Achieving PL/SQL Excellence

Oracle PL/SQL Advanced Techniques
Oracle7 thru Oracle8i
Steven Feuerstein
www.StevenFeuerstein.com www.Quest.com www.OReilly.com
and contributions most excellent from Bill Pribyl and Dick Bolz

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

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Objective & Outline 

Objective
± Expand your knowledge and awareness of important and new features of the PL/SQL language. 

Outline
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± Building with Packages (Oracle7+) PL/SQL Collections (Oracle7 and Oracle8+) Cursor Variables (Oracle7 and Oracle8+) Dynamic SQL: DBMS_SQL and Native Dynamic SQL (8i) Calling Java from PL/SQL (Oracle8i) and C (Oracle8) Oracle Advanced Queuing with DBMS_AQ (Oracle8) Managing Large Objects with DBMS_LOB (Oracle8) Other Oracle8i New Features
» Autonomous Transactions (Oracle8i) » Invoker Rights Model (Oracle8i) » Row Level Security: DBMS_RLS

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Software Used in Training 

PL/Vision: a library of packages installed on top of PL/SQL.
± PL/Vision Lite - use it, copy, change it for free -- unless you build software to be sold commercially. ± Active PL/SQL Knowledge Base: contains PL/Vision Professional, the fully supported and enhanced version. 

Demonstration scripts executed in the training can be found on the RevealNet PL/SQL Pipeline:
± http://www.revealnet.com/Pipelines/PLSQL/index.htm ± Archives surfboard, Miscellaneous, PL/SQL Seminar Files ± See filedesc.doc for a listing of many of the files.
plsql_ides.txt 

The PL/SQL IDE (Integrated Development Environment).
± You no longer have to use SQL*Plus and a crude editor! Choose from among the many listed in plsql_ides.txt.

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Achieving PL/SQL Excellence

Building with PL/SQL Packages 
 

Overview Initialization section Overloading

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What is a Package? 

A collection of code elements, from procedures and functions to TYPE, variable and cursor declarations.
± Single-most important structure within PL/SQL, and almost certainly one of the most under-utilized. ± Conceptually very simple, it can take some time to fully grasp the implications and potential of the package. 

The method of choice by Oracle and other software developers for extending the PL/SQL language.
± You will find packages in the database, in Oracle Developer/2000, in Oracle Application Server. 

Let¶s review some of the benefits of packages.
tmr.pkg dbparm.pkg

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te_employee.When to Build a Package  Join physically logically-related code. package-based "component". ± Instead of writing SQL directly in your programs. ± There's a big difference between a bunch of separate programs and a coherent. you call the packaged procedures and functions instead. watch. ± Puts more structure and organization in your body of code.pks te_employee.page 6 .pkb  Construct very flexible and usable utilities for developers.pkg  Improve transaction integrity by hiding data structures behind the package interface.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .pkg insga. custrules. ± Can lead to performance improvements.

Program references package element the first time in each session.Package Initialization  The initialization section is a block of code at the end of the package body that is executed once per session. ± The PL/SQL runtime engine determines when and if this code should be run. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . no Complete request for packaged element.page 7 . the first time any package element is referenced. Does the package have an init section? yes Run initialization code.

± Can have its own exception handling section. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein BEGIN after/outside of any program defined in the pkg. ± Is not required. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Confirming that package is properly instantiated. In fact. FUNCTION func RETURN BEGIN END. ± Setting up package data which does not change for the duration of a session.Package Initialization Structure  The initialization section: ± Is defined after and outside of any programs in the package.  Useful for: ± Performing complex setting of default or initial values. PACKAGE BODY pkg IS PROCEDURE proc IS BEGIN END. BEGIN END pkg.page 8 . most packages you build won't have one.

*/ 'Y'. END sessinit. ± Body contains only initialization section. */ SELECT lov_flag. printer VARCHAR2(60). printer FROM user_config WHERE user_id = USER.tst this user.. 'No profile for ' || USER). defprinter INTO show_lov. WHEN OTHERS THEN RAISE_APPLICATION_ERROR (-20000. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Also a package with many design flaws.page 9 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . tb_flag.Configure Session with Init. 'lpt1'. show_toolbar. EXCEPTION WHEN NO_DATA_FOUND THEN /* No record for show_lov := show_toolbar := printer := PACKAGE sessinit IS show_lov CHAR(1).. PACKAGE BODY sessinit IS /* No declared package elements at all! */ BEGIN /* Get user preferences for this user. Section  An unusual package! ± Specification contains only variables. END sessinit. 'Y'.pkg init. init. show_toolbar CHAR(1).

employs several PL/SQL tables to convert strings and to perform date arithmetic. datemgr. PLVdate. .sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . fmts(2) := 'DD-MON-YYYY'. Initialization section populates a PL/SQL table. fmts(12) := 'RRMMDD'. fmts(10) := 'MMDDYYYY'. fmts(9) := 'MM/DD/YYYY'. fmts(4) := 'MM/DD'. fmts(3) := 'DD-MON'. ± The datemgr. fmt_count := 12. BEGIN fmts(1) := 'DD-MON-RR'.pkg file demonstrates the basic technique (and the reliance on an initialization section) used to achieve this flexibility. fmts(11) := 'YYYYMMDD'. END dt.Populate Collections  The PL/Vision Date package. ± This increases the flexibility of the date conversion process.page 10 .pkg dates...

myproc myproc 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Program Overloading  When you overload programs. ± You can overload modules in any declaration section and in packages.page 11 . ± Overloading transfers the "need to know" from the user to the overloaded program. you need to make that code as smart and as easy to use as possible. ± If you want others to use your code. you give two or more programs the same name. myproc  Overloading is a critical feature when building comprehensive programmatic interfaces (APIs) or components using packages.

± But Oracle couldn't offer that level of convenience without overloading. number_string := TO_CHAR_FROM_NUMBER (10000). number_string := TO_CHAR (10000). you would have to deal with something like this: date_string := TO_CHAR_FROM_DATE (SYSDATE.page 12 . Without overloading. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 'MMDDYY'). 'MMDDYY'). date_string := TO_CHAR (SYSDATE. ± You just probably never gave it a thought. and took functions like TO_CHAR and TO_DATE totally for granted.Overloading in PL/SQL Built-ins  PL/SQL uses overloading in many common functions.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . When you compile programs that use the overloaded code. OUT.  Distinguishing characteristics: ± The formal parameters of overloaded modules must differ in number. When you compile the package or block containing the overloaded code. the compiler must be able to distinguish between the two calls at compile-time. There are two different "compile times": ± 1. IN OUT).  Undistinguishing characteristics: ± Functions differ only in their RETURN datatype. ± 2. order or datatype family (CHAR vs.How Overloading Works  For two or more modules to be overloaded. VARCHAR2 is not different enough). ± Their formal parameters differ only in datatype and the datatypes are in the same family. ± The programs are of different types: procedure and function. ± Arguments differ only in their mode (IN.page 13 .

which one? param_modes. PROCEDURE calc (reg_in IN VARCHAR2). Only difference is function RETURN type.calc ('123'). PROCEDURE proc1 (val IN OUT VARCHAR2). which one? too_similar. Only difference is parameter mode.proc1 (v_value). END only_returns.func1 (v_value)). Parameter data types cause conflict.page 14 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . which one? DBMS_OUTPUT. FUNCTION func1 (val IN VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2.Examples of Invalid Overloadings PACKAGE too_similar IS PROCEDURE calc (reg_in IN CHAR). END param_modes. PACKAGE param_modes IS PROCEDURE proc1 (val IN VARCHAR2).PUT_LINE (only_returns. END too_many_cals. PACKAGE only_returns IS FUNCTION func1 (val IN VARCHAR2) RETURN DATE.

l substitute does an even better job. In this case.PUT_LINE procedure illustrates this technique -and the PL/Vision p. not Value ± A less common application of overloading. ± The DBMS_OUTPUT.page 15 . so much as providing different ways of requesting the same activity.  Overloading by Type. the overloading does not provide a single name for different activities. you may construct different versions of the ³same´ program which correspond to different patterns of use.Overload Wherever Possible  Supporting Many Data Combinations ± Apply the same action to different kinds or combinations of data. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Fitting the Program to the User ± To make your code as useful as possible. You use the type of data and not its value to determine which of the overloaded programs should be executed.

PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2). PROCEDURE l (number_in IN NUMBER). mask_in IN VARCHAR2 := 'Month DD. YYYY . boolean_in IN BOOLEAN).A "Classic" Overloaded Package  Many different datatype combinations. PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2.sps p.HH:MI:SS PM'). END p. PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2. PACKAGE p IS PROCEDURE l (date_in IN DATE.page 16 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2.spb PROCEDURE l (boolean_in IN BOOLEAN). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . date_in IN DATE. p. mask_in IN VARCHAR2 := µMonth DD. allowing the user to pass data to the "display engine" without writing "pre-processing" code.HH:MI:SS PM'). number_in IN NUMBER). YYYY .

PUT_LINE (SQLERRM || ': ' || TO_CHAR (SQLCODE)).. DBMS_OUTPUT.page 17 . ELSE DBMS_OUTPUT. p.PUT_LINE ('So what is different?'). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .PUT_LINE ('TRUE'). 'MM/DD/YY HH:MI:SS')). END IF.Advantage of Extended Overloading ‡ Minimal overloading means lots of extra coding.l (SQLERRM. DBMS_OUTPUT. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein ‡Extended overloadings are more likely to meet user needs. SQLCODE).l (SYSDATE).l ('So what is different?').PUT_LINE (TO_CHAR (SYSDATE. p. p.PUT_LINE ('FALSE'). IF print_report_fl THEN DBMS_OUTPUT.l (print_report_fl).. p. DBMS_OUTPUT.

and taken completely for granted.Fitting the Program to the User Writing "unnecessary" code? Time to overload!  A single piece of functionality. In my experience.page 18   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . think about the way it will be used. ± Your code is a a more natural "fit" under a variety of requirements. the user of your package can benefit from writing less code. few developers are considerate enough of their users to try to anticipate their needs. can be applied or needed under very different circumstances. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .. If you take these different circumstances into account when you design your package specification. ± If you want to write software that is admired. such as "display data" or "create a file".. appreciated.

UTL_FILE. right? WRONG! PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 'W'). BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE. END.PUT_LINE (fid.  In other words. It just needs to be present. ± Here is the code required by UTL_FILE: DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.FCLOSE (fid). 'blah').Creating a File for a Quick Touch  Suppose a developer needs to create a file to be used as a "flag" in the operating system. ± She doesn't care what's in it. UTL_FILE.flg'.FOPEN ('tmp/flags'. so this is just the way it has to be.page 19  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . even though you are simply going to close the file immediately after opening it. you have to declare the record to hold the file handle. Of course. sometimes you will want to create a file and then perform additional operations.FILE_TYPE. 'exists.

fcreate ('temp. line_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL). END PLVfile. TO_CHAR (SYSDATE)).put_line (fid.Procedure and Function Overloaded  Why not overload a "create file" program so that you can pick the one that most closely fits your situation? Consider the PLVfile package of PL/Vision. BEGIN fid := PLVfile. custrules. PLVfile. /* Function */ FUNCTION fcreate (file_in IN VARCHAR2. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Use as Function DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.FILE_TYPE.flg').fcreate ('exists. v_user). Use as Procedure BEGIN PLVfile.FILE_TYPE.  Overloading of FCreate PACKAGE PLVfile IS /* Procedure */ PROCEDURE fcreate (file_in IN VARCHAR2.pkg PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . line_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) RETURN UTL_FILE.page 20 .ini'. END.

but the type of data. ± Pass a piece of data of the right type. you must call the DEFINE_COLUMN procedure to define the datatype of the Nth column in the cursor.  There are three ways to accomplish this: ± Don't overload. Define a different program name for each datatype. ± For example. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ."By-Type" Overloading  In some situations. the user does not need to pass data. ± Pass a string ³name´ of the datatype. when you use DBMS_SQL to set up a dynamic query.page 21 .

30). 'STRING'...DEFINE_COLUMN (cur..  So many program names to remember! Pass a literal value.. 2.page 22 . DBMS_SQL.VARCHAR2_TYPE. 2. 1. DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_INTEGER_COLUMN (cur. DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL.NUMBER_TYPE).  Now let's look at two examples of overloading by datatype.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. 30).. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. BEGIN DBMS_SQL..DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.. lotsa names... Lotsa typing.DEFINE_COLUMN ± PLVgen.. 1. 30). BEGIN DBMS_SQL..func 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 2. Pass a named constant. ± DBMS_SQL. 'NUMBER').DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. 1). DBMS_SQL.Options for Specifying Column Type  Don't even bother overloading.  Nasty hard-coding..DEFINE_VARCHAR2_COLUMN (cur.

of the correct type.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. DBMS_SQL. 1). BEGIN DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. 30). ± The three code blocks below are equivalent. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. v_empno). BEGIN DBMS_SQL. USER.DEFINE_COLUMN. 30).any value -.GET_TIME). 2.DEFINE_COLUMN procedure defines the datatype of a column. ± To make it easier to accomplish this task. 2.page 23 . 2. 30). 1.Defining Dynamic SQL Columns  The DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 1. DBMS_UTILITY.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. 1. from the perspective of DBMS_SQL. 'a'. you only need to pass a value -. v_ename. DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.

page 24 . Any number. 1) A date function. SYSDATE) SQL> exec plvgen. any Boolean will do.func ('total_salary'. PROCEDURE func (name_in IN VARCHAR2. type_in IN NUMBER). any string. SQL> exec plvgen. type_in IN VARCHAR2). PACKAGE PLVgen IS PROCEDURE func (name_in IN VARCHAR2. please! A number function. please! 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Generating Functions by Value  In PLVgen.func ('last_date'. ± The particular value itself is of no importance. PROCEDURE func (name_in IN VARCHAR2. any date. the user indicates the type of function to be generated by providing a value. type_in IN DATE).

PACKAGE profits IS PROCEDURE calc (comp_id_IN IN NUMBER). END. ± When I compile profits.comp_id%TYPE). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  In the above example. but you might later found out that you cannot actually call any of the overloaded programs. I rely on an anchored type (%TYPE) to establish the datatype of the second calc¶s parameter.page 25 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .The Frustrations of Overloading  Watch out! An overloading can compile successfully. PL/SQL does not sense a conflict with above overloading even though comp_id is a numeric column. PROCEDURE calc (comp_id_IN IN company.

why not? ± If so.calc_total ('NORTHWEST').pkg ? 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Quiz! Nuances of Overloading PACKAGE sales IS PROCEDURE calc_total (zone_in IN VARCHAR2). sales. END sales.calc_total ('ZONE2').page 26 . like calc_totals shown above? ± If not. END. sales.  Can I overload two programs which have parameters that differ only by name. how would you do it? (Don't peek at the next page!) BEGIN sales. PROCEDURE calc_total (reg_in IN VARCHAR2).

''ESTIMATE''.ANALYZE_OBJECT ' || '(''TABLE''.''LOAD1''.'. interval => 'TRUNC(SYSDATE+1)'). This is especially useful when working with infrequently used built-in programs.submit ( job => v_jobno.estimate_percent=>50).page 27 .''TENK''' || '. what => 'DBMS_DDL. DBMS_JOB. of named notation include: ± Code is more "self-documenting". That way you don't have to know and pass default values. namednot.Using Named Notation <formal parameter name> => <expression>  Explicit association between the formal parameter (the "name") with the actual parameter (the "value").sql  Advantages 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .null. ± You can skip over (not specify values for) any IN parameters that have default values. next_date => TRUNC (SYSDATE + 1).

page 28 . originally called PL/SQL tables) ± Nested tables (Oracle8 and above) ± Variable arrays (VARRAYs. Three types of collections: ± Index-by tables (Oracle7 only. Oracle8 and above) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence PL/SQL Collections   Collections are single-dimensioned lists of information.

which are otherwise not supported in PL/SQL Cache data in session-level memory for faster access.When to Use Collections  Maintain any kind of list of related information for use in your programs.page 29     1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Avoid mutating table errors in database triggers.  Emulate bi-directional cursors. Build hash tables (custom indexing structures). Improve query performance by avoiding joins.

