Achieving PL/SQL Excellence

Oracle PL/SQL Advanced Techniques
Oracle7 thru Oracle8i
Steven Feuerstein
www.StevenFeuerstein.com www.Quest.com www.OReilly.com
and contributions most excellent from Bill Pribyl and Dick Bolz

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 1

Objective & Outline 

Objective
± Expand your knowledge and awareness of important and new features of the PL/SQL language. 

Outline
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± Building with Packages (Oracle7+) PL/SQL Collections (Oracle7 and Oracle8+) Cursor Variables (Oracle7 and Oracle8+) Dynamic SQL: DBMS_SQL and Native Dynamic SQL (8i) Calling Java from PL/SQL (Oracle8i) and C (Oracle8) Oracle Advanced Queuing with DBMS_AQ (Oracle8) Managing Large Objects with DBMS_LOB (Oracle8) Other Oracle8i New Features
» Autonomous Transactions (Oracle8i) » Invoker Rights Model (Oracle8i) » Row Level Security: DBMS_RLS

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

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Software Used in Training 

PL/Vision: a library of packages installed on top of PL/SQL.
± PL/Vision Lite - use it, copy, change it for free -- unless you build software to be sold commercially. ± Active PL/SQL Knowledge Base: contains PL/Vision Professional, the fully supported and enhanced version. 

Demonstration scripts executed in the training can be found on the RevealNet PL/SQL Pipeline:
± http://www.revealnet.com/Pipelines/PLSQL/index.htm ± Archives surfboard, Miscellaneous, PL/SQL Seminar Files ± See filedesc.doc for a listing of many of the files.
plsql_ides.txt 

The PL/SQL IDE (Integrated Development Environment).
± You no longer have to use SQL*Plus and a crude editor! Choose from among the many listed in plsql_ides.txt.

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Achieving PL/SQL Excellence

Building with PL/SQL Packages 
 

Overview Initialization section Overloading

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What is a Package? 

A collection of code elements, from procedures and functions to TYPE, variable and cursor declarations.
± Single-most important structure within PL/SQL, and almost certainly one of the most under-utilized. ± Conceptually very simple, it can take some time to fully grasp the implications and potential of the package. 

The method of choice by Oracle and other software developers for extending the PL/SQL language.
± You will find packages in the database, in Oracle Developer/2000, in Oracle Application Server. 

Let¶s review some of the benefits of packages.
tmr.pkg dbparm.pkg

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± Puts more structure and organization in your body of code. ± Instead of writing SQL directly in your programs. you call the packaged procedures and functions instead. custrules.page 6 .pks te_employee. te_employee.pkg insga.pkg  Improve transaction integrity by hiding data structures behind the package interface.pkb  Construct very flexible and usable utilities for developers. watch. package-based "component".When to Build a Package  Join physically logically-related code.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± There's a big difference between a bunch of separate programs and a coherent. ± Can lead to performance improvements.

± The PL/SQL runtime engine determines when and if this code should be run. no Complete request for packaged element. the first time any package element is referenced.page 7 . Does the package have an init section? yes Run initialization code.Package Initialization  The initialization section is a block of code at the end of the package body that is executed once per session. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Program references package element the first time in each session.

± Confirming that package is properly instantiated. In fact. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein BEGIN after/outside of any program defined in the pkg. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Useful for: ± Performing complex setting of default or initial values. ± Is not required. ± Can have its own exception handling section.Package Initialization Structure  The initialization section: ± Is defined after and outside of any programs in the package. PACKAGE BODY pkg IS PROCEDURE proc IS BEGIN END. ± Setting up package data which does not change for the duration of a session.page 8 . most packages you build won't have one. FUNCTION func RETURN BEGIN END. BEGIN END pkg.

defprinter INTO show_lov.page 9 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . init. tb_flag. END sessinit. */ SELECT lov_flag. printer VARCHAR2(60). EXCEPTION WHEN NO_DATA_FOUND THEN /* No record for show_lov := show_toolbar := printer := PACKAGE sessinit IS show_lov CHAR(1).. 'Y'. WHEN OTHERS THEN RAISE_APPLICATION_ERROR (-20000. show_toolbar CHAR(1). */ 'Y'. 'No profile for ' || USER). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 'lpt1'.Configure Session with Init.. show_toolbar. Section  An unusual package! ± Specification contains only variables.tst this user. printer FROM user_config WHERE user_id = USER. END sessinit. PACKAGE BODY sessinit IS /* No declared package elements at all! */ BEGIN /* Get user preferences for this user.pkg init.  Also a package with many design flaws. ± Body contains only initialization section.

fmts(9) := 'MM/DD/YYYY'. fmt_count := 12. fmts(4) := 'MM/DD'. ± The datemgr..pkg dates. datemgr. fmts(11) := 'YYYYMMDD'.. fmts(2) := 'DD-MON-YYYY'. Initialization section populates a PL/SQL table.Populate Collections  The PL/Vision Date package. . fmts(12) := 'RRMMDD'. PLVdate.pkg file demonstrates the basic technique (and the reliance on an initialization section) used to achieve this flexibility. fmts(3) := 'DD-MON'. BEGIN fmts(1) := 'DD-MON-RR'.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . fmts(10) := 'MMDDYYYY'. END dt. employs several PL/SQL tables to convert strings and to perform date arithmetic.page 10 . ± This increases the flexibility of the date conversion process.

± If you want others to use your code. you give two or more programs the same name.page 11 . ± You can overload modules in any declaration section and in packages. ± Overloading transfers the "need to know" from the user to the overloaded program.Program Overloading  When you overload programs. you need to make that code as smart and as easy to use as possible. myproc  Overloading is a critical feature when building comprehensive programmatic interfaces (APIs) or components using packages. myproc myproc 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

page 12 . 'MMDDYY'). and took functions like TO_CHAR and TO_DATE totally for granted. you would have to deal with something like this: date_string := TO_CHAR_FROM_DATE (SYSDATE. Without overloading. number_string := TO_CHAR (10000). 'MMDDYY'). date_string := TO_CHAR (SYSDATE. ± You just probably never gave it a thought. ± But Oracle couldn't offer that level of convenience without overloading.Overloading in PL/SQL Built-ins  PL/SQL uses overloading in many common functions. number_string := TO_CHAR_FROM_NUMBER (10000). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

VARCHAR2 is not different enough). There are two different "compile times": ± 1. the compiler must be able to distinguish between the two calls at compile-time. When you compile the package or block containing the overloaded code. ± The programs are of different types: procedure and function. ± Arguments differ only in their mode (IN.page 13 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . IN OUT).  Distinguishing characteristics: ± The formal parameters of overloaded modules must differ in number.  Undistinguishing characteristics: ± Functions differ only in their RETURN datatype. ± Their formal parameters differ only in datatype and the datatypes are in the same family. OUT. order or datatype family (CHAR vs.How Overloading Works  For two or more modules to be overloaded. ± 2. When you compile programs that use the overloaded code.

PROCEDURE calc (reg_in IN VARCHAR2). which one? param_modes. which one? too_similar.calc ('123'). Only difference is function RETURN type. END too_many_cals. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .func1 (v_value)).Examples of Invalid Overloadings PACKAGE too_similar IS PROCEDURE calc (reg_in IN CHAR).proc1 (v_value). PACKAGE param_modes IS PROCEDURE proc1 (val IN VARCHAR2). END param_modes. which one? DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE (only_returns. PROCEDURE proc1 (val IN OUT VARCHAR2). PACKAGE only_returns IS FUNCTION func1 (val IN VARCHAR2) RETURN DATE. END only_returns. FUNCTION func1 (val IN VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2. Parameter data types cause conflict.page 14 . Only difference is parameter mode.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . not Value ± A less common application of overloading. so much as providing different ways of requesting the same activity. you may construct different versions of the ³same´ program which correspond to different patterns of use. the overloading does not provide a single name for different activities.l substitute does an even better job.  Fitting the Program to the User ± To make your code as useful as possible.  Overloading by Type.Overload Wherever Possible  Supporting Many Data Combinations ± Apply the same action to different kinds or combinations of data. You use the type of data and not its value to determine which of the overloaded programs should be executed. In this case. ± The DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE procedure illustrates this technique -and the PL/Vision p.page 15 .

mask_in IN VARCHAR2 := 'Month DD.spb PROCEDURE l (boolean_in IN BOOLEAN).sps p. p. boolean_in IN BOOLEAN).page 16 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . mask_in IN VARCHAR2 := µMonth DD. YYYY . YYYY . allowing the user to pass data to the "display engine" without writing "pre-processing" code. date_in IN DATE.A "Classic" Overloaded Package  Many different datatype combinations. PACKAGE p IS PROCEDURE l (date_in IN DATE. PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2). PROCEDURE l (number_in IN NUMBER). PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2. PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2. PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2.HH:MI:SS PM'). END p.HH:MI:SS PM'). number_in IN NUMBER). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

PUT_LINE (SQLERRM || ': ' || TO_CHAR (SQLCODE)). ELSE DBMS_OUTPUT.page 17 . END IF..l (print_report_fl). p. p.Advantage of Extended Overloading ‡ Minimal overloading means lots of extra coding. DBMS_OUTPUT. SQLCODE). DBMS_OUTPUT..PUT_LINE ('FALSE').l (SQLERRM.PUT_LINE ('TRUE'). p.l ('So what is different?').PUT_LINE (TO_CHAR (SYSDATE. DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE ('So what is different?').l (SYSDATE). p. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein ‡Extended overloadings are more likely to meet user needs. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 'MM/DD/YY HH:MI:SS')). IF print_report_fl THEN DBMS_OUTPUT.

think about the way it will be used.page 18   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . ± Your code is a a more natural "fit" under a variety of requirements. the user of your package can benefit from writing less code. If you take these different circumstances into account when you design your package specification.and taken completely for granted. ± If you want to write software that is admired.. such as "display data" or "create a file". In my experience. appreciated.Fitting the Program to the User Writing "unnecessary" code? Time to overload!  A single piece of functionality. few developers are considerate enough of their users to try to anticipate their needs. can be applied or needed under very different circumstances. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..

you have to declare the record to hold the file handle. sometimes you will want to create a file and then perform additional operations. END.FCLOSE (fid). BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE.flg'.FILE_TYPE. right? WRONG! PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Here is the code required by UTL_FILE: DECLARE fid UTL_FILE. 'blah'). even though you are simply going to close the file immediately after opening it.page 19  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .PUT_LINE (fid. so this is just the way it has to be.  In other words.Creating a File for a Quick Touch  Suppose a developer needs to create a file to be used as a "flag" in the operating system. Of course. UTL_FILE. UTL_FILE. ± She doesn't care what's in it.FOPEN ('tmp/flags'. 'exists. It just needs to be present. 'W').

flg'). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Use as Function DECLARE fid UTL_FILE. END PLVfile.FILE_TYPE. line_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) RETURN UTL_FILE.fcreate ('temp.fcreate ('exists.ini'. line_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL).FILE_TYPE. v_user). Use as Procedure BEGIN PLVfile.put_line (fid.  Overloading of FCreate PACKAGE PLVfile IS /* Procedure */ PROCEDURE fcreate (file_in IN VARCHAR2. TO_CHAR (SYSDATE)). custrules. PLVfile. BEGIN fid := PLVfile. END.Procedure and Function Overloaded  Why not overload a "create file" program so that you can pick the one that most closely fits your situation? Consider the PLVfile package of PL/Vision.pkg PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . /* Function */ FUNCTION fcreate (file_in IN VARCHAR2.page 20 .

page 21 . but the type of data. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ."By-Type" Overloading  In some situations. ± Pass a piece of data of the right type. you must call the DEFINE_COLUMN procedure to define the datatype of the Nth column in the cursor. ± For example. ± Pass a string ³name´ of the datatype. Define a different program name for each datatype. when you use DBMS_SQL to set up a dynamic query. the user does not need to pass data.  There are three ways to accomplish this: ± Don't overload.

.  Now let's look at two examples of overloading by datatype.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. 'NUMBER'). Lotsa typing.DEFINE_INTEGER_COLUMN (cur..DEFINE_VARCHAR2_COLUMN (cur.  So many program names to remember! Pass a literal value.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. DBMS_SQL..VARCHAR2_TYPE.Options for Specifying Column Type  Don't even bother overloading.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. 2.func 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. 1.. Pass a named constant. 30). BEGIN DBMS_SQL.. lotsa names. BEGIN DBMS_SQL....DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. 2.page 22 . 'STRING'. 2.. DBMS_SQL. ± DBMS_SQL.. DBMS_SQL. 1). 30)..  Nasty hard-coding. 30). DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN ± PLVgen. DBMS_SQL.NUMBER_TYPE). 1.

± The three code blocks below are equivalent.Defining Dynamic SQL Columns  The DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. 2. DBMS_UTILITY. USER. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. 30). DBMS_SQL. 'a'. 2. 1. 1.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. ± To make it easier to accomplish this task. you only need to pass a value -.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. 1). 30). from the perspective of DBMS_SQL.of the correct type.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. 30). 2. v_empno).page 23 .DEFINE_COLUMN. DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN procedure defines the datatype of a column.GET_TIME).DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.any value -. 1. v_ename.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. DBMS_SQL. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

func ('total_salary'. ± The particular value itself is of no importance. please! A number function. type_in IN DATE). any Boolean will do. the user indicates the type of function to be generated by providing a value. Any number. please! 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . SYSDATE) SQL> exec plvgen.Generating Functions by Value  In PLVgen. type_in IN NUMBER). type_in IN VARCHAR2). PROCEDURE func (name_in IN VARCHAR2. any string.page 24 . PACKAGE PLVgen IS PROCEDURE func (name_in IN VARCHAR2. SQL> exec plvgen. any date.func ('last_date'. 1) A date function. PROCEDURE func (name_in IN VARCHAR2.

page 25 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END.comp_id%TYPE). but you might later found out that you cannot actually call any of the overloaded programs. PACKAGE profits IS PROCEDURE calc (comp_id_IN IN NUMBER). PL/SQL does not sense a conflict with above overloading even though comp_id is a numeric column. I rely on an anchored type (%TYPE) to establish the datatype of the second calc¶s parameter.The Frustrations of Overloading  Watch out! An overloading can compile successfully.  In the above example. ± When I compile profits. PROCEDURE calc (comp_id_IN IN company.

PROCEDURE calc_total (reg_in IN VARCHAR2).  Can I overload two programs which have parameters that differ only by name.calc_total ('ZONE2').page 26 .calc_total ('NORTHWEST'). how would you do it? (Don't peek at the next page!) BEGIN sales. END.pkg ? 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . sales. like calc_totals shown above? ± If not. sales. why not? ± If so. END sales.Quiz! Nuances of Overloading PACKAGE sales IS PROCEDURE calc_total (zone_in IN VARCHAR2).

''ESTIMATE''. ± You can skip over (not specify values for) any IN parameters that have default values.estimate_percent=>50). what => 'DBMS_DDL. This is especially useful when working with infrequently used built-in programs. That way you don't have to know and pass default values.''TENK''' || '. DBMS_JOB.null.page 27 .Using Named Notation <formal parameter name> => <expression>  Explicit association between the formal parameter (the "name") with the actual parameter (the "value").'. next_date => TRUNC (SYSDATE + 1). interval => 'TRUNC(SYSDATE+1)').submit ( job => v_jobno.sql  Advantages 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . of named notation include: ± Code is more "self-documenting".''LOAD1''. namednot.ANALYZE_OBJECT ' || '(''TABLE''.

Oracle8 and above) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 28 . originally called PL/SQL tables) ± Nested tables (Oracle8 and above) ± Variable arrays (VARRAYs.Achieving PL/SQL Excellence PL/SQL Collections   Collections are single-dimensioned lists of information. Three types of collections: ± Index-by tables (Oracle7 only.

Build hash tables (custom indexing structures).page 29     1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .When to Use Collections  Maintain any kind of list of related information for use in your programs. Avoid mutating table errors in database triggers.  Emulate bi-directional cursors. Improve query performance by avoiding joins. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . which are otherwise not supported in PL/SQL Cache data in session-level memory for faster access.

DECLARE TYPE inmem_emp_t IS TABLE OF emp%ROWTYPE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. emp_copy inmem_emp_t.483.647 » You will not actually create tables this large. Instead.Index-By Tables TYPE <table_type> IS TABLE OF <datatype> INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER.  Characteristics of an index-by table: ± Unbounded » Practically speaking. ± Sparse » Data does not have to be stored in consecutive rows of information.483.147. ± Available only in PL/SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .147.647 to 2. this broad range allows you to employ the row number as an intelligent key.page 30 . Valid row numbers range: -2. ± Homogeneous » Data in each row has the same structure.

children (6904) := 'Lisa Nadezhka'.page 31 . Component Selection kid := children (4). children 6306 6412 6810 6904 µBarbara Anne¶ µGary Richard¶ µAdam Russell¶ µLisa Nadezhka¶ datemgr. Error: NO_DATA_FOUND 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .pkg children 6306 6412 6904 µBarbara Anne¶ µGary Richard¶ µLisa Marie¶ children (6810) := µAdam Russell.Index_by Tables TYPE declaration PACKAGE BODY family IS TYPE child_list_type IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2 (30) INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. Variable declaration children child_list_type.

but only with explicit EXTEND requests » Practically speaking.147.page 32 .483.Nested Tables [CREATE OR REPLACE] TYPE <table_type> IS TABLE OF <datatype> [NOT NULL].647 ± Initially dense. DECLARE TYPE when_t IS TABLE OF DATE. but can become sparse if you DELETE inner rows ± Available both in PL/SQL and SQL (as a column in a table) ± The order of elements is not preserved in the database 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . birthdays when_t. ± Unbounded.  Nested table characteristics ± Homogeneous » Each row contains the same structure of data. Valid row numbers range: 1 to 2.

