Achieving PL/SQL Excellence

Oracle PL/SQL Advanced Techniques
Oracle7 thru Oracle8i
Steven Feuerstein
www.StevenFeuerstein.com www.Quest.com www.OReilly.com
and contributions most excellent from Bill Pribyl and Dick Bolz

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 1

Objective & Outline 

Objective
± Expand your knowledge and awareness of important and new features of the PL/SQL language. 

Outline
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± Building with Packages (Oracle7+) PL/SQL Collections (Oracle7 and Oracle8+) Cursor Variables (Oracle7 and Oracle8+) Dynamic SQL: DBMS_SQL and Native Dynamic SQL (8i) Calling Java from PL/SQL (Oracle8i) and C (Oracle8) Oracle Advanced Queuing with DBMS_AQ (Oracle8) Managing Large Objects with DBMS_LOB (Oracle8) Other Oracle8i New Features
» Autonomous Transactions (Oracle8i) » Invoker Rights Model (Oracle8i) » Row Level Security: DBMS_RLS

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

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Software Used in Training 

PL/Vision: a library of packages installed on top of PL/SQL.
± PL/Vision Lite - use it, copy, change it for free -- unless you build software to be sold commercially. ± Active PL/SQL Knowledge Base: contains PL/Vision Professional, the fully supported and enhanced version. 

Demonstration scripts executed in the training can be found on the RevealNet PL/SQL Pipeline:
± http://www.revealnet.com/Pipelines/PLSQL/index.htm ± Archives surfboard, Miscellaneous, PL/SQL Seminar Files ± See filedesc.doc for a listing of many of the files.
plsql_ides.txt 

The PL/SQL IDE (Integrated Development Environment).
± You no longer have to use SQL*Plus and a crude editor! Choose from among the many listed in plsql_ides.txt.

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Achieving PL/SQL Excellence

Building with PL/SQL Packages 
 

Overview Initialization section Overloading

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What is a Package? 

A collection of code elements, from procedures and functions to TYPE, variable and cursor declarations.
± Single-most important structure within PL/SQL, and almost certainly one of the most under-utilized. ± Conceptually very simple, it can take some time to fully grasp the implications and potential of the package. 

The method of choice by Oracle and other software developers for extending the PL/SQL language.
± You will find packages in the database, in Oracle Developer/2000, in Oracle Application Server. 

Let¶s review some of the benefits of packages.
tmr.pkg dbparm.pkg

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When to Build a Package  Join physically logically-related code.pkg insga. watch.pkb  Construct very flexible and usable utilities for developers. package-based "component".page 6 . ± There's a big difference between a bunch of separate programs and a coherent. you call the packaged procedures and functions instead. te_employee. ± Puts more structure and organization in your body of code. custrules.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Can lead to performance improvements.pkg  Improve transaction integrity by hiding data structures behind the package interface. ± Instead of writing SQL directly in your programs.pks te_employee.

Package Initialization  The initialization section is a block of code at the end of the package body that is executed once per session. no Complete request for packaged element. Does the package have an init section? yes Run initialization code. ± The PL/SQL runtime engine determines when and if this code should be run. the first time any package element is referenced.page 7 . Program references package element the first time in each session. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

± Is not required. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein BEGIN after/outside of any program defined in the pkg. ± Can have its own exception handling section. In fact. ± Confirming that package is properly instantiated. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . BEGIN END pkg.  Useful for: ± Performing complex setting of default or initial values. FUNCTION func RETURN BEGIN END.page 8 .Package Initialization Structure  The initialization section: ± Is defined after and outside of any programs in the package. most packages you build won't have one. ± Setting up package data which does not change for the duration of a session. PACKAGE BODY pkg IS PROCEDURE proc IS BEGIN END.

 Also a package with many design flaws.pkg init. tb_flag.. printer FROM user_config WHERE user_id = USER. END sessinit. 'lpt1'.. show_toolbar CHAR(1). ± Body contains only initialization section. PACKAGE BODY sessinit IS /* No declared package elements at all! */ BEGIN /* Get user preferences for this user. show_toolbar. WHEN OTHERS THEN RAISE_APPLICATION_ERROR (-20000.Configure Session with Init. 'No profile for ' || USER). EXCEPTION WHEN NO_DATA_FOUND THEN /* No record for show_lov := show_toolbar := printer := PACKAGE sessinit IS show_lov CHAR(1). init. */ SELECT lov_flag. defprinter INTO show_lov. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END sessinit.page 9 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . printer VARCHAR2(60). */ 'Y'. 'Y'. Section  An unusual package! ± Specification contains only variables.tst this user.

fmts(4) := 'MM/DD'. Initialization section populates a PL/SQL table. END dt. fmts(11) := 'YYYYMMDD'.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . BEGIN fmts(1) := 'DD-MON-RR'. employs several PL/SQL tables to convert strings and to perform date arithmetic.page 10 .pkg dates.Populate Collections  The PL/Vision Date package. PLVdate. fmts(12) := 'RRMMDD'.. fmts(10) := 'MMDDYYYY'.. ± This increases the flexibility of the date conversion process. fmts(2) := 'DD-MON-YYYY'.pkg file demonstrates the basic technique (and the reliance on an initialization section) used to achieve this flexibility. ± The datemgr. fmt_count := 12. fmts(3) := 'DD-MON'. datemgr. fmts(9) := 'MM/DD/YYYY'. .

Program Overloading  When you overload programs. myproc  Overloading is a critical feature when building comprehensive programmatic interfaces (APIs) or components using packages.page 11 . myproc myproc 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Overloading transfers the "need to know" from the user to the overloaded program. you need to make that code as smart and as easy to use as possible. you give two or more programs the same name. ± You can overload modules in any declaration section and in packages. ± If you want others to use your code.

number_string := TO_CHAR_FROM_NUMBER (10000). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 12 . date_string := TO_CHAR (SYSDATE. 'MMDDYY'). ± You just probably never gave it a thought. number_string := TO_CHAR (10000). ± But Oracle couldn't offer that level of convenience without overloading. and took functions like TO_CHAR and TO_DATE totally for granted.Overloading in PL/SQL Built-ins  PL/SQL uses overloading in many common functions. Without overloading. 'MMDDYY'). you would have to deal with something like this: date_string := TO_CHAR_FROM_DATE (SYSDATE.

± Arguments differ only in their mode (IN. order or datatype family (CHAR vs. When you compile programs that use the overloaded code.  Undistinguishing characteristics: ± Functions differ only in their RETURN datatype. There are two different "compile times": ± 1. ± The programs are of different types: procedure and function. When you compile the package or block containing the overloaded code.  Distinguishing characteristics: ± The formal parameters of overloaded modules must differ in number. ± 2. OUT. ± Their formal parameters differ only in datatype and the datatypes are in the same family. VARCHAR2 is not different enough). IN OUT). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . the compiler must be able to distinguish between the two calls at compile-time.How Overloading Works  For two or more modules to be overloaded.page 13 .

PROCEDURE calc (reg_in IN VARCHAR2). END too_many_cals. which one? DBMS_OUTPUT.calc ('123'). Only difference is function RETURN type.proc1 (v_value). FUNCTION func1 (val IN VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2. Parameter data types cause conflict. PACKAGE only_returns IS FUNCTION func1 (val IN VARCHAR2) RETURN DATE. END only_returns. END param_modes. which one? param_modes. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Only difference is parameter mode. PROCEDURE proc1 (val IN OUT VARCHAR2).func1 (v_value)). which one? too_similar.Examples of Invalid Overloadings PACKAGE too_similar IS PROCEDURE calc (reg_in IN CHAR).PUT_LINE (only_returns. PACKAGE param_modes IS PROCEDURE proc1 (val IN VARCHAR2).page 14 .

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . not Value ± A less common application of overloading. You use the type of data and not its value to determine which of the overloaded programs should be executed.  Overloading by Type. the overloading does not provide a single name for different activities. In this case. you may construct different versions of the ³same´ program which correspond to different patterns of use. ± The DBMS_OUTPUT.  Fitting the Program to the User ± To make your code as useful as possible.l substitute does an even better job.Overload Wherever Possible  Supporting Many Data Combinations ± Apply the same action to different kinds or combinations of data. so much as providing different ways of requesting the same activity.PUT_LINE procedure illustrates this technique -and the PL/Vision p.page 15 .

page 16 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .sps p. YYYY . allowing the user to pass data to the "display engine" without writing "pre-processing" code. PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2. PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2. PROCEDURE l (number_in IN NUMBER). mask_in IN VARCHAR2 := 'Month DD.HH:MI:SS PM'). PACKAGE p IS PROCEDURE l (date_in IN DATE. mask_in IN VARCHAR2 := µMonth DD. boolean_in IN BOOLEAN). YYYY . PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2. date_in IN DATE. PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2).HH:MI:SS PM').A "Classic" Overloaded Package  Many different datatype combinations. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . p. END p.spb PROCEDURE l (boolean_in IN BOOLEAN). number_in IN NUMBER).

p. DBMS_OUTPUT. p. p.PUT_LINE ('TRUE').. p. DBMS_OUTPUT. 'MM/DD/YY HH:MI:SS')).PUT_LINE ('FALSE'). IF print_report_fl THEN DBMS_OUTPUT..l (SYSDATE). ELSE DBMS_OUTPUT.page 17 . END IF.PUT_LINE (SQLERRM || ': ' || TO_CHAR (SQLCODE)).PUT_LINE (TO_CHAR (SYSDATE.l (SQLERRM.l (print_report_fl).Advantage of Extended Overloading ‡ Minimal overloading means lots of extra coding. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein ‡Extended overloadings are more likely to meet user needs.l ('So what is different?'). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . DBMS_OUTPUT. SQLCODE).PUT_LINE ('So what is different?').

± If you want to write software that is admired.. think about the way it will be used. the user of your package can benefit from writing less code. can be applied or needed under very different circumstances..and taken completely for granted. appreciated. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 18   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . few developers are considerate enough of their users to try to anticipate their needs. In my experience.Fitting the Program to the User Writing "unnecessary" code? Time to overload!  A single piece of functionality. If you take these different circumstances into account when you design your package specification. ± Your code is a a more natural "fit" under a variety of requirements. such as "display data" or "create a file".

PUT_LINE (fid. UTL_FILE. BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE.Creating a File for a Quick Touch  Suppose a developer needs to create a file to be used as a "flag" in the operating system.FCLOSE (fid).page 19  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . ± She doesn't care what's in it.flg'. 'exists. even though you are simply going to close the file immediately after opening it. right? WRONG! PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . UTL_FILE. sometimes you will want to create a file and then perform additional operations.FILE_TYPE. so this is just the way it has to be. you have to declare the record to hold the file handle. END. 'W').FOPEN ('tmp/flags'. 'blah'). Of course. It just needs to be present. ± Here is the code required by UTL_FILE: DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.  In other words.

BEGIN fid := PLVfile. custrules.  Overloading of FCreate PACKAGE PLVfile IS /* Procedure */ PROCEDURE fcreate (file_in IN VARCHAR2. v_user).fcreate ('exists. PLVfile.fcreate ('temp.Procedure and Function Overloaded  Why not overload a "create file" program so that you can pick the one that most closely fits your situation? Consider the PLVfile package of PL/Vision.put_line (fid.pkg PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .FILE_TYPE. TO_CHAR (SYSDATE)).FILE_TYPE. line_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL).ini'. END PLVfile. Use as Procedure BEGIN PLVfile. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Use as Function DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.page 20 .flg'). line_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) RETURN UTL_FILE. /* Function */ FUNCTION fcreate (file_in IN VARCHAR2. END.

± Pass a piece of data of the right type. ± Pass a string ³name´ of the datatype. when you use DBMS_SQL to set up a dynamic query."By-Type" Overloading  In some situations. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Define a different program name for each datatype. the user does not need to pass data. ± For example. you must call the DEFINE_COLUMN procedure to define the datatype of the Nth column in the cursor. but the type of data.page 21 .  There are three ways to accomplish this: ± Don't overload.

30).Options for Specifying Column Type  Don't even bother overloading..DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. Pass a named constant. DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.. 2.VARCHAR2_TYPE. 2.DEFINE_VARCHAR2_COLUMN (cur..  Nasty hard-coding. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL.. 1).NUMBER_TYPE).. lotsa names.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.func 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Now let's look at two examples of overloading by datatype.  So many program names to remember! Pass a literal value. DBMS_SQL. 'STRING'. BEGIN DBMS_SQL... 2. 30). ± DBMS_SQL..DEFINE_COLUMN (cur..page 22 . Lotsa typing..DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. 30). 1. 'NUMBER').DEFINE_INTEGER_COLUMN (cur..DEFINE_COLUMN ± PLVgen.. 1.

2. you only need to pass a value -. DBMS_UTILITY. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .GET_TIME).DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. ± The three code blocks below are equivalent. DBMS_SQL. 1. 2.any value -.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. 1. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. 1). 30).Defining Dynamic SQL Columns  The DBMS_SQL. USER. from the perspective of DBMS_SQL. 1. 2.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.page 23 .of the correct type.DEFINE_COLUMN procedure defines the datatype of a column. 'a'. 30). v_empno).DEFINE_COLUMN. DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. ± To make it easier to accomplish this task. 30). v_ename.

the user indicates the type of function to be generated by providing a value. please! 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± The particular value itself is of no importance. Any number. type_in IN NUMBER). PROCEDURE func (name_in IN VARCHAR2. SYSDATE) SQL> exec plvgen. please! A number function.func ('total_salary'. type_in IN VARCHAR2).func ('last_date'.page 24 . PROCEDURE func (name_in IN VARCHAR2.Generating Functions by Value  In PLVgen. SQL> exec plvgen. any string. any Boolean will do. 1) A date function. type_in IN DATE). any date. PACKAGE PLVgen IS PROCEDURE func (name_in IN VARCHAR2.

PL/SQL does not sense a conflict with above overloading even though comp_id is a numeric column.The Frustrations of Overloading  Watch out! An overloading can compile successfully. PACKAGE profits IS PROCEDURE calc (comp_id_IN IN NUMBER). I rely on an anchored type (%TYPE) to establish the datatype of the second calc¶s parameter.page 25 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . but you might later found out that you cannot actually call any of the overloaded programs. END. PROCEDURE calc (comp_id_IN IN company. ± When I compile profits. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .comp_id%TYPE).  In the above example.

like calc_totals shown above? ± If not.page 26 . END sales. how would you do it? (Don't peek at the next page!) BEGIN sales. PROCEDURE calc_total (reg_in IN VARCHAR2).  Can I overload two programs which have parameters that differ only by name.calc_total ('ZONE2'). END.pkg ? 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . why not? ± If so. sales.Quiz! Nuances of Overloading PACKAGE sales IS PROCEDURE calc_total (zone_in IN VARCHAR2).calc_total ('NORTHWEST'). sales.

''LOAD1''. of named notation include: ± Code is more "self-documenting".ANALYZE_OBJECT ' || '(''TABLE''. That way you don't have to know and pass default values.page 27 . next_date => TRUNC (SYSDATE + 1). what => 'DBMS_DDL. This is especially useful when working with infrequently used built-in programs.''ESTIMATE''.submit ( job => v_jobno. ± You can skip over (not specify values for) any IN parameters that have default values. DBMS_JOB.'.''TENK''' || '. interval => 'TRUNC(SYSDATE+1)').null.sql  Advantages 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Using Named Notation <formal parameter name> => <expression>  Explicit association between the formal parameter (the "name") with the actual parameter (the "value"). namednot.estimate_percent=>50).

Achieving PL/SQL Excellence PL/SQL Collections   Collections are single-dimensioned lists of information. Oracle8 and above) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . originally called PL/SQL tables) ± Nested tables (Oracle8 and above) ± Variable arrays (VARRAYs.page 28 . Three types of collections: ± Index-by tables (Oracle7 only.

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 29     1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . Avoid mutating table errors in database triggers. Improve query performance by avoiding joins. Build hash tables (custom indexing structures).When to Use Collections  Maintain any kind of list of related information for use in your programs.  Emulate bi-directional cursors. which are otherwise not supported in PL/SQL Cache data in session-level memory for faster access.

DECLARE TYPE inmem_emp_t IS TABLE OF emp%ROWTYPE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. ± Sparse » Data does not have to be stored in consecutive rows of information. Instead.147.647 to 2.page 30 . ± Available only in PL/SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .483.647 » You will not actually create tables this large. Valid row numbers range: -2.  Characteristics of an index-by table: ± Unbounded » Practically speaking.147. emp_copy inmem_emp_t.483. ± Homogeneous » Data in each row has the same structure. this broad range allows you to employ the row number as an intelligent key.Index-By Tables TYPE <table_type> IS TABLE OF <datatype> INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER.

children 6306 6412 6810 6904 µBarbara Anne¶ µGary Richard¶ µAdam Russell¶ µLisa Nadezhka¶ datemgr.page 31 . Component Selection kid := children (4). Error: NO_DATA_FOUND 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Index_by Tables TYPE declaration PACKAGE BODY family IS TYPE child_list_type IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2 (30) INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. children (6904) := 'Lisa Nadezhka'.pkg children 6306 6412 6904 µBarbara Anne¶ µGary Richard¶ µLisa Marie¶ children (6810) := µAdam Russell. Variable declaration children child_list_type.