483. ± Sparse » Data does not have to be stored in consecutive rows of information.Index-By Tables TYPE <table_type> IS TABLE OF <datatype> INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. Instead. ± Available only in PL/SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . emp_copy inmem_emp_t.647 to 2.  Characteristics of an index-by table: ± Unbounded » Practically speaking. DECLARE TYPE inmem_emp_t IS TABLE OF emp%ROWTYPE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. ± Homogeneous » Data in each row has the same structure.647 » You will not actually create tables this large.147. this broad range allows you to employ the row number as an intelligent key.page 30 . Valid row numbers range: -2.147.483.

children 6306 6412 6810 6904 µBarbara Anne¶ µGary Richard¶ µAdam Russell¶ µLisa Nadezhka¶ datemgr.page 31 .Index_by Tables TYPE declaration PACKAGE BODY family IS TYPE child_list_type IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2 (30) INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. Variable declaration children child_list_type. Component Selection kid := children (4). Error: NO_DATA_FOUND 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .pkg children 6306 6412 6904 µBarbara Anne¶ µGary Richard¶ µLisa Marie¶ children (6810) := µAdam Russell. children (6904) := 'Lisa Nadezhka'.

page 32 .  Nested table characteristics ± Homogeneous » Each row contains the same structure of data. but can become sparse if you DELETE inner rows ± Available both in PL/SQL and SQL (as a column in a table) ± The order of elements is not preserved in the database 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Valid row numbers range: 1 to 2.147.647 ± Initially dense.Nested Tables [CREATE OR REPLACE] TYPE <table_type> IS TABLE OF <datatype> [NOT NULL]. ± Unbounded. DECLARE TYPE when_t IS TABLE OF DATE.483. but only with explicit EXTEND requests » Practically speaking. birthdays when_t.

kids child_table_type) NESTED TABLE kids STORE AS kids_ntab.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . CREATE TABLE db_family (surname VARCHAR2 (30). For ORACLE's use only db_family surname kids BOLZ BOND Eric Thomas Max Richard Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Marie ntdemo.page 33 .Nested Tables CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE child_table_type IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2 (30).

salaries numbers_t.483. ± Bounded » Upper limit established when the TYPE is defined. ± Available both in PL/SQL and SQL (as a column in a table) » And the order of elements are preserved in the database.647 ± Dense » Never any gaps between defined rows. can be EXTENDed or TRIMmed. Maximum value: 2. ± Variable arrays are actually stored in the DB table 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 34 .Variable Arrays [CREATE OR REPLACE] TYPE <table_type> IS VARRAY (N) OF <datatype> [NOT NULL]. DECLARE TYPE numbers_t IS VARRAY (10) OF NUMBER.147.  Characteristics of variable arrays: ± Homogeneous » Each row contains the same structure of data.

Variable Arrays CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE child_va_type IS VARRAY (8) OF VARCHAR2 (30). CREATE TABLE db_family (surname VARCHAR2 (30).sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . kids child_va_type).page 35 . db_family surname kids BOLZ BOND 1 Barbara Anne 2 Gary Richard 3 Lisa Marie 1 Eric Thomas 2 Max Richard vademo.

TYPE integer_nt IS TABLE OF INTEGER.  Then you declare an instance of that type. you can define the TYPE in the database with a CREATE statement. . CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE tabtypes IS TYPE integer_ibt IS TABLE OF INTEGER INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. or in a PL/SQL declaration section.. Best option: package specification. ± You can declare multiple collections from that TYPE. from the TYPE.Defining Collections  First.page 36 . END tabtypes. ± For nested tables and VARRAYs. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . TYPE integer_vat IS VARRAY(10) OF INTEGER. you define the TYPE of the collection. this can only occur in a PL/SQL declaration section. ± For index-by tables.. a collection.

owner = USER T.elem_type_name = A.owner = A.Obtaining Collection Information SELECT FROM WHERE AND AND AND A. ± The code used to define the collection TYPE  There is no information in the data dictionary available for index-by tables. colldd.page 37 .type_name IN ('NAMES_VT'.owner T.  ALL_COLL_TYPES ± The types you have created (or have access to) in the database  ALL_TYPE_ATTRS ± Attributes of the data type used in the TYPE definition.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .attr_name || ' .' || A.attr_type_name Attributes all_coll_types T. all_type_attrs A T.type_name. 'TMRS_VT') T.

BEGIN CREATE TABLE employee_denorm ( employee_id INTEGER. 200. it must be initialized. 300). / DECLARE -. 200. salary_history numbers_t). You must initialize them explicitly with a constructor. 300). ± Nested tables and VARRAYs are atomically null.page 38 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . ± Index-by tables are initialized automatically. TYPE defined in PL/SQL TYPE defined in the database Collection used in a table PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . BEGIN CREATE TYPE numbers_t IS VARRAY (10) OF NUMBER. salaries numbers_t := numbers_t (100. salaries numbers_t := numbers_t (100. DECLARE TYPE numbers_t IS VARRAY (10) OF NUMBER. empty when declared.Initialize the collection.Initializing Collections  Before you can use a collection.

± Can easily create an index-by table with the same structure as a database table by declaring a record with %ROWTYPE. consider putting TYPEs in database or packages. BEGIN comp_tab(1).3. the ³homogeneous´ contents of an index-by table's row can be a record . Again. TYPE comp_tabtype IS TABLE OF comp_rectype INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. comp_tab comp_tabtype.company_id%TYPE. the datatype for any of the collection types can also be an object. Here we have a three step process.Collections of Composites  Starting with Oracle 7. ± But you cannot have nested composite datatypes.  Starting with Oracle8.page 39 . DECLARE TYPE comp_rectype IS RECORD (comp_id company. total_rev NUMBER). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .comp_id := 1005.

± You should not fill sequentially. a row exists in the table only when a value is assigned to that row. ± Instead. ± In an index-by table. it is very similar to a database table. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . unless the order in which items are selected is of importance.Sparse is Nice  The sparse characteristic of index-by tables and nested tables can be put to good use. your collections will contain a row's worth of information. order by date.  Especially handy when caching data from relational tables in user memory. etc.page 40 . In this way. ± In almost every case. consider using the row value as "smart data" for your application (primary key.  Rows do not have to be defined sequentially.).

Initialization section of package 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein  This package moves the entire contents of the emp table into its corresponding collection. emp_tab emp_tabtype.Transferring DB Table to Collection CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE psemp IS TYPE emp_tabtype IS TABLE OF emp%ROWTYPE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER.empno) := rec.page 41 . END.tst  PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .pkg psemp. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY psemp IS BEGIN FOR rec IN (SELECT * FROM emp) LOOP emp_tab (rec. END. END LOOP. Some questions: ± Why would I put this collection table in a package? ± When is the collection loaded with the data? ± What rows in that collection are utilized? psemp.

Jordan'. once extended. / DECLARE greedy_ceos names_t := names_t ().  For index-by tables. ± For VARRAYs and nested tables. ± Use the EXISTS method to determine if a row existed. but you must do it for VARRAYs and nested tables.page 42 .Collection Gotchas CREATE TYPE names_t IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2(30). END. ± Not necessary for index-by tables. / Error -6533! You've got to EXTEND first!  EXTEND before assigning a value to a row. the row exists. BEGIN greedy_ceos(1) := 'Hamilton. even if you haven't assigned a value explicitly. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . you must reference existing rows or a NO_DATA_FOUND exception is raised.

').EXISTS (v_employee_id) THEN -. -. ELSE DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE ('Data for employee not available.Set the value of each new row to the contents of the first row. ± Assign a default value with a second.We are OK. preextend. salaries(salaries.  You can EXTEND one or more rows.Handling Collection Gotchas BEGIN -. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . salaries.tst  Include a handler for NO_DATA_FOUND or use the EXISTS method to avoid these exceptions. BEGIN IF salaries. END IF.page 43 . optional argument.Extend by 10 since I know I will need that many.EXTEND (10.FIRST)). ± Pre-extending a large number of rows in advance can improve performance.

± LIMIT tells you the max. number of elements allowed in a VARRAY.page 44 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .  The built-in package plitblm (PL/sql Index-TaBLe Methods) defines these methods. FIRST/LAST return lowest/highest numbers of defined rows. NEXT/PRIOR return the closest defined row after/before the specified row. ± ± ± ±  Modify the contents of the collection ± DELETE deletes one or more rows from the index-by table. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± TRIM removes rows from a VARRAY. ± EXTEND adds rows to a nested table or VARRAY. EXISTS returns TRUE if the specified row is defined.Collection Methods  Obtain information about the collection COUNT returns number of rows currently defined in the table.

Delete a range of rows myCollection.FREE_UNUSED_USER_MEMORY.Delete one (the last) row myCollection. -. DELETE releases memory.DELETE (myCollection.DELETE. but you may also want to call DBMS_SESSION. 17255). END.LAST). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .The DELETE Method  You can delete one or more rows from a collection using DELETE: BEGIN -.page 45 . -.Delete all rows myCollection.DELETE (1400.

Navigating Through Collections 


Use FIRST and NEXT to move from beginning to end. Use LAST and PRIOR to move from end to beginning.
rowind PLS_INTEGER := birthdays.FIRST; -- birthdays.LAST BEGIN LOOP EXIT WHEN rowind IS NULL; DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE (birthdays(rowind).best_present); rowind := birthdays.NEXT (rowind); -- birthdays.PRIOR END LOOP; END;

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Using Collections Inside SQL 

Nested tables and VARRAYs can be defined as columns of a table and referenced directly within SQL. You can also apply SQL operations to the contents of nested tables and VARRAYs with these operators:
± THE - Maps a single column value in a single row to a virtual database table ± CAST - Maps a collection of one type to a collection of another type ± MULTISET - Maps a database table to a collection ± TABLE - Maps a collection to a database table  

Index-by tables are programmatic constructs only.
± You cannot make a direct reference to an index-by table in SQL. ± Instead, so do indirectly with a PL/SQL function.

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Using Collections inside SQL
SELECT column_value FROM TABLE (SELECT children FROM db_family WHERE surname = 'BOLZ'); db_family surname children BOLZ BOND Eric Thomas Max Richard UPDATE TABLE (SELECT children FROM db_family WHERE SURNAME = 'BOLZ) SET column_value = 'Lisa Nadezhka' WHERE column_value = 'Lisa Marie'); db_family surname children BOLZ ...
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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 48

Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Marie

column_value Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Marie

Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Nadezhka

Using the THE Operator 

Use THE to manipulate (retrieve, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE) contents of a nested table in a database table.
± Can only use with nested tables, not VARRAYs or index-by tables. ± Only accessible from within SQL statements in PL/SQL.
CREATE TYPE action_list_t IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2(100); / CREATE TABLE inflation_beater ( focus_area VARCHAR2(100), activities action_list_t) NESTED TABLE activities STORE AS activities_tab; SELECT VALUE (act) FROM THE (SELECT activities FROM inflation_beater WHERE focus_area = 'FORTUNE 100') act; UPDATE THE (SELECT activities FROM inflation_beater WHERE focus_area = 'FORTUNE 100') SET COLUMN_VALUE = 'DISBAND OSHA' WHERE COLUMN_VALUE = 'SIDESTEP OSHA';

the.sql

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Using the TABLE and CAST Operators 

Use CAST to convert a collection from one type to another, TABLE to convert a TYPE into a database table.
± Cannot use with index-by tables. ± Useful when you would like to apply SQL operations against a PL/SQL collection (ie, one not stored in a database table).
DECLARE nyc_devolution cutbacks_for_taxcuts := cutbacks_for_taxcuts ('Stop rat extermination programs', 'Fire building inspectors', 'Close public hospitals'); BEGIN DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE ( 'How to Make the NYC Rich Much, Much Richer:'); FOR rec IN (SELECT COLUMN_VALUE ohmy FROM TABLE (CAST (nyc_devolution AS cutbacks_for_taxcuts))) LOOP DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE (rec.ohmy); END LOOP; cast.sql END;

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species. with potential client-server performance impact. converting a set of data (table.genus AND bh. END. Retrieves all detail bird_row bird_curs%ROWTYPE. query) into a VARRAY or nested table. information for the BEGIN master in one trip. multiset. ± You can use MULTISET to emulate or transform relational joins into collections. view.species = b. OPEN bird_curs.Using the MULTISET Operator  MULTISET is the inverse of TABLE. CAST(MULTISET(SELECT bh.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .genus = b.species) AS country_tab_t) FROM birds b.country FROM bird_habitats bh WHERE bh.page 51 .genus. FETCH bird_curs into bird_row. ± Cannot use with index-by tables. b. DECLARE CURSOR bird_curs IS SELECT b.

Make accessible in SQL for Oracle8 and below.page 52 . PRAGMA RESTRICT_REFERENCES (rowval. END. call functions that retrieve the table's data. WNPS. hiredates date_tab. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein ibtab_in_sql. WNDS).  CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE ibtab IS FUNCTION rowval (indx IN PLS_INTEGER) RETURN DATE.sql PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END. FUNCTION rowval (indx IN PLS_INTEGER) RETURN DATE IS BEGIN RETURN hiredates (indx). CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY ibtab IS TYPE date_tab IS TABLE OF DATE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. END. but hide the index-by table structure. Instead.Referencing IB Tables inside SQL  You can't directly reference an index-by table's contents inside SQL.

page 53 .  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Examples of Collections in Action  Emulation of bi-directional cursor operations Avoid mutating table problems in database triggers.

Notice that the collection itself is hidden.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE bidir IS /* Iterate through rows in the result set */ PROCEDURE setRow (nth IN PLS_INTEGER).page 54 .nope. deposit your data in a collection and then provide programs to access that data in the necessary fashion. PROCEDURE prevRow. END. FUNCTION getRow RETURN employee_plus%ROWTYPE.Bi-Directional Cursor Emulation  Oracle does not yet support the ability to move back and forth (and at random) through a cursor's result set. ± A talked-about feature for Oracle9i -. PROCEDURE nextRow.  bidir. didn't make it!  Instead.pkg bidir. This is particularly useful (read: efficient) when you need to perform multiple passes against the data.

The Mutating Table Problem  Database triggers can be attached to the SQL statement and/or the individual row operations on a table.sql  Note: in Oracle8i. So what are you supposed to do when a row-level operation needs to "touch" that table? mutating. you can use autonomous transactions to relax restrictions associated with queries. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . it is "mutating".page 55 . Statement Level UPDATE emp SET sal = 1000 UPDATE row 1 Row Level  UPDATE row N Row level triggers cannot query from or change the contents of the table to which it is attached.

you have to remember what you needed to do. ± an index-by table is an ideal repository for this reminder list.A Solution Based on Index-by Tables  Since you cannot perform the processing desired in the row-level trigger. 1st row trigger fires Nth row trigger fires Writes to list Writes to list Work List (PL/SQL Table)  Process data in the list. If you are going to defer the work. Statement Trigger 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 56 . you need to defer the action until you get to the statement level.

the rankings must also change to show the new standings for that department only.91 109000.25 3 1 2 6 "Deferred work" is not only necessary. ± By storing the salesperson¶s department ids as they change. ± We might update more than one department within a statement so we must be able to retain multiple department numbers. we then know which departments to re-rank. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .25 65011. Department ID Salesperson ID Sales Amount Rank 1055 1055 1055 1047  64333 65709 65706 70904 74055.An Example: Ranking Salespeople  A table holds the rankings based on the amount of annual sales of salespeople within a department. but preferable.page 57 . ± As the sales amount is updated in this table.88 144533.

Statement Level Trigger CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER Rank_Sales_Strg AFTER INSERT OR UPDATE OR DELETE ON rank_sales BEGIN rank.page 58 .sales_amt) BEGIN rank.add_dept (:new.dept_id). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .sales_amt != NEW. Doesn't fire unless the sales_amt is actually changed.pkg All details of the ranking are hidden in the package body. ranking. END. END.Trigger Logic Required Row Level Trigger CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER Rank_Sales_Rtrg AFTER insert OR update OF sales_amt ON rank_sales FOR EACH ROW WHEN (OLD.rank_depts.

The Ranking Package PACKAGE rank IS PROCEDURE add_dept (dept_id_in IN INTEGER). Table holds indicator that department needs re-ranking. END add_dept 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Create row to indicate department to be ranked.page 59 . TYPE dept_tabtype IS TABLE OF BOOLEAN INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. END rank. PROCEDURE rank_depts. END IF. dept_tab dept_tabtype. PROCEDURE add_dept (dept_id_in IN INTEGER) IS BEGIN IF NOT in_process THEN dept_tab (dept_id_in) := TRUE. PACKAGE BODY rank IS in_process BOOLEAN := FALSE. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

in_process := FALSE. BEGIN IF NOT in_process THEN in_process := TRUE.NEXT (v_deptid). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Avoid recursive execution of logic Row number is department number. LOOP EXIT WHEN v_deptid IS NULL. v_deptid := dept_tab. Continued PROCEDURE rank_depts IS v_deptid PLS_INTEGER := dept_tab.DELETE.FIRST.page 60 . END IF.The Ranking Package. END rank. END LOOP. perform_ranking (v_deptid). dept_tab. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END rank_dept. Clean up for next time.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . You want to use inside SQL.Which Collection Type Should I Use?  Index-by tables ± Need to use in both Oracle7 and Oracle8 applications ± Want to take advantage of sparse nature for "intelligent keys".page 61 . You don't want to have to worry about sparseness. Set of data is relatively small (avoid row chaining).  VARRAYs ± ± ± ± You want to preserve the order in which elements are stored.  Nested tables ± You want to store large amounts of persistent data in a column. ± You want to use inside SQL.

Tips for Using Collections 

Wrap access to your collections.
± In many cases, you will want to avoid direct access to (assigning and retrieving) rows in your collections. ± This will give you the flexibility to change your implementation. ± You can also hide complex rules for setting the row number. 

Get creative!
± Don't always fill and use the index-by table sequentially. ± If you can somehow translate your application data to an integer, it can be used as a row number, and therefore offers indexed access. ± Julian date formats and DBMS_UTILITY.GET_HASH_VALUE offer two different methods.

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Achieving PL/SQL Excellence

Cursor Variables

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Architecture of Cursor Variables
With Hard-Coded Cursors
Hard-Coded Cursor

With Cursor Variables

PGA

Cursor Variable

Cursor Variable

Result Set

Shared Global Area

Cursor Object

Result Set 

A cursor variable points to an underlying cursor object in the database.
± The cursor object in turns points to (and keeps its place in) a result set. 