For ORACLE's use only db_family surname kids BOLZ BOND Eric Thomas Max Richard Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Marie ntdemo.Nested Tables CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE child_table_type IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2 (30). kids child_table_type) NESTED TABLE kids STORE AS kids_ntab.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . CREATE TABLE db_family (surname VARCHAR2 (30).page 33 .

DECLARE TYPE numbers_t IS VARRAY (10) OF NUMBER. can be EXTENDed or TRIMmed. salaries numbers_t.147.  Characteristics of variable arrays: ± Homogeneous » Each row contains the same structure of data.Variable Arrays [CREATE OR REPLACE] TYPE <table_type> IS VARRAY (N) OF <datatype> [NOT NULL].483.page 34 . ± Available both in PL/SQL and SQL (as a column in a table) » And the order of elements are preserved in the database. ± Bounded » Upper limit established when the TYPE is defined. ± Variable arrays are actually stored in the DB table 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Maximum value: 2.647 ± Dense » Never any gaps between defined rows.

db_family surname kids BOLZ BOND 1 Barbara Anne 2 Gary Richard 3 Lisa Marie 1 Eric Thomas 2 Max Richard vademo. kids child_va_type).page 35 .sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . CREATE TABLE db_family (surname VARCHAR2 (30).Variable Arrays CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE child_va_type IS VARRAY (8) OF VARCHAR2 (30).

you define the TYPE of the collection. or in a PL/SQL declaration section. .  Then you declare an instance of that type.Defining Collections  First. you can define the TYPE in the database with a CREATE statement. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE tabtypes IS TYPE integer_ibt IS TABLE OF INTEGER INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. from the TYPE. ± You can declare multiple collections from that TYPE.. TYPE integer_vat IS VARRAY(10) OF INTEGER. TYPE integer_nt IS TABLE OF INTEGER..page 36 . ± For index-by tables. this can only occur in a PL/SQL declaration section. END tabtypes. Best option: package specification. ± For nested tables and VARRAYs. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . a collection.

' || A.  ALL_COLL_TYPES ± The types you have created (or have access to) in the database  ALL_TYPE_ATTRS ± Attributes of the data type used in the TYPE definition. ± The code used to define the collection TYPE  There is no information in the data dictionary available for index-by tables.attr_type_name Attributes all_coll_types T.owner = A.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .type_name IN ('NAMES_VT'. colldd.owner = USER T. all_type_attrs A T. 'TMRS_VT') T.attr_name || ' .type_name.page 37 .Obtaining Collection Information SELECT FROM WHERE AND AND AND A.elem_type_name = A.owner T.

empty when declared. DECLARE TYPE numbers_t IS VARRAY (10) OF NUMBER.Initializing Collections  Before you can use a collection. salaries numbers_t := numbers_t (100. BEGIN CREATE TYPE numbers_t IS VARRAY (10) OF NUMBER. ± Nested tables and VARRAYs are atomically null. 200. salary_history numbers_t).Initialize the collection. You must initialize them explicitly with a constructor. TYPE defined in PL/SQL TYPE defined in the database Collection used in a table PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 38 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . 300). BEGIN CREATE TABLE employee_denorm ( employee_id INTEGER. it must be initialized. 200. salaries numbers_t := numbers_t (100. 300). ± Index-by tables are initialized automatically. / DECLARE -.

± Can easily create an index-by table with the same structure as a database table by declaring a record with %ROWTYPE. Here we have a three step process.3. consider putting TYPEs in database or packages.page 39 . Again. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . the ³homogeneous´ contents of an index-by table's row can be a record . the datatype for any of the collection types can also be an object. BEGIN comp_tab(1). TYPE comp_tabtype IS TABLE OF comp_rectype INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER.  Starting with Oracle8.comp_id := 1005. total_rev NUMBER). DECLARE TYPE comp_rectype IS RECORD (comp_id company.company_id%TYPE. ± But you cannot have nested composite datatypes.Collections of Composites  Starting with Oracle 7. comp_tab comp_tabtype.

± You should not fill sequentially. order by date. it is very similar to a database table. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . In this way.). etc.  Especially handy when caching data from relational tables in user memory.page 40 . consider using the row value as "smart data" for your application (primary key. ± Instead.  Rows do not have to be defined sequentially. ± In an index-by table. a row exists in the table only when a value is assigned to that row. your collections will contain a row's worth of information. unless the order in which items are selected is of importance.Sparse is Nice  The sparse characteristic of index-by tables and nested tables can be put to good use. ± In almost every case.

emp_tab emp_tabtype. Initialization section of package 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein  This package moves the entire contents of the emp table into its corresponding collection. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY psemp IS BEGIN FOR rec IN (SELECT * FROM emp) LOOP emp_tab (rec. END LOOP.empno) := rec.Transferring DB Table to Collection CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE psemp IS TYPE emp_tabtype IS TABLE OF emp%ROWTYPE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. END.tst  PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END.pkg psemp. Some questions: ± Why would I put this collection table in a package? ± When is the collection loaded with the data? ± What rows in that collection are utilized? psemp.page 41 .

± Use the EXISTS method to determine if a row existed. even if you haven't assigned a value explicitly. you must reference existing rows or a NO_DATA_FOUND exception is raised.  For index-by tables. ± For VARRAYs and nested tables. / Error -6533! You've got to EXTEND first!  EXTEND before assigning a value to a row. BEGIN greedy_ceos(1) := 'Hamilton. once extended. but you must do it for VARRAYs and nested tables. Jordan'. / DECLARE greedy_ceos names_t := names_t (). END. the row exists. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Collection Gotchas CREATE TYPE names_t IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2(30). ± Not necessary for index-by tables.page 42 .

FIRST)). salaries.tst  Include a handler for NO_DATA_FOUND or use the EXISTS method to avoid these exceptions. -.page 43 . BEGIN IF salaries.EXISTS (v_employee_id) THEN -.  You can EXTEND one or more rows. ± Assign a default value with a second. ELSE DBMS_OUTPUT. salaries(salaries. ± Pre-extending a large number of rows in advance can improve performance.Extend by 10 since I know I will need that many. preextend.').PUT_LINE ('Data for employee not available. END IF. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Handling Collection Gotchas BEGIN -.We are OK.Set the value of each new row to the contents of the first row.EXTEND (10. optional argument.

 The built-in package plitblm (PL/sql Index-TaBLe Methods) defines these methods. ± EXTEND adds rows to a nested table or VARRAY.page 44 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± TRIM removes rows from a VARRAY. NEXT/PRIOR return the closest defined row after/before the specified row. FIRST/LAST return lowest/highest numbers of defined rows. number of elements allowed in a VARRAY. ± ± ± ±  Modify the contents of the collection ± DELETE deletes one or more rows from the index-by table. ± LIMIT tells you the max.Collection Methods  Obtain information about the collection COUNT returns number of rows currently defined in the table. EXISTS returns TRUE if the specified row is defined.

Delete all rows myCollection.DELETE (myCollection.Delete a range of rows myCollection. END. -.LAST). -.The DELETE Method  You can delete one or more rows from a collection using DELETE: BEGIN -.DELETE (1400.page 45 . but you may also want to call DBMS_SESSION. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .DELETE. 17255).Delete one (the last) row myCollection. DELETE releases memory.FREE_UNUSED_USER_MEMORY.

Navigating Through Collections 


Use FIRST and NEXT to move from beginning to end. Use LAST and PRIOR to move from end to beginning.
rowind PLS_INTEGER := birthdays.FIRST; -- birthdays.LAST BEGIN LOOP EXIT WHEN rowind IS NULL; DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE (birthdays(rowind).best_present); rowind := birthdays.NEXT (rowind); -- birthdays.PRIOR END LOOP; END;

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Using Collections Inside SQL 

Nested tables and VARRAYs can be defined as columns of a table and referenced directly within SQL. You can also apply SQL operations to the contents of nested tables and VARRAYs with these operators:
± THE - Maps a single column value in a single row to a virtual database table ± CAST - Maps a collection of one type to a collection of another type ± MULTISET - Maps a database table to a collection ± TABLE - Maps a collection to a database table  

Index-by tables are programmatic constructs only.
± You cannot make a direct reference to an index-by table in SQL. ± Instead, so do indirectly with a PL/SQL function.

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Using Collections inside SQL
SELECT column_value FROM TABLE (SELECT children FROM db_family WHERE surname = 'BOLZ'); db_family surname children BOLZ BOND Eric Thomas Max Richard UPDATE TABLE (SELECT children FROM db_family WHERE SURNAME = 'BOLZ) SET column_value = 'Lisa Nadezhka' WHERE column_value = 'Lisa Marie'); db_family surname children BOLZ ...
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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 48

Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Marie

column_value Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Marie

Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Nadezhka

Using the THE Operator 

Use THE to manipulate (retrieve, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE) contents of a nested table in a database table.
± Can only use with nested tables, not VARRAYs or index-by tables. ± Only accessible from within SQL statements in PL/SQL.
CREATE TYPE action_list_t IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2(100); / CREATE TABLE inflation_beater ( focus_area VARCHAR2(100), activities action_list_t) NESTED TABLE activities STORE AS activities_tab; SELECT VALUE (act) FROM THE (SELECT activities FROM inflation_beater WHERE focus_area = 'FORTUNE 100') act; UPDATE THE (SELECT activities FROM inflation_beater WHERE focus_area = 'FORTUNE 100') SET COLUMN_VALUE = 'DISBAND OSHA' WHERE COLUMN_VALUE = 'SIDESTEP OSHA';

the.sql

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 49

Using the TABLE and CAST Operators 

Use CAST to convert a collection from one type to another, TABLE to convert a TYPE into a database table.
± Cannot use with index-by tables. ± Useful when you would like to apply SQL operations against a PL/SQL collection (ie, one not stored in a database table).
DECLARE nyc_devolution cutbacks_for_taxcuts := cutbacks_for_taxcuts ('Stop rat extermination programs', 'Fire building inspectors', 'Close public hospitals'); BEGIN DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE ( 'How to Make the NYC Rich Much, Much Richer:'); FOR rec IN (SELECT COLUMN_VALUE ohmy FROM TABLE (CAST (nyc_devolution AS cutbacks_for_taxcuts))) LOOP DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE (rec.ohmy); END LOOP; cast.sql END;

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genus = b. ± Cannot use with index-by tables. multiset.genus.genus AND bh. information for the BEGIN master in one trip. b.country FROM bird_habitats bh WHERE bh.Using the MULTISET Operator  MULTISET is the inverse of TABLE. ± You can use MULTISET to emulate or transform relational joins into collections.page 51 . END. query) into a VARRAY or nested table. converting a set of data (table.species) AS country_tab_t) FROM birds b. with potential client-server performance impact.species = b. OPEN bird_curs. view.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . CAST(MULTISET(SELECT bh. DECLARE CURSOR bird_curs IS SELECT b.species. Retrieves all detail bird_row bird_curs%ROWTYPE. FETCH bird_curs into bird_row.

Make accessible in SQL for Oracle8 and below. END. FUNCTION rowval (indx IN PLS_INTEGER) RETURN DATE IS BEGIN RETURN hiredates (indx). call functions that retrieve the table's data.sql PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY ibtab IS TYPE date_tab IS TABLE OF DATE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. Instead. PRAGMA RESTRICT_REFERENCES (rowval. WNDS).page 52 . WNPS.  CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE ibtab IS FUNCTION rowval (indx IN PLS_INTEGER) RETURN DATE. but hide the index-by table structure. END. END. hiredates date_tab. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein ibtab_in_sql.Referencing IB Tables inside SQL  You can't directly reference an index-by table's contents inside SQL.

page 53 .  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Examples of Collections in Action  Emulation of bi-directional cursor operations Avoid mutating table problems in database triggers.

page 54 .pkg bidir.nope.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END. Notice that the collection itself is hidden. didn't make it!  Instead. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE bidir IS /* Iterate through rows in the result set */ PROCEDURE setRow (nth IN PLS_INTEGER). ± A talked-about feature for Oracle9i -. FUNCTION getRow RETURN employee_plus%ROWTYPE. PROCEDURE prevRow. This is particularly useful (read: efficient) when you need to perform multiple passes against the data. PROCEDURE nextRow. deposit your data in a collection and then provide programs to access that data in the necessary fashion.Bi-Directional Cursor Emulation  Oracle does not yet support the ability to move back and forth (and at random) through a cursor's result set.  bidir.

page 55 . it is "mutating". So what are you supposed to do when a row-level operation needs to "touch" that table? mutating.sql  Note: in Oracle8i. Statement Level UPDATE emp SET sal = 1000 UPDATE row 1 Row Level  UPDATE row N Row level triggers cannot query from or change the contents of the table to which it is attached. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .The Mutating Table Problem  Database triggers can be attached to the SQL statement and/or the individual row operations on a table. you can use autonomous transactions to relax restrictions associated with queries.

1st row trigger fires Nth row trigger fires Writes to list Writes to list Work List (PL/SQL Table)  Process data in the list. Statement Trigger 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .A Solution Based on Index-by Tables  Since you cannot perform the processing desired in the row-level trigger. ± an index-by table is an ideal repository for this reminder list. you need to defer the action until you get to the statement level.page 56 . you have to remember what you needed to do. If you are going to defer the work.

25 3 1 2 6 "Deferred work" is not only necessary. the rankings must also change to show the new standings for that department only.25 65011. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± By storing the salesperson¶s department ids as they change. ± We might update more than one department within a statement so we must be able to retain multiple department numbers. Department ID Salesperson ID Sales Amount Rank 1055 1055 1055 1047  64333 65709 65706 70904 74055. but preferable. ± As the sales amount is updated in this table.page 57 . we then know which departments to re-rank.91 109000.An Example: Ranking Salespeople  A table holds the rankings based on the amount of annual sales of salespeople within a department.88 144533.

sales_amt != NEW. END. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .add_dept (:new.rank_depts. Statement Level Trigger CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER Rank_Sales_Strg AFTER INSERT OR UPDATE OR DELETE ON rank_sales BEGIN rank. Doesn't fire unless the sales_amt is actually changed. ranking. END.dept_id).sales_amt) BEGIN rank.page 58 .pkg All details of the ranking are hidden in the package body.Trigger Logic Required Row Level Trigger CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER Rank_Sales_Rtrg AFTER insert OR update OF sales_amt ON rank_sales FOR EACH ROW WHEN (OLD.

END add_dept 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Create row to indicate department to be ranked. PROCEDURE rank_depts. dept_tab dept_tabtype. PROCEDURE add_dept (dept_id_in IN INTEGER) IS BEGIN IF NOT in_process THEN dept_tab (dept_id_in) := TRUE. PACKAGE BODY rank IS in_process BOOLEAN := FALSE. TYPE dept_tabtype IS TABLE OF BOOLEAN INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. END rank. Table holds indicator that department needs re-ranking.The Ranking Package PACKAGE rank IS PROCEDURE add_dept (dept_id_in IN INTEGER). END IF. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 59 .

in_process := FALSE. END IF.DELETE.NEXT (v_deptid). BEGIN IF NOT in_process THEN in_process := TRUE. END rank_dept. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . v_deptid := dept_tab. Clean up for next time.The Ranking Package. dept_tab.page 60 .FIRST. LOOP EXIT WHEN v_deptid IS NULL. END LOOP. perform_ranking (v_deptid). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Avoid recursive execution of logic Row number is department number. Continued PROCEDURE rank_depts IS v_deptid PLS_INTEGER := dept_tab. END rank.

page 61 .  VARRAYs ± ± ± ± You want to preserve the order in which elements are stored. Set of data is relatively small (avoid row chaining). You don't want to have to worry about sparseness.Which Collection Type Should I Use?  Index-by tables ± Need to use in both Oracle7 and Oracle8 applications ± Want to take advantage of sparse nature for "intelligent keys". You want to use inside SQL. ± You want to use inside SQL.  Nested tables ± You want to store large amounts of persistent data in a column. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Tips for Using Collections 

Wrap access to your collections.
± In many cases, you will want to avoid direct access to (assigning and retrieving) rows in your collections. ± This will give you the flexibility to change your implementation. ± You can also hide complex rules for setting the row number. 

Get creative!
± Don't always fill and use the index-by table sequentially. ± If you can somehow translate your application data to an integer, it can be used as a row number, and therefore offers indexed access. ± Julian date formats and DBMS_UTILITY.GET_HASH_VALUE offer two different methods.

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Achieving PL/SQL Excellence

Cursor Variables

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 63

Architecture of Cursor Variables
With Hard-Coded Cursors
Hard-Coded Cursor

With Cursor Variables

PGA

Cursor Variable

Cursor Variable

Result Set

Shared Global Area

Cursor Object

Result Set 

A cursor variable points to an underlying cursor object in the database.
± The cursor object in turns points to (and keeps its place in) a result set. 