Nested Tables [CREATE OR REPLACE] TYPE <table_type> IS TABLE OF <datatype> [NOT NULL].147.483. ± Unbounded. but can become sparse if you DELETE inner rows ± Available both in PL/SQL and SQL (as a column in a table) ± The order of elements is not preserved in the database 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . but only with explicit EXTEND requests » Practically speaking.page 32 .647 ± Initially dense. DECLARE TYPE when_t IS TABLE OF DATE. birthdays when_t. Valid row numbers range: 1 to 2.  Nested table characteristics ± Homogeneous » Each row contains the same structure of data.

kids child_table_type) NESTED TABLE kids STORE AS kids_ntab. CREATE TABLE db_family (surname VARCHAR2 (30).page 33 .sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Nested Tables CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE child_table_type IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2 (30). For ORACLE's use only db_family surname kids BOLZ BOND Eric Thomas Max Richard Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Marie ntdemo.

147. salaries numbers_t.483. Maximum value: 2.Variable Arrays [CREATE OR REPLACE] TYPE <table_type> IS VARRAY (N) OF <datatype> [NOT NULL].647 ± Dense » Never any gaps between defined rows. ± Bounded » Upper limit established when the TYPE is defined. DECLARE TYPE numbers_t IS VARRAY (10) OF NUMBER. ± Available both in PL/SQL and SQL (as a column in a table) » And the order of elements are preserved in the database.  Characteristics of variable arrays: ± Homogeneous » Each row contains the same structure of data. can be EXTENDed or TRIMmed. ± Variable arrays are actually stored in the DB table 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 34 .

sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . kids child_va_type). db_family surname kids BOLZ BOND 1 Barbara Anne 2 Gary Richard 3 Lisa Marie 1 Eric Thomas 2 Max Richard vademo.Variable Arrays CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE child_va_type IS VARRAY (8) OF VARCHAR2 (30). CREATE TABLE db_family (surname VARCHAR2 (30).page 35 .

..page 36 . you define the TYPE of the collection. ± For nested tables and VARRAYs. ± For index-by tables. ± You can declare multiple collections from that TYPE. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE tabtypes IS TYPE integer_ibt IS TABLE OF INTEGER INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. this can only occur in a PL/SQL declaration section. END tabtypes. from the TYPE. . Best option: package specification. TYPE integer_vat IS VARRAY(10) OF INTEGER.  Then you declare an instance of that type. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . TYPE integer_nt IS TABLE OF INTEGER. you can define the TYPE in the database with a CREATE statement. or in a PL/SQL declaration section. a collection.Defining Collections  First.

colldd.attr_name || ' . ± The code used to define the collection TYPE  There is no information in the data dictionary available for index-by tables.type_name IN ('NAMES_VT'.Obtaining Collection Information SELECT FROM WHERE AND AND AND A.owner = A.elem_type_name = A.' || A.  ALL_COLL_TYPES ± The types you have created (or have access to) in the database  ALL_TYPE_ATTRS ± Attributes of the data type used in the TYPE definition.owner T.owner = USER T.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 37 .type_name. 'TMRS_VT') T.attr_type_name Attributes all_coll_types T. all_type_attrs A T.

it must be initialized. 200. / DECLARE -. salary_history numbers_t). BEGIN CREATE TABLE employee_denorm ( employee_id INTEGER.page 38 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . ± Nested tables and VARRAYs are atomically null.Initialize the collection. You must initialize them explicitly with a constructor. TYPE defined in PL/SQL TYPE defined in the database Collection used in a table PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Index-by tables are initialized automatically.Initializing Collections  Before you can use a collection. 300). DECLARE TYPE numbers_t IS VARRAY (10) OF NUMBER. BEGIN CREATE TYPE numbers_t IS VARRAY (10) OF NUMBER. salaries numbers_t := numbers_t (100. empty when declared. salaries numbers_t := numbers_t (100. 200. 300).

page 39 . total_rev NUMBER). TYPE comp_tabtype IS TABLE OF comp_rectype INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER.Collections of Composites  Starting with Oracle 7. Again. Here we have a three step process.  Starting with Oracle8. the ³homogeneous´ contents of an index-by table's row can be a record .company_id%TYPE. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . comp_tab comp_tabtype. ± But you cannot have nested composite datatypes.comp_id := 1005. the datatype for any of the collection types can also be an object.3. consider putting TYPEs in database or packages. ± Can easily create an index-by table with the same structure as a database table by declaring a record with %ROWTYPE. BEGIN comp_tab(1). DECLARE TYPE comp_rectype IS RECORD (comp_id company.

In this way. unless the order in which items are selected is of importance. consider using the row value as "smart data" for your application (primary key. your collections will contain a row's worth of information.Sparse is Nice  The sparse characteristic of index-by tables and nested tables can be put to good use. ± In an index-by table. etc.). it is very similar to a database table. ± In almost every case.page 40 .  Especially handy when caching data from relational tables in user memory. ± You should not fill sequentially. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . a row exists in the table only when a value is assigned to that row. order by date. ± Instead.  Rows do not have to be defined sequentially.

pkg psemp. emp_tab emp_tabtype. END.Transferring DB Table to Collection CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE psemp IS TYPE emp_tabtype IS TABLE OF emp%ROWTYPE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. Some questions: ± Why would I put this collection table in a package? ± When is the collection loaded with the data? ± What rows in that collection are utilized? psemp.empno) := rec. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY psemp IS BEGIN FOR rec IN (SELECT * FROM emp) LOOP emp_tab (rec. Initialization section of package 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein  This package moves the entire contents of the emp table into its corresponding collection. END LOOP.tst  PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END.page 41 .

/ Error -6533! You've got to EXTEND first!  EXTEND before assigning a value to a row.  For index-by tables. but you must do it for VARRAYs and nested tables.page 42 . ± Not necessary for index-by tables. the row exists. you must reference existing rows or a NO_DATA_FOUND exception is raised. even if you haven't assigned a value explicitly. once extended. BEGIN greedy_ceos(1) := 'Hamilton. Jordan'. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Use the EXISTS method to determine if a row existed. / DECLARE greedy_ceos names_t := names_t (). END. ± For VARRAYs and nested tables.Collection Gotchas CREATE TYPE names_t IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2(30).

PUT_LINE ('Data for employee not available.We are OK. BEGIN IF salaries. salaries(salaries.FIRST)).Set the value of each new row to the contents of the first row.Extend by 10 since I know I will need that many.EXISTS (v_employee_id) THEN -.  You can EXTEND one or more rows.'). preextend.page 43 . ELSE DBMS_OUTPUT. ± Pre-extending a large number of rows in advance can improve performance. ± Assign a default value with a second.Handling Collection Gotchas BEGIN -. -.EXTEND (10.tst  Include a handler for NO_DATA_FOUND or use the EXISTS method to avoid these exceptions. END IF. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . optional argument. salaries.

Collection Methods  Obtain information about the collection COUNT returns number of rows currently defined in the table. ± TRIM removes rows from a VARRAY. NEXT/PRIOR return the closest defined row after/before the specified row. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . FIRST/LAST return lowest/highest numbers of defined rows.page 44 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . ± LIMIT tells you the max. EXISTS returns TRUE if the specified row is defined. ± ± ± ±  Modify the contents of the collection ± DELETE deletes one or more rows from the index-by table. number of elements allowed in a VARRAY. ± EXTEND adds rows to a nested table or VARRAY.  The built-in package plitblm (PL/sql Index-TaBLe Methods) defines these methods.

LAST).page 45 . -. DELETE releases memory.FREE_UNUSED_USER_MEMORY.DELETE (myCollection. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Delete a range of rows myCollection.Delete one (the last) row myCollection. 17255).The DELETE Method  You can delete one or more rows from a collection using DELETE: BEGIN -. but you may also want to call DBMS_SESSION. -. END.DELETE (1400.Delete all rows myCollection.DELETE.

Navigating Through Collections 


Use FIRST and NEXT to move from beginning to end. Use LAST and PRIOR to move from end to beginning.
rowind PLS_INTEGER := birthdays.FIRST; -- birthdays.LAST BEGIN LOOP EXIT WHEN rowind IS NULL; DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE (birthdays(rowind).best_present); rowind := birthdays.NEXT (rowind); -- birthdays.PRIOR END LOOP; END;

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Using Collections Inside SQL 

Nested tables and VARRAYs can be defined as columns of a table and referenced directly within SQL. You can also apply SQL operations to the contents of nested tables and VARRAYs with these operators:
± THE - Maps a single column value in a single row to a virtual database table ± CAST - Maps a collection of one type to a collection of another type ± MULTISET - Maps a database table to a collection ± TABLE - Maps a collection to a database table  

Index-by tables are programmatic constructs only.
± You cannot make a direct reference to an index-by table in SQL. ± Instead, so do indirectly with a PL/SQL function.

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Using Collections inside SQL
SELECT column_value FROM TABLE (SELECT children FROM db_family WHERE surname = 'BOLZ'); db_family surname children BOLZ BOND Eric Thomas Max Richard UPDATE TABLE (SELECT children FROM db_family WHERE SURNAME = 'BOLZ) SET column_value = 'Lisa Nadezhka' WHERE column_value = 'Lisa Marie'); db_family surname children BOLZ ...
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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 48

Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Marie

column_value Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Marie

Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Nadezhka

Using the THE Operator 

Use THE to manipulate (retrieve, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE) contents of a nested table in a database table.
± Can only use with nested tables, not VARRAYs or index-by tables. ± Only accessible from within SQL statements in PL/SQL.
CREATE TYPE action_list_t IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2(100); / CREATE TABLE inflation_beater ( focus_area VARCHAR2(100), activities action_list_t) NESTED TABLE activities STORE AS activities_tab; SELECT VALUE (act) FROM THE (SELECT activities FROM inflation_beater WHERE focus_area = 'FORTUNE 100') act; UPDATE THE (SELECT activities FROM inflation_beater WHERE focus_area = 'FORTUNE 100') SET COLUMN_VALUE = 'DISBAND OSHA' WHERE COLUMN_VALUE = 'SIDESTEP OSHA';

the.sql

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Using the TABLE and CAST Operators 

Use CAST to convert a collection from one type to another, TABLE to convert a TYPE into a database table.
± Cannot use with index-by tables. ± Useful when you would like to apply SQL operations against a PL/SQL collection (ie, one not stored in a database table).
DECLARE nyc_devolution cutbacks_for_taxcuts := cutbacks_for_taxcuts ('Stop rat extermination programs', 'Fire building inspectors', 'Close public hospitals'); BEGIN DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE ( 'How to Make the NYC Rich Much, Much Richer:'); FOR rec IN (SELECT COLUMN_VALUE ohmy FROM TABLE (CAST (nyc_devolution AS cutbacks_for_taxcuts))) LOOP DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE (rec.ohmy); END LOOP; cast.sql END;

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page 51 .species = b.genus AND bh. CAST(MULTISET(SELECT bh. DECLARE CURSOR bird_curs IS SELECT b.genus = b. multiset. ± You can use MULTISET to emulate or transform relational joins into collections. Retrieves all detail bird_row bird_curs%ROWTYPE. query) into a VARRAY or nested table.country FROM bird_habitats bh WHERE bh.genus. information for the BEGIN master in one trip.Using the MULTISET Operator  MULTISET is the inverse of TABLE. END.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Cannot use with index-by tables.species) AS country_tab_t) FROM birds b. view. with potential client-server performance impact. OPEN bird_curs.species. FETCH bird_curs into bird_row. b. converting a set of data (table.

CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY ibtab IS TYPE date_tab IS TABLE OF DATE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein ibtab_in_sql.page 52 . hiredates date_tab. Make accessible in SQL for Oracle8 and below. WNDS). but hide the index-by table structure. Instead. FUNCTION rowval (indx IN PLS_INTEGER) RETURN DATE IS BEGIN RETURN hiredates (indx). END. END. WNPS. END.  CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE ibtab IS FUNCTION rowval (indx IN PLS_INTEGER) RETURN DATE. PRAGMA RESTRICT_REFERENCES (rowval.Referencing IB Tables inside SQL  You can't directly reference an index-by table's contents inside SQL.sql PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . call functions that retrieve the table's data.

 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Examples of Collections in Action  Emulation of bi-directional cursor operations Avoid mutating table problems in database triggers.page 53 .

PROCEDURE nextRow.pkg bidir.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . PROCEDURE prevRow. didn't make it!  Instead. ± A talked-about feature for Oracle9i -. END. This is particularly useful (read: efficient) when you need to perform multiple passes against the data. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE bidir IS /* Iterate through rows in the result set */ PROCEDURE setRow (nth IN PLS_INTEGER).nope.  bidir. Notice that the collection itself is hidden. FUNCTION getRow RETURN employee_plus%ROWTYPE.page 54 . deposit your data in a collection and then provide programs to access that data in the necessary fashion.Bi-Directional Cursor Emulation  Oracle does not yet support the ability to move back and forth (and at random) through a cursor's result set.

it is "mutating".sql  Note: in Oracle8i.The Mutating Table Problem  Database triggers can be attached to the SQL statement and/or the individual row operations on a table. you can use autonomous transactions to relax restrictions associated with queries. So what are you supposed to do when a row-level operation needs to "touch" that table? mutating. Statement Level UPDATE emp SET sal = 1000 UPDATE row 1 Row Level  UPDATE row N Row level triggers cannot query from or change the contents of the table to which it is attached. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 55 .

A Solution Based on Index-by Tables  Since you cannot perform the processing desired in the row-level trigger. you have to remember what you needed to do. you need to defer the action until you get to the statement level. If you are going to defer the work. Statement Trigger 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 1st row trigger fires Nth row trigger fires Writes to list Writes to list Work List (PL/SQL Table)  Process data in the list. ± an index-by table is an ideal repository for this reminder list.page 56 .

± As the sales amount is updated in this table.page 57 .88 144533.25 65011. we then know which departments to re-rank. but preferable.91 109000.25 3 1 2 6 "Deferred work" is not only necessary. Department ID Salesperson ID Sales Amount Rank 1055 1055 1055 1047  64333 65709 65706 70904 74055. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .An Example: Ranking Salespeople  A table holds the rankings based on the amount of annual sales of salespeople within a department. the rankings must also change to show the new standings for that department only. ± We might update more than one department within a statement so we must be able to retain multiple department numbers. ± By storing the salesperson¶s department ids as they change.

Doesn't fire unless the sales_amt is actually changed.rank_depts. ranking.pkg All details of the ranking are hidden in the package body. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .sales_amt) BEGIN rank.Trigger Logic Required Row Level Trigger CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER Rank_Sales_Rtrg AFTER insert OR update OF sales_amt ON rank_sales FOR EACH ROW WHEN (OLD. Statement Level Trigger CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER Rank_Sales_Strg AFTER INSERT OR UPDATE OR DELETE ON rank_sales BEGIN rank.add_dept (:new.page 58 .dept_id). END.sales_amt != NEW. END.

PROCEDURE rank_depts. END rank. TYPE dept_tabtype IS TABLE OF BOOLEAN INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER.The Ranking Package PACKAGE rank IS PROCEDURE add_dept (dept_id_in IN INTEGER). Table holds indicator that department needs re-ranking. PROCEDURE add_dept (dept_id_in IN INTEGER) IS BEGIN IF NOT in_process THEN dept_tab (dept_id_in) := TRUE. PACKAGE BODY rank IS in_process BOOLEAN := FALSE.page 59 . END IF. END add_dept 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Create row to indicate department to be ranked. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . dept_tab dept_tabtype.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Avoid recursive execution of logic Row number is department number. END IF. END LOOP. dept_tab. LOOP EXIT WHEN v_deptid IS NULL. BEGIN IF NOT in_process THEN in_process := TRUE. Clean up for next time.The Ranking Package.page 60 . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .FIRST. Continued PROCEDURE rank_depts IS v_deptid PLS_INTEGER := dept_tab. END rank_dept.DELETE. perform_ranking (v_deptid).NEXT (v_deptid). v_deptid := dept_tab. END rank. in_process := FALSE.

You want to use inside SQL.  VARRAYs ± ± ± ± You want to preserve the order in which elements are stored. ± You want to use inside SQL.  Nested tables ± You want to store large amounts of persistent data in a column. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Which Collection Type Should I Use?  Index-by tables ± Need to use in both Oracle7 and Oracle8 applications ± Want to take advantage of sparse nature for "intelligent keys".page 61 . Set of data is relatively small (avoid row chaining). You don't want to have to worry about sparseness.

Tips for Using Collections 

Wrap access to your collections.
± In many cases, you will want to avoid direct access to (assigning and retrieving) rows in your collections. ± This will give you the flexibility to change your implementation. ± You can also hide complex rules for setting the row number. 

Get creative!
± Don't always fill and use the index-by table sequentially. ± If you can somehow translate your application data to an integer, it can be used as a row number, and therefore offers indexed access. ± Julian date formats and DBMS_UTILITY.GET_HASH_VALUE offer two different methods.

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Achieving PL/SQL Excellence

Cursor Variables

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 63

Architecture of Cursor Variables
With Hard-Coded Cursors
Hard-Coded Cursor

With Cursor Variables

PGA

Cursor Variable

Cursor Variable

Result Set

Shared Global Area

Cursor Object

Result Set 

A cursor variable points to an underlying cursor object in the database.
± The cursor object in turns points to (and keeps its place in) a result set. 

