removal. SEND_MESSAGE Sends contents of message buffer to the specified pipe. making it a candidate for removal with a LRU algorithm. PACK_MESSAGE Packs an item into the message buffer for your session. UNPACK_MESSAGE Unpacks the next item from the local message buffer and deposits it into the specified local variable. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . REMOVE_PIPE RESET_BUFFER Removes a pipe explicitly created via CREATE_PIPE.page 250 . UNIQUE_SESSION_NAME Returns name that is unique among all sessions in the database.

maxpipesize => 20000. ± Send messages to non-existent pipe implicitly create it. ± Use CREATE_PIPE to create a pipe explicitly. ± Implicitly-created pipes are always public. BEGIN stat := DBMS_PIPE. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . private => TRUE).CREATE_PIPE ( pipename => 'bbs'. PROCEDURE newpipe IS stat INTEGER.page 251 .Creating Public and Private Pipes  There are two ways to create pipes: implicitly and explicitly.  A public pipe is accessible as long as you know its name. ± Specify TRUE for private argument of CREATE_PIPE.  An explicit pipe can be private (accessible only to sessions with matching userID or SYSDBA privileges).

.page 252 . Send to "monthly" pipe. 60.SEND_MESSAGE ( µmonthly¶. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Fill your message buffer with packets of data. FUNCTION send_message (pipename IN VARCHAR2. Status of 0 means message was sent. pipe_stat := DBMS_PIPE.PACK_MESSAGE ( total_sales (month_num)).Sending a Message Provide pipe name. but not smaller). and new max pipe size (you can make it bigger. timeout IN INTEGER DEFAULT maxwait. maxpipesize IN INTEGER DEFAULT 8192) RETURN INTEGER. END LOOP. FOR month_num IN 1 . 10 * 4096). expanding pipe size to 40 Kbytes. 12 LOOP DBMS_PIPE. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . IF pipe_stat != 0 THEN RAISE could_not_send. seconds you will wait. waiting up to 1 minute.

± Pipe status of 0 means the message was read successfully. ± You need to know the datatype of packet or check it using NEXT_ITEM_TYPE.  Then you call UNPACK_MESSAGE to extract individual packets from the message. PROCEDURE unpack_message (item OUT VARCHAR2).  First you pull the message from the pipe and place it in buffer with RECEIVE_MESSAGE. timeout IN INTEGER DEFAULT maxwait) RETURN INTEGER. PROCEDURE unpack_message (item OUT DATE). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 253 .Receiving and Unpack a Message FUNCTION receive_message (pipename IN VARCHAR2. ± Specify pipe and number of seconds you will wait before you time out. PROCEDURE unpack_message (item OUT NUMBER).

page 254 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . LOOP pipe_status := DBMS_PIPE. every_n_secs). seconds for the BEGIN next report. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . PROCEDURE analyze_assembly_data (every_n_secs IN INTEGER) IS pipe_status INTEGER. DBMS_PIPE. prod_total).RECEIVE_MESSAGE ( 'production'. END LOOP. ELSE RAISE_APPLICATION_ERROR ( Stop process if -20000. If I got something. 'Production data unavailable. pass it on to the IF pipe_status = 0 computation THEN program. data not received. END.A Pipe-based Listener Program  Program wakes up every N seconds to read the data from the pipe and analyze results from assembly line (an intentional "infinite loop"!).'). END IF. analyze_production (SYSDATE. Wait up to N prod_total NUMBER.UNPACK_MESSAGE (prod_total).

Either: ± You know the datatype and therefore can ³hard-code´ the correct variable into the call to UNPACK_MESSAGE.tst  Since a message can be composed of packets of different datatypes.Unpacking the Message FUNCTION next_item_type RETURN INTEGER.page 255 . you have to make sure that you unpack a packet into the right kind of variable. ± Or you use the built-in NEXT_ITEM_TYPE to tell you in advance the datatype of the next packet in the message and take appropriate action. Returns one of the following values: Value 0 6 9 11 12 23 Description or Data type No more items in buffer NUMBER VARCHAR2 ROWID DATE RAW dbpipe.sql dbpipe. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

page 256 .Parallelizing Your Code with Pipes  Oracle uses DBMS_PIPE to improve RDBMS performance.  Suppose I want to calculate my net profit. In order to do so I must first compute total sales. I must execute them sequentially and incur an elapsed time of 45 minutes before I calculate the profits.  Without pipes. ± The CEO is decidedly unhappy about the delay. you can do the same for your application if: ± You have multiple CPUs available. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . but are not dependent on each other. ± You have processes which can run in parallel. total office expenses and total compensation. ± These programs each take 15 minutes.