The cursor variable can be passed between programs (even between, say, a Java servlet and a PL/SQL stored procedure).
± Static SQL only -- until Oracle8i.
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1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

Benefits of Cursor Variables 

Share cursor management between programs, even across the client-server divide.
± You don't have to pass the result sets of a cursor in order to allow the client-side program to have direct access to the data in the result set. ± Oracle Developer 2.1 utilizes cursor variables when you choose to construct a "base table block" around stored procedures instead of a database table. 

Share the same code across multiple, different queries.
± Since the cursor name is no longer hard-coded, you can use a single block of code (say, a reporting program) against different queries. ± We will try out this technique at the end of the section.

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Cursor Variable Example
DECLARE TYPE company_curtype IS REF CURSOR RETURN company%ROWTYPE;
Declare a variable cursor TYPE.

company_curvar company_curtype;

Declare cursor variable based on that type. Declare a record from cursor variable. OPEN cursor variable, specifying the query. FETCH from the cursor variable.

company_rec company_curvar%ROWTYPE; BEGIN OPEN company_curvar FOR SELECT * FROM company;

FETCH company_curvar INTO company_rec;
Close the cursor variable.

CLOSE company_curvar; END;
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Explicit Cursors and Cursor Variables 

Both hard-coded cursors and cursor variables work with static SQL.
± The SQL is fixed at compile-time. ± The difference is that with cursor variables, you get to decide which static query is opened. 

Many cursor operations are the same:
± Close a variable cursor with the same syntax as that for static cursors. ± Use cursor attributes (%ISOPEN, %FOUND, %NOTFOUND, %ROWCOUNT) with cursor variables (as of Release 2.3). ± Fetch data from the cursor result set through a cursor variable with the same syntax as that of static cursors. 

Let¶s focus on the new and different capabilities of cursor variables.
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Declaring Cursor Types and Variables 

Cursors are declared in two steps, just like programmerdefined records and PL/SQL tables.
± 1. Define a cursor TYPE -- either "weak" or "strong". ± 2. Define a cursor variable.
DECLARE TYPE weak_curtype IS REF CURSOR; TYPE comp_curtype IS REF CURSOR RETURN company%ROWTYPE; curcmp_new comp_curtype; cur_any weak_curtype; BEGIN
Declare cursor variables from the TYPEs. Declare a STRONG referenced cursor TYPE. Declare a WEAK referenced cursor TYPE.

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Strong vs. Weak Cursor Types 

A strong (or constrained) cursor type has a defined return data specification.
± Can only reference cursor objects which return the same data specification, which can be any single SQL datatype or any previously defined record structure. ± Datatype mismatches are identified at compile time.

TYPE cur_typ_name IS REF CURSOR [ RETURN return_type ]; TYPE cur_typ_name IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE; /* Strong */ 

The weak (or unconstrained) cursor type does not have a RETURN clause.
± It can reference any cursor object, be opened FOR any query. ± Datatype mismatches can only be identified at runtime.

TYPE cur_typ_name IS REF CURSOR; /* Weak */
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Opening with the Cursor Variable
OPEN cursor_name FOR select_statement; 

When you open a cursor variable (whether of the weak or strong variety), you must provide the SQL query that identifies the result set.
± If the variable has not yet been assigned to cursor object, the OPEN FOR statement implicitly creates an object for the variable. ± If the variable is already pointing to a cursor object, the OPEN FOR reuses the existing object and attaches the new query to that cursor object. 

Remember, the cursor object is nothing more than a memory location.
± It is maintained independently of the query itself.
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. a cursor or a programmer-defined record. ± You can establish the return type based on a database table.  STRONG cursor data specifications must match or be compatible with the structure of the SELECT statement.page 71 . emp_curvar emp_curtype. . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Opening with Strong Cursor Types DECLARE TYPE emp_curtype IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE. END.. Match Needed BEGIN OPEN emp_curvar FOR SELECT * from emp.

FUNCTION open_emp_or_dept (get_type_in IN VARCHAR2) RETURN pkg.page 72 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . BEGIN IF get_type_in = µEMP¶ THEN Either query will "do". OPEN retval FOR SELECT * FROM emp.Opening with Weak Cursor Types PACKAGE pkg IS TYPE cv_type IS REF CURSOR.  A weak cursor TYPE doesn't define the RETURN structure. you can associate any SELECT statement with a weak cursor variable. Verification will take ELSIF get_type_in = µDEPT¶ place at the FETCH. END. THEN OPEN retval FOR SELECT * FROM dept. END IF.cv_type. END.cv_type IS retval pkg. REF TYPE placed in package so that it is "globally" available. RETURN retval.

  Compatibility checks are performed prior to fetching row. mismatch.  Fetching with cursor variables follows the same rules as those with static cursors.Fetching from the Cursor Variable FETCH cursor_var_name INTO record_name. it match the cursor type data specification. .page 73 . ± The ROWTYPE_MISMATCH exception is raised on failure. ± Fetching can continue with a different INTO clause. FETCH cursor_var_name INTO var_name. it match the OPEN FOR statement structure. The INTO structure must match in number and datatype to: ± FOR STRONG cursor types.. var_name.. ± FOR WEAK cursor types.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..

since cursor names are "hard coded".page 74 . but static cursors are more efficient than dynamic SQL and cursor variables are less complicated than DBMS_SQL.  hccursor. ± You could use dynamic SQL to achieve this effect. ± With explicit cursors. ± JDBC recognizes cursor variables.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Define a base table block in Forms Builder (formerly Oracle Forms) on stored procedures rather than a table directly. Use a single block of code to manipulate multiple queries.When to Use Cursor Variables  Make it easier for calling programs (especially non-PL/SQL programs) to manipulate result sets. you have to repeat the code for each cursor.

bysal CONSTANT INTEGER := 2.pkg allcurs.Consolidating Different Cursors  The following package specification hides the SQL behind a single open function. TYPE cv_t IS REF CURSOR RETURN int_rt. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE allcurs IS bydept CONSTANT INTEGER := 1.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . FUNCTION open (type_in IN INTEGER) RETURN cv_t.tst explcv.page 75 . ± It also creates the data structures you will need to call the function. END. TYPE int_rt IS RECORD (key INTEGER). / allcurrs.

page 76 . ELSIF type_in = bysal THEN OPEN retval FOR SELECT empno FROM emp ORDER BY SAL. END.Consolidating Different Cursors  The open function simply opens FOR a different SELECT based on the criteria passed to it. END IF. END. RETURN retval. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . BEGIN IF type_in = bydept THEN OPEN retval FOR SELECT empno FROM emp ORDER BY deptno. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY allcurs IS FUNCTION open (type_in IN INTEGER) RETURN cv_t IS retval cv_t.

DECLARE cv allcurs.l (v_empno).cv_t. LOOP FETCH cv INTO v_empno. END. p. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . change the ORDER BY clause -without having to change the code you write. EXIT WHEN cv%NOTFOUND. BEGIN cv := allcurs.in this case.open (&1).Hiding SQL Variations in Resulting Code  The following block demonstrates that you can alter which SQL statement to query -. END LOOP.page 77 "Report processor" is independent of the particular SELECT .empno%TYPE. CLOSE cv. v_empno emp.

page 78 . unconstrained type.  Strong and Weak Types ± Create REF CURSORs for specific queries.  Improve Client-Side Access to Data ± At least in Oracle Developer 2.1. you can build screens that access data using a cursor variable-based procedural API.Cursor Variables Let's summarize  Flexibility ± Choose which static SQL statement is executed at run-time. or a more general.  Hide Variations in Underlying SQL ± You no longer have to repeat the same code for different cursors. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Dynamic SQL  Dynamic SQL and dynamic PL/SQL: ± The DBMS_SQL package ± Native dynamic SQL in Oracle8i 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 79 .

1 and DBMS_SQL.  Execute dynamically-constructed PL/SQL programs. ± Construct powerful DBA utilities. you no longer have to write SQL to generate SQL to get your job done.page 80 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .  Execute DDL inside PL/SQL programs. ± Available in PL/SQL since Release 2. What can you do with Dynamic SQL?  Build ad-hoc query and update applications.Dynamic SQL and PL/SQL Execution  "Dynamic SQL" mean that you construct the SQL statement or PL/SQL block at runtime and then execute it. ± Also supported with "native dynamic SQL" in Oracle8i. ± One example: implement indirect referencing in PL/SQL. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Very common requirement on the Web.

Method 2: non-queries with a fixed number of host variables.page 81 . Method 3: queries with a fixed number of items in the SELECT list and a fixed number of host variables.Four Methods of Dynamic SQL   Method 1: non-queries without host variables. If you can recognize the types. ± NDS does not support method 4. execute one or more times. you can more quickly figure out how to code your solution.    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . executed a single time. Method 4: queries with a variable number of items in the SELECT list and/or non-queries with a variable number of host variables. These methods are in increasing order of complexity. ± Different methods require the use of different programs in DBMS_SQL.

and relatively slow (performance did improve significantly as of Oracle8). used for DDL.  The new "native dynamic SQL" or NDS of Oracle8i offers two native statements in the PL/SQL language to implement most of your dynamic SQL requirements: ± EXECUTE IMMEDIATE <sql string>.page 82 . DML and single row fetches.Native Dynamic SQL  Prior to Oracle8i. ± But this package is very complex. you would use the DBMS_SQL built-in package to execute dynamic SQL. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± OPEN FOR <sql string>. difficult to use. used for multi-row queries.

including objects.].. define_variables]. | record }] [USING {IN | OUT | IN OUT] bind argument [. {IN | OUT | IN OUT] bind argument]. collections and records.page 83   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . The USING clause allows you to specify bind arguments or variables to be passed into the SQL string before execution..EXECUTE IMMEDIATE EXECUTE IMMEDIATE sql-string [INTO {define_variable[.  Use this statement to execute any dynamic SQL statement (including a PL/SQL block) except for multi-row queries.. The INTO clause allows you to pass values from the select list of a single row query into local variables..

and not much of a democracy either!').' || tab || ' WHERE ' || NVL (whr. IF tabCount ('citizens'. RETURN retval. BEGIN EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'SELECT COUNT(*) FROM ' || NVL (sch.. WHERE clause.. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein tabcount81. USER) || '.COUNT(*) For Any Table  Here's a handy and simple utility based on NDS: CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION tabCount ( tab IN VARCHAR2.000. END IF. sch IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) RETURN INTEGER IS Specify schema..sf PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . table and retval INTEGER.. END.PUT_LINE ( 'Not the best health care system in the world.page 84 . whr IN VARCHAR2 := NULL.000 THEN DBMS_OUTPUT.sf compare with: tabcount. '1=1') INTO retval. 'insured = ''NO''') > 40.

 Execute a stored procedure. end_in IN DATE.Other Execute Immediate Examples  Perform an update. end_in. col_in IN VARCHAR2.'. name_in IN VARCHAR2) IS v_str VARCHAR2 (100)..' || name_in || '. END.page 85 . start_in IN DATE. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN pl ('Compile Error "' || SQLERRM || '" on: ' || v_str). start_in.. EXECUTE IMMEDIATE v_str. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE updnumval ( tab_in IN VARCHAR2.. END. END. val_in IN NUMBER) IS BEGIN EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'UPDATE ' || tab_in || ' SET ' || col_in || ' = :val WHERE hiredate BETWEEN :lodate AND :hidate' USING val_in. BEGIN v_str := 'BEGIN ' || pkg_in || '. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .. Pass in bind variables with USING clause. PROCEDURE runprog (pkg_in IN VARCHAR2.

the USING clause allows me to pass an object and nested table to an INSERT statement with a variable table name..Using Objects and Collections in NDS  One of the key advantages to NDS over DBMS_SQL is that it works with Oracle8 datatypes. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein health$. ± In the following example. PROCEDURE add_profit_source ( hosp_name IN VARCHAR2. cond IN preexisting_conditions) IS BEGIN EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'INSERT INTO ' || tabname (hosp_name) || ' VALUES (:revenue_generator. pers IN Person. cond. :revenue_inhibitors)' USING pers. END. ± No special syntax needed.page 86 .. including objects and collections.pkg PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

number or string column in any table. val VARCHAR2(32767). showcol.sp END. whr IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) IS TYPE cv_type IS REF CURSOR. ± Here is a simple utility the displays the values of any date.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 87 . DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE (val). CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE showcol ( tab IN VARCHAR2. '1 = 1'). cv cv_type. CLOSE cv. BEGIN OPEN cv FOR 'SELECT ' || col || ' FROM ' || tab || ' WHERE ' || NVL (whr. LOOP Familiar cursor FETCH cv INTO val.Multiple Row Queries and NDS  Oracle extends the cursor variable feature of Oracle7 to support multi-row dynamic queries. END LOOP. ndsutil. variable syntax! EXIT WHEN cv%NOTFOUND. col IN VARCHAR2.

provide a value for each distinct placeholder (by name). ± If dynamic SQL.pkg    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . You can have duplicate placeholders (for bind arguments). column names. ± If dynamic PL/SQL.Some Fine Print for NDS  You cannot pass schema elements (table names. pass a variable with a NULL value. etc. Instead. str2list. then you provide a value for each placeholder (by position). The USING clause for a query can only have IN bind arguments.) through the USING clause.page 88 . You cannot pass the NULL literal directly in the USING clause.

    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . DBMS_SQL is a very large and complex package.page 89 .Dynamic SQL using DBMS_SQL  Prior to Oracle8i. You should only use DBMS_SQL when you cannot use NDS. the only way to perform dynamic SQL was with the DBMS_SQL package. Supports all four methods of dynamic SQL. with many rules to follow and lots of code to write. The overhead for using DBMS_SQL has decreased significantly in Oracle8 and again in Oracle8i. in particular method 4.

Learning Through Examples  DDL ± Create an index from within PL/SQL  DML ± Update rows in a table  DML with binding ± Update rows using bind variables  Queries ± Method 3 and a dynamic WHERE clause  PL/SQL Version of "SELECT *" ± Example of Method 4  PL/SQL ± Create a generic calculation program 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 90 .

DBMS_SQL.PARSE (cur. which will be used to execute the DDL statement. ± Construct the DDL statement as a string.OPEN_CURSOR. fdbk := DBMS_SQL.sp Creates an index on any column(s) in any table in your schema. DDL_statement VARCHAR2(200) := 'CREATE INDEX ' || index_in || ' ON ' || tab_in || ' ( ' || col_in || ')'.NATIVE). END.  creind. ± Parse and execute that DDL statement.EXECUTE (cur). BEGIN DBMS_SQL. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . tab_in IN VARCHAR2. fdbk INTEGER.page 91 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . ± Open a cursor.DDL with Dynamic SQL PROCEDURE create_index (index_in IN VARCHAR2. DDL_statement. col_in IN VARCHAR2) IS cur INTEGER := DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL.CLOSE_CURSOR (cur).

fdbk := DBMS_SQL.ename%TYPE. val_in IN NUMBER) IS cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL.PUT_LINE ('Rows updated: ' || TO_CHAR (fdbk)). updnval1.OPEN_CURSOR. DBMS_OUTPUT. DBMS_SQL.CLOSE_CURSOR (cur). fdbk PLS_INTEGER.EXECUTE (cur). 'UPDATE emp SET ' || col_in || ' = ' || val_in || ' WHERE ename LIKE UPPER (''' || ename_in || ''')'. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE updnumval ( col_in IN VARCHAR2. DBMS_SQL. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.PARSE (cur. ename_in IN emp.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Updates with Dynamic SQL  Update numeric column for specified employees. END.page 92 .NATIVE).

'hidate'. DBMS_SQL.PUT_LINE ('Rows updated: ' || TO_CHAR (fdbk)). DBMS_SQL.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .NATIVE). BEGIN DBMS_SQL. val_in IN NUMBER) IS cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL. fdbk := DBMS_SQL.EXECUTE (cur). updnval2.OPEN_CURSOR. start_in IN DATE.PARSE (cur. DBMS_SQL. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE updnumval ( col_in IN VARCHAR2. END. DBMS_SQL. 'UPDATE emp SET ' || col_in || ' = ' || val_in || ' WHERE hiredate BETWEEN :lodate AND :hidate'.page 93 . end_in IN DATE. 'lodate'.sp updnval3. start_in).CLOSE_CURSOR (cur).Updates with Bind Variables  Update salaries for date range using binding.BIND_VARIABLE (cur. fdbk PLS_INTEGER.BIND_VARIABLE (cur. end_in). DBMS_OUTPUT.

Processing Flow for a Dynamic Query Allocate cursor memory (OPEN_CURSOR) Fill cursor with data (EXECUTE) Make sure SELECT is well formed (PARSE) Fill buffer with data (FETCH_ROWS) (EXECUTE_AND_FETCH) Bind any variables (BIND_VARIABLE) (BIND_ARRAY) Retrieve the data (COLUMN_VALUE) Give cursor structure (DEFINE_COLUMN) (DEFINE_ARRAY) Release cursor memory (CLOSE_CURSOR) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 94 .