The cursor variable can be passed between programs (even between, say, a Java servlet and a PL/SQL stored procedure).
± Static SQL only -- until Oracle8i.
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1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

Benefits of Cursor Variables 

Share cursor management between programs, even across the client-server divide.
± You don't have to pass the result sets of a cursor in order to allow the client-side program to have direct access to the data in the result set. ± Oracle Developer 2.1 utilizes cursor variables when you choose to construct a "base table block" around stored procedures instead of a database table. 

Share the same code across multiple, different queries.
± Since the cursor name is no longer hard-coded, you can use a single block of code (say, a reporting program) against different queries. ± We will try out this technique at the end of the section.

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Cursor Variable Example
DECLARE TYPE company_curtype IS REF CURSOR RETURN company%ROWTYPE;
Declare a variable cursor TYPE.

company_curvar company_curtype;

Declare cursor variable based on that type. Declare a record from cursor variable. OPEN cursor variable, specifying the query. FETCH from the cursor variable.

company_rec company_curvar%ROWTYPE; BEGIN OPEN company_curvar FOR SELECT * FROM company;

FETCH company_curvar INTO company_rec;
Close the cursor variable.

CLOSE company_curvar; END;
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Explicit Cursors and Cursor Variables 

Both hard-coded cursors and cursor variables work with static SQL.
± The SQL is fixed at compile-time. ± The difference is that with cursor variables, you get to decide which static query is opened. 

Many cursor operations are the same:
± Close a variable cursor with the same syntax as that for static cursors. ± Use cursor attributes (%ISOPEN, %FOUND, %NOTFOUND, %ROWCOUNT) with cursor variables (as of Release 2.3). ± Fetch data from the cursor result set through a cursor variable with the same syntax as that of static cursors. 

Let¶s focus on the new and different capabilities of cursor variables.
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Declaring Cursor Types and Variables 

Cursors are declared in two steps, just like programmerdefined records and PL/SQL tables.
± 1. Define a cursor TYPE -- either "weak" or "strong". ± 2. Define a cursor variable.
DECLARE TYPE weak_curtype IS REF CURSOR; TYPE comp_curtype IS REF CURSOR RETURN company%ROWTYPE; curcmp_new comp_curtype; cur_any weak_curtype; BEGIN
Declare cursor variables from the TYPEs. Declare a STRONG referenced cursor TYPE. Declare a WEAK referenced cursor TYPE.

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Strong vs. Weak Cursor Types 

A strong (or constrained) cursor type has a defined return data specification.
± Can only reference cursor objects which return the same data specification, which can be any single SQL datatype or any previously defined record structure. ± Datatype mismatches are identified at compile time.

TYPE cur_typ_name IS REF CURSOR [ RETURN return_type ]; TYPE cur_typ_name IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE; /* Strong */ 

The weak (or unconstrained) cursor type does not have a RETURN clause.
± It can reference any cursor object, be opened FOR any query. ± Datatype mismatches can only be identified at runtime.

TYPE cur_typ_name IS REF CURSOR; /* Weak */
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Opening with the Cursor Variable
OPEN cursor_name FOR select_statement; 

When you open a cursor variable (whether of the weak or strong variety), you must provide the SQL query that identifies the result set.
± If the variable has not yet been assigned to cursor object, the OPEN FOR statement implicitly creates an object for the variable. ± If the variable is already pointing to a cursor object, the OPEN FOR reuses the existing object and attaches the new query to that cursor object. 

Remember, the cursor object is nothing more than a memory location.
± It is maintained independently of the query itself.
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Match Needed BEGIN OPEN emp_curvar FOR SELECT * from emp.  STRONG cursor data specifications must match or be compatible with the structure of the SELECT statement. ± You can establish the return type based on a database table. .. a cursor or a programmer-defined record..Opening with Strong Cursor Types DECLARE TYPE emp_curtype IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE.page 71 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . emp_curvar emp_curtype. END.

OPEN retval FOR SELECT * FROM emp.cv_type IS retval pkg. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 72 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . END. THEN OPEN retval FOR SELECT * FROM dept. REF TYPE placed in package so that it is "globally" available. Verification will take ELSIF get_type_in = µDEPT¶ place at the FETCH. END. FUNCTION open_emp_or_dept (get_type_in IN VARCHAR2) RETURN pkg.  A weak cursor TYPE doesn't define the RETURN structure. RETURN retval. you can associate any SELECT statement with a weak cursor variable. END IF. BEGIN IF get_type_in = µEMP¶ THEN Either query will "do".Opening with Weak Cursor Types PACKAGE pkg IS TYPE cv_type IS REF CURSOR.cv_type.

± The ROWTYPE_MISMATCH exception is raised on failure.   Compatibility checks are performed prior to fetching row. ± Fetching can continue with a different INTO clause..page 73 . ± FOR WEAK cursor types. var_name. mismatch... . it match the OPEN FOR statement structure. FETCH cursor_var_name INTO var_name. it match the cursor type data specification.  Fetching with cursor variables follows the same rules as those with static cursors.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . The INTO structure must match in number and datatype to: ± FOR STRONG cursor types.Fetching from the Cursor Variable FETCH cursor_var_name INTO record_name.

page 74 .sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . but static cursors are more efficient than dynamic SQL and cursor variables are less complicated than DBMS_SQL. since cursor names are "hard coded". ± JDBC recognizes cursor variables.When to Use Cursor Variables  Make it easier for calling programs (especially non-PL/SQL programs) to manipulate result sets. ± You could use dynamic SQL to achieve this effect. ± With explicit cursors.  Define a base table block in Forms Builder (formerly Oracle Forms) on stored procedures rather than a table directly.  hccursor. you have to repeat the code for each cursor. Use a single block of code to manipulate multiple queries.

TYPE int_rt IS RECORD (key INTEGER).page 75 . TYPE cv_t IS REF CURSOR RETURN int_rt.pkg allcurs. bysal CONSTANT INTEGER := 2. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE allcurs IS bydept CONSTANT INTEGER := 1.tst explcv. / allcurrs. FUNCTION open (type_in IN INTEGER) RETURN cv_t.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± It also creates the data structures you will need to call the function.Consolidating Different Cursors  The following package specification hides the SQL behind a single open function. END.

ELSIF type_in = bysal THEN OPEN retval FOR SELECT empno FROM emp ORDER BY SAL. END IF. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 76 . END. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY allcurs IS FUNCTION open (type_in IN INTEGER) RETURN cv_t IS retval cv_t. BEGIN IF type_in = bydept THEN OPEN retval FOR SELECT empno FROM emp ORDER BY deptno. END.Consolidating Different Cursors  The open function simply opens FOR a different SELECT based on the criteria passed to it. RETURN retval.

END LOOP.in this case. change the ORDER BY clause -without having to change the code you write. LOOP FETCH cv INTO v_empno. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 77 "Report processor" is independent of the particular SELECT .l (v_empno). DECLARE cv allcurs. EXIT WHEN cv%NOTFOUND. BEGIN cv := allcurs.open (&1).empno%TYPE. CLOSE cv.cv_t. END. v_empno emp.Hiding SQL Variations in Resulting Code  The following block demonstrates that you can alter which SQL statement to query -. p.

unconstrained type. you can build screens that access data using a cursor variable-based procedural API.  Hide Variations in Underlying SQL ± You no longer have to repeat the same code for different cursors.  Strong and Weak Types ± Create REF CURSORs for specific queries.Cursor Variables Let's summarize  Flexibility ± Choose which static SQL statement is executed at run-time. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .1.  Improve Client-Side Access to Data ± At least in Oracle Developer 2.page 78 . or a more general.

page 79 .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Dynamic SQL  Dynamic SQL and dynamic PL/SQL: ± The DBMS_SQL package ± Native dynamic SQL in Oracle8i 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

you no longer have to write SQL to generate SQL to get your job done.1 and DBMS_SQL. What can you do with Dynamic SQL?  Build ad-hoc query and update applications. ± Available in PL/SQL since Release 2. ± Construct powerful DBA utilities.  Execute DDL inside PL/SQL programs. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Execute dynamically-constructed PL/SQL programs.page 80 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . ± Very common requirement on the Web. ± One example: implement indirect referencing in PL/SQL.Dynamic SQL and PL/SQL Execution  "Dynamic SQL" mean that you construct the SQL statement or PL/SQL block at runtime and then execute it. ± Also supported with "native dynamic SQL" in Oracle8i.

These methods are in increasing order of complexity.page 81 . execute one or more times. executed a single time. Method 4: queries with a variable number of items in the SELECT list and/or non-queries with a variable number of host variables. ± NDS does not support method 4. you can more quickly figure out how to code your solution.Four Methods of Dynamic SQL   Method 1: non-queries without host variables.    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Method 3: queries with a fixed number of items in the SELECT list and a fixed number of host variables. Method 2: non-queries with a fixed number of host variables. If you can recognize the types. ± Different methods require the use of different programs in DBMS_SQL.

DML and single row fetches. used for DDL.Native Dynamic SQL  Prior to Oracle8i. used for multi-row queries. ± But this package is very complex. difficult to use.page 82 . and relatively slow (performance did improve significantly as of Oracle8). ± OPEN FOR <sql string>. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  The new "native dynamic SQL" or NDS of Oracle8i offers two native statements in the PL/SQL language to implement most of your dynamic SQL requirements: ± EXECUTE IMMEDIATE <sql string>. you would use the DBMS_SQL built-in package to execute dynamic SQL.

EXECUTE IMMEDIATE EXECUTE IMMEDIATE sql-string [INTO {define_variable[. {IN | OUT | IN OUT] bind argument]. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . define_variables].page 83   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .. collections and records... The USING clause allows you to specify bind arguments or variables to be passed into the SQL string before execution.. | record }] [USING {IN | OUT | IN OUT] bind argument [.  Use this statement to execute any dynamic SQL statement (including a PL/SQL block) except for multi-row queries. including objects.]. The INTO clause allows you to pass values from the select list of a single row query into local variables.

' || tab || ' WHERE ' || NVL (whr. WHERE clause. RETURN retval. BEGIN EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'SELECT COUNT(*) FROM ' || NVL (sch. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein tabcount81. table and retval INTEGER. END.000. and not much of a democracy either!').page 84 .. '1=1') INTO retval.PUT_LINE ( 'Not the best health care system in the world. END IF. USER) || '. 'insured = ''NO''') > 40.. IF tabCount ('citizens'.000 THEN DBMS_OUTPUT.sf PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..sf compare with: tabcount. sch IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) RETURN INTEGER IS Specify schema. whr IN VARCHAR2 := NULL.COUNT(*) For Any Table  Here's a handy and simple utility based on NDS: CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION tabCount ( tab IN VARCHAR2..

EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN pl ('Compile Error "' || SQLERRM || '" on: ' || v_str). BEGIN v_str := 'BEGIN ' || pkg_in || '. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END.Other Execute Immediate Examples  Perform an update. start_in IN DATE. EXECUTE IMMEDIATE v_str. start_in.'. Pass in bind variables with USING clause. col_in IN VARCHAR2.. name_in IN VARCHAR2) IS v_str VARCHAR2 (100). PROCEDURE runprog (pkg_in IN VARCHAR2. END.page 85 ... END.  Execute a stored procedure.' || name_in || '. end_in. val_in IN NUMBER) IS BEGIN EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'UPDATE ' || tab_in || ' SET ' || col_in || ' = :val WHERE hiredate BETWEEN :lodate AND :hidate' USING val_in. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE updnumval ( tab_in IN VARCHAR2. end_in IN DATE..

PROCEDURE add_profit_source ( hosp_name IN VARCHAR2... :revenue_inhibitors)' USING pers.page 86 . ± No special syntax needed.Using Objects and Collections in NDS  One of the key advantages to NDS over DBMS_SQL is that it works with Oracle8 datatypes. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein health$. ± In the following example. END. including objects and collections.pkg PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . pers IN Person. the USING clause allows me to pass an object and nested table to an INSERT statement with a variable table name. cond IN preexisting_conditions) IS BEGIN EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'INSERT INTO ' || tabname (hosp_name) || ' VALUES (:revenue_generator. cond.

BEGIN OPEN cv FOR 'SELECT ' || col || ' FROM ' || tab || ' WHERE ' || NVL (whr. LOOP Familiar cursor FETCH cv INTO val. number or string column in any table.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Multiple Row Queries and NDS  Oracle extends the cursor variable feature of Oracle7 to support multi-row dynamic queries. cv cv_type. DBMS_OUTPUT. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE showcol ( tab IN VARCHAR2. val VARCHAR2(32767). ± Here is a simple utility the displays the values of any date. showcol. variable syntax! EXIT WHEN cv%NOTFOUND.sp END. whr IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) IS TYPE cv_type IS REF CURSOR. '1 = 1').PUT_LINE (val). CLOSE cv. ndsutil.page 87 . END LOOP. col IN VARCHAR2.

You can have duplicate placeholders (for bind arguments). str2list. Instead. etc.) through the USING clause. The USING clause for a query can only have IN bind arguments. ± If dynamic SQL. You cannot pass the NULL literal directly in the USING clause.Some Fine Print for NDS  You cannot pass schema elements (table names. ± If dynamic PL/SQL. then you provide a value for each placeholder (by position). column names.pkg    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 88 . provide a value for each distinct placeholder (by name). pass a variable with a NULL value.

the only way to perform dynamic SQL was with the DBMS_SQL package.page 89 . You should only use DBMS_SQL when you cannot use NDS. with many rules to follow and lots of code to write.Dynamic SQL using DBMS_SQL  Prior to Oracle8i. in particular method 4. The overhead for using DBMS_SQL has decreased significantly in Oracle8 and again in Oracle8i.     1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . DBMS_SQL is a very large and complex package. Supports all four methods of dynamic SQL.

page 90 .Learning Through Examples  DDL ± Create an index from within PL/SQL  DML ± Update rows in a table  DML with binding ± Update rows using bind variables  Queries ± Method 3 and a dynamic WHERE clause  PL/SQL Version of "SELECT *" ± Example of Method 4  PL/SQL ± Create a generic calculation program 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

DDL_statement VARCHAR2(200) := 'CREATE INDEX ' || index_in || ' ON ' || tab_in || ' ( ' || col_in || ')'.CLOSE_CURSOR (cur).PARSE (cur.NATIVE). tab_in IN VARCHAR2. DBMS_SQL. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . col_in IN VARCHAR2) IS cur INTEGER := DBMS_SQL.  creind.OPEN_CURSOR.EXECUTE (cur).page 91 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . DBMS_SQL. fdbk := DBMS_SQL. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. ± Open a cursor. END. fdbk INTEGER. ± Parse and execute that DDL statement. which will be used to execute the DDL statement. ± Construct the DDL statement as a string.DDL with Dynamic SQL PROCEDURE create_index (index_in IN VARCHAR2. DDL_statement.sp Creates an index on any column(s) in any table in your schema.

ename%TYPE. fdbk := DBMS_SQL. val_in IN NUMBER) IS cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL.NATIVE). 'UPDATE emp SET ' || col_in || ' = ' || val_in || ' WHERE ename LIKE UPPER (''' || ename_in || ''')'.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . DBMS_SQL.EXECUTE (cur).page 92 .OPEN_CURSOR. fdbk PLS_INTEGER. END.Updates with Dynamic SQL  Update numeric column for specified employees. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.PARSE (cur.CLOSE_CURSOR (cur). DBMS_SQL.PUT_LINE ('Rows updated: ' || TO_CHAR (fdbk)). ename_in IN emp. DBMS_OUTPUT. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE updnumval ( col_in IN VARCHAR2. updnval1.

DBMS_OUTPUT. DBMS_SQL. start_in).Updates with Bind Variables  Update salaries for date range using binding. 'hidate'. end_in IN DATE. updnval2.PARSE (cur.BIND_VARIABLE (cur. DBMS_SQL.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END.PUT_LINE ('Rows updated: ' || TO_CHAR (fdbk)).BIND_VARIABLE (cur. end_in). DBMS_SQL.NATIVE). DBMS_SQL.EXECUTE (cur). fdbk PLS_INTEGER. val_in IN NUMBER) IS cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL.page 93 .OPEN_CURSOR. start_in IN DATE. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE updnumval ( col_in IN VARCHAR2. fdbk := DBMS_SQL. 'lodate'.CLOSE_CURSOR (cur). BEGIN DBMS_SQL. 'UPDATE emp SET ' || col_in || ' = ' || val_in || ' WHERE hiredate BETWEEN :lodate AND :hidate'.sp updnval3.

Processing Flow for a Dynamic Query Allocate cursor memory (OPEN_CURSOR) Fill cursor with data (EXECUTE) Make sure SELECT is well formed (PARSE) Fill buffer with data (FETCH_ROWS) (EXECUTE_AND_FETCH) Bind any variables (BIND_VARIABLE) (BIND_ARRAY) Retrieve the data (COLUMN_VALUE) Give cursor structure (DEFINE_COLUMN) (DEFINE_ARRAY) Release cursor memory (CLOSE_CURSOR) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 94 .