The cursor variable can be passed between programs (even between, say, a Java servlet and a PL/SQL stored procedure).
± Static SQL only -- until Oracle8i.
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1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

Benefits of Cursor Variables 

Share cursor management between programs, even across the client-server divide.
± You don't have to pass the result sets of a cursor in order to allow the client-side program to have direct access to the data in the result set. ± Oracle Developer 2.1 utilizes cursor variables when you choose to construct a "base table block" around stored procedures instead of a database table. 

Share the same code across multiple, different queries.
± Since the cursor name is no longer hard-coded, you can use a single block of code (say, a reporting program) against different queries. ± We will try out this technique at the end of the section.

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Cursor Variable Example
DECLARE TYPE company_curtype IS REF CURSOR RETURN company%ROWTYPE;
Declare a variable cursor TYPE.

company_curvar company_curtype;

Declare cursor variable based on that type. Declare a record from cursor variable. OPEN cursor variable, specifying the query. FETCH from the cursor variable.

company_rec company_curvar%ROWTYPE; BEGIN OPEN company_curvar FOR SELECT * FROM company;

FETCH company_curvar INTO company_rec;
Close the cursor variable.

CLOSE company_curvar; END;
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Explicit Cursors and Cursor Variables 

Both hard-coded cursors and cursor variables work with static SQL.
± The SQL is fixed at compile-time. ± The difference is that with cursor variables, you get to decide which static query is opened. 

Many cursor operations are the same:
± Close a variable cursor with the same syntax as that for static cursors. ± Use cursor attributes (%ISOPEN, %FOUND, %NOTFOUND, %ROWCOUNT) with cursor variables (as of Release 2.3). ± Fetch data from the cursor result set through a cursor variable with the same syntax as that of static cursors. 

Let¶s focus on the new and different capabilities of cursor variables.
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1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

Declaring Cursor Types and Variables 

Cursors are declared in two steps, just like programmerdefined records and PL/SQL tables.
± 1. Define a cursor TYPE -- either "weak" or "strong". ± 2. Define a cursor variable.
DECLARE TYPE weak_curtype IS REF CURSOR; TYPE comp_curtype IS REF CURSOR RETURN company%ROWTYPE; curcmp_new comp_curtype; cur_any weak_curtype; BEGIN
Declare cursor variables from the TYPEs. Declare a STRONG referenced cursor TYPE. Declare a WEAK referenced cursor TYPE.

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Strong vs. Weak Cursor Types 

A strong (or constrained) cursor type has a defined return data specification.
± Can only reference cursor objects which return the same data specification, which can be any single SQL datatype or any previously defined record structure. ± Datatype mismatches are identified at compile time.

TYPE cur_typ_name IS REF CURSOR [ RETURN return_type ]; TYPE cur_typ_name IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE; /* Strong */ 

The weak (or unconstrained) cursor type does not have a RETURN clause.
± It can reference any cursor object, be opened FOR any query. ± Datatype mismatches can only be identified at runtime.

TYPE cur_typ_name IS REF CURSOR; /* Weak */
1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein
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Opening with the Cursor Variable
OPEN cursor_name FOR select_statement; 

When you open a cursor variable (whether of the weak or strong variety), you must provide the SQL query that identifies the result set.
± If the variable has not yet been assigned to cursor object, the OPEN FOR statement implicitly creates an object for the variable. ± If the variable is already pointing to a cursor object, the OPEN FOR reuses the existing object and attaches the new query to that cursor object. 

Remember, the cursor object is nothing more than a memory location.
± It is maintained independently of the query itself.
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1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

. Match Needed BEGIN OPEN emp_curvar FOR SELECT * from emp.Opening with Strong Cursor Types DECLARE TYPE emp_curtype IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE. END.page 71 . ± You can establish the return type based on a database table.  STRONG cursor data specifications must match or be compatible with the structure of the SELECT statement. .. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . a cursor or a programmer-defined record. emp_curvar emp_curtype.

cv_type.cv_type IS retval pkg.Opening with Weak Cursor Types PACKAGE pkg IS TYPE cv_type IS REF CURSOR. Verification will take ELSIF get_type_in = µDEPT¶ place at the FETCH.page 72 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . END IF. OPEN retval FOR SELECT * FROM emp. BEGIN IF get_type_in = µEMP¶ THEN Either query will "do". REF TYPE placed in package so that it is "globally" available. you can associate any SELECT statement with a weak cursor variable. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . RETURN retval. END. FUNCTION open_emp_or_dept (get_type_in IN VARCHAR2) RETURN pkg. THEN OPEN retval FOR SELECT * FROM dept. END.  A weak cursor TYPE doesn't define the RETURN structure.

..   Compatibility checks are performed prior to fetching row.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Fetching with cursor variables follows the same rules as those with static cursors. ± Fetching can continue with a different INTO clause. ± FOR WEAK cursor types. it match the cursor type data specification. var_name. ± The ROWTYPE_MISMATCH exception is raised on failure. it match the OPEN FOR statement structure.. FETCH cursor_var_name INTO var_name. mismatch.page 73 . The INTO structure must match in number and datatype to: ± FOR STRONG cursor types.Fetching from the Cursor Variable FETCH cursor_var_name INTO record_name..

When to Use Cursor Variables  Make it easier for calling programs (especially non-PL/SQL programs) to manipulate result sets.page 74 .sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Define a base table block in Forms Builder (formerly Oracle Forms) on stored procedures rather than a table directly. Use a single block of code to manipulate multiple queries.  hccursor. ± JDBC recognizes cursor variables. since cursor names are "hard coded". but static cursors are more efficient than dynamic SQL and cursor variables are less complicated than DBMS_SQL. ± You could use dynamic SQL to achieve this effect. you have to repeat the code for each cursor. ± With explicit cursors.

page 75 . ± It also creates the data structures you will need to call the function. / allcurrs. TYPE int_rt IS RECORD (key INTEGER). bysal CONSTANT INTEGER := 2. END.pkg allcurs. FUNCTION open (type_in IN INTEGER) RETURN cv_t.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .tst explcv. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE allcurs IS bydept CONSTANT INTEGER := 1.Consolidating Different Cursors  The following package specification hides the SQL behind a single open function. TYPE cv_t IS REF CURSOR RETURN int_rt.

BEGIN IF type_in = bydept THEN OPEN retval FOR SELECT empno FROM emp ORDER BY deptno.Consolidating Different Cursors  The open function simply opens FOR a different SELECT based on the criteria passed to it. END. END IF. RETURN retval.page 76 . ELSIF type_in = bysal THEN OPEN retval FOR SELECT empno FROM emp ORDER BY SAL. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY allcurs IS FUNCTION open (type_in IN INTEGER) RETURN cv_t IS retval cv_t. END.

BEGIN cv := allcurs.empno%TYPE. END. p. LOOP FETCH cv INTO v_empno. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .cv_t.open (&1).page 77 "Report processor" is independent of the particular SELECT .l (v_empno). v_empno emp.Hiding SQL Variations in Resulting Code  The following block demonstrates that you can alter which SQL statement to query -. DECLARE cv allcurs. change the ORDER BY clause -without having to change the code you write. END LOOP.in this case. CLOSE cv. EXIT WHEN cv%NOTFOUND.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . or a more general.  Hide Variations in Underlying SQL ± You no longer have to repeat the same code for different cursors.Cursor Variables Let's summarize  Flexibility ± Choose which static SQL statement is executed at run-time. unconstrained type.  Strong and Weak Types ± Create REF CURSORs for specific queries.page 78 .1. you can build screens that access data using a cursor variable-based procedural API.  Improve Client-Side Access to Data ± At least in Oracle Developer 2.

Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Dynamic SQL  Dynamic SQL and dynamic PL/SQL: ± The DBMS_SQL package ± Native dynamic SQL in Oracle8i 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 79 .

Dynamic SQL and PL/SQL Execution  "Dynamic SQL" mean that you construct the SQL statement or PL/SQL block at runtime and then execute it. ± Very common requirement on the Web. ± Construct powerful DBA utilities.  Execute DDL inside PL/SQL programs.  Execute dynamically-constructed PL/SQL programs. you no longer have to write SQL to generate SQL to get your job done. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . What can you do with Dynamic SQL?  Build ad-hoc query and update applications.1 and DBMS_SQL. ± Also supported with "native dynamic SQL" in Oracle8i.page 80 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . ± Available in PL/SQL since Release 2. ± One example: implement indirect referencing in PL/SQL.

Method 4: queries with a variable number of items in the SELECT list and/or non-queries with a variable number of host variables.page 81 . ± NDS does not support method 4. Method 2: non-queries with a fixed number of host variables. execute one or more times.Four Methods of Dynamic SQL   Method 1: non-queries without host variables. you can more quickly figure out how to code your solution. executed a single time. These methods are in increasing order of complexity.    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Method 3: queries with a fixed number of items in the SELECT list and a fixed number of host variables. ± Different methods require the use of different programs in DBMS_SQL. If you can recognize the types.

and relatively slow (performance did improve significantly as of Oracle8).page 82 . you would use the DBMS_SQL built-in package to execute dynamic SQL.  The new "native dynamic SQL" or NDS of Oracle8i offers two native statements in the PL/SQL language to implement most of your dynamic SQL requirements: ± EXECUTE IMMEDIATE <sql string>. ± OPEN FOR <sql string>. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Native Dynamic SQL  Prior to Oracle8i. used for multi-row queries. ± But this package is very complex. difficult to use. DML and single row fetches. used for DDL.

including objects...].. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .EXECUTE IMMEDIATE EXECUTE IMMEDIATE sql-string [INTO {define_variable[. {IN | OUT | IN OUT] bind argument].page 83   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .. The USING clause allows you to specify bind arguments or variables to be passed into the SQL string before execution. define_variables]. collections and records. | record }] [USING {IN | OUT | IN OUT] bind argument [.  Use this statement to execute any dynamic SQL statement (including a PL/SQL block) except for multi-row queries. The INTO clause allows you to pass values from the select list of a single row query into local variables.

sf compare with: tabcount.COUNT(*) For Any Table  Here's a handy and simple utility based on NDS: CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION tabCount ( tab IN VARCHAR2. sch IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) RETURN INTEGER IS Specify schema.' || tab || ' WHERE ' || NVL (whr. BEGIN EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'SELECT COUNT(*) FROM ' || NVL (sch. 'insured = ''NO''') > 40. whr IN VARCHAR2 := NULL.sf PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . RETURN retval.PUT_LINE ( 'Not the best health care system in the world. END IF. END..000 THEN DBMS_OUTPUT. table and retval INTEGER... USER) || '. WHERE clause.000.page 84 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein tabcount81. '1=1') INTO retval. and not much of a democracy either!').. IF tabCount ('citizens'.

.. start_in.. end_in IN DATE. PROCEDURE runprog (pkg_in IN VARCHAR2.. col_in IN VARCHAR2. END.' || name_in || '. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN pl ('Compile Error "' || SQLERRM || '" on: ' || v_str). name_in IN VARCHAR2) IS v_str VARCHAR2 (100). END. end_in. start_in IN DATE. val_in IN NUMBER) IS BEGIN EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'UPDATE ' || tab_in || ' SET ' || col_in || ' = :val WHERE hiredate BETWEEN :lodate AND :hidate' USING val_in. EXECUTE IMMEDIATE v_str.  Execute a stored procedure. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .'. Pass in bind variables with USING clause. END.Other Execute Immediate Examples  Perform an update.page 85 . CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE updnumval ( tab_in IN VARCHAR2. BEGIN v_str := 'BEGIN ' || pkg_in || '.

pkg PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . the USING clause allows me to pass an object and nested table to an INSERT statement with a variable table name. ± In the following example.. cond. :revenue_inhibitors)' USING pers.page 86 . ± No special syntax needed. PROCEDURE add_profit_source ( hosp_name IN VARCHAR2. including objects and collections. cond IN preexisting_conditions) IS BEGIN EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'INSERT INTO ' || tabname (hosp_name) || ' VALUES (:revenue_generator.. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein health$. END. pers IN Person.Using Objects and Collections in NDS  One of the key advantages to NDS over DBMS_SQL is that it works with Oracle8 datatypes.

Multiple Row Queries and NDS  Oracle extends the cursor variable feature of Oracle7 to support multi-row dynamic queries.page 87 . variable syntax! EXIT WHEN cv%NOTFOUND. ± Here is a simple utility the displays the values of any date. LOOP Familiar cursor FETCH cv INTO val. END LOOP. showcol. CLOSE cv.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . number or string column in any table. '1 = 1').PUT_LINE (val). val VARCHAR2(32767). ndsutil. col IN VARCHAR2.sp END. whr IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) IS TYPE cv_type IS REF CURSOR. cv cv_type. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE showcol ( tab IN VARCHAR2. DBMS_OUTPUT. BEGIN OPEN cv FOR 'SELECT ' || col || ' FROM ' || tab || ' WHERE ' || NVL (whr.

Some Fine Print for NDS  You cannot pass schema elements (table names. ± If dynamic SQL. Instead. The USING clause for a query can only have IN bind arguments. then you provide a value for each placeholder (by position). etc. You cannot pass the NULL literal directly in the USING clause. You can have duplicate placeholders (for bind arguments). column names.pkg    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . str2list.) through the USING clause. pass a variable with a NULL value.page 88 . provide a value for each distinct placeholder (by name). ± If dynamic PL/SQL.

You should only use DBMS_SQL when you cannot use NDS. with many rules to follow and lots of code to write. in particular method 4.Dynamic SQL using DBMS_SQL  Prior to Oracle8i.page 89 .     1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . the only way to perform dynamic SQL was with the DBMS_SQL package. Supports all four methods of dynamic SQL. The overhead for using DBMS_SQL has decreased significantly in Oracle8 and again in Oracle8i. DBMS_SQL is a very large and complex package.

page 90 .Learning Through Examples  DDL ± Create an index from within PL/SQL  DML ± Update rows in a table  DML with binding ± Update rows using bind variables  Queries ± Method 3 and a dynamic WHERE clause  PL/SQL Version of "SELECT *" ± Example of Method 4  PL/SQL ± Create a generic calculation program 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

BEGIN DBMS_SQL.  creind. DBMS_SQL. ± Construct the DDL statement as a string. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . col_in IN VARCHAR2) IS cur INTEGER := DBMS_SQL. DDL_statement VARCHAR2(200) := 'CREATE INDEX ' || index_in || ' ON ' || tab_in || ' ( ' || col_in || ')'.PARSE (cur.NATIVE). END.sp Creates an index on any column(s) in any table in your schema. which will be used to execute the DDL statement. DDL_statement. ± Parse and execute that DDL statement.page 91 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . fdbk INTEGER. ± Open a cursor.EXECUTE (cur).DDL with Dynamic SQL PROCEDURE create_index (index_in IN VARCHAR2. DBMS_SQL. tab_in IN VARCHAR2. fdbk := DBMS_SQL.CLOSE_CURSOR (cur).OPEN_CURSOR.

CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE updnumval ( col_in IN VARCHAR2. val_in IN NUMBER) IS cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL.page 92 .CLOSE_CURSOR (cur). DBMS_OUTPUT. fdbk := DBMS_SQL.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .EXECUTE (cur).NATIVE). 'UPDATE emp SET ' || col_in || ' = ' || val_in || ' WHERE ename LIKE UPPER (''' || ename_in || ''')'. END. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.ename%TYPE. fdbk PLS_INTEGER. DBMS_SQL. ename_in IN emp. updnval1.PUT_LINE ('Rows updated: ' || TO_CHAR (fdbk)).OPEN_CURSOR.Updates with Dynamic SQL  Update numeric column for specified employees. DBMS_SQL.PARSE (cur.

DBMS_SQL.NATIVE). end_in). END. DBMS_OUTPUT.sp updnval3. DBMS_SQL. fdbk := DBMS_SQL.CLOSE_CURSOR (cur). val_in IN NUMBER) IS cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL. start_in). 'hidate'.Updates with Bind Variables  Update salaries for date range using binding. 'lodate'. updnval2. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE updnumval ( col_in IN VARCHAR2.page 93 . 'UPDATE emp SET ' || col_in || ' = ' || val_in || ' WHERE hiredate BETWEEN :lodate AND :hidate'. end_in IN DATE.PARSE (cur. DBMS_SQL. fdbk PLS_INTEGER.OPEN_CURSOR.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . start_in IN DATE.EXECUTE (cur).PUT_LINE ('Rows updated: ' || TO_CHAR (fdbk)). BEGIN DBMS_SQL.BIND_VARIABLE (cur.BIND_VARIABLE (cur. DBMS_SQL.

Processing Flow for a Dynamic Query Allocate cursor memory (OPEN_CURSOR) Fill cursor with data (EXECUTE) Make sure SELECT is well formed (PARSE) Fill buffer with data (FETCH_ROWS) (EXECUTE_AND_FETCH) Bind any variables (BIND_VARIABLE) (BIND_ARRAY) Retrieve the data (COLUMN_VALUE) Give cursor structure (DEFINE_COLUMN) (DEFINE_ARRAY) Release cursor memory (CLOSE_CURSOR) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 94 .