DBMS_SQL.CLOSE_CURSOR (cur). rec emp%ROWTYPE. DBMS_SQL..sp showemp2. 1. rec.NATIVE).COLUMN_VALUE (cur.sp showemps.OPEN_CURSOR.empno) || '=' || rec. 'a'. END LOOP.ename). DBMS_SQL. 2. ename FROM emp ' || ' WHERE ' || NVL (where_in. DBMS_SQL. 'SELECT empno.Queries with Dynamic SQL  Show employees using a dynamic WHERE clause.empno).ename).DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE (TO_CHAR (rec. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.tst PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . fdbk := DBMS_SQL.EXECUTE (cur).COLUMN_VALUE (cur. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein showemps. '1=1').DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE showemps (where_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) IS cur INTEGER := DBMS_SQL. END.FETCH_ROWS (cur) = 0.. 1. rec. DBMS_SQL. LOOP EXIT WHEN DBMS_SQL. 60). 1). DBMS_SQL.page 95 . fdbk INTEGER. 2.PARSE (cur.

END LOOP. val). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .NATIVE). END LOOP.Dynamic SELECT * FROM Any Table  Method 4 example: the number of columns queried changes with each table. nth_col. select_string. END LOOP. DBMS_SQL. END. nth_col. BEGIN FOR each-column-in-table LOOP add-column-to-select-list.page 96 Very simplified pseudo-code intab. LOOP fetch-a-row. END LOOP.COLUMN_VALUE (cur. DBMS_SQL.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . FOR each-column-in-table LOOP DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.PARSE (cur. FOR each-column-in-table LOOP DBMS_SQL. ± The resulting code is much more complicated. datatype).

Using EXECUTE_AND_FETCH FUNCTION execute_and_fetch (cursor_in IN INTEGER. then EXECUTE_AND_FETCH will raise the TOO_MANY_ROWS exception if more than one row is fetched by the SELECT. which returns a single row.EXECUTE_AND_FETCH (cur). raises NO_DATA_FOUND or raises the TOO_MANY_ROWS exception. TRUE). numrows := DBMS_SQL. exact_match IN BOOLEAN DEFAULT FALSE) RETURN INTEGER. the first row will still be fetched and available. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± If exact_match is TRUE.EXECUTE_AND_FETCH (cur.page 97 . ± Even if the exception is raised. numrows := DBMS_SQL.  Makes it easy to execute and fetch a single row from a query. ± Very similar to the implicit SELECT cursor in native PL/SQL.

a single function will do the trick. ± With DBMS_SQL. arg4_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. arg8_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. NULL. and enter the arguments.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .sf dyncalc.Dynamic Formula Execution  Suppose I am building a user interface that allows a user to select a formula for execution. nargs_in IN INTEGER := arg1_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg3_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg5_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg7_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg9_in IN VARCHAR2 := ) RETURN VARCHAR2. arg6_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. 0. arg2_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. NULL. I would have to modify my screen every time a new formula was added. FUNCTION dyncalc ( oper_in IN VARCHAR2. NULL. ± Using static PL/SQL. arg10_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL dyncalc. NULL. NULL.page 98 .

µsalout¶.sp dynplsql. DBMS_SQL. You must have a BEGIN-END around the code.More on Dynamic PL/SQL BEGIN cur := open_and_parse ('BEGIN get_max_sal (:deptin.even OUT arguments which are not being bound to any values. µdeptin¶. :salout).').  Use BIND_VARIABLE to bind any placeholders in the string -. Possibilities inherent in dynamic PL/SQL are mind-boggling! dynplsql.EXECUTE (cur). DBMS_SQL.sql dynplsql.VARIABLE_VALUE (cur. Use VARIABLE_VALUE to extract a value from any variable you have bound. my_salary). µsalout¶.BIND_VARIABLE (cur. v_deptin). my_salary).tst    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 99 .BIND_VARIABLE (cur. END. fdbk := DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL. END.

BEGIN DBMS_SQL. PL/SQL does not support indirect referencing. 'val'. DBMS_SQL. 2000). retval PLV. but you can accomplish much of the same thing with dynamic PL/SQL execution. RETURN retval. 'val'.BIND_VARIABLE (v_cur. retval). Here is an example of a "PL/SQL NAME_IN": FUNCTION valbyname (nm IN VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2 IS v_cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL.Indirect Referencing with Dyn PL/SQL  Oracle Forms offers support for indirect referencing with the NAME_IN and COPY built-ins.page 100  dynvar. DBMS_SQL.pkg dynvar.VARIABLE_VALUE (v_cur.EXECUTE (v_cur).PARSE (v_cur. 'a'. 'BEGIN :val := ' || nm || '.CLOSE_CURSOR (v_cur). DBMS_SQL. END.NATIVE).'.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .OPEN_CURSOR. fdbk PLS_INTEGER. fdbk := DBMS_SQL. END.dbmaxvc2. DBMS_SQL.

page 101 .  LAST_ROW_ID ± Returns the ROWID of last row processed. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  IS_OPEN ± Is the cursor already open?  LAST_ERROR_POSITION ± Returns relative column position in cursor of text causing error condition.  LAST_ROW_COUNT ± Returns the cumulative count of rows fetched from the cursor.  LAST_SQL_FUNCTION_CODE ± Returns SQL function code of cursor. ± Call these immediately after your usage to make sure they refer to your cursor.DBMS_SQL Status Built-ins  The package offers a set of modules to return information about the lastoperated cursor in your session.

Then you retrieve the column using the special COLUMN_VALUE_LONG variant. you define the column as a LONG.page 102 .pkg dumplong.COLUMN_VALUE_LONG   First. ± DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN_LONG ± DBMS_SQL. ± Transfer the LONG contents into an index-by table so that you can transfer a value of more than 32K bytes into your PL/SQL program.Working with LONG Values  DBMS_SQL provides special procedures so that you can extract values from a LONG column in a table.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . dumplong.

New DBMS_SQL Features PL/SQL8 Extensions to DBMS_SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 103 .

page 104 . ± Support for RETURNING clause to avoid unnecessary queries.New Features in DBMS_SQL  The functionality of DBMS_SQL has been extended in Oracle8 in several ways: ± Parse very long SQL strings ± Describe cursor columns ± Use "array processing" to perform bulk updates. inserts. deletes and fetches. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

± Now you can call the DBMS_SQL.DESCRIBE_COLUMNS (c IN INTEGER.DESC_TAB).  Returns all of the column information in an index table of records. it was not possible to determine the datatypes of the columns defined in a cursor. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . col_cnt OUT INTEGER.  Before PL/SQL8.Describing Cursor Columns PROCEDURE DBMS_SQL. ± The record TYPE is also defined in DBMS_SQL.DESCRIBE_COLUMNS. desc_t OUT DBMS_SQL.page 105 .

PARSE (cur.DESCRIBE_COLUMNS (cur.PUT_LINE (cols(colind). BEGIN DBMS_SQL. cols DBMS_SQL.OPEN_CURSOR. DBMS_SQL. END. cols). empno FROM emp'. FOR colind IN 1 .NATIVE). DBMS_SQL. desccols.CLOSE_CURSOR (cur).sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .tst showcols. DBMS_SQL. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE show_columns IS cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL.Basic Steps to Describe Columns  The following script shows the individual steps you will need to perform in order to use this feature. 'SELECT hiredate.col_name).DESC_TAB. ncols.page 106 .. ncols PLS_INTEGER. END LOOP. ncols LOOP DBMS_OUTPUT.pkg desccols.

"Array Processing" in DBMS_SQL  PL/SQL8 now allows you to specify the use of "arrays". where N is the number of rows in the table.. ± In actuality.e. Instead of providing a scalar value for an operation. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . DBMS_SQL is executing the specified SQL statement N times. when you perform updates. It really isn't "array processing". i.page 107 . however. you specify an index table. inserts. can offer a significant performance boost over Oracle7 dynamic SQL. DBMS_SQL then repeats your action for every row in the table.    This technique still. deletes and fetches. index tables.

PARSE so that you include the trace in that program. concatenate) whenever possible.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 108 .pkg whichsch. etc. and easier code to write. ± Encapsulate DBMS_SQL.) through the USING clause. ± With NDS.sql openprse. though you could write variations for those as well. not the invoker of the code.  Encapsulate statements to improve error handling.Recommendations for Dynamic SQL  Bind (vs.  Use the Oracle8i invoker rights model whenever you want to share your dynamic SQL programs among multiple schemas. ± Otherwise that SQL will be executed under the authority of the owner of the code. ± But remember: you cannot pass schema elements (table names. effdsql. column names. ± Increased chance of reusing parsed SQL. only possible for statements that do not need USING and INTO clauses.

. but DBMS_SQL is hard to use. of course. ± If.NDS or DBMS_SQL: Which is Best?  Dynamic SQL and PL/SQL is very useful. you have upgraded to Oracle8i!  Major Advantages of NDS: ± Ease of use ± Performance ± Works with all SQL datatypes (including userdefined object and collection types) ± Fetch into records  When You'd Use DBMS_SQL: ± ± ± ± ± ± ± Method 4 Dynamic SQL DESCRIBE columns of cursor SQL statements larger than 32K RETURNING into an array Reuse of parsed SQL statements Bulk dynamic SQL Available from client-side PL/SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Both implementations will still come in handy..page 109 .

Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Oracle Advanced Queuing  The high performance. asynchronous.page 110 . persistent messaging subsytem of Oracle 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Who Needs Messaging? Everyone!  In the distributed world of the Internet. consistent manner. systems are now heavily reliant on the ability of components to communicate with each other in a dependable. Distribution Center Coffee Beans Producer Shipping Service Retailer Consumer 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 111 .

page 112 .Applications Relying on Messaging     Stock trading system Airline reservation system Auction portals Any e-commerce application 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

scalability and reliability all carry over to queues ± Strong history and retention ± Backup and recovery ± Comprehensive journaliing  Rich message content increases usefulness of queueing ± Use object types to define highly structured payloads  New to Oracle8i. AQ now offers a publish/subscribe style of messaging between applications. the listen feature and notification capabilities. message propagation. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Key Features of Oracle AQ  Leverage full power of SQL ± Messages are stored in database tables  Database high availability. ± Rule-based subscribers.page 113 .

page 114 .AQ architectural overview Queue Monitor process Queue table Queue ³Producers´ Enqueued messages Message 4 Message 3 Message 2 Message1 ³Consumers´ Dequeued messages Messages include both control information and ³payload´ (content) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

AQ supports: ± ± ± ± ± Multiple queues Resetting order and priority of queued items Queue management using only SQL & PL/SQL Multiple message recipients Propagation of queue to remote servers  Oracle8i adds: ± ± ± ± Rules-based publish & subscribe Listening on multiple queues Easier monitoring Native Java interface PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Oracle AQ Highlights  In 8.page 115 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .0.

AQ Components  The DBMS_AQ package offers enqueue and dequeue capabilities The DBMS_AQADM package provides administrative functionality to manage queues and queue tables. Underlying database tables and views The queue monitor (background process) ± Set # of processes with the AQ_TM_PROCESSES initialization parameter.page 116 .    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

assigns retry and retention properties to queue Drops a stopped queue Can also turn on/off enqueue and dequeue operations Stops queue. whether multiple consumers Drops table if all queues in the table have been stopped Associates queue table with queue.DBMS_AQADM Highlights CREATE_QUEUE_TABLE DROP_QUEUE_TABLE CREATE_QUEUE DROP_QUEUE START_QUEUE STOP_QUEUE ADD_SUBSCRIBER Assigns name. payload type. sort column.page 117 . optionally waiting for outstanding transactions Adds an ³agent´ as a subscriber 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . storage clause.

Creating Queue Tables and Queues CREATE TYPE message_type AS OBJECT (title VARCHAR2(30). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein aq.CREATE_QUEUE_TABLE (queue_table => 'msg'. text VARCHAR2(2000)). / BEGIN DBMS_AQADM.page 118 .START_QUEUE (queue_name => 'msgqueue').CREATE_QUEUE (queue_name => 'msgqueue'. Define the "payload" Create the queue table DBMS_AQADM. queue_table => 'msg'). queue_payload_type => 'message_type'). Define a queue in the queue table DBMS_AQADM. END.pkg Start the queue PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

and returns a RAW message handle DEQUEUE extracts a message from a specified queue Parameters control message properties such as: ± Visibility (ON_COMMIT or IMMEDIATE) ± ± ± ± Priority Delay Expiration Locking behavior PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .page 119   aq. but lots of complexity buried inside the parameters of these procedures.The "operational package": DBMS_AQ  DBMS_AQ is deceptively simple. ± Only two procedures.  ENQUEUE puts a message into a specified queue.

Set up the payload with an object constructor.MESSAGE_PROPERTIES_T.'). my_msg. 'May there be many more. END. queueopts.msgid_type. Declare records to hold various enqueue and msg properties..ENQUEUE ( 'msgqueue'. msgid aq. msgprops.page 120 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .ENQUEUE_OPTIONS_T.. msgprops DBMS_AQ. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .* Place the message on the specified queue and get a msg ID in return. my_msg message_type. aqenq*. msgid).Simple Enqueue Example DECLARE queueopts DBMS_AQ. BEGIN my_msg := message_type ( 'First Enqueue'. DBMS_AQ.

DBMS_AQ. my_msg. my_msg := message_type ( 'Second Enqueue'. DBMS_AQ. queueopts. msgprops.More Interesting Enqueue Example DECLARE . 'And this one goes first. END. queueopts. msgprops. Same setup as previous page .ENQUEUE ( 'msgqueue'. queueopts. queueopts. BEGIN my_msg := message_type ( 'First Enqueue'.delay := 3 * 60 * 60 * 24. my_msg. msgid2). 'May there be many more.page 121 .').sequence_deviation := DBMS_AQ..')... msgid1).. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Specify a delay before the payload is available. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ... Modify the dequeue sequence by changing the deviation field and relative msg ID.relative_msgid := msgid1..BEFORE. msgprops.ENQUEUE ('msgqueue'..

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .* Declare records to hold various dequeue and msg properties. Dequeue operation isolated in local module.pkg */ my_msg message_type. aqdeq*.dequeue_mode := mode_in.DEQUEUE_OPTIONS_T.REMOVE). DBMS_AQ.page 122 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . msgprops DBMS_AQ.BROWSE).Dequeue Example DECLARE queueopts DBMS_AQ. BEGIN getmsg (DBMS_AQ. getmsg (DBMS_AQ. END.DEQUEUE ( 'msgqueue'. Demonstrates destructive and non-destructive dequeuing. getmsg (DBMS_AQ. my_msg.REMOVE). /* defined in aq. queueopts.MESSAGE_PROPERTIES_T.msgid_type. msgprops. msgid aq. END. PROCEDURE getmsg (mode_in IN INTEGER) IS BEGIN queueopts. msgid).

END. ± The lower the numeric priority value.Prioritized Payloads  You can assign priorities to individual payloads and then dequeue according to those priorities.ENQUEUE ( c_queue.msgid_type. aqstk. queueopts.visibility := DBMS_AQ. item_obj. item_obj aqstk_objtype. queueopts. msgprops.  A stack implementation using AQ demonstrates this well. msgid aq. PROCEDURE push (item IN VARCHAR2) IS queueopts DBMS_AQ.priority := g_priority. g_priority := g_priority .1.IMMEDIATE.ENQUEUE_OPTIONS_T.pkg priority. BEGIN item_obj := aqstk_objtype (item). DBMS_AQ. msgid).* 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .MESSAGE_PROPERTIES_T.pkg aqstk2. msgprops. msgprops DBMS_AQ.page 123 . the higher the priority.

Defining Message Subscribers  You can specify that a message is to be enqueued for a list of subscribers. DBMS_AQADM. The queue table must be defined to support multiple subscribers or consumers.page 124 . ± The message is then not removed from the queue until all subscribers have dequeued the message. queue_payload_type => 'student_major_t'.ADD_SUBSCRIBER ( c_queue.CREATE_QUEUE_TABLE ( queue_table => 'major_qtable'.* PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . NULL. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein aqmult*. NULL)). BEGIN DBMS_AQADM. multiple_consumers => TRUE). Add subscribers for the queue.AQ$_AGENT (name_in. SYS.  Steps to working with a subscriber list: ± 1. ± 2.

Oracle AQ . ± Much more robust that DBMS_PIPE. ± Crucial for Oracle to have a message-oriented middleware in order to offer an all-Oracle solution.page 125 .  Considered by Oracle to be a core component of its overall solution. improved security. LISTEN capability. ± Should be strongly supported "down the road".Summary  Very powerful and flexible architecture. supporting a publish-subscribe model. ± Significant enhancements in Oracle8i. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Managing Large Objects with DBMS_LOB 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 126 .

 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Images. they should no longer be used. etc. video.page 127 . ± Oracle has announced deprecation of LONGs.LOB Terms  LOB = Large OBject: a category of datatype allowing storage of ³unstructured´ data up to 4 gigabytes LOB datatype can be: ± Column in table ± Attribute in object type ± Element in nested table   Possible applications include office documents. LOB datatypes are the successor to LONGs. though they will probably not be actually desupported. sounds.

external do not ± External LOBs are read-only from within Oracle 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . improving performance.  Key programming differences: ± Internal LOBs participate in transactions.Types of Large Objects  ³Internal´ LOBs ± BLOB: unstructured binary data ± CLOB: single-byte fixedwidth character data ± NCLOB: multi-byte fixedwidth character data (or varying width in )  ³External´ LOBs ± BFILE: pointer to an operating system file  Temporary LOBs ± Internal LOBs that do not participate in transactions.page 128 .

comparison and length checking ± For internal LOBs: Write. erase.PL/SQL built-ins for LOBs  Package DBMS_LOB ± Supports for all LOBs: Reading. EMPTY_CLOB() ± BFILENAME 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . append. substring and instring searches. trim ± For external LOBs: File existence test. copy.page 129 . open. close  Other built-in functions ± LOADFROMFILE (load an external BFILE into a BLOB) ± EMPTY_LOB().