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein showemps. fdbk INTEGER. '1=1'). DBMS_SQL. DBMS_OUTPUT.OPEN_CURSOR.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur..EXECUTE (cur). END LOOP. ename FROM emp ' || ' WHERE ' || NVL (where_in.empno) || '=' || rec.ename). 1..DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.Queries with Dynamic SQL  Show employees using a dynamic WHERE clause.COLUMN_VALUE (cur.FETCH_ROWS (cur) = 0. 'a'.ename). rec.COLUMN_VALUE (cur. 'SELECT empno. DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL. 1).empno). DBMS_SQL.PARSE (cur. END. LOOP EXIT WHEN DBMS_SQL.page 95 .PUT_LINE (TO_CHAR (rec.sp showemp2.NATIVE). DBMS_SQL.sp showemps.CLOSE_CURSOR (cur). 1. fdbk := DBMS_SQL. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. rec emp%ROWTYPE. 60). CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE showemps (where_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) IS cur INTEGER := DBMS_SQL. 2.tst PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 2. DBMS_SQL. rec.

FOR each-column-in-table LOOP DBMS_SQL. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 96 Very simplified pseudo-code intab.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. ± The resulting code is much more complicated. DBMS_SQL. val). nth_col. END LOOP. datatype). FOR each-column-in-table LOOP DBMS_SQL. LOOP fetch-a-row. END LOOP. BEGIN FOR each-column-in-table LOOP add-column-to-select-list. DBMS_SQL.Dynamic SELECT * FROM Any Table  Method 4 example: the number of columns queried changes with each table. END. END LOOP. END LOOP.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . select_string.NATIVE).PARSE (cur. nth_col.COLUMN_VALUE (cur.

then EXECUTE_AND_FETCH will raise the TOO_MANY_ROWS exception if more than one row is fetched by the SELECT. TRUE). which returns a single row. numrows := DBMS_SQL.Using EXECUTE_AND_FETCH FUNCTION execute_and_fetch (cursor_in IN INTEGER. ± Very similar to the implicit SELECT cursor in native PL/SQL. ± Even if the exception is raised. ± If exact_match is TRUE. exact_match IN BOOLEAN DEFAULT FALSE) RETURN INTEGER. the first row will still be fetched and available.EXECUTE_AND_FETCH (cur. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .EXECUTE_AND_FETCH (cur). raises NO_DATA_FOUND or raises the TOO_MANY_ROWS exception.page 97 .  Makes it easy to execute and fetch a single row from a query. numrows := DBMS_SQL.

NULL. 0. nargs_in IN INTEGER := arg1_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg3_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg5_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg7_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg9_in IN VARCHAR2 := ) RETURN VARCHAR2. a single function will do the trick. arg2_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. and enter the arguments. I would have to modify my screen every time a new formula was added. arg8_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. arg10_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL dyncalc. ± Using static PL/SQL.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . arg4_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. NULL. arg6_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL.sf dyncalc. NULL. FUNCTION dyncalc ( oper_in IN VARCHAR2.page 98 . NULL. NULL. ± With DBMS_SQL.Dynamic Formula Execution  Suppose I am building a user interface that allows a user to select a formula for execution.

BIND_VARIABLE (cur.'). µsalout¶.even OUT arguments which are not being bound to any values. END. µdeptin¶.tst    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END.sql dynplsql. :salout). v_deptin).VARIABLE_VALUE (cur. fdbk := DBMS_SQL. my_salary). my_salary).  Use BIND_VARIABLE to bind any placeholders in the string -. Use VARIABLE_VALUE to extract a value from any variable you have bound.sp dynplsql. µsalout¶. DBMS_SQL.page 99 . DBMS_SQL. Possibilities inherent in dynamic PL/SQL are mind-boggling! dynplsql.BIND_VARIABLE (cur. You must have a BEGIN-END around the code.EXECUTE (cur).More on Dynamic PL/SQL BEGIN cur := open_and_parse ('BEGIN get_max_sal (:deptin. DBMS_SQL.

fdbk PLS_INTEGER. 'val'. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END.CLOSE_CURSOR (v_cur).'.Indirect Referencing with Dyn PL/SQL  Oracle Forms offers support for indirect referencing with the NAME_IN and COPY built-ins. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.page 100  dynvar. DBMS_SQL. fdbk := DBMS_SQL.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . retval PLV. DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL.EXECUTE (v_cur). but you can accomplish much of the same thing with dynamic PL/SQL execution. RETURN retval. END. 'a'.dbmaxvc2. DBMS_SQL.pkg dynvar. 'val'. 2000). Here is an example of a "PL/SQL NAME_IN": FUNCTION valbyname (nm IN VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2 IS v_cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL.OPEN_CURSOR.BIND_VARIABLE (v_cur. PL/SQL does not support indirect referencing.NATIVE). retval). 'BEGIN :val := ' || nm || '.PARSE (v_cur.VARIABLE_VALUE (v_cur.

 LAST_SQL_FUNCTION_CODE ± Returns SQL function code of cursor. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  IS_OPEN ± Is the cursor already open?  LAST_ERROR_POSITION ± Returns relative column position in cursor of text causing error condition.  LAST_ROW_ID ± Returns the ROWID of last row processed.  LAST_ROW_COUNT ± Returns the cumulative count of rows fetched from the cursor.DBMS_SQL Status Built-ins  The package offers a set of modules to return information about the lastoperated cursor in your session.page 101 . ± Call these immediately after your usage to make sure they refer to your cursor.

dumplong. ± Transfer the LONG contents into an index-by table so that you can transfer a value of more than 32K bytes into your PL/SQL program.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Then you retrieve the column using the special COLUMN_VALUE_LONG variant.COLUMN_VALUE_LONG   First.page 102 . you define the column as a LONG.pkg dumplong.DEFINE_COLUMN_LONG ± DBMS_SQL. ± DBMS_SQL.Working with LONG Values  DBMS_SQL provides special procedures so that you can extract values from a LONG column in a table.

New DBMS_SQL Features PL/SQL8 Extensions to DBMS_SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 103 .

deletes and fetches. inserts.page 104 .New Features in DBMS_SQL  The functionality of DBMS_SQL has been extended in Oracle8 in several ways: ± Parse very long SQL strings ± Describe cursor columns ± Use "array processing" to perform bulk updates. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Support for RETURNING clause to avoid unnecessary queries.

col_cnt OUT INTEGER.DESCRIBE_COLUMNS (c IN INTEGER.DESCRIBE_COLUMNS. it was not possible to determine the datatypes of the columns defined in a cursor. ± The record TYPE is also defined in DBMS_SQL.DESC_TAB).page 105 . desc_t OUT DBMS_SQL.  Returns all of the column information in an index table of records.Describing Cursor Columns PROCEDURE DBMS_SQL. ± Now you can call the DBMS_SQL. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Before PL/SQL8.

tst showcols.DESCRIBE_COLUMNS (cur. DBMS_SQL. FOR colind IN 1 .Basic Steps to Describe Columns  The following script shows the individual steps you will need to perform in order to use this feature.PARSE (cur. DBMS_SQL.page 106 .pkg desccols. END. empno FROM emp'. ncols. 'SELECT hiredate. END LOOP. ncols PLS_INTEGER. cols DBMS_SQL.NATIVE).OPEN_CURSOR. ncols LOOP DBMS_OUTPUT. cols).CLOSE_CURSOR (cur). desccols.. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.DESC_TAB. DBMS_SQL.col_name).sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .PUT_LINE (cols(colind). CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE show_columns IS cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL.

i.    This technique still. deletes and fetches. where N is the number of rows in the table. DBMS_SQL then repeats your action for every row in the table.page 107 . DBMS_SQL is executing the specified SQL statement N times. inserts. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ."Array Processing" in DBMS_SQL  PL/SQL8 now allows you to specify the use of "arrays".e. you specify an index table.. when you perform updates. index tables. ± In actuality. Instead of providing a scalar value for an operation. can offer a significant performance boost over Oracle7 dynamic SQL. It really isn't "array processing". however.

 Use the Oracle8i invoker rights model whenever you want to share your dynamic SQL programs among multiple schemas. ± With NDS. ± Encapsulate DBMS_SQL.) through the USING clause. etc.Recommendations for Dynamic SQL  Bind (vs. only possible for statements that do not need USING and INTO clauses. ± Otherwise that SQL will be executed under the authority of the owner of the code. effdsql. column names.sql openprse.page 108 .pkg whichsch. concatenate) whenever possible.  Encapsulate statements to improve error handling.PARSE so that you include the trace in that program. ± Increased chance of reusing parsed SQL. though you could write variations for those as well. and easier code to write. not the invoker of the code. ± But remember: you cannot pass schema elements (table names.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

. of course. but DBMS_SQL is hard to use.page 109 .NDS or DBMS_SQL: Which is Best?  Dynamic SQL and PL/SQL is very useful. ± If. Both implementations will still come in handy. you have upgraded to Oracle8i!  Major Advantages of NDS: ± Ease of use ± Performance ± Works with all SQL datatypes (including userdefined object and collection types) ± Fetch into records  When You'd Use DBMS_SQL: ± ± ± ± ± ± ± Method 4 Dynamic SQL DESCRIBE columns of cursor SQL statements larger than 32K RETURNING into an array Reuse of parsed SQL statements Bulk dynamic SQL Available from client-side PL/SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..

page 110 . asynchronous. persistent messaging subsytem of Oracle 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Oracle Advanced Queuing  The high performance.

consistent manner.Who Needs Messaging? Everyone!  In the distributed world of the Internet. Distribution Center Coffee Beans Producer Shipping Service Retailer Consumer 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 111 . systems are now heavily reliant on the ability of components to communicate with each other in a dependable.

Applications Relying on Messaging     Stock trading system Airline reservation system Auction portals Any e-commerce application 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 112 .

± Rule-based subscribers. the listen feature and notification capabilities. AQ now offers a publish/subscribe style of messaging between applications. scalability and reliability all carry over to queues ± Strong history and retention ± Backup and recovery ± Comprehensive journaliing  Rich message content increases usefulness of queueing ± Use object types to define highly structured payloads  New to Oracle8i. message propagation.page 113 .Key Features of Oracle AQ  Leverage full power of SQL ± Messages are stored in database tables  Database high availability. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

AQ architectural overview Queue Monitor process Queue table Queue ³Producers´ Enqueued messages Message 4 Message 3 Message 2 Message1 ³Consumers´ Dequeued messages Messages include both control information and ³payload´ (content) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 114 .

AQ supports: ± ± ± ± ± Multiple queues Resetting order and priority of queued items Queue management using only SQL & PL/SQL Multiple message recipients Propagation of queue to remote servers  Oracle8i adds: ± ± ± ± Rules-based publish & subscribe Listening on multiple queues Easier monitoring Native Java interface PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 115 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .Oracle AQ Highlights  In 8.0.

   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 116 . Underlying database tables and views The queue monitor (background process) ± Set # of processes with the AQ_TM_PROCESSES initialization parameter.AQ Components  The DBMS_AQ package offers enqueue and dequeue capabilities The DBMS_AQADM package provides administrative functionality to manage queues and queue tables.

DBMS_AQADM Highlights CREATE_QUEUE_TABLE DROP_QUEUE_TABLE CREATE_QUEUE DROP_QUEUE START_QUEUE STOP_QUEUE ADD_SUBSCRIBER Assigns name. optionally waiting for outstanding transactions Adds an ³agent´ as a subscriber 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . sort column. payload type. whether multiple consumers Drops table if all queues in the table have been stopped Associates queue table with queue. assigns retry and retention properties to queue Drops a stopped queue Can also turn on/off enqueue and dequeue operations Stops queue. storage clause.page 117 .

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein aq.Creating Queue Tables and Queues CREATE TYPE message_type AS OBJECT (title VARCHAR2(30). Define the "payload" Create the queue table DBMS_AQADM. queue_table => 'msg'). text VARCHAR2(2000)).CREATE_QUEUE_TABLE (queue_table => 'msg'. queue_payload_type => 'message_type'). END.pkg Start the queue PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .START_QUEUE (queue_name => 'msgqueue'). Define a queue in the queue table DBMS_AQADM. / BEGIN DBMS_AQADM.page 118 .CREATE_QUEUE (queue_name => 'msgqueue'.

and returns a RAW message handle DEQUEUE extracts a message from a specified queue Parameters control message properties such as: ± Visibility (ON_COMMIT or IMMEDIATE) ± ± ± ± Priority Delay Expiration Locking behavior PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . but lots of complexity buried inside the parameters of these procedures.page 119   aq.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .  ENQUEUE puts a message into a specified queue.The "operational package": DBMS_AQ  DBMS_AQ is deceptively simple. ± Only two procedures.

my_msg. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . msgid). END. Declare records to hold various enqueue and msg properties. BEGIN my_msg := message_type ( 'First Enqueue'. Set up the payload with an object constructor. msgprops DBMS_AQ..ENQUEUE_OPTIONS_T. aqenq*. msgid aq.Simple Enqueue Example DECLARE queueopts DBMS_AQ.')..msgid_type.MESSAGE_PROPERTIES_T. msgprops. DBMS_AQ. my_msg message_type.ENQUEUE ( 'msgqueue'.* Place the message on the specified queue and get a msg ID in return.page 120 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . queueopts. 'May there be many more.

'May there be many more. msgprops.... BEGIN my_msg := message_type ( 'First Enqueue'.More Interesting Enqueue Example DECLARE .delay := 3 * 60 * 60 * 24. msgprops. DBMS_AQ. queueopts. queueopts.. my_msg. msgid1).. my_msg.'). Modify the dequeue sequence by changing the deviation field and relative msg ID. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .BEFORE.. DBMS_AQ.. 'And this one goes first.relative_msgid := msgid1.page 121 . my_msg := message_type ( 'Second Enqueue'. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Specify a delay before the payload is available. END. Same setup as previous page . msgid2).').. msgprops. queueopts.ENQUEUE ( 'msgqueue'.sequence_deviation := DBMS_AQ.ENQUEUE ('msgqueue'. queueopts.

msgprops. getmsg (DBMS_AQ. END.dequeue_mode := mode_in. /* defined in aq. END.REMOVE).MESSAGE_PROPERTIES_T. getmsg (DBMS_AQ.page 122 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . aqdeq*. msgprops DBMS_AQ.DEQUEUE_OPTIONS_T. BEGIN getmsg (DBMS_AQ. PROCEDURE getmsg (mode_in IN INTEGER) IS BEGIN queueopts.* Declare records to hold various dequeue and msg properties.DEQUEUE ( 'msgqueue'.REMOVE).msgid_type. msgid).pkg */ my_msg message_type.Dequeue Example DECLARE queueopts DBMS_AQ. my_msg. msgid aq.BROWSE). Dequeue operation isolated in local module. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . DBMS_AQ. queueopts. Demonstrates destructive and non-destructive dequeuing.

 A stack implementation using AQ demonstrates this well. msgid).priority := g_priority. ± The lower the numeric priority value. queueopts. the higher the priority. item_obj aqstk_objtype.pkg aqstk2. msgid aq. msgprops. BEGIN item_obj := aqstk_objtype (item).page 123 . END.Prioritized Payloads  You can assign priorities to individual payloads and then dequeue according to those priorities. msgprops. item_obj. msgprops DBMS_AQ.msgid_type. queueopts.ENQUEUE ( c_queue.MESSAGE_PROPERTIES_T.visibility := DBMS_AQ. aqstk.* 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . DBMS_AQ. g_priority := g_priority .pkg priority.IMMEDIATE. PROCEDURE push (item IN VARCHAR2) IS queueopts DBMS_AQ.ENQUEUE_OPTIONS_T.1.

± The message is then not removed from the queue until all subscribers have dequeued the message.page 124 . NULL)). ± 2.AQ$_AGENT (name_in.CREATE_QUEUE_TABLE ( queue_table => 'major_qtable'. DBMS_AQADM. queue_payload_type => 'student_major_t'. SYS.  Steps to working with a subscriber list: ± 1. NULL. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein aqmult*.Defining Message Subscribers  You can specify that a message is to be enqueued for a list of subscribers.* PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . multiple_consumers => TRUE).ADD_SUBSCRIBER ( c_queue. BEGIN DBMS_AQADM. Add subscribers for the queue. The queue table must be defined to support multiple subscribers or consumers.

± Should be strongly supported "down the road". ± Significant enhancements in Oracle8i. ± Much more robust that DBMS_PIPE. ± Crucial for Oracle to have a message-oriented middleware in order to offer an all-Oracle solution. LISTEN capability.Summary  Very powerful and flexible architecture. improved security. supporting a publish-subscribe model. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 125 .  Considered by Oracle to be a core component of its overall solution.Oracle AQ .

Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Managing Large Objects with DBMS_LOB 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 126 .