DBMS_SQL. ename FROM emp ' || ' WHERE ' || NVL (where_in. DBMS_OUTPUT. 2. END. LOOP EXIT WHEN DBMS_SQL. 60). CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE showemps (where_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) IS cur INTEGER := DBMS_SQL.COLUMN_VALUE (cur.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL. fdbk INTEGER.ename).FETCH_ROWS (cur) = 0. 1). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein showemps. 1... rec emp%ROWTYPE.sp showemps.Queries with Dynamic SQL  Show employees using a dynamic WHERE clause.EXECUTE (cur). 'a'.NATIVE). 1. fdbk := DBMS_SQL.CLOSE_CURSOR (cur).empno) || '=' || rec. DBMS_SQL. 2.PUT_LINE (TO_CHAR (rec. END LOOP. '1=1'). DBMS_SQL. rec. 'SELECT empno. rec.sp showemp2.ename).OPEN_CURSOR.COLUMN_VALUE (cur.empno). BEGIN DBMS_SQL.tst PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .PARSE (cur. DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.page 95 .

DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. DBMS_SQL. END LOOP. ± The resulting code is much more complicated. LOOP fetch-a-row.NATIVE). END. nth_col. val).page 96 Very simplified pseudo-code intab. select_string.PARSE (cur. END LOOP.COLUMN_VALUE (cur. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END LOOP. BEGIN FOR each-column-in-table LOOP add-column-to-select-list. FOR each-column-in-table LOOP DBMS_SQL. nth_col. DBMS_SQL.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . FOR each-column-in-table LOOP DBMS_SQL. END LOOP. datatype).Dynamic SELECT * FROM Any Table  Method 4 example: the number of columns queried changes with each table.

exact_match IN BOOLEAN DEFAULT FALSE) RETURN INTEGER.page 97 .EXECUTE_AND_FETCH (cur. then EXECUTE_AND_FETCH will raise the TOO_MANY_ROWS exception if more than one row is fetched by the SELECT. ± If exact_match is TRUE. numrows := DBMS_SQL. TRUE). which returns a single row. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Even if the exception is raised. the first row will still be fetched and available. numrows := DBMS_SQL.Using EXECUTE_AND_FETCH FUNCTION execute_and_fetch (cursor_in IN INTEGER.  Makes it easy to execute and fetch a single row from a query. raises NO_DATA_FOUND or raises the TOO_MANY_ROWS exception.EXECUTE_AND_FETCH (cur). ± Very similar to the implicit SELECT cursor in native PL/SQL.

± With DBMS_SQL. 0. FUNCTION dyncalc ( oper_in IN VARCHAR2. arg4_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. arg8_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . a single function will do the trick. NULL. I would have to modify my screen every time a new formula was added.page 98 . nargs_in IN INTEGER := arg1_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg3_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg5_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg7_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg9_in IN VARCHAR2 := ) RETURN VARCHAR2. NULL.Dynamic Formula Execution  Suppose I am building a user interface that allows a user to select a formula for execution. ± Using static PL/SQL. NULL. arg6_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. arg10_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL dyncalc. arg2_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. and enter the arguments. NULL.sf dyncalc. NULL.

More on Dynamic PL/SQL BEGIN cur := open_and_parse ('BEGIN get_max_sal (:deptin. my_salary). fdbk := DBMS_SQL. v_deptin). µsalout¶. END. DBMS_SQL.EXECUTE (cur). my_salary).'). :salout). END. Possibilities inherent in dynamic PL/SQL are mind-boggling! dynplsql.tst    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .even OUT arguments which are not being bound to any values. DBMS_SQL. µsalout¶. Use VARIABLE_VALUE to extract a value from any variable you have bound.sp dynplsql. You must have a BEGIN-END around the code.sql dynplsql.page 99 .VARIABLE_VALUE (cur.BIND_VARIABLE (cur. DBMS_SQL.  Use BIND_VARIABLE to bind any placeholders in the string -. µdeptin¶.BIND_VARIABLE (cur.

retval). 'BEGIN :val := ' || nm || '. DBMS_SQL.page 100  dynvar.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . DBMS_SQL. but you can accomplish much of the same thing with dynamic PL/SQL execution. fdbk PLS_INTEGER. END. 'val'. Here is an example of a "PL/SQL NAME_IN": FUNCTION valbyname (nm IN VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2 IS v_cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL.BIND_VARIABLE (v_cur.VARIABLE_VALUE (v_cur.PARSE (v_cur.NATIVE). 2000).EXECUTE (v_cur). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .'. fdbk := DBMS_SQL. 'val'.dbmaxvc2.OPEN_CURSOR. DBMS_SQL. PL/SQL does not support indirect referencing.pkg dynvar. END. DBMS_SQL. 'a'. RETURN retval.CLOSE_CURSOR (v_cur). BEGIN DBMS_SQL.Indirect Referencing with Dyn PL/SQL  Oracle Forms offers support for indirect referencing with the NAME_IN and COPY built-ins. retval PLV.

 LAST_SQL_FUNCTION_CODE ± Returns SQL function code of cursor.page 101 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .DBMS_SQL Status Built-ins  The package offers a set of modules to return information about the lastoperated cursor in your session.  IS_OPEN ± Is the cursor already open?  LAST_ERROR_POSITION ± Returns relative column position in cursor of text causing error condition.  LAST_ROW_COUNT ± Returns the cumulative count of rows fetched from the cursor. ± Call these immediately after your usage to make sure they refer to your cursor.  LAST_ROW_ID ± Returns the ROWID of last row processed.

± Transfer the LONG contents into an index-by table so that you can transfer a value of more than 32K bytes into your PL/SQL program. dumplong.COLUMN_VALUE_LONG   First. ± DBMS_SQL.pkg dumplong.DEFINE_COLUMN_LONG ± DBMS_SQL.Working with LONG Values  DBMS_SQL provides special procedures so that you can extract values from a LONG column in a table. you define the column as a LONG.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Then you retrieve the column using the special COLUMN_VALUE_LONG variant.page 102 .

New DBMS_SQL Features PL/SQL8 Extensions to DBMS_SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 103 .

inserts. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . deletes and fetches.New Features in DBMS_SQL  The functionality of DBMS_SQL has been extended in Oracle8 in several ways: ± Parse very long SQL strings ± Describe cursor columns ± Use "array processing" to perform bulk updates. ± Support for RETURNING clause to avoid unnecessary queries.page 104 .

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . desc_t OUT DBMS_SQL.  Returns all of the column information in an index table of records. ± The record TYPE is also defined in DBMS_SQL.  Before PL/SQL8.DESC_TAB). col_cnt OUT INTEGER.Describing Cursor Columns PROCEDURE DBMS_SQL. ± Now you can call the DBMS_SQL. it was not possible to determine the datatypes of the columns defined in a cursor.DESCRIBE_COLUMNS (c IN INTEGER.DESCRIBE_COLUMNS.page 105 .

CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE show_columns IS cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL. desccols. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.NATIVE). empno FROM emp'. ncols.Basic Steps to Describe Columns  The following script shows the individual steps you will need to perform in order to use this feature. DBMS_SQL. FOR colind IN 1 .pkg desccols. cols). DBMS_SQL.col_name).page 106 .CLOSE_CURSOR (cur). DBMS_SQL.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .DESCRIBE_COLUMNS (cur.PARSE (cur.tst showcols. ncols PLS_INTEGER.DESC_TAB. ncols LOOP DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE (cols(colind). cols DBMS_SQL. 'SELECT hiredate. END LOOP.. END.OPEN_CURSOR.

page 107 . however. can offer a significant performance boost over Oracle7 dynamic SQL. Instead of providing a scalar value for an operation.    This technique still. It really isn't "array processing". index tables. DBMS_SQL then repeats your action for every row in the table. when you perform updates. ± In actuality. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . where N is the number of rows in the table.. i. inserts. DBMS_SQL is executing the specified SQL statement N times. you specify an index table.e."Array Processing" in DBMS_SQL  PL/SQL8 now allows you to specify the use of "arrays". deletes and fetches.

± Otherwise that SQL will be executed under the authority of the owner of the code.page 108 .  Use the Oracle8i invoker rights model whenever you want to share your dynamic SQL programs among multiple schemas. etc. ± Encapsulate DBMS_SQL. ± With NDS.pkg whichsch.) through the USING clause. ± Increased chance of reusing parsed SQL. column names.sql openprse. concatenate) whenever possible.Recommendations for Dynamic SQL  Bind (vs. not the invoker of the code. though you could write variations for those as well. and easier code to write. ± But remember: you cannot pass schema elements (table names. effdsql.  Encapsulate statements to improve error handling.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .PARSE so that you include the trace in that program. only possible for statements that do not need USING and INTO clauses.

NDS or DBMS_SQL: Which is Best?  Dynamic SQL and PL/SQL is very useful. but DBMS_SQL is hard to use. Both implementations will still come in handy. of course. you have upgraded to Oracle8i!  Major Advantages of NDS: ± Ease of use ± Performance ± Works with all SQL datatypes (including userdefined object and collection types) ± Fetch into records  When You'd Use DBMS_SQL: ± ± ± ± ± ± ± Method 4 Dynamic SQL DESCRIBE columns of cursor SQL statements larger than 32K RETURNING into an array Reuse of parsed SQL statements Bulk dynamic SQL Available from client-side PL/SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 109 ... ± If.

persistent messaging subsytem of Oracle 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 110 . asynchronous.Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Oracle Advanced Queuing  The high performance.

page 111 . Distribution Center Coffee Beans Producer Shipping Service Retailer Consumer 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . systems are now heavily reliant on the ability of components to communicate with each other in a dependable.Who Needs Messaging? Everyone!  In the distributed world of the Internet. consistent manner.

page 112 .Applications Relying on Messaging     Stock trading system Airline reservation system Auction portals Any e-commerce application 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . the listen feature and notification capabilities. message propagation. scalability and reliability all carry over to queues ± Strong history and retention ± Backup and recovery ± Comprehensive journaliing  Rich message content increases usefulness of queueing ± Use object types to define highly structured payloads  New to Oracle8i. ± Rule-based subscribers.page 113 .Key Features of Oracle AQ  Leverage full power of SQL ± Messages are stored in database tables  Database high availability. AQ now offers a publish/subscribe style of messaging between applications.

page 114 .AQ architectural overview Queue Monitor process Queue table Queue ³Producers´ Enqueued messages Message 4 Message 3 Message 2 Message1 ³Consumers´ Dequeued messages Messages include both control information and ³payload´ (content) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

0. AQ supports: ± ± ± ± ± Multiple queues Resetting order and priority of queued items Queue management using only SQL & PL/SQL Multiple message recipients Propagation of queue to remote servers  Oracle8i adds: ± ± ± ± Rules-based publish & subscribe Listening on multiple queues Easier monitoring Native Java interface PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 115 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .Oracle AQ Highlights  In 8.

page 116 .    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .AQ Components  The DBMS_AQ package offers enqueue and dequeue capabilities The DBMS_AQADM package provides administrative functionality to manage queues and queue tables. Underlying database tables and views The queue monitor (background process) ± Set # of processes with the AQ_TM_PROCESSES initialization parameter.

sort column. storage clause. whether multiple consumers Drops table if all queues in the table have been stopped Associates queue table with queue.DBMS_AQADM Highlights CREATE_QUEUE_TABLE DROP_QUEUE_TABLE CREATE_QUEUE DROP_QUEUE START_QUEUE STOP_QUEUE ADD_SUBSCRIBER Assigns name.page 117 . optionally waiting for outstanding transactions Adds an ³agent´ as a subscriber 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . assigns retry and retention properties to queue Drops a stopped queue Can also turn on/off enqueue and dequeue operations Stops queue. payload type.

Define the "payload" Create the queue table DBMS_AQADM. text VARCHAR2(2000)). Define a queue in the queue table DBMS_AQADM.pkg Start the queue PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 118 . queue_table => 'msg'). END.START_QUEUE (queue_name => 'msgqueue'). queue_payload_type => 'message_type'). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein aq.CREATE_QUEUE_TABLE (queue_table => 'msg'. / BEGIN DBMS_AQADM.CREATE_QUEUE (queue_name => 'msgqueue'.Creating Queue Tables and Queues CREATE TYPE message_type AS OBJECT (title VARCHAR2(30).

sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .  ENQUEUE puts a message into a specified queue. ± Only two procedures. but lots of complexity buried inside the parameters of these procedures.The "operational package": DBMS_AQ  DBMS_AQ is deceptively simple.page 119   aq. and returns a RAW message handle DEQUEUE extracts a message from a specified queue Parameters control message properties such as: ± Visibility (ON_COMMIT or IMMEDIATE) ± ± ± ± Priority Delay Expiration Locking behavior PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

MESSAGE_PROPERTIES_T. 'May there be many more. msgid). END.* Place the message on the specified queue and get a msg ID in return.page 120 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .msgid_type. msgprops.'). my_msg.ENQUEUE_OPTIONS_T. my_msg message_type. Set up the payload with an object constructor.ENQUEUE ( 'msgqueue'. msgid aq. Declare records to hold various enqueue and msg properties. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ... BEGIN my_msg := message_type ( 'First Enqueue'. queueopts.Simple Enqueue Example DECLARE queueopts DBMS_AQ. msgprops DBMS_AQ. aqenq*. DBMS_AQ.

. my_msg. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . msgid2).. BEGIN my_msg := message_type ( 'First Enqueue'.delay := 3 * 60 * 60 * 24. msgid1).. queueopts. DBMS_AQ.relative_msgid := msgid1. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Specify a delay before the payload is available. msgprops. queueopts. Modify the dequeue sequence by changing the deviation field and relative msg ID.. queueopts. my_msg := message_type ( 'Second Enqueue'. END. 'And this one goes first..'). msgprops.').ENQUEUE ('msgqueue'.BEFORE. msgprops. Same setup as previous page .. my_msg..page 121 . 'May there be many more.sequence_deviation := DBMS_AQ. DBMS_AQ.More Interesting Enqueue Example DECLARE . queueopts..ENQUEUE ( 'msgqueue'.

Dequeue Example DECLARE queueopts DBMS_AQ. aqdeq*. PROCEDURE getmsg (mode_in IN INTEGER) IS BEGIN queueopts. queueopts. /* defined in aq.REMOVE). END. Dequeue operation isolated in local module.* Declare records to hold various dequeue and msg properties.pkg */ my_msg message_type.BROWSE).MESSAGE_PROPERTIES_T. getmsg (DBMS_AQ. Demonstrates destructive and non-destructive dequeuing.dequeue_mode := mode_in. DBMS_AQ.DEQUEUE ( 'msgqueue'. BEGIN getmsg (DBMS_AQ. END.msgid_type. getmsg (DBMS_AQ.page 122 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . msgprops. my_msg.DEQUEUE_OPTIONS_T. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .REMOVE). msgid). msgprops DBMS_AQ. msgid aq.

item_obj.msgid_type.IMMEDIATE. queueopts. g_priority := g_priority . PROCEDURE push (item IN VARCHAR2) IS queueopts DBMS_AQ.Prioritized Payloads  You can assign priorities to individual payloads and then dequeue according to those priorities.ENQUEUE_OPTIONS_T. msgid). queueopts. msgprops. msgprops.1. msgprops DBMS_AQ.* 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . BEGIN item_obj := aqstk_objtype (item). item_obj aqstk_objtype. DBMS_AQ.pkg aqstk2.MESSAGE_PROPERTIES_T.  A stack implementation using AQ demonstrates this well. msgid aq. END.priority := g_priority.page 123 . the higher the priority. ± The lower the numeric priority value.visibility := DBMS_AQ. aqstk.ENQUEUE ( c_queue.pkg priority.

SYS. Add subscribers for the queue. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein aqmult*.CREATE_QUEUE_TABLE ( queue_table => 'major_qtable'.ADD_SUBSCRIBER ( c_queue. queue_payload_type => 'student_major_t'. DBMS_AQADM. multiple_consumers => TRUE). ± The message is then not removed from the queue until all subscribers have dequeued the message.Defining Message Subscribers  You can specify that a message is to be enqueued for a list of subscribers. NULL.AQ$_AGENT (name_in. ± 2.  Steps to working with a subscriber list: ± 1. NULL)). BEGIN DBMS_AQADM.page 124 .* PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . The queue table must be defined to support multiple subscribers or consumers.

± Crucial for Oracle to have a message-oriented middleware in order to offer an all-Oracle solution. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . supporting a publish-subscribe model. ± Should be strongly supported "down the road". improved security.  Considered by Oracle to be a core component of its overall solution.Oracle AQ . LISTEN capability.Summary  Very powerful and flexible architecture.page 125 . ± Significant enhancements in Oracle8i. ± Much more robust that DBMS_PIPE.

Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Managing Large Objects with DBMS_LOB 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 126 .

page 127 . LOB datatypes are the successor to LONGs. though they will probably not be actually desupported.  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . sounds. video. Images. they should no longer be used. ± Oracle has announced deprecation of LONGs.LOB Terms  LOB = Large OBject: a category of datatype allowing storage of ³unstructured´ data up to 4 gigabytes LOB datatype can be: ± Column in table ± Attribute in object type ± Element in nested table   Possible applications include office documents. etc.

improving performance. external do not ± External LOBs are read-only from within Oracle 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 128 .  Key programming differences: ± Internal LOBs participate in transactions.Types of Large Objects  ³Internal´ LOBs ± BLOB: unstructured binary data ± CLOB: single-byte fixedwidth character data ± NCLOB: multi-byte fixedwidth character data (or varying width in )  ³External´ LOBs ± BFILE: pointer to an operating system file  Temporary LOBs ± Internal LOBs that do not participate in transactions.

trim ± For external LOBs: File existence test.page 129 .PL/SQL built-ins for LOBs  Package DBMS_LOB ± Supports for all LOBs: Reading. copy. append. comparison and length checking ± For internal LOBs: Write. erase. close  Other built-in functions ± LOADFROMFILE (load an external BFILE into a BLOB) ± EMPTY_LOB(). EMPTY_CLOB() ± BFILENAME 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . open. substring and instring searches.

the_fax BLOB. BEGIN OPEN fax_cur. fax BLOB). received DATE. Question: What¶s in the_fax? 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 130 . CLOSE fax_cur. FETCH fax_cur INTO the_fax. END.  Retrieve record with BLOB into PL/SQL variable DECLARE CURSOR fax_cur IS SELECT fax FROM incoming_faxes.Deceptively simple example  BLOB-typed column in a table CREATE TABLE incoming_faxes (fax_id INTEGER.

tt LOBs <lob segment> fax_id 281937 received 12-JAN-98 fax <lob locator> Updati  t e LOB anges t e pointer is ompli ates se of LOBs ± LOB locators cannot span transactions ± Programs must lock records containing LOBs efore updating ± Programs performing L must accommodate dynamic LOB locator alues 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 131 .The ³LOB locator´ LOB t l sel es [ ll ] t i i t r .

1 of 2  Must get a new LOB locator before writing into the LOB: DECLARE the_url web_pages.oodb. BEGIN INSERT INTO web_pages VALUES (the_url.. htmlloc CLOB).url%TYPE := 'http://www.com'.Example: Piecewise CLOB programmatic insert  Create a table CREATE TABLE web_pages ( url VARCHAR2(512) PRIMARY KEY.. . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . the_loc CLOB.page 132 . EMPTY_CLOB()) RETURNING htmlloc INTO the_loc.

FOR the_piece_no IN 1. Note: We are ignoring amount => piece_length. END. html_tab UTL_HTTP. into a CLOB column html_tab := UTL_HTTP.HTML_PIECES. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Example: Piecewise CLOB programmatic insert DECLARE the_url web_pages. DBMS_LOB.url%TYPE := 'http://www. the_loc CLOB. EMPTY_CLOB()) and loads a web page RETURNING htmlloc INTO the_loc. running_total PLS_INTEGER := 1.html_tab.COUNT LOOP piece_length := LENGTH(html_tab(the_piece_no)).oodb. piece_length PLS_INTEGER. buffer => html_tab(the_piece_no)). several likely exceptions offset => running_total.. END LOOP.com'. running_total := running_total + piece_length. This block retrieves INSERT INTO web_pages VALUES (the_url.REQUEST_PIECES(url => the_url).WRITE(lob_loc => the_loc.page 133 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein BEGIN .

WRITE(lob_loc => the_loc.page 134 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . buffer => 'cool'). amount => 4. BEGIN OPEN hcur. str_offset := DBMS_LOB.oodb.com' FOR UPDATE. pattern => 'oodb'). str_offset INTEGER. CLOSE hcur. END. END IF. IF str_offset != 0 THEN DBMS_LOB. the_loc CLOB. FETCH hcur INTO the_loc.Example: Piecewise CLOB programmatic update DECLARE Program must lock the record explicitly CURSOR hcur IS SELECT htmlloc FROM web_pages WHERE url = 'http://www.INSTR(lob_loc => the_loc. offset => str_offset.

 Example: CREATE DIRECTORY web_pix AS 'D:\bill\training\pix'. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Preparing to use BFILEs  You must first create an Oracle I ORY´ ± Creates logical alias for full directory pat ± imilar to LIBRARY (used for C "external procedures").page 135 . ut IRECTORY namespace is global  Syntax: CREATE OR REPLACE DIRECTORY <directory name> AS '<full path to directory>'.

image BFILE). scanned_card_image BFILE ). CREATE TYPE Business_card_t AS OBJECT ( name Name_t..page 136 . addresses Address_tab_t.. CREATE TABLE web_graphics ( image_id INTEGER. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . phones Phone_tab_t...Using BFILE datatype in DDL  In a table.  In an object type.

file_exprn) RETURN BFILE. /  Notes: ± No automatic file checking or synchronization ± No participation in transactions 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 'prodicon.  Example: DECLARE picture BFILE := BFILENAME('WEB_PIX'.The built-in BFILENAME function  Returns value of datatype BFILE. BEGIN INSERT INTO web_graphics VALUES (100015. picture).page 137 .gif'). END. Spec: FUNCTION BFILENAME(directory_exprn.

src_lob => pic_file.page 138 . BEGIN INSERT INTO web_graphic_blobs VALUES (1.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . DBMS_LOB. DBMS_LOB. / loadblob. DECLARE pic_file BFILE := BFILENAME('WEB_PIX'.LOADFROMFILE(dest_lob => pic_blob_loc. DBMS_LOB. pic_blob_loc BLOB := EMPTY_BLOB(). DBMS_LOB.Loading File into Database BLOB CREATE TABLE web_graphic_blobs ( image_id INTEGER. image BLOB). amount => DBMS_LOB.gif').FILEOPEN(pic_file. 'prodicon. END. pic_blob_loc) RETURNING image INTO pic_blob_loc.FILE_READONLY).FILECLOSE(pic_file).GETLENGTH(pic_file)).

New DBMS_LOB APIs in 8i  Support for temporary LOBs ± No logging or rollback faster! ± Lifespan: session. that can mean less I/O » Trigger will not fire until CLOSE » Indexes will not update until CLOSE ± ISOPEN 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . or transaction  Ability to retrieve LOB ³chunk size´ ± Allows programmer to tune READs and WRITEs  For all internal LOBs ± OPEN & CLOSE allow control over timing. call.page 139 .

.page 140 . ± LOB locator behavior slightly abstruse ± Inability to modify BFILEs directly from within PL/SQL.Large Object .Summary  LOB support in Oracle is now significantly improved. COLD 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Complete support in PL/SQL (and other APIs) ± Much better performance and control than with LONGs ± Usable in object types HOT  Some weaknesses..

Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Leveraging Java Inside PL/SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 141 .

or server Not covered in this seminar  PL/SQL can call Java inside 8i server ± ± ± ± Command-line tools load Java classes DDL extensions publish Java classes Writing stored procedures.Overview of Java interoperability  Java inside or outside 8i server can call PL/SQL ± Standard JDBC and SQLJ calls with Oracle extensions ± Same Java on client... triggers in Java Distinct Java & PL/SQL namespaces  But first. mid-tier.page 142 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .a BRIEF introduction to Java... functions. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

fastest.Question 1: What is Java?  Could it be.. slickest piece of software ever designed by human beings? ± Just the latest in a series of "silver bullets" promoted by software vendors in order to prop up quarterly sales? ± The first and only successful O-O language? ± None of the above?  We don't really need to take a vote. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .. ± The end of programming history as we know it? ± The easiest.page 143 . ± We just need to keep a firm grip on common sense and stay focused on delivering solutions.

it is very unlikely and totally unthinkable for years to come. PL/SQL will still be: ± Faster and more productive than Java for database operations. ± A language in which hundreds of thousands of developers are trained.page 144 . ± Ubiquitous in thousands of production applications and millions of lines of code. ± Supported and improved by Oracle -. to boot.Question 2: Will Java Replace PL/SQL?  While that scenario is certainly possible.and very aggressively.  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

. everything exception the primitive datatypes...page 145 . ± Before you can call a (non-static) class method.Some Important Things to Remember  Java is a case sensitive language.. you have to instantiate an object from that class... 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± string is definitely not the same as String.  Everything is a class (or an object instantiated from a class). ± Don't get overwhelmed by all the classes and all the strange quirks.  You don't have to know how to do everything with Java to get lots of value out of it. ± Well.

println ("Hello world!")..PUT_LINE ('Hello world!').Building a Java Class  Let's start from the very beginning. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE hello IS BEGIN DBMS_OUTPUT. Oh.page 146 .out. by the way: the PL/SQL version 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . } }  No members. public class Hello { public static void main (String[] args) { System.. except the "special" main method. no methods. ± Used to test or run stand-alone a class. END.

java file to a . e:\jdk1. SET CLASSPATH = d:\Oracle\Ora81\jdbc\lib\classes111. ± This will convert the .1.zip.Compiling Classes  Before you can use a class.zip. ± You must also either have set the CLASSPATH or include it in your javac call.d:\java D:> javac Hello. you must compile it with the javac command.page 147 . ± It will also automatically recompile any classes used by your class that has not been compiled since last change.java -classpath d:\java 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .class file.7b\lib\classes.

Running a Class  Run a class? What does that mean? It means that if your class contains a method with this header: public static void main (String[] args)  then you can "run" the main method with the java command: d:\java> java Hello  You can also pass one or more arguments on the command line: d:\java> java Hello mom Hello2.page 148 .java 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

page 149 . you will use a class by instantiating objects from the class and then invoking class methods on the object. however.Using a Class  The main method is handy for providing a built-in test mechanism of your class. Let's build a performance analyzer class to explore these ideas. Usually.   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

} public void showElapsed (String context) { p.Compare Performance of Methods  Use System.java InFile. public void capture () { Gstart = System.java Tmr.l ("Elapsed time ".java 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . } public long elapsed () { return (System.Gstart).page 150 . elapsed()).l ("Elapsed time for " + context. class Tmr { private long Gstart = 0.currentTimeMillis() .currentTimeMillis to calculate elapsed time to nearest thousandth of a second. } public void showElapsed () { p. } } p.Gstart). System.currentTimeMillis() .currentTimeMillis().

..  Abstract class ± The class can contain members and methods. but at least one method remains unimplemented.Types of Classes  There are several different kinds of classes in Java.  Inner class ± Classes that are defined inside other classes.page 151 . besides the "regular" kind we just saw.  Interface class ± The class only contains unimplemented methods. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

either as its own class or as any superclass. supertype/"wider" Citizen Person Employee Hourly Worker Salaried Worker subtype/"narrower" War Criminal Person.And Now for Some Scary Buzzwords!  Inheritance ± Subclasses inherit methods and variables from extended superclasses.page 152 .  Polymorphism ± An object of a class can have "multiple" forms.java A Class Hierarchy Management NonManagement Corporation 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Dynamic polymorphism: form is determined at run-time. ± Static polymorphism: form is chosen at compile-time (PL/SQL overloading).

boolean char byte short int long float double  Strings ± A String object is a read-only. these are not objects instantiated from classes. if you assign a new value to it. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .equals(YourName)) foundFamily().Language Basics  Comments // Single line comment /* Block comment */ /** Documentation comment */  Primitive datatypes ± So I lied.page 153 . String myName. myName = "Feuerstein". myName = "Steven". ± Can't do a direct == comparison. you are actually allocating a new object. if (myName.

println (args[indx]).length. for (initialize. indx++) System.out.out.page 154 .hasMoreElements ()) { processIt (enum.NextElement()). Examples: for (indx indx=0. System.println ( (String)enum. indx < args. static void processAll (Enumeration enum) { while (enum. do-while and for ± Note: you need squiggly brackets only if there is more than one statement in the loop body.nextElement()) } } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . expression. step) { lotsaStuff } while (expression) { lostsaStuff } do { lostsaStuff } while (expression).Writing Loops in Java  Three kinds of loops: while.

System.name()). class PuterLingo { private String mname. ± No default values for arguments. public PuterLingo (String name) { mname = name.. you still include the open and close parentheses. } } class LotsALingos { public static void main (String args[]) { PuterLingo Java = new PuterLingo("Java"). } public String name () { return mname. ± Only positional notation is supported.println (Java. you must supply a value for each parameter. } } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .out. ± If a method has no arguments.Passing Parameters  Some important differences from PL/SQL.page 155 ..

rather than raise and handle.toString()).Exception Handling in Java  Very similar to PL/SQL. "WHEN OTHERS" } in Java } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .out.length(). } catch (Exception e) { System. you "throw" and "catch" exceptions. Throwing my own public static int numBytes (String filename) { exception try { if (filename. } File-related catch (SecurityException e) { exceptions return -1.page 156 .equals("")) throw new Exception ("Filename is NULL"). Put inside try clause File myFile = new File (filename).println (e. return myFile.

Differences Between Java & PL/SQL  Exceptions are objects derived directly or indirectly from the Exception class.page 157 . ± Use the throws clause in your specification. } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  You must inform users of your method of which exceptions may be thrown. as in: public static int numBytes (String filename) throws SecurityException.. NoSuchFile { . ± So you can pass them as arguments and do anything and everything else you can do with objects..

Java's Not So Tough!  You can learn enough Java in less than a week to: ± Build simple classes ± Leverage Java inside PL/SQL  Moving to the next level of expertise will be more of a challenge.  Now let's explore how you can put Java to work for you inside PL/SQL programs. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Object oriented development (Java) is very different from procedural coding (PL/SQL).page 158 .

Java Stored Procedures (JSPs) Java applet or app.page 159 . using JDBC or SQLJ Oracle 8i server PL/SQL cover for Java method Java virtual machine running Java method Oracle Developer client (PL/SQL) Net8 OCI or Pro*C client VB or C++ via OO4O or ODBC 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

JSPs: Some sample uses PL/SQL extender ± For example. better file I/O ± RMI callouts. network communication in/out PL/SQL replacement ± More standard language ± Good performer for numeric processing tasks ± Beware database I/O & string manipulation performance Scaleable deployment of third party code ± Vertical application ± Web server ± XML parser/generator 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 160 .

rather than BEGIN. Call from PL/SQL (or SQL) as if calling PL/SQL    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Grant privileges as desired 5..page 161 . Create Java classes in your favorite IDE 2.. Publish PL/SQL cover using AS LANGUAGE JAVA. Load into server using ³loadjava´ command-line tool 3...END 4.Creating JSP to call from PL/SQL   1.

long CEOCompensation. 5000000.println main method is used to test the class. 50000000). Entry points must be public static in most cases Classes may call other classes Avoid GUI calls     person. layoffs = Playoffs.Create Java class(es) class Corporation extends Person { long layoffs. } public static void main (String[] args) { // A very scary company Corporation TheGlobalMonster = new Corporation ( "Northrup-Ford-Mattel-Yahoo-ATT". public Corporation ( String Pname.out. CEOCompensation = PceoComp. } public String toString () { return name + " is a transnational entity with " + layoffs + " laid-off employees.out. }} 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Notes on Java classes  toString method automatically used by System.page 162 PL/SQL .java Advanced Techniques . paying its" + " Chief Executive Officer " + CEOCompensation.println (TheGlobalMonster). long PceoComp) { name = Pname. long Playoffs. System.

class options (abbreviated) -oci8 -resolve loadjava will connect using OCI driver Resolves external class references at compile time -resolver (shown later) Search path like CLASSPATH 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 163 .jar file Oracle 8i server Java class Java source Java resource loadjava Example: loadjava loadjava -user scott/tiger -oci8 -resolve datacraft/bill/Hello.Upload using ³loadjava´ utility .java file Java resource file .class file .

String'.. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Emp(int) return java. /  Syntax (simplified) CREATE [ OR REPLACE PROCE URE FUNCTION <name> <sqlt pe> ] [ [ <ar s> ) ] [ AUTHID { DEFINER | CURRENT_USER } ] AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME '<met fullname> (<Ja a t pe fullname>.Hello.page 164 .Publish  Example (top-level call spec) CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION hello_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2 AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.. .) [ return <Ja a t pe fullname> ]'.bill.lang.

PUT_LINE(hello_emp(7499)). PRINT :thename ± CALL avoids overhead of SELECT fn FROM DUAL jsp. from SQL*Plus: VARIABLE thename VARCHAR2(12) CALL hello_emp(7499) INTO :thename. END.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . for example.page 165 .Call the wrapped method  Method 1: Call as if PL/SQL module BEGIN DBMS_OUTPUT.  Method 2: Use 8i SQL CALL statement.

Timestamp java.more concepts Shape mapping ± Java methods declared ³void´ become PL/SQL procedures ± Signature mismatches detected only at runtime Type mapping (typical) VARCHAR2 DATE NUMBER user-defined object type user-defined object type object REFerence user-defined collection type java.sql.lang.REF oracle.String java.ARRAY 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .sql.Publishing -.BigDecimal oracle.math.sql.sql.page 166 .STRUCT <named type> oracle.

END.util. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE hello_pkg AS FUNCTION hi_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2 AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.Emp(int) return java.page 167 .Publish in PL/SQL Package Spec  Designate Java module in PL/SQL package spec.String'.Hello. / (No package body required in this case) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ...lang.

/ 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Publish as module in package body  .util. END.. / CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY hello_pkg2 AS FUNCTION hi_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2 IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft. END.String'..lang.page 168 .or in package body CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE hello_pkg2 AS FUNCTION hi_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2.Emp(int) return java.Hello.