Sequential vs.page 257 . Parallel Execution Sequential Execution: Maximum Elapsed Time S t a r t E n d Process A Process B Process C Parallel Execution: Minimum Elapsed Time Start Process A Process B Process C End 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

it puts a message (perhaps even a value) into the pipe. kick_off_totcomp_calc. wait_for_confirmation.  The ³kick off´ programs pass their messages to separate pipes. ± Other programs running in the background grab the messages and start their corresponding calculation program. END. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . calculate_net_profits. kick_off_exp_calc.page 258 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .in a muchdecreased elapsed time.Parallelizing PL/SQL Execution BEGIN kick_off_sales_calc.  The ³wait´ program waits till it receives a message from each program. ± When each program is complete. Then net profits can be computed -.

END. BEGIN stat := DBMS_PIPE. END IF. calculate sales.SEND_MESSAGE (µsales¶). stat := DBMS_PIPE. stat := DBMS_PIPE. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . BEGIN DBMS_PIPE.PACK_MESSAGE (NULL).SEND_MESSAGE (µsales¶).SEND_MESSAGE (µsales¶). and send back the results. IF stat = 0 THEN lots_of_number_crunching. stat := DBMS_PIPE.PACK_MESSAGE (1995).RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µsales¶). DBMS_PIPE.Code to Kick Off and Calculate PROCEDURE kick_off_sales_calc IS stat INTEGER.page 259 . Receive the year. PROCEDURE calculate_sales IS stat INTEGER.PACK_MESSAGE (sales$). END. ELSE DBMS_PIPE. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Send message to start calculations.

stat := DBMS_PIPE. PROCEDURE calculate_net_profits IS BEGIN net_profits := sales$ . Perform final calculation.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .offexp$ .RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µcomp¶).UNPACK_MESSAGE (comp$). stat := DBMS_PIPE.Waiting for Confirmation PROCEDURE wait_for_confirmation IS stat INTEGER. Wait for all calculations to finish.UNPACK_MESSAGE (offexp$). The order in which you wait is insignificant. END. BEGIN stat := DBMS_PIPE.comp$. DBMS_PIPE. parallel.page 260 .RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µoffexp¶). DBMS_PIPE.UNPACK_MESSAGE (sales$).RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µsales¶). DBMS_PIPE. END.

Other DBMS_PIPE Examples  Simple trace package that sends it output either to screen or to pipe.pkg  Implementation of a system-wide.pkg p_and_l.page 261 . ± A listener program grabs the request (including the return pipe name). ± Demonstrates the use of toggles and switches in packages. and sends it to the pipe. ± A request for data is passed to a "central" pipe.pkg syscache. obtains the data. watch.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . in-memory cache. syscache. ± The requester reads the information from the pipe.

. A µgrab-bag¶ of miscellaneous operations SCHEMA 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 262 ..Built-in Packages: DBMS_UTILITY DBMS_UTILITY Application GET_TIME GET_HASH_VALUE FORMAT_CALL_STACK .

DBMS_UTILITY Module Outline ANALYZE_DATABASE ANALYZE_PART_OBJECT Analyze objects in database Runs ANALYZE TABLE or ANALYZE INDEX for each partition of the object (Oracle8). Returns execution call stack. Returns hash value for string. Recompile INVALID objects in specified schema. Gets file number part of data block address.page 263 dbver. Parses comma-delimited list to index-by table. Gets block number part of data block address. Returns error stack.pkg dbparm. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .pkg COMMA_TO_TABLE COMPILE_SCHEMA DATA_BLOCK_ADDRESS_BLOCK DATA_BLOCK_ADDRESS_FILE DB_VERSION EXEC_DDL_STATEMENT FORMAT_CALL_STACK FORMAT_ERROR_STACK GET_HASH_VALUE 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . Returns database version (Oracle8) Executes DDL statement (Oracle8).