± Oracle has announced deprecation of LONGs.LOB Terms  LOB = Large OBject: a category of datatype allowing storage of ³unstructured´ data up to 4 gigabytes LOB datatype can be: ± Column in table ± Attribute in object type ± Element in nested table   Possible applications include office documents. sounds. they should no longer be used. video.page 127 .  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . LOB datatypes are the successor to LONGs. Images. etc. though they will probably not be actually desupported.

improving performance.Types of Large Objects  ³Internal´ LOBs ± BLOB: unstructured binary data ± CLOB: single-byte fixedwidth character data ± NCLOB: multi-byte fixedwidth character data (or varying width in )  ³External´ LOBs ± BFILE: pointer to an operating system file  Temporary LOBs ± Internal LOBs that do not participate in transactions. external do not ± External LOBs are read-only from within Oracle 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 128 .  Key programming differences: ± Internal LOBs participate in transactions.

erase. substring and instring searches. copy.PL/SQL built-ins for LOBs  Package DBMS_LOB ± Supports for all LOBs: Reading. trim ± For external LOBs: File existence test. append.page 129 . open. EMPTY_CLOB() ± BFILENAME 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . comparison and length checking ± For internal LOBs: Write. close  Other built-in functions ± LOADFROMFILE (load an external BFILE into a BLOB) ± EMPTY_LOB().

CLOSE fax_cur. FETCH fax_cur INTO the_fax. Question: What¶s in the_fax? 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . the_fax BLOB.Deceptively simple example  BLOB-typed column in a table CREATE TABLE incoming_faxes (fax_id INTEGER.  Retrieve record with BLOB into PL/SQL variable DECLARE CURSOR fax_cur IS SELECT fax FROM incoming_faxes. received DATE. fax BLOB). BEGIN OPEN fax_cur.page 130 . END.

The ³LOB locator´ LOB t l sel es [ ll ] t i i t r .page 131 . tt LOBs <lob segment> fax_id 281937 received 12-JAN-98 fax <lob locator> Updati  t e LOB anges t e pointer is ompli ates se of LOBs ± LOB locators cannot span transactions ± Programs must lock records containing LOBs efore updating ± Programs performing L must accommodate dynamic LOB locator alues 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

oodb.com'.url%TYPE := 'http://www. htmlloc CLOB). 1 of 2  Must get a new LOB locator before writing into the LOB: DECLARE the_url web_pages. the_loc CLOB. .page 132 . EMPTY_CLOB()) RETURNING htmlloc INTO the_loc. BEGIN INSERT INTO web_pages VALUES (the_url..Example: Piecewise CLOB programmatic insert  Create a table CREATE TABLE web_pages ( url VARCHAR2(512) PRIMARY KEY.. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

EMPTY_CLOB()) and loads a web page RETURNING htmlloc INTO the_loc. buffer => html_tab(the_piece_no)).COUNT LOOP piece_length := LENGTH(html_tab(the_piece_no)). html_tab UTL_HTTP. END. several likely exceptions offset => running_total. the_loc CLOB. END LOOP. Note: We are ignoring amount => piece_length..com'.WRITE(lob_loc => the_loc.Example: Piecewise CLOB programmatic insert DECLARE the_url web_pages. running_total PLS_INTEGER := 1.HTML_PIECES.html_tab. FOR the_piece_no IN 1. This block retrieves INSERT INTO web_pages VALUES (the_url.page 133 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein BEGIN .url%TYPE := 'http://www. into a CLOB column html_tab := UTL_HTTP. DBMS_LOB. running_total := running_total + piece_length. piece_length PLS_INTEGER. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .REQUEST_PIECES(url => the_url).oodb.

buffer => 'cool'). offset => str_offset. CLOSE hcur. amount => 4. IF str_offset != 0 THEN DBMS_LOB. END.Example: Piecewise CLOB programmatic update DECLARE Program must lock the record explicitly CURSOR hcur IS SELECT htmlloc FROM web_pages WHERE url = 'http://www. END IF.oodb. FETCH hcur INTO the_loc. str_offset := DBMS_LOB.page 134 . BEGIN OPEN hcur.INSTR(lob_loc => the_loc. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . str_offset INTEGER.WRITE(lob_loc => the_loc. the_loc CLOB.com' FOR UPDATE. pattern => 'oodb').

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Example: CREATE DIRECTORY web_pix AS 'D:\bill\training\pix'.Preparing to use BFILEs  You must first create an Oracle I ORY´ ± Creates logical alias for full directory pat ± imilar to LIBRARY (used for C "external procedures").page 135 . ut IRECTORY namespace is global  Syntax: CREATE OR REPLACE DIRECTORY <directory name> AS '<full path to directory>'.

image BFILE). phones Phone_tab_t.Using BFILE datatype in DDL  In a table... CREATE TABLE web_graphics ( image_id INTEGER. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . CREATE TYPE Business_card_t AS OBJECT ( name Name_t. scanned_card_image BFILE ).  In an object type.page 136 .. addresses Address_tab_t..

/  Notes: ± No automatic file checking or synchronization ± No participation in transactions 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .gif').The built-in BFILENAME function  Returns value of datatype BFILE. BEGIN INSERT INTO web_graphics VALUES (100015. 'prodicon. picture). Spec: FUNCTION BFILENAME(directory_exprn. file_exprn) RETURN BFILE.  Example: DECLARE picture BFILE := BFILENAME('WEB_PIX'.page 137 . END.

sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . image BLOB). DECLARE pic_file BFILE := BFILENAME('WEB_PIX'.FILECLOSE(pic_file). DBMS_LOB. DBMS_LOB. 'prodicon.Loading File into Database BLOB CREATE TABLE web_graphic_blobs ( image_id INTEGER. END. BEGIN INSERT INTO web_graphic_blobs VALUES (1. DBMS_LOB.FILEOPEN(pic_file.GETLENGTH(pic_file)). DBMS_LOB.page 138 . src_lob => pic_file. amount => DBMS_LOB. / loadblob.FILE_READONLY).LOADFROMFILE(dest_lob => pic_blob_loc. pic_blob_loc) RETURNING image INTO pic_blob_loc.gif'). pic_blob_loc BLOB := EMPTY_BLOB().

that can mean less I/O » Trigger will not fire until CLOSE » Indexes will not update until CLOSE ± ISOPEN 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .New DBMS_LOB APIs in 8i  Support for temporary LOBs ± No logging or rollback faster! ± Lifespan: session. or transaction  Ability to retrieve LOB ³chunk size´ ± Allows programmer to tune READs and WRITEs  For all internal LOBs ± OPEN & CLOSE allow control over timing. call.page 139 .

.Summary  LOB support in Oracle is now significantly improved. ± Complete support in PL/SQL (and other APIs) ± Much better performance and control than with LONGs ± Usable in object types HOT  Some weaknesses.page 140 . COLD 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± LOB locator behavior slightly abstruse ± Inability to modify BFILEs directly from within PL/SQL..Large Object .

page 141 .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Leveraging Java Inside PL/SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

a BRIEF introduction to Java. functions. triggers in Java Distinct Java & PL/SQL namespaces  But first..page 142 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .Overview of Java interoperability  Java inside or outside 8i server can call PL/SQL ± Standard JDBC and SQLJ calls with Oracle extensions ± Same Java on client.. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .. mid-tier. or server Not covered in this seminar  PL/SQL can call Java inside 8i server ± ± ± ± Command-line tools load Java classes DDL extensions publish Java classes Writing stored procedures..

. fastest. ± The end of programming history as we know it? ± The easiest. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 143 ..Question 1: What is Java?  Could it be. ± We just need to keep a firm grip on common sense and stay focused on delivering solutions. slickest piece of software ever designed by human beings? ± Just the latest in a series of "silver bullets" promoted by software vendors in order to prop up quarterly sales? ± The first and only successful O-O language? ± None of the above?  We don't really need to take a vote.

± Ubiquitous in thousands of production applications and millions of lines of code. to boot. it is very unlikely and totally unthinkable for years to come.and very aggressively.page 144 . ± A language in which hundreds of thousands of developers are trained. ± Supported and improved by Oracle -.  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . PL/SQL will still be: ± Faster and more productive than Java for database operations.Question 2: Will Java Replace PL/SQL?  While that scenario is certainly possible.

. ± string is definitely not the same as String. ± Well.Some Important Things to Remember  Java is a case sensitive language. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .. ± Don't get overwhelmed by all the classes and all the strange quirks..  Everything is a class (or an object instantiated from a class).page 145 . ± Before you can call a (non-static) class method...  You don't have to know how to do everything with Java to get lots of value out of it. you have to instantiate an object from that class. everything exception the primitive datatypes..

Building a Java Class  Let's start from the very beginning. no methods. by the way: the PL/SQL version 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Used to test or run stand-alone a class..page 146 . Oh.PUT_LINE ('Hello world!').println ("Hello world!"). public class Hello { public static void main (String[] args) { System. } }  No members. END. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE hello IS BEGIN DBMS_OUTPUT.. except the "special" main method.out.

e:\jdk1.1.page 147 .java file to a .Compiling Classes  Before you can use a class. you must compile it with the javac command. ± This will convert the .zip.zip.class file.java -classpath d:\java 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± It will also automatically recompile any classes used by your class that has not been compiled since last change. SET CLASSPATH = d:\Oracle\Ora81\jdbc\lib\classes111.7b\lib\classes. ± You must also either have set the CLASSPATH or include it in your javac call.d:\java D:> javac Hello.

page 148 .Running a Class  Run a class? What does that mean? It means that if your class contains a method with this header: public static void main (String[] args)  then you can "run" the main method with the java command: d:\java> java Hello  You can also pass one or more arguments on the command line: d:\java> java Hello mom Hello2.java 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Let's build a performance analyzer class to explore these ideas. Usually.page 149 .Using a Class  The main method is handy for providing a built-in test mechanism of your class.   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . you will use a class by instantiating objects from the class and then invoking class methods on the object. however.

} public void showElapsed (String context) { p.java 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 150 .Gstart).Compare Performance of Methods  Use System. System.currentTimeMillis().Gstart).l ("Elapsed time for " + context. class Tmr { private long Gstart = 0.currentTimeMillis() . elapsed()).currentTimeMillis to calculate elapsed time to nearest thousandth of a second. public void capture () { Gstart = System.java Tmr.l ("Elapsed time ". } } p. } public long elapsed () { return (System. } public void showElapsed () { p.java InFile.currentTimeMillis() .

besides the "regular" kind we just saw. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Abstract class ± The class can contain members and methods.  Interface class ± The class only contains unimplemented methods.Types of Classes  There are several different kinds of classes in Java. but at least one method remains unimplemented..  Inner class ± Classes that are defined inside other classes.page 151 ..

 Polymorphism ± An object of a class can have "multiple" forms.page 152 .java A Class Hierarchy Management NonManagement Corporation 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Dynamic polymorphism: form is determined at run-time. supertype/"wider" Citizen Person Employee Hourly Worker Salaried Worker subtype/"narrower" War Criminal Person.And Now for Some Scary Buzzwords!  Inheritance ± Subclasses inherit methods and variables from extended superclasses. ± Static polymorphism: form is chosen at compile-time (PL/SQL overloading). either as its own class or as any superclass.

boolean char byte short int long float double  Strings ± A String object is a read-only. these are not objects instantiated from classes. String myName. you are actually allocating a new object.equals(YourName)) foundFamily(). if you assign a new value to it.Language Basics  Comments // Single line comment /* Block comment */ /** Documentation comment */  Primitive datatypes ± So I lied.page 153 . myName = "Feuerstein". ± Can't do a direct == comparison. if (myName. myName = "Steven". 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

length.page 154 . Examples: for (indx indx=0.Writing Loops in Java  Three kinds of loops: while.hasMoreElements ()) { processIt (enum. indx++) System.NextElement()). step) { lotsaStuff } while (expression) { lostsaStuff } do { lostsaStuff } while (expression).println ( (String)enum.println (args[indx]). indx < args. do-while and for ± Note: you need squiggly brackets only if there is more than one statement in the loop body.nextElement()) } } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . expression.out.out. for (initialize. static void processAll (Enumeration enum) { while (enum. System.

out.println (Java. you still include the open and close parentheses. ± No default values for arguments. System.Passing Parameters  Some important differences from PL/SQL.page 155 . ± Only positional notation is supported. } } class LotsALingos { public static void main (String args[]) { PuterLingo Java = new PuterLingo("Java"). } } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± If a method has no arguments. you must supply a value for each parameter. public PuterLingo (String name) { mname = name.. } public String name () { return mname..name()). class PuterLingo { private String mname.

length(). rather than raise and handle.out.Exception Handling in Java  Very similar to PL/SQL.println (e. } File-related catch (SecurityException e) { exceptions return -1. } catch (Exception e) { System. Put inside try clause File myFile = new File (filename).equals("")) throw new Exception ("Filename is NULL"). "WHEN OTHERS" } in Java } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 156 . Throwing my own public static int numBytes (String filename) { exception try { if (filename. return myFile. you "throw" and "catch" exceptions.toString()).

± So you can pass them as arguments and do anything and everything else you can do with objects.page 157 . NoSuchFile { . ± Use the throws clause in your specification.Differences Between Java & PL/SQL  Exceptions are objects derived directly or indirectly from the Exception class..  You must inform users of your method of which exceptions may be thrown. } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . as in: public static int numBytes (String filename) throws SecurityException..

 Now let's explore how you can put Java to work for you inside PL/SQL programs. ± Object oriented development (Java) is very different from procedural coding (PL/SQL). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Java's Not So Tough!  You can learn enough Java in less than a week to: ± Build simple classes ± Leverage Java inside PL/SQL  Moving to the next level of expertise will be more of a challenge.page 158 .

using JDBC or SQLJ Oracle 8i server PL/SQL cover for Java method Java virtual machine running Java method Oracle Developer client (PL/SQL) Net8 OCI or Pro*C client VB or C++ via OO4O or ODBC 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 159 .Java Stored Procedures (JSPs) Java applet or app.

network communication in/out PL/SQL replacement ± More standard language ± Good performer for numeric processing tasks ± Beware database I/O & string manipulation performance Scaleable deployment of third party code ± Vertical application ± Web server ± XML parser/generator 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .JSPs: Some sample uses PL/SQL extender ± For example. better file I/O ± RMI callouts.page 160 .

END 4. Create Java classes in your favorite IDE 2.Creating JSP to call from PL/SQL   1. Load into server using ³loadjava´ command-line tool 3... Publish PL/SQL cover using AS LANGUAGE JAVA. rather than BEGIN...page 161 . Grant privileges as desired 5. Call from PL/SQL (or SQL) as if calling PL/SQL    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

long CEOCompensation.out. Entry points must be public static in most cases Classes may call other classes Avoid GUI calls     person.Create Java class(es) class Corporation extends Person { long layoffs.out. 5000000. public Corporation ( String Pname. layoffs = Playoffs. System.println (TheGlobalMonster). } public static void main (String[] args) { // A very scary company Corporation TheGlobalMonster = new Corporation ( "Northrup-Ford-Mattel-Yahoo-ATT".page 162 PL/SQL . }} 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Notes on Java classes  toString method automatically used by System. CEOCompensation = PceoComp. } public String toString () { return name + " is a transnational entity with " + layoffs + " laid-off employees.java Advanced Techniques . long Playoffs.println main method is used to test the class. paying its" + " Chief Executive Officer " + CEOCompensation. 50000000). long PceoComp) { name = Pname.

Upload using ³loadjava´ utility .page 163 .jar file Oracle 8i server Java class Java source Java resource loadjava Example: loadjava loadjava -user scott/tiger -oci8 -resolve datacraft/bill/Hello.class file .java file Java resource file .class options (abbreviated) -oci8 -resolve loadjava will connect using OCI driver Resolves external class references at compile time -resolver (shown later) Search path like CLASSPATH 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

String'.page 164 ..) [ return <Ja a t pe fullname> ]'..Emp(int) return java. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . /  Syntax (simplified) CREATE [ OR REPLACE PROCE URE FUNCTION <name> <sqlt pe> ] [ [ <ar s> ) ] [ AUTHID { DEFINER | CURRENT_USER } ] AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME '<met fullname> (<Ja a t pe fullname>.Hello.bill.Publish  Example (top-level call spec) CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION hello_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2 AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft. .lang.

Call the wrapped method  Method 1: Call as if PL/SQL module BEGIN DBMS_OUTPUT.page 165 . for example. PRINT :thename ± CALL avoids overhead of SELECT fn FROM DUAL jsp.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . from SQL*Plus: VARIABLE thename VARCHAR2(12) CALL hello_emp(7499) INTO :thename. END.  Method 2: Use 8i SQL CALL statement.PUT_LINE(hello_emp(7499)).

sql.lang.Publishing -.ARRAY 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .STRUCT <named type> oracle.sql.BigDecimal oracle.sql.sql.page 166 .REF oracle.more concepts Shape mapping ± Java methods declared ³void´ become PL/SQL procedures ± Signature mismatches detected only at runtime Type mapping (typical) VARCHAR2 DATE NUMBER user-defined object type user-defined object type object REFerence user-defined collection type java.String java.math.Timestamp java.

Hello.Publish in PL/SQL Package Spec  Designate Java module in PL/SQL package spec. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE hello_pkg AS FUNCTION hi_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2 AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.util.. / (No package body required in this case) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .String'.lang.page 167 . END.Emp(int) return java..

Publish as module in package body  .or in package body CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE hello_pkg2 AS FUNCTION hi_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2..page 168 .util.String'. END.Hello.. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END.Emp(int) return java. / CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY hello_pkg2 AS FUNCTION hi_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2 IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.lang.