 Retrieve record with BLOB into PL/SQL variable DECLARE CURSOR fax_cur IS SELECT fax FROM incoming_faxes.page 130 . CLOSE fax_cur.Deceptively simple example  BLOB-typed column in a table CREATE TABLE incoming_faxes (fax_id INTEGER. Question: What¶s in the_fax? 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . BEGIN OPEN fax_cur. END. FETCH fax_cur INTO the_fax. the_fax BLOB. fax BLOB). received DATE.

The ³LOB locator´ LOB t l sel es [ ll ] t i i t r . tt LOBs <lob segment> fax_id 281937 received 12-JAN-98 fax <lob locator> Updati  t e LOB anges t e pointer is ompli ates se of LOBs ± LOB locators cannot span transactions ± Programs must lock records containing LOBs efore updating ± Programs performing L must accommodate dynamic LOB locator alues 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 131 .

the_loc CLOB.com'.Example: Piecewise CLOB programmatic insert  Create a table CREATE TABLE web_pages ( url VARCHAR2(512) PRIMARY KEY.oodb.page 132 . BEGIN INSERT INTO web_pages VALUES (the_url. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 1 of 2  Must get a new LOB locator before writing into the LOB: DECLARE the_url web_pages. htmlloc CLOB). . EMPTY_CLOB()) RETURNING htmlloc INTO the_loc..url%TYPE := 'http://www..

WRITE(lob_loc => the_loc. buffer => html_tab(the_piece_no)). This block retrieves INSERT INTO web_pages VALUES (the_url. several likely exceptions offset => running_total. DBMS_LOB. END LOOP. html_tab UTL_HTTP. FOR the_piece_no IN 1. the_loc CLOB.html_tab. Note: We are ignoring amount => piece_length. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .oodb.COUNT LOOP piece_length := LENGTH(html_tab(the_piece_no)).HTML_PIECES. into a CLOB column html_tab := UTL_HTTP. piece_length PLS_INTEGER.com'.page 133 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein BEGIN ..Example: Piecewise CLOB programmatic insert DECLARE the_url web_pages. running_total PLS_INTEGER := 1.REQUEST_PIECES(url => the_url).url%TYPE := 'http://www. EMPTY_CLOB()) and loads a web page RETURNING htmlloc INTO the_loc. running_total := running_total + piece_length. END.

IF str_offset != 0 THEN DBMS_LOB. BEGIN OPEN hcur. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . str_offset INTEGER. str_offset := DBMS_LOB. FETCH hcur INTO the_loc. CLOSE hcur.INSTR(lob_loc => the_loc.com' FOR UPDATE. END. buffer => 'cool').WRITE(lob_loc => the_loc. pattern => 'oodb'). amount => 4.page 134 . the_loc CLOB. END IF.oodb. offset => str_offset.Example: Piecewise CLOB programmatic update DECLARE Program must lock the record explicitly CURSOR hcur IS SELECT htmlloc FROM web_pages WHERE url = 'http://www.

Preparing to use BFILEs  You must first create an Oracle I ORY´ ± Creates logical alias for full directory pat ± imilar to LIBRARY (used for C "external procedures"). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ut IRECTORY namespace is global  Syntax: CREATE OR REPLACE DIRECTORY <directory name> AS '<full path to directory>'.  Example: CREATE DIRECTORY web_pix AS 'D:\bill\training\pix'.page 135 .

Using BFILE datatype in DDL  In a table..page 136 . phones Phone_tab_t. addresses Address_tab_t. CREATE TYPE Business_card_t AS OBJECT ( name Name_t. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .. CREATE TABLE web_graphics ( image_id INTEGER..  In an object type.. scanned_card_image BFILE ). image BFILE).

/  Notes: ± No automatic file checking or synchronization ± No participation in transactions 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . file_exprn) RETURN BFILE. BEGIN INSERT INTO web_graphics VALUES (100015.  Example: DECLARE picture BFILE := BFILENAME('WEB_PIX'. 'prodicon.page 137 .The built-in BFILENAME function  Returns value of datatype BFILE. picture).gif'). END. Spec: FUNCTION BFILENAME(directory_exprn.

DBMS_LOB. DBMS_LOB. DECLARE pic_file BFILE := BFILENAME('WEB_PIX'.GETLENGTH(pic_file)). pic_blob_loc) RETURNING image INTO pic_blob_loc.page 138 .sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . BEGIN INSERT INTO web_graphic_blobs VALUES (1. DBMS_LOB.FILECLOSE(pic_file). 'prodicon. image BLOB).FILEOPEN(pic_file. amount => DBMS_LOB.gif'). / loadblob. pic_blob_loc BLOB := EMPTY_BLOB().FILE_READONLY).LOADFROMFILE(dest_lob => pic_blob_loc.Loading File into Database BLOB CREATE TABLE web_graphic_blobs ( image_id INTEGER. END. src_lob => pic_file. DBMS_LOB.

or transaction  Ability to retrieve LOB ³chunk size´ ± Allows programmer to tune READs and WRITEs  For all internal LOBs ± OPEN & CLOSE allow control over timing. that can mean less I/O » Trigger will not fire until CLOSE » Indexes will not update until CLOSE ± ISOPEN 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .New DBMS_LOB APIs in 8i  Support for temporary LOBs ± No logging or rollback faster! ± Lifespan: session. call.page 139 .

. ± LOB locator behavior slightly abstruse ± Inability to modify BFILEs directly from within PL/SQL.. ± Complete support in PL/SQL (and other APIs) ± Much better performance and control than with LONGs ± Usable in object types HOT  Some weaknesses.page 140 .Large Object . COLD 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Summary  LOB support in Oracle is now significantly improved.

page 141 .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Leveraging Java Inside PL/SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

triggers in Java Distinct Java & PL/SQL namespaces  But first.a BRIEF introduction to Java... functions. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . mid-tier.Overview of Java interoperability  Java inside or outside 8i server can call PL/SQL ± Standard JDBC and SQLJ calls with Oracle extensions ± Same Java on client. or server Not covered in this seminar  PL/SQL can call Java inside 8i server ± ± ± ± Command-line tools load Java classes DDL extensions publish Java classes Writing stored procedures...page 142 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .

± We just need to keep a firm grip on common sense and stay focused on delivering solutions.. slickest piece of software ever designed by human beings? ± Just the latest in a series of "silver bullets" promoted by software vendors in order to prop up quarterly sales? ± The first and only successful O-O language? ± None of the above?  We don't really need to take a vote.page 143 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . fastest.Question 1: What is Java?  Could it be.. ± The end of programming history as we know it? ± The easiest.

PL/SQL will still be: ± Faster and more productive than Java for database operations. to boot.and very aggressively. ± Ubiquitous in thousands of production applications and millions of lines of code.page 144 .  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Supported and improved by Oracle -. it is very unlikely and totally unthinkable for years to come. ± A language in which hundreds of thousands of developers are trained.Question 2: Will Java Replace PL/SQL?  While that scenario is certainly possible.

page 145 .Some Important Things to Remember  Java is a case sensitive language. ± Well. you have to instantiate an object from that class.. everything exception the primitive datatypes.  Everything is a class (or an object instantiated from a class)... ± Before you can call a (non-static) class method... ± Don't get overwhelmed by all the classes and all the strange quirks.. ± string is definitely not the same as String. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  You don't have to know how to do everything with Java to get lots of value out of it.

println ("Hello world!"). ± Used to test or run stand-alone a class. } }  No members. Oh.page 146 .. END. by the way: the PL/SQL version 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .PUT_LINE ('Hello world!').Building a Java Class  Let's start from the very beginning. except the "special" main method.out.. no methods. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE hello IS BEGIN DBMS_OUTPUT. public class Hello { public static void main (String[] args) { System.

e:\jdk1.d:\java D:> javac Hello.1.page 147 . ± This will convert the .java file to a .class file. you must compile it with the javac command.java -classpath d:\java 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . SET CLASSPATH = d:\Oracle\Ora81\jdbc\lib\classes111.zip.7b\lib\classes.Compiling Classes  Before you can use a class.zip. ± It will also automatically recompile any classes used by your class that has not been compiled since last change. ± You must also either have set the CLASSPATH or include it in your javac call.

page 148 .java 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Running a Class  Run a class? What does that mean? It means that if your class contains a method with this header: public static void main (String[] args)  then you can "run" the main method with the java command: d:\java> java Hello  You can also pass one or more arguments on the command line: d:\java> java Hello mom Hello2.

Using a Class  The main method is handy for providing a built-in test mechanism of your class.page 149 . Usually.   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . however. you will use a class by instantiating objects from the class and then invoking class methods on the object. Let's build a performance analyzer class to explore these ideas.

} public void showElapsed () { p. } public void showElapsed (String context) { p.Gstart).currentTimeMillis().l ("Elapsed time ". } public long elapsed () { return (System.java 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .l ("Elapsed time for " + context.currentTimeMillis to calculate elapsed time to nearest thousandth of a second. class Tmr { private long Gstart = 0.currentTimeMillis() . } } p.page 150 . public void capture () { Gstart = System.currentTimeMillis() .java Tmr. System.Gstart).Compare Performance of Methods  Use System.java InFile. elapsed()).

but at least one method remains unimplemented.. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 151 .  Interface class ± The class only contains unimplemented methods..  Abstract class ± The class can contain members and methods.  Inner class ± Classes that are defined inside other classes. besides the "regular" kind we just saw.Types of Classes  There are several different kinds of classes in Java.

supertype/"wider" Citizen Person Employee Hourly Worker Salaried Worker subtype/"narrower" War Criminal Person. ± Dynamic polymorphism: form is determined at run-time.java A Class Hierarchy Management NonManagement Corporation 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .And Now for Some Scary Buzzwords!  Inheritance ± Subclasses inherit methods and variables from extended superclasses.page 152 . either as its own class or as any superclass. ± Static polymorphism: form is chosen at compile-time (PL/SQL overloading).  Polymorphism ± An object of a class can have "multiple" forms.

if (myName. these are not objects instantiated from classes. ± Can't do a direct == comparison. myName = "Steven".equals(YourName)) foundFamily(). boolean char byte short int long float double  Strings ± A String object is a read-only.page 153 . you are actually allocating a new object.Language Basics  Comments // Single line comment /* Block comment */ /** Documentation comment */  Primitive datatypes ± So I lied. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . if you assign a new value to it. myName = "Feuerstein". String myName.

println ( (String)enum. for (initialize.out.NextElement()).length.page 154 . do-while and for ± Note: you need squiggly brackets only if there is more than one statement in the loop body.out. indx++) System. indx < args. step) { lotsaStuff } while (expression) { lostsaStuff } do { lostsaStuff } while (expression).hasMoreElements ()) { processIt (enum.println (args[indx]). expression. Examples: for (indx indx=0. System.nextElement()) } } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . static void processAll (Enumeration enum) { while (enum.Writing Loops in Java  Three kinds of loops: while.

println (Java.page 155 ..name()).out.Passing Parameters  Some important differences from PL/SQL. you must supply a value for each parameter. ± If a method has no arguments. you still include the open and close parentheses. } public String name () { return mname. ± No default values for arguments. class PuterLingo { private String mname. } } class LotsALingos { public static void main (String args[]) { PuterLingo Java = new PuterLingo("Java"). } } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . public PuterLingo (String name) { mname = name.. System. ± Only positional notation is supported.

rather than raise and handle.println (e. return myFile. } File-related catch (SecurityException e) { exceptions return -1.toString()).page 156 . Throwing my own public static int numBytes (String filename) { exception try { if (filename. "WHEN OTHERS" } in Java } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Put inside try clause File myFile = new File (filename).length().Exception Handling in Java  Very similar to PL/SQL.equals("")) throw new Exception ("Filename is NULL").out. } catch (Exception e) { System. you "throw" and "catch" exceptions.

± So you can pass them as arguments and do anything and everything else you can do with objects.. NoSuchFile { .Differences Between Java & PL/SQL  Exceptions are objects derived directly or indirectly from the Exception class. ± Use the throws clause in your specification. } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . as in: public static int numBytes (String filename) throws SecurityException..  You must inform users of your method of which exceptions may be thrown.page 157 .

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 158 .Java's Not So Tough!  You can learn enough Java in less than a week to: ± Build simple classes ± Leverage Java inside PL/SQL  Moving to the next level of expertise will be more of a challenge. ± Object oriented development (Java) is very different from procedural coding (PL/SQL).  Now let's explore how you can put Java to work for you inside PL/SQL programs.

using JDBC or SQLJ Oracle 8i server PL/SQL cover for Java method Java virtual machine running Java method Oracle Developer client (PL/SQL) Net8 OCI or Pro*C client VB or C++ via OO4O or ODBC 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Java Stored Procedures (JSPs) Java applet or app.page 159 .

page 160 . network communication in/out PL/SQL replacement ± More standard language ± Good performer for numeric processing tasks ± Beware database I/O & string manipulation performance Scaleable deployment of third party code ± Vertical application ± Web server ± XML parser/generator 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .JSPs: Some sample uses PL/SQL extender ± For example. better file I/O ± RMI callouts.

rather than BEGIN.. Call from PL/SQL (or SQL) as if calling PL/SQL    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..Creating JSP to call from PL/SQL   1.END 4. Create Java classes in your favorite IDE 2.. Publish PL/SQL cover using AS LANGUAGE JAVA.page 161 . Load into server using ³loadjava´ command-line tool 3. Grant privileges as desired 5..

page 162 PL/SQL .println main method is used to test the class. 50000000). public Corporation ( String Pname.println (TheGlobalMonster). long PceoComp) { name = Pname. } public String toString () { return name + " is a transnational entity with " + layoffs + " laid-off employees. paying its" + " Chief Executive Officer " + CEOCompensation. Entry points must be public static in most cases Classes may call other classes Avoid GUI calls     person.Create Java class(es) class Corporation extends Person { long layoffs. layoffs = Playoffs. CEOCompensation = PceoComp.out.out. }} 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Notes on Java classes  toString method automatically used by System. long Playoffs.java Advanced Techniques . long CEOCompensation. 5000000. } public static void main (String[] args) { // A very scary company Corporation TheGlobalMonster = new Corporation ( "Northrup-Ford-Mattel-Yahoo-ATT". System.

class file .Upload using ³loadjava´ utility .jar file Oracle 8i server Java class Java source Java resource loadjava Example: loadjava loadjava -user scott/tiger -oci8 -resolve datacraft/bill/Hello.page 163 .java file Java resource file .class options (abbreviated) -oci8 -resolve loadjava will connect using OCI driver Resolves external class references at compile time -resolver (shown later) Search path like CLASSPATH 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Publish  Example (top-level call spec) CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION hello_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2 AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft..String'. /  Syntax (simplified) CREATE [ OR REPLACE PROCE URE FUNCTION <name> <sqlt pe> ] [ [ <ar s> ) ] [ AUTHID { DEFINER | CURRENT_USER } ] AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME '<met fullname> (<Ja a t pe fullname>. .Hello.bill.lang.page 164 .Emp(int) return java.. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .) [ return <Ja a t pe fullname> ]'.

sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . for example.page 165 . PRINT :thename ± CALL avoids overhead of SELECT fn FROM DUAL jsp. END.  Method 2: Use 8i SQL CALL statement.Call the wrapped method  Method 1: Call as if PL/SQL module BEGIN DBMS_OUTPUT. from SQL*Plus: VARIABLE thename VARCHAR2(12) CALL hello_emp(7499) INTO :thename.PUT_LINE(hello_emp(7499)).

STRUCT <named type> oracle.sql.sql.String java.BigDecimal oracle.lang.sql.Timestamp java.ARRAY 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .more concepts Shape mapping ± Java methods declared ³void´ become PL/SQL procedures ± Signature mismatches detected only at runtime Type mapping (typical) VARCHAR2 DATE NUMBER user-defined object type user-defined object type object REFerence user-defined collection type java.REF oracle.math.page 166 .sql.Publishing -.

lang..String'.Publish in PL/SQL Package Spec  Designate Java module in PL/SQL package spec.util.. / (No package body required in this case) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END.page 167 .Hello.Emp(int) return java. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE hello_pkg AS FUNCTION hi_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2 AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.

Hello.lang.Publish as module in package body  . / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Emp(int) return java.. END.page 168 .or in package body CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE hello_pkg2 AS FUNCTION hi_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2.util.. END. / CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY hello_pkg2 AS FUNCTION hi_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2 IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.String'.

Publish as object type method  Either in spec: CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE foo_t AS OBJECT ( bar VARCHAR2(30). / or in the body: CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE foo_t AS OBJECT ( bar VARCHAR2(30).util. MEMBER FUNCTION hello_emp RETURN VARCHAR2).Hello.Hello.Emp(int) return java.lang.page 169 .Emp(int) return java.String').lang. END. / CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE BODY foo_t AS MEMBER FUNCTION hello_emp RETURN VARCHAR2 IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft. MEMBER FUNCTION hello_emp RETURN VARCHAR2 IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .util.String'.