String'). / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .util. END.lang. / CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE BODY foo_t AS MEMBER FUNCTION hello_emp RETURN VARCHAR2 IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft. / or in the body: CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE foo_t AS OBJECT ( bar VARCHAR2(30).String'. MEMBER FUNCTION hello_emp RETURN VARCHAR2 IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.Hello. MEMBER FUNCTION hello_emp RETURN VARCHAR2).page 169 .util.Publish as object type method  Either in spec: CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE foo_t AS OBJECT ( bar VARCHAR2(30).lang.Emp(int) return java.Hello.Emp(int) return java.

page 170 . JAVA_ADMIN. JAVAIDPRIV. or resource ± Can read file designated with BFILE() function  ALTER JAVA: compiles Java source. JAVASYSPRIV (needed for file IO operations). class.   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . DROP JAVA: drops a named Java library unit Several roles available for Java operations: ± JAVAUSERPRIV. resolves Java class references.New DDL Statements and Roles  CREATE JAVA ± Alternative to ³loadjava´ utility ± Creates or replaces an Oracle ³library unit´ from Java source. JAVADEBUGPRIV ± You can also grant specific privileges.

sql.CustomDatum ± oracle.Passing Oracle8 objects Oracle8i server Object in O-R table Java application Java object   Harder than you¶d think Three different interfacing techniques ± oracle.jdbc2.sql.STRUCT ± oracle.SQLData 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 171 .

page 172 .JPublisher utility Database server Definition of type or REF in data dictionary User-supplied JPublisher input file What does it do? ± Generates Java that encapsulates type and REF types of mapping supported for methods JPublisher ± ³Oracle mapping´ ± ³JDBC mapping´ ± ³Object JDBC mapping´ Three Generated Java file(s) for use in Java programs 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Account_t)'.AccountRuntime.save (datacraft.Passing object using JPub-generated Java  After generating and uploading classes with JPub. /  jspobj.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .bill.page 173 .bill. they become available to use in mapping Example of passing an Account_t object: CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE account_save (new_acct IN Account_t) IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.

Java offers many file-related classes with much greater capabilities.Example: Improving File I/O  You can read/write files in PL/SQL with UTL_FILE. but that package is very limited. Let's see how we can make that great Java stuff available from within PL/SQL.   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 174 .

. ± The File class offers a length method that returns the number of bytes in a file..page 175 .Encapsulate Java Classes  You won't generally access native Java methods in your PL/SQL wrapper.  Let's start with something simple. ± Instead build a static method that instantiates a Java object from the class and then invokes the relevant method against that object. ± This is not available through UTL_FILE (though you can get it through DBMS_LOB). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

page 176 .File.length().java  Take each of these steps: ± Import the File class to resolve reference.io. } } JFile2.My Own Java Class for File Manipulation  Accept the name of a file and return its length. import java. return myFile. ± Instantiate a File object for the specified name. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Call the method of choice against that object and return the value. public class JFile2 { public static long length (String fileName) { File myFile = new File (fileName).

END. ± I translate the Java long to a PL/SQL NUMBER. END.page 177 .lang. we will certainly want to add more functionality over time. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE xfile IS FUNCTION length (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN NUMBER. / xfile2. / CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY xfile IS FUNCTION length (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN NUMBER AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'JFile.Build a Package over Java Method  Let's put it in a package.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .String) return long'.length (java.

± 2. ± 3. Write a "hidden" PL/SQL wrapper function that returns the string or number. Write a "public" PL/SQL wrapper function to convert that number to a true PL/SQL Boolean. you will need to take these steps: ± 1.Mapping the Boolean Datatype  Both Java and PL/SQL support a native Boolean datatype.page 178 . so you'd expect smooth sailing. Convert the Java boolean to a String or number and return that value.  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Not so! To pass a Boolean back from Java to PL/SQL.

Translate Boolean to Number  Accept the name of a file and return its length. not a Boolean class. } } JFile3.io.page 179 . public class JFile3 { public static int canRead (String fileName) { File myFile = new File (fileName).java  Translate TRUE to 1 and FALSE to 0. else return 0. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .File. ± And don't forget: this is a boolean primitive.canRead(). import java. boolean retval = myFile. if (retval) return 1.

± Avoid the hard-codings with named constants.String) return int'. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE xfile IS FUNCTION canRead (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN BOOLEAN.java END. / CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY xfile IS FUNCTION IcanRead (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN NUMBER AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'JFile3.lang.java / xfile. FUNCTION canRead (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN BOOLEAN AS BEGIN xfile3.pkg END.page 180 .Wrapper for Pseudo-Boolean function  Simple translation back to PL/SQL Boolean.canRead (java.pkg RETURN IcanRead (file) = 1.. xfile4.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . JFile4. JFile.. END.

println ( "Pay " + laborType + " $" + hourly_rate + " per hour"). System. } } Extract individual attribute values from the array.SQLException { // Get the attributes of the labor_source object. // starting with 0 String laborType = (String)(attribs[0]).page 181 .Passing Objects to Java with STRUCT  You can pass Oracle object information to Java without relying on JPub by using the STRUCT class. // Access individual attributes by array index. BigDecimal hourly_rate = (BigDecimal)(attribs[1]). Object[] attribs = e.sql.tst PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein UnionBuster. throws java.out. public class UnionBuster { Obtain attributes of public static void wageStrategy (STRUCT e) the Oracle object.java passobj.getAttributes().

END.wageStrategy (oracle. / BEGIN bust_em_with ( labor_source ('Workfare'. hourly_rate NUMBER). '5')). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . / CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE bust_em_with ( labor_source_in IN labor_source_t) AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'UnionBuster.Wrapping a STRUCT-based Method  You can pass Oracle object information to Java without relying on JPub by using the STRUCT class. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Fully specify the STRUCT class in parameter list. The Oracle object type definition CREATE TYPE labor_source_t AS OBJECT ( labor_type VARCHAR2(30). bust_em_with ( labor_source ('Prisoners'.STRUCT)'.sql.page 182 . 0)).

PUT_LINE: System. i++) { System.out.println. public class HelloAll { public static void lotsaText ( int count) { for (int i = 0.java HelloAll. you can redirect the output to the DBMS_OUTPUT buffer. }}}  When called within a PL/SQL wrapper. HelloAll.out.Viewing Output from Java Methods  Java provides a "print line" method similar to DBMS_OUTPUT. ± Call it within methods and output will display in your Java environment.sql file: SET SERVEROUTPUT ON SIZE 1000000 CALL DBMS_JAVA.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .SET_OUTPUT (1000000). i < count.page 183 . ± Here is a good nucleus for a login.println ( "Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello All!").

SQLException.1. getErrorCode() and getMessage() to obtain information about the error thrown. you "throw" and "catch". ± Instead of raising and handling. but more robust error handling mechanism than PL/SQL. ± Use two methods.5). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . such as java. ± Exceptions are objects instantiated from the Exception class or a subclass of it.page 184 . ± And also spew out the entire Java error stack! (at least through 8.Error Handling with Java-PL/SQL  Java offers a very similar.sql.  Any error not caught by the JVM (Java virtual machine) will be thrown back to the PL/SQL block or SQL statement.

jdbc.jdbc. / SQL> 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 java.java -29532 dropany.java:14) DropAny.SQLException: ORA-00942: table or view does not exist at oracle.jdbc.doExecuteWithBatch(OracleStatement.parseExecuteFetch(KprbDBAccess.java) at oracle.driver.java) at oracle. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN DBMS_OUTPUT.sp dropany2.executeUpdate(OracleStatement.doExecuteWithTimeout(OracleStatement. BEGIN dropany ('TABLE'.doExecute(OracleStatement.object(DropAny.check_error(KprbDBAccess.OracleStatement.Trapping and Identifying Errors  Currently.SQLException: getErrInfo.sql.OracleStatement.OracleStatement.PUT_LINE (SQLERRM).driver.kprb.driver.jdbc.tst ORA-29532: Java call terminated by uncaught Java exception: java.sql.java) at DropAny.KprbDBAccess.OracleStatement.java) at oracle.driver. END.doExecuteOther(OracleStatement.java) at oracle.kprb. 'blip').jdbc.page 185 .driver.java) at oracle.java) at oracle.OracleStatement.jdbc.jdbc.KprbDBAccess.tst ORA-00942: table or view does not exist 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . the entire Java stack is displayed on your screen.PUT_LINE (SQLCODE). DBMS_OUTPUT. and you have to do some digging to extract the Oracle error information.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . or method. procedure.Achieving PL/SQL Excellence External Procedures  An external procedure is a 3GL routine that can serve as the ³body´ of a PL/SQL function.page 186 . ± Must be a shared object library on Unix or a dynamically linked library (DLL) on Windows.  An Oracle8 feature that allowed relatively "native" callouts to C from PL/SQL for the first time.

DLL or .page 187 .so file extproc returns results returns results 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Process & data flow Application Makes request Net8 External Procedure Listener spawns External Shared Library Calls PL/SQL Runtime Engine PL/SQL body Client or server-side application returns results calls routine from Routine in .

page 188 .sql diskspace.External procedures: Sample uses      Send email Invoke operating system command Invoke custom or legacy application Call C runtime library function Perform admin tasks email.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

create an Oracle8 ³library´: CREATE OR REPLACE LIBRARY nt_kernel AS 'c:\winnt\system32\kernel32.dll'.Determine free disk space on NT (1/4)  Use pre-existing routine: ± GetDiskFreeSpaceA in kernel32.page 189 . / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . this function returns: » » » » » sectors per cluster bytes per sector number of free clusters total number of clusters ³return code´ indicating success or failure  First.dll ± For given drive letter.

number_of_free_clusters OUT PLS_INTEGER. bytes_per_sector OUT PLS_INTEGER. END disk_util. total_number_of_clusters OUT PLS_INTEGER) RETURN PLS_INTEGER. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Package spec (2/4)  Nothing unexpected here: CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE disk_util AS FUNCTION get_disk_free_space (root_path IN VARCHAR2.page 190 . sectors_per_cluster OUT PLS_INTEGER.

END disk_util.page 191  All the magic is in the EXTERNAL section 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . total_number_of_clusters BY REFERENCE LONG. total_number_of_clusters OUT PLS_INTEGER) RETURN PLS_INTEGER IS EXTERNAL LIBRARY nt_kernel NAME "GetDiskFreeSpaceA" LANGUAGE C CALLING STANDARD PASCAL PARAMETERS (root_path STRING. RETURN LONG).0 (3/4) CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY disk_util AS FUNCTION get_disk_free_space (root_path IN VARCHAR2. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . number_of_free_clusters OUT pls_integer.Package body in Oracle 8. bytes_per_sector BY REFERENCE LONG. number_of_free_clusters BY REFERENCE LONG. bytes_per_sector OUT PLS_INTEGER. sectors_per_cluster BY REFERENCE LONG. sectors_per_cluster OUT PLS_INTEGER.

Usage (4/4)
DECLARE lroot_path VARCHAR2(3) := 'C:\'; lsectors_per_cluster PLS_INTEGER; lbytes_per_sector PLS_INTEGER; lnumber_of_free_clusters PLS_INTEGER; ltotal_number_of_clusters PLS_INTEGER; return_code PLS_INTEGER; free_meg REAL; BEGIN return_code := disk_util.get_disk_free_space (lroot_path, lsectors_per_cluster, lbytes_per_sector, lnumber_of_free_clusters, ltotal_number_of_clusters); free_meg := lsectors_per_cluster * lbytes_per_sector * lnumber_of_free_clusters / 1024 / 1024; DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('free disk space, Mb = ' || free_meg); diskspace.sql END;
1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein
PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 192

Creating your own external procedure 

1. Identify or create shared library 2. Identify or CREATE LIBRARY within Oracle 3. Map the parameters using:
± EXTERNAL clause (Oracle8) or ± LANGUAGE clause (Oracle8i)  

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 193

1. Identify/create external routine 


Prerequisite: O/S must support shared libraries Some useful routines are pre-built in C runtime library
± On Unix: /lib/libc.so ± On NT: <systemroot>\system32\crtdll.dll 

Building a shared library of your own requires knowledge of:
± Appropriate language (typically C) ± Compiler & linker

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 194

2. Create the Oracle library 

Syntax:
CREATE OR REPLACE LIBRARY <library name> AS '<full path to file>'; 

Assigns a programmer-defined alias to a specific shared library file Notes
± Requires CREATE LIBRARY pri ilege ± Does not alidate directory ± Can¶t use symbolic link 

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 195

3. Map the parameters
This can get complicated, because«
± Must pass extra parameters to designate:
» NULL/NOT NULL state » String length » Maximum allocated length

± Six choices of parameter mode
» » » » » » IN RETURN IN BY REFERENCE RETURN BY REFERENCE OUT IN OUT

These details are better suited for close reading«
PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 196

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Oracle8i New Features Autonomous Transactions Invoker Rights Model Row Level Security 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 197 .

± And the learning curve to take advantage of these features is generally not too steep.Oracle8i New Features  Oracle8i offers a number of PL/SQL-specific features that give you tremendous additional flexibility and capability.    Autonomous Transactions The Invoker Rights Model Row level security 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 198 .

page 199 . CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE loginfo ( code IN PLS_INTEGER.  With Oracle8i. ± There was only one transaction allowed per connection. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . you can now define a PL/SQL block to execute as an "autonomous transaction". ± Any changes made within that block can be saved or reversed without affecting the outer or main transaction. a COMMIT or ROLLBACK in any program in your session committed or rolled back all changes in your session.Autonomous Transactions  Prior to Oracle8i. msg IN VARCHAR2) AS PRAGMA AUTONOMOUS_TRANSACTION.

 Call functions within SQL that change the database.When to Use Autonomous Transactions  Reusable Application Components ± ATs are more or less required in the new distributed application architecture of the Internet. which can cause all sorts of complications: your log entry becomes a part of your transaction. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Logging Mechanism ± Commonly developers lot to database tables. etc. software usage meter. ± Now you can avoid the complexities (need for ROLLBACK TO savepoints and so on).  Tracing Code Usage ± Build retry mechanisms. ± One component should not have any impact (esp. something like a COMMIT) on other components.page 200 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .

text_in IN VARCHAR2 ) IS PRAGMA AUTONOMOUS_TRANSACTION. rec. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Avoid interdependencies with the main transaction.pkg log81*. text_in.sp log81.machine. SYSDATE. rec.pkg retry.program ). END. USER. let's add some session information.page 201 .Logging with ATs  Don't forget that ROLLBACK in the exception section! CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY log IS PROCEDURE putline ( code_in IN INTEGER.tst retry. While we're at it. BEGIN INSERT INTO logtab VALUES (code_in. SYSDATE. COMMIT. USER.tst PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END. logger. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN ROLLBACK.

The AT PRAGMA can be used only with individual programs and toplevel anonymous blocks.page 202 . ± You can use the SET TRANSACTION ISOLATION LEVEL SERIALIZABLE to indicate that you do not want the changes visible until the outer transaction commits.Tips and Gotchas with ATs  An AT program must COMMIT or ROLLBACK before terminating. or an error is raised. autonserial. ± Place the SET TRANSACTION statement in the outer transaction.sql auton_in_sql.   The AT PRAGMA goes in the body of packages. ± You cannot define a nested anonymous block to be an AT.  Any changes committed in an AT are visible in the outer transaction. ± You cannot define an entire package as an AT.sql autontrigger*. ± You cannot tell by looking at the package spec if you are calling ATs or not -and this info is not available in the data dictionary.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

page 203 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . it ran under the privileges of the account in which the program was defined. ± This is called the « Invoker Rights Model PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± This is called the « Definer Rights Model  With Oracle8i. whenever you executed a stored program. you can now decide at compilation time whether your program or package will execute in the definer's schema (the default) or the schema of the invoker of the code.The Invoker Rights Model  Prior to Oracle8i.

page 204 . But it can be a source of confusion and architectural problems. OE Code Order_Mgt Place Cancel Sam_Sales Close Old Orders  OE Data X  Orders Cannot alter table directly.About Definer Rights  Allows you to centralize access to and control of underlying data structures. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Note: Oracle built-in packages have long had the capability of running under the invoker's authority. Ignores roles and relies on directly-granted privileges.

and now you do! 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Can bypass 8i¶s ³fine-grained´ access features (see the DBMS_RLS package) ± Difficult to audit privileges  Sure would be nice to have a choice.. each user has own copy of table(s).it's all or nothing. requiring copy of stored module  Security ± No declarative way to restrict privileges on certain modules in a package -.page 205 .Problems with Definer Rights  Deployment & maintenance ± Must install module in all remote databases where needed ± In some databases. unless you write code in the package to essentially recreate roles programmatically..

page 206 . You could also create local..Oracle8i Invoker Rights Syntax  For top level modules: CREATE [ OR REPLACE ] <module type> [ AUTHID { DEFINER | CURRENT_USER } ] AS . AUTHID goes only in spec. ± At run-time. the objects referenced may well be different from those against which it compiled..  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Synonyms may be necessary if modules use object names not qualified by schema. "dummy" objects.  For modules with separate spec and body. do what it takes to get the code to compile. ± In other words. and must be at the package level.

"Reflection" Capability of Invoker Rights  With invoker rights.destroy(. Central Code schema PACKAGE acct_mgr make AUTHID CURRENT_USER User/Data schema PROCEDURE mng_account IS BEGIN .FROM accounts WHERE. you can execute code owned by another schema.acct_mgr... accounts table 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .. END.. modify destroy ..). yet have all references to data structures "reflect back" into your own schema. code.page 207 ....

sql  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . taking advantage of the invoker rights model whenever possible? ± A creative use of SQL*Plus substitution variables comes in very invdefinv. all other calls in stack are resolved according to definer rights.Tips and Gotchas for Invoker Rights  Does not apply to code objects.sql handy. ± Both static and dynamic SQL is supported. ± AUTHID CURRENT_USER is ignored. Note: cannot use with wrapped code.page 208 . only data ± When your stored code references another stored code element.  Once a definer rights program is called. oneversion.  Information about the rights model is not available in the data dictionary What if you want to maintain a single version of your code for both pre-Oracle8i and Oracle8i installations. the definer rights model is always applied to resolve the reference.