MEMBER FUNCTION hello_emp RETURN VARCHAR2).lang. / or in the body: CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE foo_t AS OBJECT ( bar VARCHAR2(30). MEMBER FUNCTION hello_emp RETURN VARCHAR2 IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.util.util.Hello.Publish as object type method  Either in spec: CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE foo_t AS OBJECT ( bar VARCHAR2(30). / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .String').Hello. / CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE BODY foo_t AS MEMBER FUNCTION hello_emp RETURN VARCHAR2 IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft. END.String'.lang.Emp(int) return java.Emp(int) return java.page 169 .

JAVADEBUGPRIV ± You can also grant specific privileges. resolves Java class references. JAVASYSPRIV (needed for file IO operations).page 170 . DROP JAVA: drops a named Java library unit Several roles available for Java operations: ± JAVAUSERPRIV. JAVA_ADMIN. class.New DDL Statements and Roles  CREATE JAVA ± Alternative to ³loadjava´ utility ± Creates or replaces an Oracle ³library unit´ from Java source. or resource ± Can read file designated with BFILE() function  ALTER JAVA: compiles Java source. JAVAIDPRIV.   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

SQLData 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .sql.Passing Oracle8 objects Oracle8i server Object in O-R table Java application Java object   Harder than you¶d think Three different interfacing techniques ± oracle.page 171 .CustomDatum ± oracle.jdbc2.STRUCT ± oracle.sql.

page 172 .JPublisher utility Database server Definition of type or REF in data dictionary User-supplied JPublisher input file What does it do? ± Generates Java that encapsulates type and REF types of mapping supported for methods JPublisher ± ³Oracle mapping´ ± ³JDBC mapping´ ± ³Object JDBC mapping´ Three Generated Java file(s) for use in Java programs 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

bill.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .AccountRuntime.bill. /  jspobj.Passing object using JPub-generated Java  After generating and uploading classes with JPub.Account_t)'.page 173 .save (datacraft. they become available to use in mapping Example of passing an Account_t object: CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE account_save (new_acct IN Account_t) IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.

Let's see how we can make that great Java stuff available from within PL/SQL. but that package is very limited.page 174 . Java offers many file-related classes with much greater capabilities.Example: Improving File I/O  You can read/write files in PL/SQL with UTL_FILE.   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

. ± Instead build a static method that instantiates a Java object from the class and then invokes the relevant method against that object.Encapsulate Java Classes  You won't generally access native Java methods in your PL/SQL wrapper.page 175 . ± The File class offers a length method that returns the number of bytes in a file.  Let's start with something simple. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± This is not available through UTL_FILE (though you can get it through DBMS_LOB)..

page 176 .java  Take each of these steps: ± Import the File class to resolve reference.File.length(). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .My Own Java Class for File Manipulation  Accept the name of a file and return its length. return myFile.io. ± Call the method of choice against that object and return the value. ± Instantiate a File object for the specified name. public class JFile2 { public static long length (String fileName) { File myFile = new File (fileName). import java. } } JFile2.

String) return long'. / CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY xfile IS FUNCTION length (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN NUMBER AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'JFile. / xfile2. we will certainly want to add more functionality over time.lang. ± I translate the Java long to a PL/SQL NUMBER. END.page 177 .length (java.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE xfile IS FUNCTION length (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN NUMBER.Build a Package over Java Method  Let's put it in a package. END.

Write a "public" PL/SQL wrapper function to convert that number to a true PL/SQL Boolean. ± 3. Write a "hidden" PL/SQL wrapper function that returns the string or number. you will need to take these steps: ± 1.page 178 . so you'd expect smooth sailing. ± 2. Convert the Java boolean to a String or number and return that value.Mapping the Boolean Datatype  Both Java and PL/SQL support a native Boolean datatype.  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Not so! To pass a Boolean back from Java to PL/SQL.

page 179 . ± And don't forget: this is a boolean primitive. } } JFile3. else return 0. public class JFile3 { public static int canRead (String fileName) { File myFile = new File (fileName).File. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .io. boolean retval = myFile.Translate Boolean to Number  Accept the name of a file and return its length.java  Translate TRUE to 1 and FALSE to 0. import java. if (retval) return 1. not a Boolean class.canRead().

java END.java / xfile. FUNCTION canRead (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN BOOLEAN AS BEGIN xfile3. JFile.. ± Avoid the hard-codings with named constants.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .lang. xfile4.String) return int'. JFile4..canRead (java.Wrapper for Pseudo-Boolean function  Simple translation back to PL/SQL Boolean. / CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY xfile IS FUNCTION IcanRead (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN NUMBER AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'JFile3. END.page 180 . CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE xfile IS FUNCTION canRead (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN BOOLEAN.pkg END.pkg RETURN IcanRead (file) = 1.

sql.page 181 .SQLException { // Get the attributes of the labor_source object.tst PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . throws java. // starting with 0 String laborType = (String)(attribs[0]). Object[] attribs = e. public class UnionBuster { Obtain attributes of public static void wageStrategy (STRUCT e) the Oracle object.getAttributes().out.Passing Objects to Java with STRUCT  You can pass Oracle object information to Java without relying on JPub by using the STRUCT class. } } Extract individual attribute values from the array. System. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein UnionBuster. // Access individual attributes by array index.java passobj.println ( "Pay " + laborType + " $" + hourly_rate + " per hour"). BigDecimal hourly_rate = (BigDecimal)(attribs[1]).

page 182 . 0)). '5')). / CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE bust_em_with ( labor_source_in IN labor_source_t) AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'UnionBuster. hourly_rate NUMBER). bust_em_with ( labor_source ('Prisoners'. The Oracle object type definition CREATE TYPE labor_source_t AS OBJECT ( labor_type VARCHAR2(30). / BEGIN bust_em_with ( labor_source ('Workfare'.STRUCT)'. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Fully specify the STRUCT class in parameter list.sql. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .wageStrategy (oracle. END.Wrapping a STRUCT-based Method  You can pass Oracle object information to Java without relying on JPub by using the STRUCT class.

PUT_LINE: System. ± Here is a good nucleus for a login.java HelloAll.println ( "Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello All!").println. i++) { System. }}}  When called within a PL/SQL wrapper.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 183 . you can redirect the output to the DBMS_OUTPUT buffer. i < count.SET_OUTPUT (1000000).out. public class HelloAll { public static void lotsaText ( int count) { for (int i = 0. HelloAll.out.sql file: SET SERVEROUTPUT ON SIZE 1000000 CALL DBMS_JAVA.Viewing Output from Java Methods  Java provides a "print line" method similar to DBMS_OUTPUT. ± Call it within methods and output will display in your Java environment.

sql.5).SQLException. ± Use two methods.  Any error not caught by the JVM (Java virtual machine) will be thrown back to the PL/SQL block or SQL statement. ± And also spew out the entire Java error stack! (at least through 8. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 184 . but more robust error handling mechanism than PL/SQL. getErrorCode() and getMessage() to obtain information about the error thrown. ± Exceptions are objects instantiated from the Exception class or a subclass of it. ± Instead of raising and handling. you "throw" and "catch".Error Handling with Java-PL/SQL  Java offers a very similar.1. such as java.

kprb.executeUpdate(OracleStatement. and you have to do some digging to extract the Oracle error information.driver.OracleStatement.doExecuteWithBatch(OracleStatement.KprbDBAccess.check_error(KprbDBAccess.driver.tst ORA-29532: Java call terminated by uncaught Java exception: java.OracleStatement.java) at oracle.java:14) DropAny.driver.SQLException: getErrInfo.kprb.jdbc. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE (SQLCODE).Trapping and Identifying Errors  Currently.sql.jdbc.driver.java) at DropAny.sp dropany2.java) at oracle.object(DropAny. BEGIN dropany ('TABLE'. / SQL> 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 java.sql.tst ORA-00942: table or view does not exist 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END.doExecuteOther(OracleStatement.java) at oracle.driver.doExecute(OracleStatement. DBMS_OUTPUT.page 185 .jdbc.parseExecuteFetch(KprbDBAccess.java) at oracle.java) at oracle.OracleStatement.jdbc.java) at oracle.PUT_LINE (SQLERRM).doExecuteWithTimeout(OracleStatement.jdbc.KprbDBAccess.java -29532 dropany.jdbc.jdbc.OracleStatement. the entire Java stack is displayed on your screen.OracleStatement.SQLException: ORA-00942: table or view does not exist at oracle. 'blip').

page 186 .  An Oracle8 feature that allowed relatively "native" callouts to C from PL/SQL for the first time.Achieving PL/SQL Excellence External Procedures  An external procedure is a 3GL routine that can serve as the ³body´ of a PL/SQL function. procedure. ± Must be a shared object library on Unix or a dynamically linked library (DLL) on Windows. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . or method.

so file extproc returns results returns results 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .DLL or .page 187 .Process & data flow Application Makes request Net8 External Procedure Listener spawns External Shared Library Calls PL/SQL Runtime Engine PL/SQL body Client or server-side application returns results calls routine from Routine in .

External procedures: Sample uses      Send email Invoke operating system command Invoke custom or legacy application Call C runtime library function Perform admin tasks email.page 188 .sql diskspace.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

this function returns: » » » » » sectors per cluster bytes per sector number of free clusters total number of clusters ³return code´ indicating success or failure  First.page 189 . create an Oracle8 ³library´: CREATE OR REPLACE LIBRARY nt_kernel AS 'c:\winnt\system32\kernel32.Determine free disk space on NT (1/4)  Use pre-existing routine: ± GetDiskFreeSpaceA in kernel32.dll'.dll ± For given drive letter. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

sectors_per_cluster OUT PLS_INTEGER. number_of_free_clusters OUT PLS_INTEGER. END disk_util.page 190 .Package spec (2/4)  Nothing unexpected here: CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE disk_util AS FUNCTION get_disk_free_space (root_path IN VARCHAR2. total_number_of_clusters OUT PLS_INTEGER) RETURN PLS_INTEGER. bytes_per_sector OUT PLS_INTEGER. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

number_of_free_clusters OUT pls_integer. RETURN LONG). bytes_per_sector BY REFERENCE LONG.page 191  All the magic is in the EXTERNAL section 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . bytes_per_sector OUT PLS_INTEGER.0 (3/4) CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY disk_util AS FUNCTION get_disk_free_space (root_path IN VARCHAR2. number_of_free_clusters BY REFERENCE LONG. END disk_util.Package body in Oracle 8. total_number_of_clusters BY REFERENCE LONG. sectors_per_cluster OUT PLS_INTEGER. total_number_of_clusters OUT PLS_INTEGER) RETURN PLS_INTEGER IS EXTERNAL LIBRARY nt_kernel NAME "GetDiskFreeSpaceA" LANGUAGE C CALLING STANDARD PASCAL PARAMETERS (root_path STRING. sectors_per_cluster BY REFERENCE LONG. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Usage (4/4)
DECLARE lroot_path VARCHAR2(3) := 'C:\'; lsectors_per_cluster PLS_INTEGER; lbytes_per_sector PLS_INTEGER; lnumber_of_free_clusters PLS_INTEGER; ltotal_number_of_clusters PLS_INTEGER; return_code PLS_INTEGER; free_meg REAL; BEGIN return_code := disk_util.get_disk_free_space (lroot_path, lsectors_per_cluster, lbytes_per_sector, lnumber_of_free_clusters, ltotal_number_of_clusters); free_meg := lsectors_per_cluster * lbytes_per_sector * lnumber_of_free_clusters / 1024 / 1024; DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('free disk space, Mb = ' || free_meg); diskspace.sql END;
1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein
PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 192

Creating your own external procedure 

1. Identify or create shared library 2. Identify or CREATE LIBRARY within Oracle 3. Map the parameters using:
± EXTERNAL clause (Oracle8) or ± LANGUAGE clause (Oracle8i)  

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 193

1. Identify/create external routine 


Prerequisite: O/S must support shared libraries Some useful routines are pre-built in C runtime library
± On Unix: /lib/libc.so ± On NT: <systemroot>\system32\crtdll.dll 

Building a shared library of your own requires knowledge of:
± Appropriate language (typically C) ± Compiler & linker

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 194

2. Create the Oracle library 

Syntax:
CREATE OR REPLACE LIBRARY <library name> AS '<full path to file>'; 

Assigns a programmer-defined alias to a specific shared library file Notes
± Requires CREATE LIBRARY pri ilege ± Does not alidate directory ± Can¶t use symbolic link 

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 195

3. Map the parameters
This can get complicated, because«
± Must pass extra parameters to designate:
» NULL/NOT NULL state » String length » Maximum allocated length

± Six choices of parameter mode
» » » » » » IN RETURN IN BY REFERENCE RETURN BY REFERENCE OUT IN OUT

These details are better suited for close reading«
PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 196

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

page 197 .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Oracle8i New Features Autonomous Transactions Invoker Rights Model Row Level Security 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Oracle8i New Features  Oracle8i offers a number of PL/SQL-specific features that give you tremendous additional flexibility and capability. ± And the learning curve to take advantage of these features is generally not too steep.    Autonomous Transactions The Invoker Rights Model Row level security 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 198 .

a COMMIT or ROLLBACK in any program in your session committed or rolled back all changes in your session.Autonomous Transactions  Prior to Oracle8i. ± There was only one transaction allowed per connection. you can now define a PL/SQL block to execute as an "autonomous transaction".page 199 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  With Oracle8i. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE loginfo ( code IN PLS_INTEGER. ± Any changes made within that block can be saved or reversed without affecting the outer or main transaction. msg IN VARCHAR2) AS PRAGMA AUTONOMOUS_TRANSACTION.

 Logging Mechanism ± Commonly developers lot to database tables. ± Now you can avoid the complexities (need for ROLLBACK TO savepoints and so on).  Call functions within SQL that change the database. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . software usage meter.When to Use Autonomous Transactions  Reusable Application Components ± ATs are more or less required in the new distributed application architecture of the Internet.page 200 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . which can cause all sorts of complications: your log entry becomes a part of your transaction. something like a COMMIT) on other components. ± One component should not have any impact (esp. etc.  Tracing Code Usage ± Build retry mechanisms.

END. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Avoid interdependencies with the main transaction.Logging with ATs  Don't forget that ROLLBACK in the exception section! CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY log IS PROCEDURE putline ( code_in IN INTEGER. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN ROLLBACK. END. SYSDATE. USER. rec.pkg retry.machine. logger. USER.tst PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .pkg log81*. text_in IN VARCHAR2 ) IS PRAGMA AUTONOMOUS_TRANSACTION.page 201 .tst retry. rec.sp log81. COMMIT. text_in. let's add some session information. BEGIN INSERT INTO logtab VALUES (code_in. SYSDATE.program ). While we're at it.

Tips and Gotchas with ATs  An AT program must COMMIT or ROLLBACK before terminating. The AT PRAGMA can be used only with individual programs and toplevel anonymous blocks.page 202 . ± You cannot tell by looking at the package spec if you are calling ATs or not -and this info is not available in the data dictionary.   The AT PRAGMA goes in the body of packages. ± You cannot define an entire package as an AT.  Any changes committed in an AT are visible in the outer transaction. ± You cannot define a nested anonymous block to be an AT. autonserial. ± Place the SET TRANSACTION statement in the outer transaction.sql auton_in_sql.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . or an error is raised. ± You can use the SET TRANSACTION ISOLATION LEVEL SERIALIZABLE to indicate that you do not want the changes visible until the outer transaction commits.sql autontrigger*.

± This is called the « Definer Rights Model  With Oracle8i. whenever you executed a stored program. you can now decide at compilation time whether your program or package will execute in the definer's schema (the default) or the schema of the invoker of the code. it ran under the privileges of the account in which the program was defined.page 203 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . ± This is called the « Invoker Rights Model PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .The Invoker Rights Model  Prior to Oracle8i.

About Definer Rights  Allows you to centralize access to and control of underlying data structures. But it can be a source of confusion and architectural problems. Note: Oracle built-in packages have long had the capability of running under the invoker's authority. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . OE Code Order_Mgt Place Cancel Sam_Sales Close Old Orders  OE Data X  Orders Cannot alter table directly.page 204 . Ignores roles and relies on directly-granted privileges.

± Can bypass 8i¶s ³fine-grained´ access features (see the DBMS_RLS package) ± Difficult to audit privileges  Sure would be nice to have a choice.and now you do! 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . unless you write code in the package to essentially recreate roles programmatically. each user has own copy of table(s)..Problems with Definer Rights  Deployment & maintenance ± Must install module in all remote databases where needed ± In some databases.page 205 ..it's all or nothing. requiring copy of stored module  Security ± No declarative way to restrict privileges on certain modules in a package -.

"dummy" objects. ± In other words.Oracle8i Invoker Rights Syntax  For top level modules: CREATE [ OR REPLACE ] <module type> [ AUTHID { DEFINER | CURRENT_USER } ] AS . You could also create local. the objects referenced may well be different from those against which it compiled. and must be at the package level. ± At run-time.page 206 .. AUTHID goes only in spec.  For modules with separate spec and body. do what it takes to get the code to compile..  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Synonyms may be necessary if modules use object names not qualified by schema.