Returns TRUE if in parallel server mode. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . GET_PARAMETER_VALUE GET_TIME IS_PARALLEL_SERVER MAKE_DATA_BLOCK_ADDRESS NAME_RESOLVE NAME_TOKENIZE PORT_STRING TABLE_TO_COMMA Retrieves value of database parameter (Oracle8). Returns platform and version of database. Converts list (in index-by-table) of elements into a comma-delimited list (string). Returns "current time" down to hundredth of second. Parses string object designator into components.page 264 . Resolves name of object into component parts. Creates data block address from block & file numbers. cont.DBMS_UTILITY Module Outline.

PUT_LINE (DBMS_UTILITY. ± SYSDATE only reflects times down to the nearest second. DBMS_OUTPUT. so GET_TIME offers significant additional granularity. BEGIN v_start := DBMS_UTILITY.v_start).GET_TIME.page 265 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . END.Sub-Second Timings with GET_TIME  GET_TIME returns the number of 100ths of seconds that have elapsed since an arbitrary point in time. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . especially those that run in sub-second time. calc_totals.GET_TIME . DECLARE v_start BINARY_INTEGER. ± Useful when analyzing individual PL/SQL programs.  Compare results from consecutive calls to GET_TIME to determine the elapsed time of PL/SQL code execution. Basic steps necessary to convert GET_TIME into a performance analysis tool.

PLVtmr.sps plvtmr.show_elapsed.capture. BEGIN PLVtmr.page 266 . END PLVtmr. reset_in IN BOOLEAN := TRUE). calc_totals. PROCEDURE capture ( context_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) PROCEDURE show_elapsed (prefix_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. adjust_in IN NUMBER := 0. END.spb 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .sql plvtmr. Clean and lean timing code ovrhead.Building a Layer Over GET_TIME Partial package specification PACKAGE PLVtmr IS PROCEDURE turn_on. PROCEDURE set_factor (factor_in IN NUMBER). PROCEDURE turn_off.

equivalent to CHR(10).FORMAT_CALL_STACK).VALIDATE_REQUEST function STEVEN. ----. only the package name.Accessing the Execution Call Stack Use in the exception section to show context of error.CALC_NET_WORTH anonymous block  "Little known facts" about FORMAT_CALL_STACK: ± Contains embedded new-line characters. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN DBMS_OUTPUT. END. ± Does not show package elements.PUT_LINE ( DBMS_UTILITY. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 267 .PL/SQL Call Stack ----object line object handle number name 88ce3f74 88e49fc4 88e49390 88e2bd20 8 2 1 1 package STEVEN. ± Most recent program at beginning of "report".COMPANY_TYPE procedure STEVEN.

use a loop to read through the stack. LOOP next_newline := INSTR (stk. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE dispcs IS stk VARCHAR2(10000). next_newline INTEGER. startpos. startpos INTEGER := 1. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 268 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . 1). next_line VARCHAR2(255).FORMAT_CALL_STACK || CHR(10).sp dispcs. END LOOP.pkg plvcs. EXIT WHEN next_newline = 0. END. next_newline .Accessing Call Stack Contents  The call stack length can easily exceed 255 bytes. which means you cannot pass it to DBMS_OUTPUT directly. startpos := next_newline + 1. BEGIN stk := DBMS_UTILITY. dispcs.sps DBMS_OUTPUT. Instead.PUT_LINE (next_line).tst callstack. CHR(10). next_line := SUBSTR ( stk. startpos.startpos + 1).

pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . object_number OUT NUMBER). the way they are attached also follows a complicated syntax. part1_type OUT NUMBER.page 269 .but don't see it as a problem.NAME_RESOLVE (name IN VARCHAR2. part1 OUT VARCHAR2.. part2 OUT VARCHAR2.  Possible "Part 1" Types 5 7 8 9 Synonym Procedure Function Package What a chore! All those arguments. PROCEDURE DBMS_UTILITY..Resolving Names of Stored Code  Code names have many components. context IN NUMBER. dblink OUT VARCHAR2. schema OUT VARCHAR2..sp snc.. see it as an opportunity. ± Use NAME_RESOLVE to break down an identifier string into its components easily.for encapsulation! showcomp.

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