When to Invoke Invoker Rights  You want to reuse the same code among many users. ± Share a program that uses dynamic SQL (whether DBMS_SQL or the new native implementation) and you end up taking the most unexpected DDL and DML detours. authid.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 209 . National HQ Check City Statistics New York Schema stolenlives Chicago Schema stolenlives  Especially handy with dynamic SQL. but you want their own directly-granted privileges to determine access.sql whichsch*.

HQ Chicago Check City Statistics  New York stolenlives Analyze Pattern stolenlives perpetrators perp.page 210 .Combining Invoker & Definer Rights  Rely on invoker rights to allow centralized code to work with schema-specific data. Rely on definer rights to access centralized data from any schema.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

page 211 .Row Level Security DBMS_RLS Row-Level Security 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

The DBMS_RLS package (along with "system contexts") now allow you to do so in a foolproof manner. DBMS_RLS. with which to implement automated row-level security (also referred to as "fine grained access control"). Prior to Oracle8i.page 212   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . Row Level Security  The establishment of security policies on (restricted access to) individual rows of a table.Row-Level Security with DBMS_RLS  Oracle8i offers a new package. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . you could achieve this only partially through the use of views.

 Database Logon Triggers ± I want to make sure that when a person logs in. the system context is a named set of attributevalue pairs global to your session.page 213 . their context information is set properly. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Components Needed for RLS  System Contexts ± A new feature in Oracle8i.  Security Policy Packages ± You will need to write a package containing functions that establish the security policies to be applied to a particular table.  Let's step through a simple example to see how all these pieces tie together.  DBMS_RLS ± Use programs in DBMS_RLS to associate your security policies with tables.

page 214 .  We need a top-notch.A National Health Care System  The year is 2010. ± Patients can only see information about themselves. ± Regulators can only see patients who reside in the same state. fgac. The main tables are patient. no more private insurance companies soaking up 30 cents on the dollar. ± A massive. No more for-profit hospitals pulling billions of dollars out of the system. all children are vaccinated. Here are some rules: ± Doctors can only see patients who are assigned to their clinic. clinic and regulator.sql  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . highly secure database for NHCS. doctor. all pregnant women receive excellent prenatal care. popular uprising in the United States has forced the establishment of a national healthcare system.

'DOCTOR').sql for logic that identifies SELECT doctor_id FROM doctor different types of people and WHERE schema_name = USER. CREATE CONTEXT patient_restriction USING nhc_pkg.page 215 . END. sets the context accordingly. c_person_type_attr.Set the Context  Define a context in the database. BEGIN OPEN doc_cur. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . doc_rec. and create a procedure that will set the context attributes (type and ID) upon login. DBMS_SESSION. FETCH doc_cur INTO doc_rec.SET_CONTEXT ( 'patient_restriction'. doc_rec doc_cur%ROWTYPE. c_person_id_attr. PROCEDURE set_context IS This is a simplification. See CURSOR doc_cur IS fgac.doctor_id). DBMS_SESSION.SET_CONTEXT ( 'patient_restriction'.

c_person_type_attr). FUNCTION person_predicate ( schema_in VARCHAR2. information for this retval VARCHAR2(2000). connection.Define the Predicate  A predicate is a string that will be appended to the WHERE clause of the table to which this security policy is associated (see next page).page 216 . ''' || clause for each type of c_person_id_attr || '''))'. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . person. BEGIN IF l_context = 'DOCTOR' THEN retval := 'home_clinic_id IN (SELECT home_clinic_id FROM doctor We need a different string WHERE doctor_id = SYS_CONTEXT (''' || to modify the WHERE c_context || '''. name_in VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2 IS l_context VARCHAR2(100) := Extract the context SYS_CONTEXT (c_context.

'patient_privacy'. update or delete against the SCOTT.PATIENT table will be modified by the string returned by the person_predicate function of the SCOTT. ± The following procedure call specifies that the WHERE clause of any query.ADD_POLICY procedure. BEGIN DBMS_RLS.page 217 .ADD_POLICY OBJECT_SCHEMA OBJECT_NAME POLICY_NAME FUNCTION_SCHEMA POLICY_FUNCTION STATEMENT_TYPES END.Create the Security Policy  Use the DBMS_RLS. ( => => => => => => 'SCOTT'.nhc_pkg package.person_predicate'. 'SELECT. 'patient'. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 'SCOTT'. 'nhc_pkg.DELETE').UPDATE.

fgac. CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER set_id_on_logon AFTER LOGON ON DATABASE BEGIN nhc_pkg. END. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN DBMS_OUTPUT.sql Exception handling in trigger is critical! If you allow an exception to go unhandled.Create Logon Trigger.set_context.PUT_LINE ( 'Error ' || SQLCODE || ' setting context for ' || USER'). logon is disabled. Setting Context  By setting the context in the logon trigger. we guarantee that the context is set (and the predicate applied) no matter which product is the entry point to Oracle.page 218 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Veva Silva .page 219 . Context Information for "SWALLACE": Type: DOCTOR Doctor sees only her ID: 1060 patients.IL Context Information for "CSILVA": Type: PATIENT ID: Predicate: schema_name = 'CSILVA' Patients Visible to "CSILVA": CSILVA .Chris Silva . Predicate: home_clinic_id IN (SELECT home_clinic_id FROM doctor WHERE doctor_id = SYS_CONTEXT ('patient_restriction'.IL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Patient sees only himself.Chris Silva .IL VSILVA . 'person_id')) Patients Visible to "SWALLACE": CSILVA . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Queries Transparently Filtered  What you see is determined automatically by who you are.

 ± You learn what you need to get the job done. April. May. March.....and play a new tune with PL/SQL! 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Jump out of your rut . and you use only what you know..Take Full Advantage of PL/SQL! January.page 220 .... February... It's so easy to fall into a rut with a programming language.

k.a.Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Appendices (a.page 221 .. If time permits«)     UTL_FILE ± file IO DBMS_JOB ± Job scheduling DBMS_PIPE ± Pipe-based communication DBMS_UTILITY ± the kitchen sink package 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

..Built-in Packages: UTL_FILE UTL_FILE Server-side File I/O Application FOPEN GET_LINE PUT_LINE .page 222 . Physical Files 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

± No higher-level file operations supported (change privileges.. random access to contents).. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . delete.page 223 . A "version 1" (fairly primitive) utility.UTL_FILE: Server-side I/O  Allows you to read from and write to operating system files on the database server. copy.   But you can read lines from a file and write lines to a file. ± Limitations on files you can access (no mapped files.5.0. no use of environmental variables). ± Maximum of 1023 bytes per line (read or write) until Oracle 8. when it jumps to 32K.

UTL_FILE Module Outline FCLOSE FCLOSE_ALL FFLUSH FOPEN GET_LINE IS_OPEN NEW_LINE PUT PUT_LINE PUTF Close the specified file Close all open files in your session Flush all data from the UTL_FILE buffer to your file Open a file Get the next line from a file Returns TRUE if the file is open (sort of) Insert a new line character in file at the end of current line Puts text into the UTL_FILE buffer Puts text and new line character into UTL_FILE buffer. Puts formatted text into the buffer PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 224 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .

Authorizing Directory Access  Oracle requires you to list explicitly those directories you wish to be able to read/write with UTL_FILE.page 225 Allows read & write for current directory. there is no subdirectory recursion). ± Use a separate entry for each directory (and subdirectory. ± No single or double quotes around directory. utl_file_dir = * Allows read & write for any directory. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . utl_file_dir = /tmp utl_file_dir = /accounts/newdev  And don't do either of the following: utl_file_dir = .  Follow these rules to avoid many headaches. no trailing delimiter. ± You do this by adding lines to the instance parameter file.

page 226 . / utlfile. UTL_FILE.FILE_TYPE. So before you write anything fancy. */ fid := UTL_FILE.Test UTL_FILE Access  About the hardest part to working with UTL_FILE is simply getting started. 'W').FCLOSE (fid).tst  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END. BEGIN /* Change the directory name to one to which you at least || THINK you have read/write access.PUT_LINE (fid. restart your database. 'test.txt'.FOPEN ('c:\temp'. UTL_FILE. and then run the following test script (it can't get much simpler than this): DECLARE fid UTL_FILE. modify your initialization file. 'hello').

'test. this function simply returns TRUE if the file handle's id field is NOT NULL..FILE_TYPE. Not much of a test. 'W').  Specify file location.   Maximum of 10 files may be opened in each user session.page 227 . Test to see if file is open with the IS_OPEN function. END.Opening a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.FILE_TYPE. BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE. ± In actuality. name and operation type.txt'.  The FOPEN function returns a record ("file handle") based on the UTL_FILE.. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Types are 'R' for Read. ± Currently contains a single ID field.FOPEN ('c:\temp'. 'W' for Write and 'A' for Append.

± In Oracle8 Release 8.5 and above. getnext.FILE_TYPE. Lines in the file cannot be longer than 1023 bytes in length. END.FOPEN ('c:\temp'. UTL_FILE.txt'. 'test.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 'R').page 228 . UTL_FILE.0.GET_LINE (fid. the ceiling is raised to 32K. ± You might want to build your own GET_LINE which handles the exception and returns an EOF Boolean status flag.FCLOSE (fid). BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE.   Can only read from a file opened with the "R" mode.Reading from a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE. myline).  The NO_DATA_FOUND exception is raised if you read past the end of the file.

END. 'W'). PUT_LINE or PUTF. BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE.PUT_LINE (fid. allowing for some formatting. UTL_FILE. UTL_FILE. '&1').FCLOSE (fid). ' that I never\nwant to %s'. 'test. ± The file buffers are automatically flushed when you close a file or exit your session.txt'.PUT (fid. 'is so much fun'). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Writing to a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.page 229 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .PUTF (fid. UTL_FILE is so much fun that I never want to stop Resulting Text  You can use PUT.FOPEN ('c:\temp'. UTL_FILE. UTL_FILE.FILE_TYPE. 'UTL_FILE'). ± PUTF is like the C printf program.  Call FFLUSH to make sure that everything you have written to the buffer is flushed out to the file.

you will not see the data you have (supposedly) written to that file.GET_LINE (fid.  If you do not close the file.page 230   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE.FCLOSE (fid). 'R'). EXCEPTION WHEN UTL_FILE. myline).READ_ERROR THEN UTL_FILE. UTL_FILE. END.FILE_TYPE. UTL_FILE.txt'. 'test. You should close files in exception handlers to make sure that files are not left "hanging" open.FOPEN ('c:\temp'.Closing a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE. You can close a single file with FCLOSE or all open files with FCLOSE_ALL.FCLOSE (fid). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

page 231 . EXCEPTION. ± They all share a common SQLCODE of 1. ± NO_DATA_FOUND when you try to read past the end of the file. EXCEPTION.Error Handling in UTL_FILE PACKAGE UTL_FILE IS invalid_path invalid_mode invalid_filehandle invalid_operation read_error write_error internal_error END. EXCEPTION. EXCEPTION. EXCEPTION.  UTL_FILE relies on a combination of user-defined exceptions and STANDARD exceptions to communicate errors. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± UTL_FILE-named exceptions in other cases. EXCEPTION.  You have to take special care to trap and handle the named exceptions. EXCEPTION.

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .INTERNAL_ERROR THEN recNgo (PLVfile.c_internal_error). END. translating the generic user-defined exception into an understandable message. RAISE.c_read_error).c_write_error). WHEN UTL_FILE.INVALID_MODE THEN recNgo (PLVfile. WHEN UTL_FILE.c_invalid_operation).page 232  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . RAISE.sql  Trap locally by name.Recommended Exception Section EXCEPTION WHEN UTL_FILE. utlflexc. WHEN UTL_FILE. RAISE.WRITE_ERROR THEN recNgo (PLVfile. WHEN UTL_FILE.c_invalid_filehandle).c_invalid_mode).INVALID_OPERATION THEN recNgo (PLVfile.INVALID_PATH THEN recNgo (PLVfile. Re-raise exception if you want it to propagate from that block.READ_ERROR THEN recNgo (PLVfile. RAISE. WHEN UTL_FILE. WHEN UTL_FILE. record the error. RAISE. RAISE.INVALID_FILEHANDLE THEN recNgo (PLVfile. RAISE.c_invalid_path).

.page 233 ..Built-in Packages: DBMS_JOB DBMS_JOB Scheduled Execution of Stored Procedures Application SUBMIT RUN REMOVE . Background Process DBA_JOBS Oracle Job Queue Subsystem 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Overview of DBMS_JOB  DBMS_JOB provides an API to the Oracle job queues.2. ± ± ± ±    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Made its debut in PL/SQL Release 2.1. but only ³publicly available´ and supported in PL/SQL Release 2. Schedule large batch jobs to run on "off hours". ± Spawn background processes to avoid blocking client process. Schedule regular maintenance on instances. Built by Oracle to support snapshots and replication. You can use DBMS_JOB to: Replicate data between different database instances.page 234 . Create a listener program to poll the contents of a pipe and take action. which in turn offers job scheduling capabilities within the Oracle Server.

Returns the job string for a job number.page 235 CHANGE INTERVAL ISUBMIT NEXT_DATE REMOVE RUN SUBMIT USER_EXPORT WHAT 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . Changes the job string of a job. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Changes the interval between executions of a job. Submits a job to the queue using a predefined job number. Broken jobs will not run as scheduled. Removes the job from the queue. Changes when a queued job will run. Changes one or all attributes of a job.DBMS_JOB Module Outline BROKEN Marks the job as either FIXED or BROKEN. Submits a job to the queue returning a unique job number. Forces immediate execution of the specified job number.

Notice that the start time is a DATE expression.SUBMIT (job#.page 236 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . END. SYSDATE. 'calculate_totals. BEGIN DBMS_JOB. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .ISUBMIT and supply the job number. while the interval is a string (this is dynamic PL/SQL!)  You can also call DBMS_JOB. ± In the above example.Submitting a Job DECLARE job# BINARY_INTEGER. 'SYSDATE + 1'). and then the job¶s execution interval (frequency of execution). I run calculate_totals immediately and then on a daily basis thereafter. instead of having DBMS_JOB generate one for you.'.  When you submit a job.  A job is a call to a stored procedure or an anonymous block ± It must end with a semi-colon and can contain ³hard-coded´ arguments. you specify the date on which it should next execute.

Submit Job Example DECLARE v_jobno INTEGER. DBMS_DDL. to analyze a specific table every evening at midnight.''TENK''' || '.null. END. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .estimate_percent=>50).ANALYZE_OBJECT.page 237 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . BEGIN DBMS_JOB. what => 'DBMS_DDL. interval => 'TRUNC(SYSDATE+1)' ).submit ( job => v_jobno. p. next_date => TRUNC (SYSDATE + 1).'.ANALYZE_OBJECT ' || '(''TABLE''.l (v_jobno). /  This block submits a job that uses a built-in procedure.''ESTIMATE''.''LOAD1''.

'SYSDATE+10/1440'). DBMS_JOB.'BEGIN null. ± Job 2 passes a date into procedure MY_JOB2. /  This block submits three jobs to the job queue.ISUBMIT (job => 1 .interval => 'SYSDATE +1').'.next_date => SYSDATE + 1/24 . executes immediately.null).2.ISubmit Job Example BEGIN DBMS_JOB. ± Job 1 passes a string and number into procedure MY_JOB1. END. executes for the first time tomorrow and every 10 minutes thereafter.120). END. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .DBMS_JOB. 'my_job2(date_IN=>SYSDATE). DBMS_JOB.SYSDATE.page 238 . and 3. numbered 1.' . runs it in one hour and executes every day thereafter.ISUBMIT(3.' .what => 'my_job1(''string_parm_value''. ± Job 3 is a PL/SQL block which does nothing.SYSDATE+1.ISUBMIT (2. and will be removed from the queue automatically.

''FRIDAY''))) + 18/24' PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Use date arithmetic to request intervals smaller than a day.page 239 + 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . ''WEDNESDAY''). you must use 2 single quotes to embed strings. NEXT_DAY (SYSDATE.Specifying Job Times & Frequencies  Probably the most complicated part of using DBMS_JOB is to get the string expression of the job interval right. 3). ''MONDAY'') + 9/24' 'TRUNC (LEAST ( NEXT_DAY (SYSDATE. ''SATURDAY'') 2/24' 'NEXT_DAY ( ADD_MONTHS (TRUNC (SYSDATE. ± Since it's a string. ''MONDAY''). Every hour Every Sunday at 2 AM First Monday of each quarter. Wednesday and Friday at 6 PM 'SYSDATE + 1/24' 'NEXT_DAY (TRUNC (SYSDATE). NEXT_DAY (SYSDATE. ''Q''). at 9 AM Every Monday.

expjob.Other Job Queue Operations  Remove a job from the queue.page 240 . ± Only if the job was submitted from same schema BEGIN FOR rec IN (SELECT * FROM USER_JOBS) LOOP DBMS_JOB.job).REMOVE (rec. Remove all jobs for current schema. ± Produces a string that can be used to recreate an existing job in the job queue. DBMS_JOB.RUN (my_job#). END LOOP.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Run a job immediately. ± Performs an implicit COMMIT in current session.  Export jobs from the queue. retaining current job number.ISUBMIT. ± Uses DBMS_JOB.