END.... yet have all references to data structures "reflect back" into your own schema...FROM accounts WHERE. you can execute code owned by another schema. modify destroy .. Central Code schema PACKAGE acct_mgr make AUTHID CURRENT_USER User/Data schema PROCEDURE mng_account IS BEGIN ..destroy(."Reflection" Capability of Invoker Rights  With invoker rights.. code.acct_mgr.page 207 . accounts table 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .).

the definer rights model is always applied to resolve the reference. Note: cannot use with wrapped code.  Information about the rights model is not available in the data dictionary What if you want to maintain a single version of your code for both pre-Oracle8i and Oracle8i installations.sql handy.Tips and Gotchas for Invoker Rights  Does not apply to code objects. oneversion.  Once a definer rights program is called. ± Both static and dynamic SQL is supported.sql  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . taking advantage of the invoker rights model whenever possible? ± A creative use of SQL*Plus substitution variables comes in very invdefinv. ± AUTHID CURRENT_USER is ignored.page 208 . only data ± When your stored code references another stored code element. all other calls in stack are resolved according to definer rights.

sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .When to Invoke Invoker Rights  You want to reuse the same code among many users.page 209 . National HQ Check City Statistics New York Schema stolenlives Chicago Schema stolenlives  Especially handy with dynamic SQL. ± Share a program that uses dynamic SQL (whether DBMS_SQL or the new native implementation) and you end up taking the most unexpected DDL and DML detours. but you want their own directly-granted privileges to determine access.sql whichsch*. authid.

HQ Chicago Check City Statistics  New York stolenlives Analyze Pattern stolenlives perpetrators perp.Combining Invoker & Definer Rights  Rely on invoker rights to allow centralized code to work with schema-specific data. Rely on definer rights to access centralized data from any schema.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 210 .

Row Level Security DBMS_RLS Row-Level Security 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 211 .

Row Level Security  The establishment of security policies on (restricted access to) individual rows of a table. Prior to Oracle8i. DBMS_RLS.page 212   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .Row-Level Security with DBMS_RLS  Oracle8i offers a new package. The DBMS_RLS package (along with "system contexts") now allow you to do so in a foolproof manner. with which to implement automated row-level security (also referred to as "fine grained access control"). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . you could achieve this only partially through the use of views.

 Let's step through a simple example to see how all these pieces tie together.  DBMS_RLS ± Use programs in DBMS_RLS to associate your security policies with tables.  Database Logon Triggers ± I want to make sure that when a person logs in. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . the system context is a named set of attributevalue pairs global to your session.page 213 . their context information is set properly.  Security Policy Packages ± You will need to write a package containing functions that establish the security policies to be applied to a particular table.Components Needed for RLS  System Contexts ± A new feature in Oracle8i.

clinic and regulator. highly secure database for NHCS. fgac. popular uprising in the United States has forced the establishment of a national healthcare system.A National Health Care System  The year is 2010. The main tables are patient.page 214 . No more for-profit hospitals pulling billions of dollars out of the system. Here are some rules: ± Doctors can only see patients who are assigned to their clinic. no more private insurance companies soaking up 30 cents on the dollar. ± Regulators can only see patients who reside in the same state. all children are vaccinated. ± Patients can only see information about themselves. all pregnant women receive excellent prenatal care. doctor.  We need a top-notch. ± A massive.sql  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

BEGIN OPEN doc_cur. and create a procedure that will set the context attributes (type and ID) upon login.SET_CONTEXT ( 'patient_restriction'.page 215 . END. 'DOCTOR'). CREATE CONTEXT patient_restriction USING nhc_pkg. DBMS_SESSION. doc_rec doc_cur%ROWTYPE. doc_rec. FETCH doc_cur INTO doc_rec. sets the context accordingly. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .SET_CONTEXT ( 'patient_restriction'.sql for logic that identifies SELECT doctor_id FROM doctor different types of people and WHERE schema_name = USER. c_person_id_attr. DBMS_SESSION. See CURSOR doc_cur IS fgac. c_person_type_attr.Set the Context  Define a context in the database.doctor_id). PROCEDURE set_context IS This is a simplification.

BEGIN IF l_context = 'DOCTOR' THEN retval := 'home_clinic_id IN (SELECT home_clinic_id FROM doctor We need a different string WHERE doctor_id = SYS_CONTEXT (''' || to modify the WHERE c_context || '''. c_person_type_attr). connection. FUNCTION person_predicate ( schema_in VARCHAR2. person. information for this retval VARCHAR2(2000).page 216 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ''' || clause for each type of c_person_id_attr || '''))'. name_in VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2 IS l_context VARCHAR2(100) := Extract the context SYS_CONTEXT (c_context.Define the Predicate  A predicate is a string that will be appended to the WHERE clause of the table to which this security policy is associated (see next page).

PATIENT table will be modified by the string returned by the person_predicate function of the SCOTT.Create the Security Policy  Use the DBMS_RLS. ± The following procedure call specifies that the WHERE clause of any query.person_predicate'. update or delete against the SCOTT. 'SCOTT'.page 217 .DELETE'). 'patient'. 'nhc_pkg. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 'patient_privacy'. 'SELECT.ADD_POLICY OBJECT_SCHEMA OBJECT_NAME POLICY_NAME FUNCTION_SCHEMA POLICY_FUNCTION STATEMENT_TYPES END.ADD_POLICY procedure. BEGIN DBMS_RLS.nhc_pkg package. ( => => => => => => 'SCOTT'.UPDATE.

logon is disabled. fgac. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN DBMS_OUTPUT.page 218 . we guarantee that the context is set (and the predicate applied) no matter which product is the entry point to Oracle. Setting Context  By setting the context in the logon trigger.PUT_LINE ( 'Error ' || SQLCODE || ' setting context for ' || USER').set_context. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Create Logon Trigger. CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER set_id_on_logon AFTER LOGON ON DATABASE BEGIN nhc_pkg.sql Exception handling in trigger is critical! If you allow an exception to go unhandled. END.

Chris Silva .IL VSILVA . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Predicate: home_clinic_id IN (SELECT home_clinic_id FROM doctor WHERE doctor_id = SYS_CONTEXT ('patient_restriction'.Veva Silva .page 219 .IL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Patient sees only himself. Context Information for "SWALLACE": Type: DOCTOR Doctor sees only her ID: 1060 patients.IL Context Information for "CSILVA": Type: PATIENT ID: Predicate: schema_name = 'CSILVA' Patients Visible to "CSILVA": CSILVA . 'person_id')) Patients Visible to "SWALLACE": CSILVA .Queries Transparently Filtered  What you see is determined automatically by who you are.Chris Silva .

. Jump out of your rut ... April.Take Full Advantage of PL/SQL! January.page 220 .. February. May.....  ± You learn what you need to get the job done.. March.and play a new tune with PL/SQL! 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .. It's so easy to fall into a rut with a programming language. and you use only what you know.

a.page 221 . If time permits«)     UTL_FILE ± file IO DBMS_JOB ± Job scheduling DBMS_PIPE ± Pipe-based communication DBMS_UTILITY ± the kitchen sink package 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Appendices (a.k..

. Physical Files 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 222 ..Built-in Packages: UTL_FILE UTL_FILE Server-side File I/O Application FOPEN GET_LINE PUT_LINE .

± Maximum of 1023 bytes per line (read or write) until Oracle 8.UTL_FILE: Server-side I/O  Allows you to read from and write to operating system files on the database server. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 223 . ± Limitations on files you can access (no mapped files. when it jumps to 32K.. ± No higher-level file operations supported (change privileges. A "version 1" (fairly primitive) utility.. delete. no use of environmental variables). copy. random access to contents).5.0.   But you can read lines from a file and write lines to a file.

UTL_FILE Module Outline FCLOSE FCLOSE_ALL FFLUSH FOPEN GET_LINE IS_OPEN NEW_LINE PUT PUT_LINE PUTF Close the specified file Close all open files in your session Flush all data from the UTL_FILE buffer to your file Open a file Get the next line from a file Returns TRUE if the file is open (sort of) Insert a new line character in file at the end of current line Puts text into the UTL_FILE buffer Puts text and new line character into UTL_FILE buffer. Puts formatted text into the buffer PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 224 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .

Authorizing Directory Access  Oracle requires you to list explicitly those directories you wish to be able to read/write with UTL_FILE. ± No single or double quotes around directory. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Follow these rules to avoid many headaches. ± Use a separate entry for each directory (and subdirectory. there is no subdirectory recursion). utl_file_dir = /tmp utl_file_dir = /accounts/newdev  And don't do either of the following: utl_file_dir = . utl_file_dir = * Allows read & write for any directory. ± You do this by adding lines to the instance parameter file.page 225 Allows read & write for current directory. no trailing delimiter.

modify your initialization file.txt'.FILE_TYPE.page 226 .Test UTL_FILE Access  About the hardest part to working with UTL_FILE is simply getting started. UTL_FILE. 'test. BEGIN /* Change the directory name to one to which you at least || THINK you have read/write access.FOPEN ('c:\temp'. 'hello'). and then run the following test script (it can't get much simpler than this): DECLARE fid UTL_FILE. */ fid := UTL_FILE. restart your database. 'W'). So before you write anything fancy. UTL_FILE.tst  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . / utlfile. END.PUT_LINE (fid.FCLOSE (fid).

'test. this function simply returns TRUE if the file handle's id field is NOT NULL.FOPEN ('c:\temp'.FILE_TYPE.txt'. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Opening a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.. Test to see if file is open with the IS_OPEN function. 'W' for Write and 'A' for Append. ± Currently contains a single ID field. END. ± Types are 'R' for Read. BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE.FILE_TYPE.page 227 ..  The FOPEN function returns a record ("file handle") based on the UTL_FILE.   Maximum of 10 files may be opened in each user session. Not much of a test. ± In actuality.  Specify file location. 'W'). name and operation type.

sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± In Oracle8 Release 8.GET_LINE (fid. UTL_FILE.FILE_TYPE.Reading from a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE. 'test. BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE.FOPEN ('c:\temp'. Lines in the file cannot be longer than 1023 bytes in length.0.page 228 .FCLOSE (fid). ± You might want to build your own GET_LINE which handles the exception and returns an EOF Boolean status flag.txt'.   Can only read from a file opened with the "R" mode. the ceiling is raised to 32K. getnext. UTL_FILE. myline). 'R'). END.  The NO_DATA_FOUND exception is raised if you read past the end of the file.5 and above.

UTL_FILE. BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE. END. '&1'). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 'UTL_FILE').PUT_LINE (fid. UTL_FILE. ± The file buffers are automatically flushed when you close a file or exit your session.txt'.  Call FFLUSH to make sure that everything you have written to the buffer is flushed out to the file.PUT (fid.page 229 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . PUT_LINE or PUTF. 'test.Writing to a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE. UTL_FILE is so much fun that I never want to stop Resulting Text  You can use PUT. ± PUTF is like the C printf program. ' that I never\nwant to %s'. UTL_FILE.FCLOSE (fid).PUTF (fid. 'W'). 'is so much fun').FOPEN ('c:\temp'. allowing for some formatting.FILE_TYPE. UTL_FILE.

txt'. myline).page 230   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . 'R'). UTL_FILE. EXCEPTION WHEN UTL_FILE.FCLOSE (fid).Closing a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.FOPEN ('c:\temp'.FILE_TYPE. UTL_FILE.FCLOSE (fid). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . You should close files in exception handlers to make sure that files are not left "hanging" open.READ_ERROR THEN UTL_FILE. BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE. 'test. you will not see the data you have (supposedly) written to that file. END.  If you do not close the file. You can close a single file with FCLOSE or all open files with FCLOSE_ALL.GET_LINE (fid.

EXCEPTION. ± NO_DATA_FOUND when you try to read past the end of the file. EXCEPTION. EXCEPTION. EXCEPTION. EXCEPTION.  You have to take special care to trap and handle the named exceptions. EXCEPTION. ± They all share a common SQLCODE of 1.page 231 .  UTL_FILE relies on a combination of user-defined exceptions and STANDARD exceptions to communicate errors. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . EXCEPTION.Error Handling in UTL_FILE PACKAGE UTL_FILE IS invalid_path invalid_mode invalid_filehandle invalid_operation read_error write_error internal_error END. ± UTL_FILE-named exceptions in other cases.

WHEN UTL_FILE.page 232  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .INVALID_MODE THEN recNgo (PLVfile. record the error. RAISE. RAISE.INVALID_FILEHANDLE THEN recNgo (PLVfile.c_invalid_operation). WHEN UTL_FILE.INVALID_PATH THEN recNgo (PLVfile.c_invalid_filehandle). Re-raise exception if you want it to propagate from that block. WHEN UTL_FILE.c_read_error).INTERNAL_ERROR THEN recNgo (PLVfile.WRITE_ERROR THEN recNgo (PLVfile. RAISE. RAISE. translating the generic user-defined exception into an understandable message.c_write_error). END. RAISE. RAISE. WHEN UTL_FILE. RAISE.c_invalid_path). WHEN UTL_FILE.INVALID_OPERATION THEN recNgo (PLVfile. WHEN UTL_FILE.Recommended Exception Section EXCEPTION WHEN UTL_FILE. utlflexc.READ_ERROR THEN recNgo (PLVfile.sql  Trap locally by name.c_invalid_mode).c_internal_error).

page 233 .. Background Process DBA_JOBS Oracle Job Queue Subsystem 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..Built-in Packages: DBMS_JOB DBMS_JOB Scheduled Execution of Stored Procedures Application SUBMIT RUN REMOVE .

Schedule large batch jobs to run on "off hours". which in turn offers job scheduling capabilities within the Oracle Server.page 234 . but only ³publicly available´ and supported in PL/SQL Release 2. Made its debut in PL/SQL Release 2. Create a listener program to poll the contents of a pipe and take action. ± Spawn background processes to avoid blocking client process.Overview of DBMS_JOB  DBMS_JOB provides an API to the Oracle job queues. Built by Oracle to support snapshots and replication. You can use DBMS_JOB to: Replicate data between different database instances.2.1. ± ± ± ±    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Schedule regular maintenance on instances.

Changes the interval between executions of a job. Changes the job string of a job. Submits a job to the queue using a predefined job number.DBMS_JOB Module Outline BROKEN Marks the job as either FIXED or BROKEN. Returns the job string for a job number.page 235 CHANGE INTERVAL ISUBMIT NEXT_DATE REMOVE RUN SUBMIT USER_EXPORT WHAT 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Removes the job from the queue. Changes when a queued job will run. Submits a job to the queue returning a unique job number. Forces immediate execution of the specified job number. Broken jobs will not run as scheduled. Changes one or all attributes of a job.

I run calculate_totals immediately and then on a daily basis thereafter. ± In the above example.'.SUBMIT (job#. 'calculate_totals. END. Notice that the start time is a DATE expression. and then the job¶s execution interval (frequency of execution). while the interval is a string (this is dynamic PL/SQL!)  You can also call DBMS_JOB.Submitting a Job DECLARE job# BINARY_INTEGER. instead of having DBMS_JOB generate one for you.  When you submit a job.page 236 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . 'SYSDATE + 1'). SYSDATE. BEGIN DBMS_JOB. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .ISUBMIT and supply the job number.  A job is a call to a stored procedure or an anonymous block ± It must end with a semi-colon and can contain ³hard-coded´ arguments. you specify the date on which it should next execute.

page 237 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .submit ( job => v_jobno.ANALYZE_OBJECT. next_date => TRUNC (SYSDATE + 1). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .'. END. what => 'DBMS_DDL. to analyze a specific table every evening at midnight.ANALYZE_OBJECT ' || '(''TABLE''.''TENK''' || '.Submit Job Example DECLARE v_jobno INTEGER. /  This block submits a job that uses a built-in procedure.''ESTIMATE''. p.estimate_percent=>50). interval => 'TRUNC(SYSDATE+1)' ).null.''LOAD1''.l (v_jobno). BEGIN DBMS_JOB. DBMS_DDL.

DBMS_JOB.120).interval => 'SYSDATE +1'). DBMS_JOB.page 238 .ISUBMIT (2. ± Job 2 passes a date into procedure MY_JOB2. and will be removed from the queue automatically. ± Job 3 is a PL/SQL block which does nothing. executes immediately.ISUBMIT (job => 1 . numbered 1. 'my_job2(date_IN=>SYSDATE). and 3.SYSDATE+1. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . executes for the first time tomorrow and every 10 minutes thereafter.SYSDATE.ISubmit Job Example BEGIN DBMS_JOB.DBMS_JOB.ISUBMIT(3.'BEGIN null.next_date => SYSDATE + 1/24 . /  This block submits three jobs to the job queue.' .' . runs it in one hour and executes every day thereafter. END. END.'.'SYSDATE+10/1440').2.what => 'my_job1(''string_parm_value''.null). ± Job 1 passes a string and number into procedure MY_JOB1.

''FRIDAY''))) + 18/24' PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . you must use 2 single quotes to embed strings. Every hour Every Sunday at 2 AM First Monday of each quarter.Specifying Job Times & Frequencies  Probably the most complicated part of using DBMS_JOB is to get the string expression of the job interval right. ''WEDNESDAY''). Wednesday and Friday at 6 PM 'SYSDATE + 1/24' 'NEXT_DAY (TRUNC (SYSDATE). ''MONDAY'').page 239 + 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . NEXT_DAY (SYSDATE. 3). at 9 AM Every Monday. ''Q''). ''SATURDAY'') 2/24' 'NEXT_DAY ( ADD_MONTHS (TRUNC (SYSDATE. ± Use date arithmetic to request intervals smaller than a day. ''MONDAY'') + 9/24' 'TRUNC (LEAST ( NEXT_DAY (SYSDATE. ± Since it's a string. NEXT_DAY (SYSDATE.