JAVASYSPRIV (needed for file IO operations). resolves Java class references. or resource ± Can read file designated with BFILE() function  ALTER JAVA: compiles Java source. class.page 170 . JAVA_ADMIN. DROP JAVA: drops a named Java library unit Several roles available for Java operations: ± JAVAUSERPRIV.New DDL Statements and Roles  CREATE JAVA ± Alternative to ³loadjava´ utility ± Creates or replaces an Oracle ³library unit´ from Java source. JAVAIDPRIV. JAVADEBUGPRIV ± You can also grant specific privileges.   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

sql.STRUCT ± oracle.jdbc2.Passing Oracle8 objects Oracle8i server Object in O-R table Java application Java object   Harder than you¶d think Three different interfacing techniques ± oracle.SQLData 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 171 .CustomDatum ± oracle.sql.

page 172 .JPublisher utility Database server Definition of type or REF in data dictionary User-supplied JPublisher input file What does it do? ± Generates Java that encapsulates type and REF types of mapping supported for methods JPublisher ± ³Oracle mapping´ ± ³JDBC mapping´ ± ³Object JDBC mapping´ Three Generated Java file(s) for use in Java programs 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

they become available to use in mapping Example of passing an Account_t object: CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE account_save (new_acct IN Account_t) IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .bill.save (datacraft. /  jspobj.Account_t)'.AccountRuntime.bill.page 173 .Passing object using JPub-generated Java  After generating and uploading classes with JPub.

  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 174 . Java offers many file-related classes with much greater capabilities. but that package is very limited.Example: Improving File I/O  You can read/write files in PL/SQL with UTL_FILE. Let's see how we can make that great Java stuff available from within PL/SQL.

.  Let's start with something simple. ± This is not available through UTL_FILE (though you can get it through DBMS_LOB).Encapsulate Java Classes  You won't generally access native Java methods in your PL/SQL wrapper. ± The File class offers a length method that returns the number of bytes in a file.. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 175 . ± Instead build a static method that instantiates a Java object from the class and then invokes the relevant method against that object.

public class JFile2 { public static long length (String fileName) { File myFile = new File (fileName). import java.io. } } JFile2.length(). return myFile.My Own Java Class for File Manipulation  Accept the name of a file and return its length.page 176 .java  Take each of these steps: ± Import the File class to resolve reference.File. ± Instantiate a File object for the specified name. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Call the method of choice against that object and return the value.

END.String) return long'.lang.page 177 . ± I translate the Java long to a PL/SQL NUMBER. / CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY xfile IS FUNCTION length (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN NUMBER AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'JFile. we will certainly want to add more functionality over time. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE xfile IS FUNCTION length (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN NUMBER.length (java.Build a Package over Java Method  Let's put it in a package. / xfile2.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END.

Mapping the Boolean Datatype  Both Java and PL/SQL support a native Boolean datatype.  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Convert the Java boolean to a String or number and return that value. Write a "hidden" PL/SQL wrapper function that returns the string or number. Not so! To pass a Boolean back from Java to PL/SQL. you will need to take these steps: ± 1. so you'd expect smooth sailing. Write a "public" PL/SQL wrapper function to convert that number to a true PL/SQL Boolean. ± 3. ± 2.page 178 .

File. else return 0. if (retval) return 1.page 179 . ± And don't forget: this is a boolean primitive. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . not a Boolean class.Translate Boolean to Number  Accept the name of a file and return its length. boolean retval = myFile.canRead(). public class JFile3 { public static int canRead (String fileName) { File myFile = new File (fileName).io. } } JFile3. import java.java  Translate TRUE to 1 and FALSE to 0.

pkg END.lang.page 180 . FUNCTION canRead (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN BOOLEAN AS BEGIN xfile3.Wrapper for Pseudo-Boolean function  Simple translation back to PL/SQL Boolean. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE xfile IS FUNCTION canRead (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN BOOLEAN.String) return int'. END..java END.canRead (java. JFile4. JFile. / CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY xfile IS FUNCTION IcanRead (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN NUMBER AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'JFile3..java / xfile. xfile4. ± Avoid the hard-codings with named constants.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .pkg RETURN IcanRead (file) = 1.

getAttributes(). public class UnionBuster { Obtain attributes of public static void wageStrategy (STRUCT e) the Oracle object. System.java passobj.page 181 .Passing Objects to Java with STRUCT  You can pass Oracle object information to Java without relying on JPub by using the STRUCT class. // starting with 0 String laborType = (String)(attribs[0]). Object[] attribs = e.sql. throws java. } } Extract individual attribute values from the array.SQLException { // Get the attributes of the labor_source object.tst PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .out. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein UnionBuster.println ( "Pay " + laborType + " $" + hourly_rate + " per hour"). // Access individual attributes by array index. BigDecimal hourly_rate = (BigDecimal)(attribs[1]).

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . / BEGIN bust_em_with ( labor_source ('Workfare'.STRUCT)'. The Oracle object type definition CREATE TYPE labor_source_t AS OBJECT ( labor_type VARCHAR2(30).wageStrategy (oracle. '5')). 0)). / CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE bust_em_with ( labor_source_in IN labor_source_t) AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'UnionBuster. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Fully specify the STRUCT class in parameter list.Wrapping a STRUCT-based Method  You can pass Oracle object information to Java without relying on JPub by using the STRUCT class.sql. hourly_rate NUMBER). bust_em_with ( labor_source ('Prisoners'. END.page 182 .

out.sql file: SET SERVEROUTPUT ON SIZE 1000000 CALL DBMS_JAVA. i++) { System.out.java HelloAll. ± Call it within methods and output will display in your Java environment. i < count.PUT_LINE: System. public class HelloAll { public static void lotsaText ( int count) { for (int i = 0.println.page 183 . }}}  When called within a PL/SQL wrapper.SET_OUTPUT (1000000).Viewing Output from Java Methods  Java provides a "print line" method similar to DBMS_OUTPUT.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . HelloAll. ± Here is a good nucleus for a login. you can redirect the output to the DBMS_OUTPUT buffer.println ( "Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello All!").

1.5).page 184 . you "throw" and "catch".Error Handling with Java-PL/SQL  Java offers a very similar. such as java. ± Instead of raising and handling.sql. getErrorCode() and getMessage() to obtain information about the error thrown. but more robust error handling mechanism than PL/SQL. ± And also spew out the entire Java error stack! (at least through 8. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Any error not caught by the JVM (Java virtual machine) will be thrown back to the PL/SQL block or SQL statement. ± Use two methods. ± Exceptions are objects instantiated from the Exception class or a subclass of it.SQLException.

java) at oracle. END.java) at oracle.OracleStatement.driver.driver.java) at oracle.java) at oracle.tst ORA-29532: Java call terminated by uncaught Java exception: java.jdbc. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN DBMS_OUTPUT.jdbc.SQLException: getErrInfo.Trapping and Identifying Errors  Currently.sp dropany2.sql.java) at DropAny.java) at oracle.KprbDBAccess.doExecuteOther(OracleStatement.jdbc.check_error(KprbDBAccess.doExecuteWithBatch(OracleStatement.java) at oracle. the entire Java stack is displayed on your screen.PUT_LINE (SQLCODE).jdbc.OracleStatement.PUT_LINE (SQLERRM).jdbc.KprbDBAccess.kprb.java:14) DropAny.doExecute(OracleStatement.executeUpdate(OracleStatement. BEGIN dropany ('TABLE'.sql.driver.OracleStatement.page 185 .SQLException: ORA-00942: table or view does not exist at oracle.jdbc. 'blip'). / SQL> 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 java.OracleStatement.tst ORA-00942: table or view does not exist 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .parseExecuteFetch(KprbDBAccess.object(DropAny.java -29532 dropany. DBMS_OUTPUT. and you have to do some digging to extract the Oracle error information.kprb.jdbc.doExecuteWithTimeout(OracleStatement.driver.driver.OracleStatement.

or method. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 186 .  An Oracle8 feature that allowed relatively "native" callouts to C from PL/SQL for the first time.Achieving PL/SQL Excellence External Procedures  An external procedure is a 3GL routine that can serve as the ³body´ of a PL/SQL function. ± Must be a shared object library on Unix or a dynamically linked library (DLL) on Windows. procedure.

Process & data flow Application Makes request Net8 External Procedure Listener spawns External Shared Library Calls PL/SQL Runtime Engine PL/SQL body Client or server-side application returns results calls routine from Routine in .DLL or .so file extproc returns results returns results 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 187 .

sql diskspace.page 188 .External procedures: Sample uses      Send email Invoke operating system command Invoke custom or legacy application Call C runtime library function Perform admin tasks email.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

dll ± For given drive letter.page 189 . create an Oracle8 ³library´: CREATE OR REPLACE LIBRARY nt_kernel AS 'c:\winnt\system32\kernel32. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . this function returns: » » » » » sectors per cluster bytes per sector number of free clusters total number of clusters ³return code´ indicating success or failure  First.Determine free disk space on NT (1/4)  Use pre-existing routine: ± GetDiskFreeSpaceA in kernel32.dll'.

/ 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Package spec (2/4)  Nothing unexpected here: CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE disk_util AS FUNCTION get_disk_free_space (root_path IN VARCHAR2. bytes_per_sector OUT PLS_INTEGER. END disk_util. total_number_of_clusters OUT PLS_INTEGER) RETURN PLS_INTEGER. number_of_free_clusters OUT PLS_INTEGER. sectors_per_cluster OUT PLS_INTEGER.page 190 .

page 191  All the magic is in the EXTERNAL section 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .Package body in Oracle 8. total_number_of_clusters OUT PLS_INTEGER) RETURN PLS_INTEGER IS EXTERNAL LIBRARY nt_kernel NAME "GetDiskFreeSpaceA" LANGUAGE C CALLING STANDARD PASCAL PARAMETERS (root_path STRING. END disk_util. total_number_of_clusters BY REFERENCE LONG. RETURN LONG). sectors_per_cluster BY REFERENCE LONG. number_of_free_clusters OUT pls_integer. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . sectors_per_cluster OUT PLS_INTEGER. number_of_free_clusters BY REFERENCE LONG. bytes_per_sector BY REFERENCE LONG. bytes_per_sector OUT PLS_INTEGER.0 (3/4) CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY disk_util AS FUNCTION get_disk_free_space (root_path IN VARCHAR2.

Usage (4/4)
DECLARE lroot_path VARCHAR2(3) := 'C:\'; lsectors_per_cluster PLS_INTEGER; lbytes_per_sector PLS_INTEGER; lnumber_of_free_clusters PLS_INTEGER; ltotal_number_of_clusters PLS_INTEGER; return_code PLS_INTEGER; free_meg REAL; BEGIN return_code := disk_util.get_disk_free_space (lroot_path, lsectors_per_cluster, lbytes_per_sector, lnumber_of_free_clusters, ltotal_number_of_clusters); free_meg := lsectors_per_cluster * lbytes_per_sector * lnumber_of_free_clusters / 1024 / 1024; DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('free disk space, Mb = ' || free_meg); diskspace.sql END;
1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein
PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 192

Creating your own external procedure 

1. Identify or create shared library 2. Identify or CREATE LIBRARY within Oracle 3. Map the parameters using:
± EXTERNAL clause (Oracle8) or ± LANGUAGE clause (Oracle8i)  

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 193

1. Identify/create external routine 


Prerequisite: O/S must support shared libraries Some useful routines are pre-built in C runtime library
± On Unix: /lib/libc.so ± On NT: <systemroot>\system32\crtdll.dll 

Building a shared library of your own requires knowledge of:
± Appropriate language (typically C) ± Compiler & linker

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 194

2. Create the Oracle library 

Syntax:
CREATE OR REPLACE LIBRARY <library name> AS '<full path to file>'; 

Assigns a programmer-defined alias to a specific shared library file Notes
± Requires CREATE LIBRARY pri ilege ± Does not alidate directory ± Can¶t use symbolic link 

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 195

3. Map the parameters
This can get complicated, because«
± Must pass extra parameters to designate:
» NULL/NOT NULL state » String length » Maximum allocated length

± Six choices of parameter mode
» » » » » » IN RETURN IN BY REFERENCE RETURN BY REFERENCE OUT IN OUT

These details are better suited for close reading«
PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 196

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Oracle8i New Features Autonomous Transactions Invoker Rights Model Row Level Security 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 197 .

± And the learning curve to take advantage of these features is generally not too steep.Oracle8i New Features  Oracle8i offers a number of PL/SQL-specific features that give you tremendous additional flexibility and capability.page 198 .    Autonomous Transactions The Invoker Rights Model Row level security 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

page 199 . ± There was only one transaction allowed per connection. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Any changes made within that block can be saved or reversed without affecting the outer or main transaction. you can now define a PL/SQL block to execute as an "autonomous transaction". CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE loginfo ( code IN PLS_INTEGER.Autonomous Transactions  Prior to Oracle8i. a COMMIT or ROLLBACK in any program in your session committed or rolled back all changes in your session. msg IN VARCHAR2) AS PRAGMA AUTONOMOUS_TRANSACTION.  With Oracle8i.

 Tracing Code Usage ± Build retry mechanisms.  Call functions within SQL that change the database. which can cause all sorts of complications: your log entry becomes a part of your transaction.When to Use Autonomous Transactions  Reusable Application Components ± ATs are more or less required in the new distributed application architecture of the Internet.page 200 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . software usage meter. etc.  Logging Mechanism ± Commonly developers lot to database tables. ± One component should not have any impact (esp. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Now you can avoid the complexities (need for ROLLBACK TO savepoints and so on). something like a COMMIT) on other components.

tst PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .machine.page 201 . EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN ROLLBACK. END. rec. SYSDATE. While we're at it. SYSDATE.program ). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Avoid interdependencies with the main transaction. rec. USER.Logging with ATs  Don't forget that ROLLBACK in the exception section! CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY log IS PROCEDURE putline ( code_in IN INTEGER. logger.sp log81.pkg log81*. USER. text_in IN VARCHAR2 ) IS PRAGMA AUTONOMOUS_TRANSACTION.pkg retry. text_in. COMMIT. END. let's add some session information. BEGIN INSERT INTO logtab VALUES (code_in.tst retry.

sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± You cannot tell by looking at the package spec if you are calling ATs or not -and this info is not available in the data dictionary.   The AT PRAGMA goes in the body of packages.sql autontrigger*.sql auton_in_sql. ± You cannot define an entire package as an AT.  Any changes committed in an AT are visible in the outer transaction. ± You can use the SET TRANSACTION ISOLATION LEVEL SERIALIZABLE to indicate that you do not want the changes visible until the outer transaction commits. The AT PRAGMA can be used only with individual programs and toplevel anonymous blocks. ± Place the SET TRANSACTION statement in the outer transaction. autonserial. ± You cannot define a nested anonymous block to be an AT.Tips and Gotchas with ATs  An AT program must COMMIT or ROLLBACK before terminating. or an error is raised.page 202 .

The Invoker Rights Model  Prior to Oracle8i. whenever you executed a stored program. you can now decide at compilation time whether your program or package will execute in the definer's schema (the default) or the schema of the invoker of the code.page 203 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . it ran under the privileges of the account in which the program was defined. ± This is called the « Definer Rights Model  With Oracle8i. ± This is called the « Invoker Rights Model PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Note: Oracle built-in packages have long had the capability of running under the invoker's authority. But it can be a source of confusion and architectural problems. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . OE Code Order_Mgt Place Cancel Sam_Sales Close Old Orders  OE Data X  Orders Cannot alter table directly.About Definer Rights  Allows you to centralize access to and control of underlying data structures. Ignores roles and relies on directly-granted privileges.page 204 .

each user has own copy of table(s).. unless you write code in the package to essentially recreate roles programmatically.page 205 .and now you do! 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .it's all or nothing.Problems with Definer Rights  Deployment & maintenance ± Must install module in all remote databases where needed ± In some databases. ± Can bypass 8i¶s ³fine-grained´ access features (see the DBMS_RLS package) ± Difficult to audit privileges  Sure would be nice to have a choice. requiring copy of stored module  Security ± No declarative way to restrict privileges on certain modules in a package -..

do what it takes to get the code to compile. and must be at the package level. AUTHID goes only in spec.. You could also create local.page 206 . "dummy" objects. the objects referenced may well be different from those against which it compiled.  For modules with separate spec and body. ± In other words.  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .. Synonyms may be necessary if modules use object names not qualified by schema. ± At run-time.Oracle8i Invoker Rights Syntax  For top level modules: CREATE [ OR REPLACE ] <module type> [ AUTHID { DEFINER | CURRENT_USER } ] AS .

...). code.destroy(..acct_mgr.. accounts table 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Central Code schema PACKAGE acct_mgr make AUTHID CURRENT_USER User/Data schema PROCEDURE mng_account IS BEGIN .FROM accounts WHERE.."Reflection" Capability of Invoker Rights  With invoker rights. you can execute code owned by another schema. yet have all references to data structures "reflect back" into your own schema.page 207 .. END. modify destroy ..

 Information about the rights model is not available in the data dictionary What if you want to maintain a single version of your code for both pre-Oracle8i and Oracle8i installations. the definer rights model is always applied to resolve the reference.sql handy. ± AUTHID CURRENT_USER is ignored.sql  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Once a definer rights program is called. only data ± When your stored code references another stored code element. oneversion. all other calls in stack are resolved according to definer rights. taking advantage of the invoker rights model whenever possible? ± A creative use of SQL*Plus substitution variables comes in very invdefinv.page 208 . Note: cannot use with wrapped code. ± Both static and dynamic SQL is supported.Tips and Gotchas for Invoker Rights  Does not apply to code objects.