SELECT jr. ± The following query blends job information with session information to display currently-executing jobs.job = j.what job_id username start_date job_definition jr j s showjobs.jr. DBA_JOBS and USER_JOBS views.username .job ORDER BY jr.page 241 .job .sql FROM DBA_JOBS_RUNNING . who owns them and when they began.Job Queue Views  You can also view the job queue by looking at the DBA_JOBS_RUNNING.V$SESSION WHERE s.this_date.this_date .sid AND jr. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .DBA_JOBS .sid = jr.

You will have to take special DBA action if you want to restrict who can run jobs.page 242 .ora (initialization) file for your database instance: ± job_queue_processes=N where n is the number of concurrent background processes permitted. ± job_queue_interval=N where N is the interval in seconds to check the job queue. ± The default is PUBLIC access. of one hour). The valid range is 0 through 36.Setting up the Job Facility  Make sure that the correct access is set up for the DBMS_JOB package. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . The valid range is 1 to 3600 (a maximum.  You will need to set three parameters in the init. therefore.

 To avoid unexpected and unhandled failures of scheduled jobs: ± Always use the RUN built-in to execute your job in a ³test´ mode. ± Always include a WHEN OTHERS exception handler in your job program which traps any and all problems and automatically sets the job status to broken.page 243 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . if your failure raises an unhandled exception. it may cause the background processes to fail and no longer run any jobs at all.Error Handling with DBMS_JOB  What if your stored procedure fails? ± After 16 attempts. the job facility will mark your job as broken. Then you can go ahead and submit it. ± Do you want it to try 16 times? ± In addition.

.job (µcalc_totals¶) DBMS_JOB. END.. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . You can go in and fix the problem. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN job# := job_pkg. ± Uses a call to BROKEN to set the status of the job to ³broken´. TRUE). µFAIL¶). job_pkg.BROKEN (job#.Stopping the Job When It Fails PROCEDURE calc_totals IS BEGIN .log (µcalc_totals¶. ± Obtains the job number from a packaged function by passing the name of the procedure.sql  The WHEN OTHERS exception handler of the calc_totals procedure traps any kind of failure.page 244 . spacelog. ± Now the job facility will not try to run this program again. ± Calls log program of package to record that failure took place.sql showspc.

it picks up the current execution environment for the user. When a job runs. perform a COMMIT after your submit. ± DBMS_JOB only allows you to modify characteristics and behavior of jobs submitted by the current schema. You can use the DBMS_IJOB to manage the jobs of other users.    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . If you find that you submit a job to run immediately and it does not start."Good to Knows" for DBMS_JOB  You may find it useful to always wrap your stored procedure call (the what) inside a BEGIN-END block.  You will need to fully-qualify all database links (with user name and password) to get them to work properly. difficult to reproduce behavior at times with "straight" procedure calls. ± We've noticed some aberrant.page 245 .

page 246 .Built-in Packages: DBMS_PIPE DBMS_PIPE Inter-session Communication 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Oracle uses database pipes to parallelize database operations. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 247 . ± Perform and commit DML in a separate transaction space from your main transaction.  Uses for DBMS_PIPE include: ± Parallelization of program execution.DBMS_PIPE Overview  Allows communication between different Oracle sessions through a pipe in the RDBMS Shared Global Area. ± Interface PL/SQL-database activities with operating system functions and programs written in other languages. ± Operates outside of database transaction limitations. ± More sophisticated debugging inside PL/SQL programs (work around fundamental limitations of DBMS_OUTPUT). You can parallelize your own code.

± Names can be up to 128 chars long (do not use names beginning with ³ORA$´. using a maximum of 4096 bytes.Architecture of DBMS_PIPE Shared Global Area ³Sue´ ³Bob´ Message Buffer Message Buffer Session A  Session B A pipe is a named object that uses the System Global Area to provide a non-transaction based conduit of information. which can be composed of one or more separate packets. They are reserved for Oracle use). ± The pipe sends/receives a message.page 248 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

sql PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein pipex1. ± This is the default.Processing Flow of DBMS_PIPE  Construct a message from packets of information. date or number).  Send the message to a named pipe. ROWID or RAW.  Receive a message from that pipe. ± There is just one message buffer per session. you can wait for up to 1000 days (or 86400000 seconds) for the pipe to be cleared. ± You can wait for up to 1000 days for a message.  Unpack the message packets and take action.sql pipex2. so you should always specify a timeout period. number. date. ± Each packet can be a string. ± Separate out the individual packets in the message (again: string. ± If there isn¶t currently room in the pipe.page 249 .

UNPACK_MESSAGE Unpacks the next item from the local message buffer and deposits it into the specified local variable. PACK_MESSAGE Packs an item into the message buffer for your session. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . making it a candidate for removal with a LRU algorithm.DBMS_PIPE Module Outline Module Name CREATE_PIPE Description Creates a PUBLIC or PRIVATE pipe. REMOVE_PIPE RESET_BUFFER Removes a pipe explicitly created via CREATE_PIPE. SEND_MESSAGE Sends contents of message buffer to the specified pipe. PURGE Empties the contents of a pipe into your local buffer freeing it for removal. Clears your buffer so that PACK_MESSAGE and UNPACK_MESSAGE can work from the first item. RECEIVE_MESSAGE Receives a message from pipe and copies to local buffer. NEXT_ITEM_TYPE Returns the datatype of the next item in the piped message.page 250 . UNIQUE_SESSION_NAME Returns name that is unique among all sessions in the database.

BEGIN stat := DBMS_PIPE. ± Send messages to non-existent pipe implicitly create it. PROCEDURE newpipe IS stat INTEGER. ± Implicitly-created pipes are always public. ± Use CREATE_PIPE to create a pipe explicitly. private => TRUE).  A public pipe is accessible as long as you know its name.CREATE_PIPE ( pipename => 'bbs'.Creating Public and Private Pipes  There are two ways to create pipes: implicitly and explicitly.page 251 . ± Specify TRUE for private argument of CREATE_PIPE. maxpipesize => 20000.  An explicit pipe can be private (accessible only to sessions with matching userID or SYSDBA privileges). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

. waiting up to 1 minute. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 252 . pipe_stat := DBMS_PIPE. 60. maxpipesize IN INTEGER DEFAULT 8192) RETURN INTEGER.SEND_MESSAGE ( µmonthly¶. Send to "monthly" pipe. seconds you will wait. expanding pipe size to 40 Kbytes. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Fill your message buffer with packets of data.Sending a Message Provide pipe name. timeout IN INTEGER DEFAULT maxwait. and new max pipe size (you can make it bigger. Status of 0 means message was sent.PACK_MESSAGE ( total_sales (month_num)). END LOOP. 10 * 4096). 12 LOOP DBMS_PIPE. FUNCTION send_message (pipename IN VARCHAR2. but not smaller). FOR month_num IN 1 . IF pipe_stat != 0 THEN RAISE could_not_send.

timeout IN INTEGER DEFAULT maxwait) RETURN INTEGER. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . PROCEDURE unpack_message (item OUT NUMBER).Receiving and Unpack a Message FUNCTION receive_message (pipename IN VARCHAR2.  First you pull the message from the pipe and place it in buffer with RECEIVE_MESSAGE.  Then you call UNPACK_MESSAGE to extract individual packets from the message. PROCEDURE unpack_message (item OUT DATE). ± You need to know the datatype of packet or check it using NEXT_ITEM_TYPE. ± Specify pipe and number of seconds you will wait before you time out. PROCEDURE unpack_message (item OUT VARCHAR2).page 253 . ± Pipe status of 0 means the message was read successfully.

END LOOP. LOOP pipe_status := DBMS_PIPE. END IF. seconds for the BEGIN next report. analyze_production (SYSDATE. END. Wait up to N prod_total NUMBER.RECEIVE_MESSAGE ( 'production'. data not received. 'Production data unavailable.A Pipe-based Listener Program  Program wakes up every N seconds to read the data from the pipe and analyze results from assembly line (an intentional "infinite loop"!). If I got something. pass it on to the IF pipe_status = 0 computation THEN program. DBMS_PIPE. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . PROCEDURE analyze_assembly_data (every_n_secs IN INTEGER) IS pipe_status INTEGER. prod_total). every_n_secs). ELSE RAISE_APPLICATION_ERROR ( Stop process if -20000.UNPACK_MESSAGE (prod_total).page 254 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .').

sql dbpipe.page 255 . ± Or you use the built-in NEXT_ITEM_TYPE to tell you in advance the datatype of the next packet in the message and take appropriate action.Unpacking the Message FUNCTION next_item_type RETURN INTEGER. Returns one of the following values: Value 0 6 9 11 12 23 Description or Data type No more items in buffer NUMBER VARCHAR2 ROWID DATE RAW dbpipe.tst  Since a message can be composed of packets of different datatypes. Either: ± You know the datatype and therefore can ³hard-code´ the correct variable into the call to UNPACK_MESSAGE. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . you have to make sure that you unpack a packet into the right kind of variable.

you can do the same for your application if: ± You have multiple CPUs available. ± The CEO is decidedly unhappy about the delay. ± These programs each take 15 minutes.  Suppose I want to calculate my net profit. total office expenses and total compensation. ± You have processes which can run in parallel. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Without pipes. but are not dependent on each other. I must execute them sequentially and incur an elapsed time of 45 minutes before I calculate the profits. In order to do so I must first compute total sales.Parallelizing Your Code with Pipes  Oracle uses DBMS_PIPE to improve RDBMS performance.page 256 .

Parallel Execution Sequential Execution: Maximum Elapsed Time S t a r t E n d Process A Process B Process C Parallel Execution: Minimum Elapsed Time Start Process A Process B Process C End 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Sequential vs.page 257 .

page 258 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .in a muchdecreased elapsed time. ± Other programs running in the background grab the messages and start their corresponding calculation program. it puts a message (perhaps even a value) into the pipe.  The ³wait´ program waits till it receives a message from each program. calculate_net_profits. kick_off_exp_calc. kick_off_totcomp_calc.Parallelizing PL/SQL Execution BEGIN kick_off_sales_calc. ± When each program is complete. wait_for_confirmation.  The ³kick off´ programs pass their messages to separate pipes. END. Then net profits can be computed -. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . and send back the results. calculate sales.PACK_MESSAGE (1995).PACK_MESSAGE (sales$). Receive the year.page 259 .PACK_MESSAGE (NULL).SEND_MESSAGE (µsales¶).RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µsales¶). DBMS_PIPE. BEGIN DBMS_PIPE. END IF.SEND_MESSAGE (µsales¶). stat := DBMS_PIPE. stat := DBMS_PIPE. END.Code to Kick Off and Calculate PROCEDURE kick_off_sales_calc IS stat INTEGER. ELSE DBMS_PIPE. BEGIN stat := DBMS_PIPE. PROCEDURE calculate_sales IS stat INTEGER. END.SEND_MESSAGE (µsales¶). IF stat = 0 THEN lots_of_number_crunching. stat := DBMS_PIPE. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Send message to start calculations.

offexp$ . END. parallel. END. BEGIN stat := DBMS_PIPE. stat := DBMS_PIPE. DBMS_PIPE. DBMS_PIPE.comp$.RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µcomp¶).RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µoffexp¶). PROCEDURE calculate_net_profits IS BEGIN net_profits := sales$ .UNPACK_MESSAGE (comp$).UNPACK_MESSAGE (offexp$).RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µsales¶). The order in which you wait is insignificant.UNPACK_MESSAGE (sales$).page 260 . Perform final calculation. DBMS_PIPE.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Wait for all calculations to finish.Waiting for Confirmation PROCEDURE wait_for_confirmation IS stat INTEGER. stat := DBMS_PIPE.

pkg p_and_l. ± A request for data is passed to a "central" pipe.pkg syscache.page 261 . syscache. obtains the data. and sends it to the pipe.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Other DBMS_PIPE Examples  Simple trace package that sends it output either to screen or to pipe. watch.pkg  Implementation of a system-wide. ± The requester reads the information from the pipe. in-memory cache. ± Demonstrates the use of toggles and switches in packages. ± A listener program grabs the request (including the return pipe name).

A µgrab-bag¶ of miscellaneous operations SCHEMA 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 262 ..Built-in Packages: DBMS_UTILITY DBMS_UTILITY Application GET_TIME GET_HASH_VALUE FORMAT_CALL_STACK ..

Returns database version (Oracle8) Executes DDL statement (Oracle8). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Returns error stack.page 263 dbver.pkg dbparm. Returns hash value for string.DBMS_UTILITY Module Outline ANALYZE_DATABASE ANALYZE_PART_OBJECT Analyze objects in database Runs ANALYZE TABLE or ANALYZE INDEX for each partition of the object (Oracle8). Recompile INVALID objects in specified schema. Returns execution call stack. Gets block number part of data block address.pkg COMMA_TO_TABLE COMPILE_SCHEMA DATA_BLOCK_ADDRESS_BLOCK DATA_BLOCK_ADDRESS_FILE DB_VERSION EXEC_DDL_STATEMENT FORMAT_CALL_STACK FORMAT_ERROR_STACK GET_HASH_VALUE 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . Parses comma-delimited list to index-by table. Gets file number part of data block address.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Resolves name of object into component parts. Returns TRUE if in parallel server mode.page 264 . Creates data block address from block & file numbers. Returns "current time" down to hundredth of second.DBMS_UTILITY Module Outline. Returns platform and version of database. GET_PARAMETER_VALUE GET_TIME IS_PARALLEL_SERVER MAKE_DATA_BLOCK_ADDRESS NAME_RESOLVE NAME_TOKENIZE PORT_STRING TABLE_TO_COMMA Retrieves value of database parameter (Oracle8). cont. Parses string object designator into components. Converts list (in index-by-table) of elements into a comma-delimited list (string).

calc_totals.  Compare results from consecutive calls to GET_TIME to determine the elapsed time of PL/SQL code execution. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . DECLARE v_start BINARY_INTEGER.GET_TIME .v_start).PUT_LINE (DBMS_UTILITY. DBMS_OUTPUT.GET_TIME. especially those that run in sub-second time. Basic steps necessary to convert GET_TIME into a performance analysis tool. ± SYSDATE only reflects times down to the nearest second. ± Useful when analyzing individual PL/SQL programs. so GET_TIME offers significant additional granularity. BEGIN v_start := DBMS_UTILITY.page 265 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . END.Sub-Second Timings with GET_TIME  GET_TIME returns the number of 100ths of seconds that have elapsed since an arbitrary point in time.

adjust_in IN NUMBER := 0. PROCEDURE set_factor (factor_in IN NUMBER). PROCEDURE capture ( context_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) PROCEDURE show_elapsed (prefix_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. PROCEDURE turn_off. calc_totals. PLVtmr.spb 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Clean and lean timing code ovrhead. END. END PLVtmr.show_elapsed.sql plvtmr. BEGIN PLVtmr.page 266 . reset_in IN BOOLEAN := TRUE).sps plvtmr.capture.Building a Layer Over GET_TIME Partial package specification PACKAGE PLVtmr IS PROCEDURE turn_on.

END. only the package name. equivalent to CHR(10). ± Most recent program at beginning of "report".PL/SQL Call Stack ----object line object handle number name 88ce3f74 88e49fc4 88e49390 88e2bd20 8 2 1 1 package STEVEN.COMPANY_TYPE procedure STEVEN. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN DBMS_OUTPUT. ----.Accessing the Execution Call Stack Use in the exception section to show context of error. ± Does not show package elements.CALC_NET_WORTH anonymous block  "Little known facts" about FORMAT_CALL_STACK: ± Contains embedded new-line characters.PUT_LINE ( DBMS_UTILITY. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 267 .VALIDATE_REQUEST function STEVEN.FORMAT_CALL_STACK).

startpos := next_newline + 1.sp dispcs.page 268 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . dispcs. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Instead. CHR(10). END LOOP. startpos INTEGER := 1.pkg plvcs. 1). which means you cannot pass it to DBMS_OUTPUT directly. next_line VARCHAR2(255). END. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE dispcs IS stk VARCHAR2(10000). next_newline .PUT_LINE (next_line). BEGIN stk := DBMS_UTILITY.Accessing Call Stack Contents  The call stack length can easily exceed 255 bytes.FORMAT_CALL_STACK || CHR(10).sps DBMS_OUTPUT. startpos. LOOP next_newline := INSTR (stk. next_line := SUBSTR ( stk. next_newline INTEGER.startpos + 1).tst callstack. EXIT WHEN next_newline = 0. startpos. use a loop to read through the stack.

± Use NAME_RESOLVE to break down an identifier string into its components easily. context IN NUMBER.  Possible "Part 1" Types 5 7 8 9 Synonym Procedure Function Package What a chore! All those arguments. PROCEDURE DBMS_UTILITY. object_number OUT NUMBER). dblink OUT VARCHAR2.page 269 ... see it as an opportunity.Resolving Names of Stored Code  Code names have many components. part1_type OUT NUMBER.for encapsulation! showcomp.sp snc.but don't see it as a problem. part1 OUT VARCHAR2.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..NAME_RESOLVE (name IN VARCHAR2. part2 OUT VARCHAR2. schema OUT VARCHAR2. the way they are attached also follows a complicated syntax..

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