When to Invoke Invoker Rights  You want to reuse the same code among many users. ± Share a program that uses dynamic SQL (whether DBMS_SQL or the new native implementation) and you end up taking the most unexpected DDL and DML detours.page 209 . National HQ Check City Statistics New York Schema stolenlives Chicago Schema stolenlives  Especially handy with dynamic SQL.sql whichsch*. authid.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . but you want their own directly-granted privileges to determine access.

Rely on definer rights to access centralized data from any schema.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 210 .Combining Invoker & Definer Rights  Rely on invoker rights to allow centralized code to work with schema-specific data. HQ Chicago Check City Statistics  New York stolenlives Analyze Pattern stolenlives perpetrators perp.

page 211 .Row Level Security DBMS_RLS Row-Level Security 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

The DBMS_RLS package (along with "system contexts") now allow you to do so in a foolproof manner. DBMS_RLS.page 212   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .Row-Level Security with DBMS_RLS  Oracle8i offers a new package. with which to implement automated row-level security (also referred to as "fine grained access control"). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . you could achieve this only partially through the use of views. Prior to Oracle8i. Row Level Security  The establishment of security policies on (restricted access to) individual rows of a table.

the system context is a named set of attributevalue pairs global to your session.  Database Logon Triggers ± I want to make sure that when a person logs in.  Let's step through a simple example to see how all these pieces tie together.  DBMS_RLS ± Use programs in DBMS_RLS to associate your security policies with tables. their context information is set properly.page 213 .Components Needed for RLS  System Contexts ± A new feature in Oracle8i. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Security Policy Packages ± You will need to write a package containing functions that establish the security policies to be applied to a particular table.

No more for-profit hospitals pulling billions of dollars out of the system. ± Regulators can only see patients who reside in the same state. The main tables are patient. all children are vaccinated. highly secure database for NHCS.page 214 . Here are some rules: ± Doctors can only see patients who are assigned to their clinic. no more private insurance companies soaking up 30 cents on the dollar.sql  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . doctor.A National Health Care System  The year is 2010. clinic and regulator. ± Patients can only see information about themselves. fgac. popular uprising in the United States has forced the establishment of a national healthcare system. all pregnant women receive excellent prenatal care.  We need a top-notch. ± A massive.

c_person_id_attr.SET_CONTEXT ( 'patient_restriction'.Set the Context  Define a context in the database. doc_rec doc_cur%ROWTYPE. 'DOCTOR'). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . sets the context accordingly. c_person_type_attr. and create a procedure that will set the context attributes (type and ID) upon login.page 215 .doctor_id). CREATE CONTEXT patient_restriction USING nhc_pkg. DBMS_SESSION. END.SET_CONTEXT ( 'patient_restriction'. DBMS_SESSION. BEGIN OPEN doc_cur. PROCEDURE set_context IS This is a simplification.sql for logic that identifies SELECT doctor_id FROM doctor different types of people and WHERE schema_name = USER. FETCH doc_cur INTO doc_rec. doc_rec. See CURSOR doc_cur IS fgac.

FUNCTION person_predicate ( schema_in VARCHAR2. ''' || clause for each type of c_person_id_attr || '''))'. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Define the Predicate  A predicate is a string that will be appended to the WHERE clause of the table to which this security policy is associated (see next page). BEGIN IF l_context = 'DOCTOR' THEN retval := 'home_clinic_id IN (SELECT home_clinic_id FROM doctor We need a different string WHERE doctor_id = SYS_CONTEXT (''' || to modify the WHERE c_context || '''. connection. person. information for this retval VARCHAR2(2000).page 216 . name_in VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2 IS l_context VARCHAR2(100) := Extract the context SYS_CONTEXT (c_context. c_person_type_attr).

person_predicate'. 'patient_privacy'.Create the Security Policy  Use the DBMS_RLS. update or delete against the SCOTT.DELETE').page 217 .PATIENT table will be modified by the string returned by the person_predicate function of the SCOTT. 'SCOTT'. BEGIN DBMS_RLS. ± The following procedure call specifies that the WHERE clause of any query.ADD_POLICY procedure. 'SELECT. 'patient'. ( => => => => => => 'SCOTT'.UPDATE. 'nhc_pkg.nhc_pkg package.ADD_POLICY OBJECT_SCHEMA OBJECT_NAME POLICY_NAME FUNCTION_SCHEMA POLICY_FUNCTION STATEMENT_TYPES END. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

fgac.sql Exception handling in trigger is critical! If you allow an exception to go unhandled.page 218 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Create Logon Trigger. CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER set_id_on_logon AFTER LOGON ON DATABASE BEGIN nhc_pkg.PUT_LINE ( 'Error ' || SQLCODE || ' setting context for ' || USER'). EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN DBMS_OUTPUT. we guarantee that the context is set (and the predicate applied) no matter which product is the entry point to Oracle. Setting Context  By setting the context in the logon trigger. END. logon is disabled.set_context.

'person_id')) Patients Visible to "SWALLACE": CSILVA .IL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Patient sees only himself.IL Context Information for "CSILVA": Type: PATIENT ID: Predicate: schema_name = 'CSILVA' Patients Visible to "CSILVA": CSILVA .Queries Transparently Filtered  What you see is determined automatically by who you are. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Chris Silva . Context Information for "SWALLACE": Type: DOCTOR Doctor sees only her ID: 1060 patients.IL VSILVA . Predicate: home_clinic_id IN (SELECT home_clinic_id FROM doctor WHERE doctor_id = SYS_CONTEXT ('patient_restriction'.page 219 .Veva Silva .Chris Silva .

April.page 220 .. March.....and play a new tune with PL/SQL! 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..  ± You learn what you need to get the job done. Jump out of your rut . May. February..Take Full Advantage of PL/SQL! January. It's so easy to fall into a rut with a programming language.... and you use only what you know.

page 221 .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Appendices (a. If time permits«)     UTL_FILE ± file IO DBMS_JOB ± Job scheduling DBMS_PIPE ± Pipe-based communication DBMS_UTILITY ± the kitchen sink package 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..k.a.

Physical Files 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ...Built-in Packages: UTL_FILE UTL_FILE Server-side File I/O Application FOPEN GET_LINE PUT_LINE .page 222 .

UTL_FILE: Server-side I/O  Allows you to read from and write to operating system files on the database server. no use of environmental variables). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . copy.. ± Limitations on files you can access (no mapped files. random access to contents). ± Maximum of 1023 bytes per line (read or write) until Oracle 8. delete. A "version 1" (fairly primitive) utility.0.   But you can read lines from a file and write lines to a file. when it jumps to 32K.5..page 223 . ± No higher-level file operations supported (change privileges.

page 224 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . Puts formatted text into the buffer PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .UTL_FILE Module Outline FCLOSE FCLOSE_ALL FFLUSH FOPEN GET_LINE IS_OPEN NEW_LINE PUT PUT_LINE PUTF Close the specified file Close all open files in your session Flush all data from the UTL_FILE buffer to your file Open a file Get the next line from a file Returns TRUE if the file is open (sort of) Insert a new line character in file at the end of current line Puts text into the UTL_FILE buffer Puts text and new line character into UTL_FILE buffer.

± Use a separate entry for each directory (and subdirectory.Authorizing Directory Access  Oracle requires you to list explicitly those directories you wish to be able to read/write with UTL_FILE. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . ± No single or double quotes around directory. no trailing delimiter. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± You do this by adding lines to the instance parameter file. there is no subdirectory recursion).page 225 Allows read & write for current directory. utl_file_dir = * Allows read & write for any directory. utl_file_dir = /tmp utl_file_dir = /accounts/newdev  And don't do either of the following: utl_file_dir = .  Follow these rules to avoid many headaches.

restart your database. modify your initialization file. 'test.Test UTL_FILE Access  About the hardest part to working with UTL_FILE is simply getting started. So before you write anything fancy. BEGIN /* Change the directory name to one to which you at least || THINK you have read/write access. END.txt'. */ fid := UTL_FILE.page 226 .FOPEN ('c:\temp'.PUT_LINE (fid. 'W').tst  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . and then run the following test script (it can't get much simpler than this): DECLARE fid UTL_FILE. UTL_FILE.FILE_TYPE. UTL_FILE. 'hello').FCLOSE (fid). / utlfile.

. ± Currently contains a single ID field. Test to see if file is open with the IS_OPEN function.FILE_TYPE. ± In actuality.page 227 . 'W'). 'test.. END. ± Types are 'R' for Read.txt'.   Maximum of 10 files may be opened in each user session.FILE_TYPE. 'W' for Write and 'A' for Append.FOPEN ('c:\temp'.  Specify file location. BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE.  The FOPEN function returns a record ("file handle") based on the UTL_FILE. name and operation type. Not much of a test. this function simply returns TRUE if the file handle's id field is NOT NULL. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Opening a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.

5 and above.FOPEN ('c:\temp'.   Can only read from a file opened with the "R" mode. the ceiling is raised to 32K.FILE_TYPE. ± In Oracle8 Release 8.page 228 . myline). UTL_FILE.txt'. UTL_FILE.0. END. Lines in the file cannot be longer than 1023 bytes in length.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . getnext.  The NO_DATA_FOUND exception is raised if you read past the end of the file. 'test. BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE.Reading from a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.GET_LINE (fid.FCLOSE (fid). ± You might want to build your own GET_LINE which handles the exception and returns an EOF Boolean status flag. 'R').

UTL_FILE is so much fun that I never want to stop Resulting Text  You can use PUT. '&1'). 'W').Writing to a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE. UTL_FILE.page 229 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . ± PUTF is like the C printf program.PUT (fid. ' that I never\nwant to %s'. BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE. allowing for some formatting. END. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 'UTL_FILE'). UTL_FILE.  Call FFLUSH to make sure that everything you have written to the buffer is flushed out to the file.FOPEN ('c:\temp'.PUTF (fid. UTL_FILE.FILE_TYPE.txt'. 'test.PUT_LINE (fid. PUT_LINE or PUTF. ± The file buffers are automatically flushed when you close a file or exit your session. UTL_FILE.FCLOSE (fid). 'is so much fun').

 If you do not close the file. You should close files in exception handlers to make sure that files are not left "hanging" open. 'R'). myline). UTL_FILE.Closing a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.FOPEN ('c:\temp'.FCLOSE (fid). UTL_FILE. EXCEPTION WHEN UTL_FILE. you will not see the data you have (supposedly) written to that file. END. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 'test.txt'. You can close a single file with FCLOSE or all open files with FCLOSE_ALL. BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE.READ_ERROR THEN UTL_FILE.page 230   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .FCLOSE (fid).FILE_TYPE.GET_LINE (fid.

EXCEPTION. ± They all share a common SQLCODE of 1. EXCEPTION. EXCEPTION. EXCEPTION. EXCEPTION. ± NO_DATA_FOUND when you try to read past the end of the file.page 231 .  You have to take special care to trap and handle the named exceptions.  UTL_FILE relies on a combination of user-defined exceptions and STANDARD exceptions to communicate errors. EXCEPTION. ± UTL_FILE-named exceptions in other cases. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . EXCEPTION.Error Handling in UTL_FILE PACKAGE UTL_FILE IS invalid_path invalid_mode invalid_filehandle invalid_operation read_error write_error internal_error END.

INVALID_OPERATION THEN recNgo (PLVfile.page 232  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . RAISE. translating the generic user-defined exception into an understandable message. WHEN UTL_FILE.c_write_error). RAISE. utlflexc. RAISE. Re-raise exception if you want it to propagate from that block.INVALID_PATH THEN recNgo (PLVfile.c_internal_error). WHEN UTL_FILE.c_invalid_filehandle).Recommended Exception Section EXCEPTION WHEN UTL_FILE. WHEN UTL_FILE.c_invalid_mode).WRITE_ERROR THEN recNgo (PLVfile. WHEN UTL_FILE. record the error. WHEN UTL_FILE.c_invalid_operation).INVALID_MODE THEN recNgo (PLVfile. END. RAISE.c_invalid_path).INTERNAL_ERROR THEN recNgo (PLVfile.c_read_error). RAISE.INVALID_FILEHANDLE THEN recNgo (PLVfile. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .READ_ERROR THEN recNgo (PLVfile.sql  Trap locally by name. WHEN UTL_FILE. RAISE. RAISE.

Built-in Packages: DBMS_JOB DBMS_JOB Scheduled Execution of Stored Procedures Application SUBMIT RUN REMOVE . Background Process DBA_JOBS Oracle Job Queue Subsystem 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 233 ...

but only ³publicly available´ and supported in PL/SQL Release 2. Create a listener program to poll the contents of a pipe and take action. Made its debut in PL/SQL Release 2. ± Spawn background processes to avoid blocking client process. ± ± ± ±    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .1. Built by Oracle to support snapshots and replication. Schedule regular maintenance on instances.Overview of DBMS_JOB  DBMS_JOB provides an API to the Oracle job queues. You can use DBMS_JOB to: Replicate data between different database instances. which in turn offers job scheduling capabilities within the Oracle Server.page 234 .2. Schedule large batch jobs to run on "off hours".

Forces immediate execution of the specified job number.page 235 CHANGE INTERVAL ISUBMIT NEXT_DATE REMOVE RUN SUBMIT USER_EXPORT WHAT 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . Submits a job to the queue returning a unique job number. Returns the job string for a job number. Changes the job string of a job. Removes the job from the queue.DBMS_JOB Module Outline BROKEN Marks the job as either FIXED or BROKEN. Broken jobs will not run as scheduled. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Changes when a queued job will run. Submits a job to the queue using a predefined job number. Changes one or all attributes of a job. Changes the interval between executions of a job.

'SYSDATE + 1'). Notice that the start time is a DATE expression. you specify the date on which it should next execute.page 236 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .'. BEGIN DBMS_JOB. instead of having DBMS_JOB generate one for you. END.  When you submit a job. and then the job¶s execution interval (frequency of execution).Submitting a Job DECLARE job# BINARY_INTEGER. 'calculate_totals. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .ISUBMIT and supply the job number. SYSDATE. while the interval is a string (this is dynamic PL/SQL!)  You can also call DBMS_JOB. ± In the above example. I run calculate_totals immediately and then on a daily basis thereafter.  A job is a call to a stored procedure or an anonymous block ± It must end with a semi-colon and can contain ³hard-coded´ arguments.SUBMIT (job#.

''ESTIMATE''. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .ANALYZE_OBJECT ' || '(''TABLE''.ANALYZE_OBJECT.Submit Job Example DECLARE v_jobno INTEGER. next_date => TRUNC (SYSDATE + 1).'. interval => 'TRUNC(SYSDATE+1)' ).submit ( job => v_jobno. p.''TENK''' || '.estimate_percent=>50). what => 'DBMS_DDL.null.page 237 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . BEGIN DBMS_JOB. END. /  This block submits a job that uses a built-in procedure. to analyze a specific table every evening at midnight.l (v_jobno).''LOAD1''. DBMS_DDL.

± Job 1 passes a string and number into procedure MY_JOB1.2. ± Job 3 is a PL/SQL block which does nothing. executes immediately. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .next_date => SYSDATE + 1/24 .'. /  This block submits three jobs to the job queue. DBMS_JOB.' .120).null). and 3. and will be removed from the queue automatically.what => 'my_job1(''string_parm_value''. executes for the first time tomorrow and every 10 minutes thereafter.'SYSDATE+10/1440').DBMS_JOB. DBMS_JOB. 'my_job2(date_IN=>SYSDATE).page 238 .ISUBMIT (2. numbered 1.SYSDATE+1.'BEGIN null. ± Job 2 passes a date into procedure MY_JOB2.ISUBMIT (job => 1 . END.' . END.SYSDATE.interval => 'SYSDATE +1'). runs it in one hour and executes every day thereafter.ISubmit Job Example BEGIN DBMS_JOB.ISUBMIT(3.

at 9 AM Every Monday. ''FRIDAY''))) + 18/24' PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ''WEDNESDAY''). ''MONDAY''). ''MONDAY'') + 9/24' 'TRUNC (LEAST ( NEXT_DAY (SYSDATE. 3). ± Since it's a string. you must use 2 single quotes to embed strings. NEXT_DAY (SYSDATE. ± Use date arithmetic to request intervals smaller than a day.page 239 + 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . Every hour Every Sunday at 2 AM First Monday of each quarter.Specifying Job Times & Frequencies  Probably the most complicated part of using DBMS_JOB is to get the string expression of the job interval right. ''SATURDAY'') 2/24' 'NEXT_DAY ( ADD_MONTHS (TRUNC (SYSDATE. ''Q''). Wednesday and Friday at 6 PM 'SYSDATE + 1/24' 'NEXT_DAY (TRUNC (SYSDATE). NEXT_DAY (SYSDATE.

page 240 .  Run a job immediately.job). ± Only if the job was submitted from same schema BEGIN FOR rec IN (SELECT * FROM USER_JOBS) LOOP DBMS_JOB. END LOOP. ± Uses DBMS_JOB.RUN (my_job#). expjob. retaining current job number.Other Job Queue Operations  Remove a job from the queue.ISUBMIT.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Performs an implicit COMMIT in current session.REMOVE (rec. DBMS_JOB.  Export jobs from the queue. Remove all jobs for current schema. ± Produces a string that can be used to recreate an existing job in the job queue.

sid = jr. who owns them and when they began.V$SESSION WHERE s.this_date.job .job ORDER BY jr.page 241 .sid AND jr.DBA_JOBS .what job_id username start_date job_definition jr j s showjobs.jr.username .Job Queue Views  You can also view the job queue by looking at the DBA_JOBS_RUNNING. DBA_JOBS and USER_JOBS views.this_date . ± The following query blends job information with session information to display currently-executing jobs.sql FROM DBA_JOBS_RUNNING . SELECT jr. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .job = j.

The valid range is 0 through 36.Setting up the Job Facility  Make sure that the correct access is set up for the DBMS_JOB package. of one hour).  You will need to set three parameters in the init. The valid range is 1 to 3600 (a maximum.ora (initialization) file for your database instance: ± job_queue_processes=N where n is the number of concurrent background processes permitted. You will have to take special DBA action if you want to restrict who can run jobs. ± job_queue_interval=N where N is the interval in seconds to check the job queue. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± The default is PUBLIC access. therefore.page 242 .

± Always include a WHEN OTHERS exception handler in your job program which traps any and all problems and automatically sets the job status to broken. ± Do you want it to try 16 times? ± In addition. it may cause the background processes to fail and no longer run any jobs at all.Error Handling with DBMS_JOB  What if your stored procedure fails? ± After 16 attempts. Then you can go ahead and submit it.  To avoid unexpected and unhandled failures of scheduled jobs: ± Always use the RUN built-in to execute your job in a ³test´ mode. the job facility will mark your job as broken. if your failure raises an unhandled exception.page 243 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

± Calls log program of package to record that failure took place..sql  The WHEN OTHERS exception handler of the calc_totals procedure traps any kind of failure. TRUE).sql showspc. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Uses a call to BROKEN to set the status of the job to ³broken´.job (µcalc_totals¶) DBMS_JOB.log (µcalc_totals¶. job_pkg. You can go in and fix the problem. µFAIL¶). ± Obtains the job number from a packaged function by passing the name of the procedure.Stopping the Job When It Fails PROCEDURE calc_totals IS BEGIN .page 244 . EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN job# := job_pkg.. spacelog. END.BROKEN (job#. ± Now the job facility will not try to run this program again.

± DBMS_JOB only allows you to modify characteristics and behavior of jobs submitted by the current schema. You can use the DBMS_IJOB to manage the jobs of other users. When a job runs. it picks up the current execution environment for the user. ± We've noticed some aberrant.    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . If you find that you submit a job to run immediately and it does not start. perform a COMMIT after your submit. difficult to reproduce behavior at times with "straight" procedure calls."Good to Knows" for DBMS_JOB  You may find it useful to always wrap your stored procedure call (the what) inside a BEGIN-END block.  You will need to fully-qualify all database links (with user name and password) to get them to work properly.page 245 .

page 246 .Built-in Packages: DBMS_PIPE DBMS_PIPE Inter-session Communication 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Oracle uses database pipes to parallelize database operations. ± Interface PL/SQL-database activities with operating system functions and programs written in other languages. ± Operates outside of database transaction limitations.  Uses for DBMS_PIPE include: ± Parallelization of program execution. ± More sophisticated debugging inside PL/SQL programs (work around fundamental limitations of DBMS_OUTPUT). You can parallelize your own code. ± Perform and commit DML in a separate transaction space from your main transaction. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .DBMS_PIPE Overview  Allows communication between different Oracle sessions through a pipe in the RDBMS Shared Global Area.page 247 .

They are reserved for Oracle use).page 248 . ± The pipe sends/receives a message.Architecture of DBMS_PIPE Shared Global Area ³Sue´ ³Bob´ Message Buffer Message Buffer Session A  Session B A pipe is a named object that uses the System Global Area to provide a non-transaction based conduit of information. using a maximum of 4096 bytes. ± Names can be up to 128 chars long (do not use names beginning with ³ORA$´. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . which can be composed of one or more separate packets.

± This is the default. date or number).Processing Flow of DBMS_PIPE  Construct a message from packets of information. ± There is just one message buffer per session. so you should always specify a timeout period. ± You can wait for up to 1000 days for a message. you can wait for up to 1000 days (or 86400000 seconds) for the pipe to be cleared. ± If there isn¶t currently room in the pipe. ROWID or RAW.  Send the message to a named pipe. date. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein pipex1.  Unpack the message packets and take action.page 249 . number.sql pipex2. ± Each packet can be a string. ± Separate out the individual packets in the message (again: string.sql PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Receive a message from that pipe.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 250 . UNPACK_MESSAGE Unpacks the next item from the local message buffer and deposits it into the specified local variable. Clears your buffer so that PACK_MESSAGE and UNPACK_MESSAGE can work from the first item. RECEIVE_MESSAGE Receives a message from pipe and copies to local buffer.DBMS_PIPE Module Outline Module Name CREATE_PIPE Description Creates a PUBLIC or PRIVATE pipe. NEXT_ITEM_TYPE Returns the datatype of the next item in the piped message. PURGE Empties the contents of a pipe into your local buffer freeing it for removal. SEND_MESSAGE Sends contents of message buffer to the specified pipe. REMOVE_PIPE RESET_BUFFER Removes a pipe explicitly created via CREATE_PIPE. PACK_MESSAGE Packs an item into the message buffer for your session. making it a candidate for removal with a LRU algorithm. UNIQUE_SESSION_NAME Returns name that is unique among all sessions in the database.

± Use CREATE_PIPE to create a pipe explicitly. private => TRUE). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  An explicit pipe can be private (accessible only to sessions with matching userID or SYSDBA privileges). ± Specify TRUE for private argument of CREATE_PIPE.  A public pipe is accessible as long as you know its name.page 251 . ± Send messages to non-existent pipe implicitly create it. PROCEDURE newpipe IS stat INTEGER.Creating Public and Private Pipes  There are two ways to create pipes: implicitly and explicitly. maxpipesize => 20000. BEGIN stat := DBMS_PIPE. ± Implicitly-created pipes are always public.CREATE_PIPE ( pipename => 'bbs'.

and new max pipe size (you can make it bigger. seconds you will wait.page 252 . FOR month_num IN 1 . waiting up to 1 minute. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END LOOP. Status of 0 means message was sent. Send to "monthly" pipe. 10 * 4096). expanding pipe size to 40 Kbytes. 60.Sending a Message Provide pipe name. 12 LOOP DBMS_PIPE. timeout IN INTEGER DEFAULT maxwait.SEND_MESSAGE ( µmonthly¶. IF pipe_stat != 0 THEN RAISE could_not_send. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Fill your message buffer with packets of data. FUNCTION send_message (pipename IN VARCHAR2. but not smaller).PACK_MESSAGE ( total_sales (month_num)). maxpipesize IN INTEGER DEFAULT 8192) RETURN INTEGER. pipe_stat := DBMS_PIPE..

± You need to know the datatype of packet or check it using NEXT_ITEM_TYPE. ± Pipe status of 0 means the message was read successfully. PROCEDURE unpack_message (item OUT DATE). timeout IN INTEGER DEFAULT maxwait) RETURN INTEGER. ± Specify pipe and number of seconds you will wait before you time out.  Then you call UNPACK_MESSAGE to extract individual packets from the message.Receiving and Unpack a Message FUNCTION receive_message (pipename IN VARCHAR2. PROCEDURE unpack_message (item OUT VARCHAR2). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 253 .  First you pull the message from the pipe and place it in buffer with RECEIVE_MESSAGE. PROCEDURE unpack_message (item OUT NUMBER).

analyze_production (SYSDATE. LOOP pipe_status := DBMS_PIPE. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 254 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . DBMS_PIPE. END. prod_total). PROCEDURE analyze_assembly_data (every_n_secs IN INTEGER) IS pipe_status INTEGER. every_n_secs). Wait up to N prod_total NUMBER.A Pipe-based Listener Program  Program wakes up every N seconds to read the data from the pipe and analyze results from assembly line (an intentional "infinite loop"!). seconds for the BEGIN next report. END LOOP.RECEIVE_MESSAGE ( 'production'. END IF. pass it on to the IF pipe_status = 0 computation THEN program.UNPACK_MESSAGE (prod_total). If I got something. data not received. 'Production data unavailable.'). ELSE RAISE_APPLICATION_ERROR ( Stop process if -20000.

Returns one of the following values: Value 0 6 9 11 12 23 Description or Data type No more items in buffer NUMBER VARCHAR2 ROWID DATE RAW dbpipe.sql dbpipe. you have to make sure that you unpack a packet into the right kind of variable. ± Or you use the built-in NEXT_ITEM_TYPE to tell you in advance the datatype of the next packet in the message and take appropriate action. Either: ± You know the datatype and therefore can ³hard-code´ the correct variable into the call to UNPACK_MESSAGE. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .tst  Since a message can be composed of packets of different datatypes.page 255 .Unpacking the Message FUNCTION next_item_type RETURN INTEGER.

 Without pipes.  Suppose I want to calculate my net profit. total office expenses and total compensation. In order to do so I must first compute total sales.page 256 . I must execute them sequentially and incur an elapsed time of 45 minutes before I calculate the profits. ± You have processes which can run in parallel. you can do the same for your application if: ± You have multiple CPUs available. ± The CEO is decidedly unhappy about the delay.Parallelizing Your Code with Pipes  Oracle uses DBMS_PIPE to improve RDBMS performance. ± These programs each take 15 minutes. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . but are not dependent on each other.

Sequential vs.page 257 . Parallel Execution Sequential Execution: Maximum Elapsed Time S t a r t E n d Process A Process B Process C Parallel Execution: Minimum Elapsed Time Start Process A Process B Process C End 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

calculate_net_profits. kick_off_exp_calc. kick_off_totcomp_calc. ± Other programs running in the background grab the messages and start their corresponding calculation program. Then net profits can be computed -.Parallelizing PL/SQL Execution BEGIN kick_off_sales_calc. it puts a message (perhaps even a value) into the pipe. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  The ³kick off´ programs pass their messages to separate pipes. END.in a muchdecreased elapsed time.  The ³wait´ program waits till it receives a message from each program.page 258 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . wait_for_confirmation. ± When each program is complete.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Send message to start calculations.PACK_MESSAGE (1995).SEND_MESSAGE (µsales¶). and send back the results.RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µsales¶). ELSE DBMS_PIPE. PROCEDURE calculate_sales IS stat INTEGER. IF stat = 0 THEN lots_of_number_crunching.Code to Kick Off and Calculate PROCEDURE kick_off_sales_calc IS stat INTEGER. END. END. BEGIN DBMS_PIPE. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . calculate sales.SEND_MESSAGE (µsales¶). DBMS_PIPE. BEGIN stat := DBMS_PIPE. stat := DBMS_PIPE.PACK_MESSAGE (NULL).SEND_MESSAGE (µsales¶). stat := DBMS_PIPE.PACK_MESSAGE (sales$). Receive the year.page 259 . stat := DBMS_PIPE. END IF.

UNPACK_MESSAGE (comp$). parallel. END.comp$.UNPACK_MESSAGE (offexp$). DBMS_PIPE. Perform final calculation.RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µoffexp¶).offexp$ . DBMS_PIPE.RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µsales¶). BEGIN stat := DBMS_PIPE. DBMS_PIPE.page 260 . END.RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µcomp¶). stat := DBMS_PIPE.UNPACK_MESSAGE (sales$). The order in which you wait is insignificant. Wait for all calculations to finish. PROCEDURE calculate_net_profits IS BEGIN net_profits := sales$ . stat := DBMS_PIPE.Waiting for Confirmation PROCEDURE wait_for_confirmation IS stat INTEGER.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

in-memory cache.page 261 . and sends it to the pipe. watch. ± Demonstrates the use of toggles and switches in packages. ± The requester reads the information from the pipe. ± A request for data is passed to a "central" pipe. obtains the data.Other DBMS_PIPE Examples  Simple trace package that sends it output either to screen or to pipe.pkg p_and_l.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .pkg syscache.pkg  Implementation of a system-wide. syscache. ± A listener program grabs the request (including the return pipe name).

.Built-in Packages: DBMS_UTILITY DBMS_UTILITY Application GET_TIME GET_HASH_VALUE FORMAT_CALL_STACK .. A µgrab-bag¶ of miscellaneous operations SCHEMA 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 262 .

Returns execution call stack.page 263 dbver. Returns hash value for string. Gets file number part of data block address.DBMS_UTILITY Module Outline ANALYZE_DATABASE ANALYZE_PART_OBJECT Analyze objects in database Runs ANALYZE TABLE or ANALYZE INDEX for each partition of the object (Oracle8). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Returns error stack.pkg COMMA_TO_TABLE COMPILE_SCHEMA DATA_BLOCK_ADDRESS_BLOCK DATA_BLOCK_ADDRESS_FILE DB_VERSION EXEC_DDL_STATEMENT FORMAT_CALL_STACK FORMAT_ERROR_STACK GET_HASH_VALUE 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . Returns database version (Oracle8) Executes DDL statement (Oracle8). Gets block number part of data block address. Parses comma-delimited list to index-by table. Recompile INVALID objects in specified schema.pkg dbparm.

Returns TRUE if in parallel server mode. Converts list (in index-by-table) of elements into a comma-delimited list (string). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Returns platform and version of database. cont.DBMS_UTILITY Module Outline. Returns "current time" down to hundredth of second.page 264 . Creates data block address from block & file numbers. GET_PARAMETER_VALUE GET_TIME IS_PARALLEL_SERVER MAKE_DATA_BLOCK_ADDRESS NAME_RESOLVE NAME_TOKENIZE PORT_STRING TABLE_TO_COMMA Retrieves value of database parameter (Oracle8). Parses string object designator into components. Resolves name of object into component parts.

GET_TIME. Basic steps necessary to convert GET_TIME into a performance analysis tool.  Compare results from consecutive calls to GET_TIME to determine the elapsed time of PL/SQL code execution. ± SYSDATE only reflects times down to the nearest second.GET_TIME . BEGIN v_start := DBMS_UTILITY.PUT_LINE (DBMS_UTILITY.v_start). calc_totals. especially those that run in sub-second time. so GET_TIME offers significant additional granularity.Sub-Second Timings with GET_TIME  GET_TIME returns the number of 100ths of seconds that have elapsed since an arbitrary point in time. DECLARE v_start BINARY_INTEGER. ± Useful when analyzing individual PL/SQL programs. END. DBMS_OUTPUT.page 265 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

calc_totals. PROCEDURE capture ( context_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) PROCEDURE show_elapsed (prefix_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL.show_elapsed. BEGIN PLVtmr.spb 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END. END PLVtmr.page 266 .sps plvtmr. PROCEDURE turn_off. adjust_in IN NUMBER := 0. PROCEDURE set_factor (factor_in IN NUMBER).Building a Layer Over GET_TIME Partial package specification PACKAGE PLVtmr IS PROCEDURE turn_on.capture.sql plvtmr. reset_in IN BOOLEAN := TRUE). PLVtmr. Clean and lean timing code ovrhead.

PUT_LINE ( DBMS_UTILITY.COMPANY_TYPE procedure STEVEN.PL/SQL Call Stack ----object line object handle number name 88ce3f74 88e49fc4 88e49390 88e2bd20 8 2 1 1 package STEVEN.Accessing the Execution Call Stack Use in the exception section to show context of error.FORMAT_CALL_STACK). ± Most recent program at beginning of "report".VALIDATE_REQUEST function STEVEN. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Does not show package elements. END.CALC_NET_WORTH anonymous block  "Little known facts" about FORMAT_CALL_STACK: ± Contains embedded new-line characters. only the package name.page 267 . equivalent to CHR(10). ----. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN DBMS_OUTPUT.

PUT_LINE (next_line).FORMAT_CALL_STACK || CHR(10). next_newline .sp dispcs. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE dispcs IS stk VARCHAR2(10000). startpos. next_line := SUBSTR ( stk.page 268 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . which means you cannot pass it to DBMS_OUTPUT directly.Accessing Call Stack Contents  The call stack length can easily exceed 255 bytes. dispcs. BEGIN stk := DBMS_UTILITY.tst callstack. startpos.pkg plvcs. EXIT WHEN next_newline = 0.sps DBMS_OUTPUT. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . startpos := next_newline + 1. next_newline INTEGER. END LOOP.startpos + 1). 1). Instead. use a loop to read through the stack. startpos INTEGER := 1. next_line VARCHAR2(255). END. CHR(10). LOOP next_newline := INSTR (stk.

.Resolving Names of Stored Code  Code names have many components. object_number OUT NUMBER).. ± Use NAME_RESOLVE to break down an identifier string into its components easily.page 269 . dblink OUT VARCHAR2.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . see it as an opportunity.. the way they are attached also follows a complicated syntax.NAME_RESOLVE (name IN VARCHAR2.for encapsulation! showcomp.but don't see it as a problem. part1 OUT VARCHAR2. context IN NUMBER. part2 OUT VARCHAR2.sp snc. schema OUT VARCHAR2. PROCEDURE DBMS_UTILITY.. part1_type OUT NUMBER.  Possible "Part 1" Types 5 7 8 9 Synonym Procedure Function Package What a chore! All those arguments.

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