± Only if the job was submitted from same schema BEGIN FOR rec IN (SELECT * FROM USER_JOBS) LOOP DBMS_JOB. retaining current job number. DBMS_JOB.ISUBMIT. ± Uses DBMS_JOB.RUN (my_job#). expjob. END LOOP. ± Performs an implicit COMMIT in current session.job).  Export jobs from the queue.Other Job Queue Operations  Remove a job from the queue.page 240 .  Run a job immediately. ± Produces a string that can be used to recreate an existing job in the job queue. Remove all jobs for current schema.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .REMOVE (rec.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .sid = jr. SELECT jr.DBA_JOBS .sql FROM DBA_JOBS_RUNNING .what job_id username start_date job_definition jr j s showjobs.job = j.username .Job Queue Views  You can also view the job queue by looking at the DBA_JOBS_RUNNING.jr.this_date .page 241 .job ORDER BY jr. who owns them and when they began.sid AND jr. ± The following query blends job information with session information to display currently-executing jobs.V$SESSION WHERE s.job . DBA_JOBS and USER_JOBS views.this_date.

of one hour). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . You will have to take special DBA action if you want to restrict who can run jobs.page 242 . ± The default is PUBLIC access.ora (initialization) file for your database instance: ± job_queue_processes=N where n is the number of concurrent background processes permitted.Setting up the Job Facility  Make sure that the correct access is set up for the DBMS_JOB package. therefore. ± job_queue_interval=N where N is the interval in seconds to check the job queue.  You will need to set three parameters in the init. The valid range is 0 through 36. The valid range is 1 to 3600 (a maximum.

the job facility will mark your job as broken. ± Do you want it to try 16 times? ± In addition. ± Always include a WHEN OTHERS exception handler in your job program which traps any and all problems and automatically sets the job status to broken.  To avoid unexpected and unhandled failures of scheduled jobs: ± Always use the RUN built-in to execute your job in a ³test´ mode. it may cause the background processes to fail and no longer run any jobs at all. if your failure raises an unhandled exception. Then you can go ahead and submit it. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 243 .Error Handling with DBMS_JOB  What if your stored procedure fails? ± After 16 attempts.

± Obtains the job number from a packaged function by passing the name of the procedure. spacelog.Stopping the Job When It Fails PROCEDURE calc_totals IS BEGIN ...sql  The WHEN OTHERS exception handler of the calc_totals procedure traps any kind of failure. job_pkg. You can go in and fix the problem.job (µcalc_totals¶) DBMS_JOB. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .log (µcalc_totals¶. TRUE).page 244 . ± Now the job facility will not try to run this program again.sql showspc. ± Calls log program of package to record that failure took place. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN job# := job_pkg. END. ± Uses a call to BROKEN to set the status of the job to ³broken´.BROKEN (job#. µFAIL¶).

You can use the DBMS_IJOB to manage the jobs of other users. ± DBMS_JOB only allows you to modify characteristics and behavior of jobs submitted by the current schema. difficult to reproduce behavior at times with "straight" procedure calls."Good to Knows" for DBMS_JOB  You may find it useful to always wrap your stored procedure call (the what) inside a BEGIN-END block.page 245 . it picks up the current execution environment for the user. When a job runs. perform a COMMIT after your submit. ± We've noticed some aberrant.  You will need to fully-qualify all database links (with user name and password) to get them to work properly.    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . If you find that you submit a job to run immediately and it does not start.

Built-in Packages: DBMS_PIPE DBMS_PIPE Inter-session Communication 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 246 .

page 247 . ± Perform and commit DML in a separate transaction space from your main transaction. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Oracle uses database pipes to parallelize database operations. ± Interface PL/SQL-database activities with operating system functions and programs written in other languages. You can parallelize your own code. ± More sophisticated debugging inside PL/SQL programs (work around fundamental limitations of DBMS_OUTPUT).DBMS_PIPE Overview  Allows communication between different Oracle sessions through a pipe in the RDBMS Shared Global Area. ± Operates outside of database transaction limitations.  Uses for DBMS_PIPE include: ± Parallelization of program execution.

± Names can be up to 128 chars long (do not use names beginning with ³ORA$´.Architecture of DBMS_PIPE Shared Global Area ³Sue´ ³Bob´ Message Buffer Message Buffer Session A  Session B A pipe is a named object that uses the System Global Area to provide a non-transaction based conduit of information.page 248 . ± The pipe sends/receives a message. which can be composed of one or more separate packets. They are reserved for Oracle use). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . using a maximum of 4096 bytes.

date. you can wait for up to 1000 days (or 86400000 seconds) for the pipe to be cleared.  Send the message to a named pipe. ± This is the default. ROWID or RAW. ± Each packet can be a string. ± Separate out the individual packets in the message (again: string.page 249 . ± You can wait for up to 1000 days for a message. ± If there isn¶t currently room in the pipe.  Unpack the message packets and take action.sql PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± There is just one message buffer per session. date or number).sql pipex2. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein pipex1. so you should always specify a timeout period.  Receive a message from that pipe.Processing Flow of DBMS_PIPE  Construct a message from packets of information. number.

making it a candidate for removal with a LRU algorithm. REMOVE_PIPE RESET_BUFFER Removes a pipe explicitly created via CREATE_PIPE. UNPACK_MESSAGE Unpacks the next item from the local message buffer and deposits it into the specified local variable. NEXT_ITEM_TYPE Returns the datatype of the next item in the piped message. RECEIVE_MESSAGE Receives a message from pipe and copies to local buffer. PURGE Empties the contents of a pipe into your local buffer freeing it for removal. PACK_MESSAGE Packs an item into the message buffer for your session. Clears your buffer so that PACK_MESSAGE and UNPACK_MESSAGE can work from the first item. UNIQUE_SESSION_NAME Returns name that is unique among all sessions in the database. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 250 . SEND_MESSAGE Sends contents of message buffer to the specified pipe.DBMS_PIPE Module Outline Module Name CREATE_PIPE Description Creates a PUBLIC or PRIVATE pipe.

 A public pipe is accessible as long as you know its name. ± Implicitly-created pipes are always public. ± Send messages to non-existent pipe implicitly create it. ± Specify TRUE for private argument of CREATE_PIPE. private => TRUE). PROCEDURE newpipe IS stat INTEGER.  An explicit pipe can be private (accessible only to sessions with matching userID or SYSDBA privileges). BEGIN stat := DBMS_PIPE. ± Use CREATE_PIPE to create a pipe explicitly. maxpipesize => 20000.page 251 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Creating Public and Private Pipes  There are two ways to create pipes: implicitly and explicitly.CREATE_PIPE ( pipename => 'bbs'.

FUNCTION send_message (pipename IN VARCHAR2. 60. pipe_stat := DBMS_PIPE. Send to "monthly" pipe. and new max pipe size (you can make it bigger.page 252 . waiting up to 1 minute. maxpipesize IN INTEGER DEFAULT 8192) RETURN INTEGER.PACK_MESSAGE ( total_sales (month_num)).SEND_MESSAGE ( µmonthly¶. expanding pipe size to 40 Kbytes. END LOOP. timeout IN INTEGER DEFAULT maxwait. but not smaller).. Status of 0 means message was sent. 12 LOOP DBMS_PIPE. IF pipe_stat != 0 THEN RAISE could_not_send. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Fill your message buffer with packets of data. FOR month_num IN 1 . 10 * 4096). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Sending a Message Provide pipe name. seconds you will wait.

± You need to know the datatype of packet or check it using NEXT_ITEM_TYPE. PROCEDURE unpack_message (item OUT NUMBER).  First you pull the message from the pipe and place it in buffer with RECEIVE_MESSAGE.page 253 .Receiving and Unpack a Message FUNCTION receive_message (pipename IN VARCHAR2. ± Specify pipe and number of seconds you will wait before you time out. PROCEDURE unpack_message (item OUT DATE). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . timeout IN INTEGER DEFAULT maxwait) RETURN INTEGER.  Then you call UNPACK_MESSAGE to extract individual packets from the message. ± Pipe status of 0 means the message was read successfully. PROCEDURE unpack_message (item OUT VARCHAR2).

DBMS_PIPE.UNPACK_MESSAGE (prod_total). 'Production data unavailable.page 254 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . LOOP pipe_status := DBMS_PIPE. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . seconds for the BEGIN next report. Wait up to N prod_total NUMBER. every_n_secs). pass it on to the IF pipe_status = 0 computation THEN program. END. prod_total). END IF. PROCEDURE analyze_assembly_data (every_n_secs IN INTEGER) IS pipe_status INTEGER.'). END LOOP. ELSE RAISE_APPLICATION_ERROR ( Stop process if -20000. If I got something.RECEIVE_MESSAGE ( 'production'. data not received. analyze_production (SYSDATE.A Pipe-based Listener Program  Program wakes up every N seconds to read the data from the pipe and analyze results from assembly line (an intentional "infinite loop"!).

you have to make sure that you unpack a packet into the right kind of variable.page 255 . Returns one of the following values: Value 0 6 9 11 12 23 Description or Data type No more items in buffer NUMBER VARCHAR2 ROWID DATE RAW dbpipe.Unpacking the Message FUNCTION next_item_type RETURN INTEGER. Either: ± You know the datatype and therefore can ³hard-code´ the correct variable into the call to UNPACK_MESSAGE. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .sql dbpipe.tst  Since a message can be composed of packets of different datatypes. ± Or you use the built-in NEXT_ITEM_TYPE to tell you in advance the datatype of the next packet in the message and take appropriate action.

 Without pipes.page 256 . but are not dependent on each other. total office expenses and total compensation.Parallelizing Your Code with Pipes  Oracle uses DBMS_PIPE to improve RDBMS performance. ± The CEO is decidedly unhappy about the delay. ± You have processes which can run in parallel. ± These programs each take 15 minutes. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . I must execute them sequentially and incur an elapsed time of 45 minutes before I calculate the profits. you can do the same for your application if: ± You have multiple CPUs available. In order to do so I must first compute total sales.  Suppose I want to calculate my net profit.

Sequential vs. Parallel Execution Sequential Execution: Maximum Elapsed Time S t a r t E n d Process A Process B Process C Parallel Execution: Minimum Elapsed Time Start Process A Process B Process C End 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 257 .

kick_off_totcomp_calc.  The ³kick off´ programs pass their messages to separate pipes.page 258 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . ± When each program is complete. ± Other programs running in the background grab the messages and start their corresponding calculation program. kick_off_exp_calc. calculate_net_profits. Then net profits can be computed -. it puts a message (perhaps even a value) into the pipe.in a muchdecreased elapsed time. wait_for_confirmation. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  The ³wait´ program waits till it receives a message from each program. END.Parallelizing PL/SQL Execution BEGIN kick_off_sales_calc.

ELSE DBMS_PIPE. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . IF stat = 0 THEN lots_of_number_crunching.SEND_MESSAGE (µsales¶). DBMS_PIPE.PACK_MESSAGE (sales$).page 259 .SEND_MESSAGE (µsales¶). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Send message to start calculations.RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µsales¶).SEND_MESSAGE (µsales¶). BEGIN stat := DBMS_PIPE. END. stat := DBMS_PIPE. and send back the results. calculate sales. END.PACK_MESSAGE (NULL). stat := DBMS_PIPE. BEGIN DBMS_PIPE.Code to Kick Off and Calculate PROCEDURE kick_off_sales_calc IS stat INTEGER. END IF. Receive the year.PACK_MESSAGE (1995). PROCEDURE calculate_sales IS stat INTEGER. stat := DBMS_PIPE.

stat := DBMS_PIPE. parallel.page 260 .UNPACK_MESSAGE (sales$). END. Perform final calculation.RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µcomp¶). DBMS_PIPE. END.comp$. Wait for all calculations to finish. DBMS_PIPE.UNPACK_MESSAGE (comp$). The order in which you wait is insignificant.UNPACK_MESSAGE (offexp$). stat := DBMS_PIPE.RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µsales¶).RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µoffexp¶). BEGIN stat := DBMS_PIPE. DBMS_PIPE.offexp$ . PROCEDURE calculate_net_profits IS BEGIN net_profits := sales$ .Waiting for Confirmation PROCEDURE wait_for_confirmation IS stat INTEGER.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

± A listener program grabs the request (including the return pipe name).pkg  Implementation of a system-wide. and sends it to the pipe. ± Demonstrates the use of toggles and switches in packages. ± The requester reads the information from the pipe.pkg syscache.page 261 . obtains the data. syscache.pkg p_and_l.Other DBMS_PIPE Examples  Simple trace package that sends it output either to screen or to pipe. in-memory cache. watch. ± A request for data is passed to a "central" pipe.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Built-in Packages: DBMS_UTILITY DBMS_UTILITY Application GET_TIME GET_HASH_VALUE FORMAT_CALL_STACK .. A µgrab-bag¶ of miscellaneous operations SCHEMA 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..page 262 .

Returns error stack. Parses comma-delimited list to index-by table.DBMS_UTILITY Module Outline ANALYZE_DATABASE ANALYZE_PART_OBJECT Analyze objects in database Runs ANALYZE TABLE or ANALYZE INDEX for each partition of the object (Oracle8). Returns database version (Oracle8) Executes DDL statement (Oracle8).page 263 dbver. Returns execution call stack. Returns hash value for string. Recompile INVALID objects in specified schema. Gets file number part of data block address.pkg COMMA_TO_TABLE COMPILE_SCHEMA DATA_BLOCK_ADDRESS_BLOCK DATA_BLOCK_ADDRESS_FILE DB_VERSION EXEC_DDL_STATEMENT FORMAT_CALL_STACK FORMAT_ERROR_STACK GET_HASH_VALUE 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . Gets block number part of data block address. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .pkg dbparm.

Returns "current time" down to hundredth of second. Returns platform and version of database. Returns TRUE if in parallel server mode. GET_PARAMETER_VALUE GET_TIME IS_PARALLEL_SERVER MAKE_DATA_BLOCK_ADDRESS NAME_RESOLVE NAME_TOKENIZE PORT_STRING TABLE_TO_COMMA Retrieves value of database parameter (Oracle8).page 264 . cont. Parses string object designator into components. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .DBMS_UTILITY Module Outline. Creates data block address from block & file numbers. Resolves name of object into component parts. Converts list (in index-by-table) of elements into a comma-delimited list (string).

Basic steps necessary to convert GET_TIME into a performance analysis tool.GET_TIME . DBMS_OUTPUT. DECLARE v_start BINARY_INTEGER.  Compare results from consecutive calls to GET_TIME to determine the elapsed time of PL/SQL code execution.GET_TIME. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END. BEGIN v_start := DBMS_UTILITY. especially those that run in sub-second time. so GET_TIME offers significant additional granularity.PUT_LINE (DBMS_UTILITY. calc_totals. ± Useful when analyzing individual PL/SQL programs.page 265 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .v_start). ± SYSDATE only reflects times down to the nearest second.Sub-Second Timings with GET_TIME  GET_TIME returns the number of 100ths of seconds that have elapsed since an arbitrary point in time.

BEGIN PLVtmr. Clean and lean timing code ovrhead. END.page 266 . PLVtmr. PROCEDURE set_factor (factor_in IN NUMBER).show_elapsed.Building a Layer Over GET_TIME Partial package specification PACKAGE PLVtmr IS PROCEDURE turn_on. adjust_in IN NUMBER := 0. reset_in IN BOOLEAN := TRUE). PROCEDURE turn_off.sql plvtmr. PROCEDURE capture ( context_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) PROCEDURE show_elapsed (prefix_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. END PLVtmr.spb 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .sps plvtmr. calc_totals.capture.

VALIDATE_REQUEST function STEVEN.FORMAT_CALL_STACK).CALC_NET_WORTH anonymous block  "Little known facts" about FORMAT_CALL_STACK: ± Contains embedded new-line characters. ± Does not show package elements.COMPANY_TYPE procedure STEVEN. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END.PUT_LINE ( DBMS_UTILITY. ----. only the package name.page 267 . EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN DBMS_OUTPUT. equivalent to CHR(10). ± Most recent program at beginning of "report".Accessing the Execution Call Stack Use in the exception section to show context of error.PL/SQL Call Stack ----object line object handle number name 88ce3f74 88e49fc4 88e49390 88e2bd20 8 2 1 1 package STEVEN.

sps DBMS_OUTPUT. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE dispcs IS stk VARCHAR2(10000).Accessing Call Stack Contents  The call stack length can easily exceed 255 bytes. dispcs. END. which means you cannot pass it to DBMS_OUTPUT directly. startpos := next_newline + 1. EXIT WHEN next_newline = 0. 1).PUT_LINE (next_line). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .tst callstack. Instead.sp dispcs. next_newline INTEGER. use a loop to read through the stack.pkg plvcs. startpos INTEGER := 1. startpos. next_line := SUBSTR ( stk.page 268 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .startpos + 1). END LOOP. next_line VARCHAR2(255). LOOP next_newline := INSTR (stk.FORMAT_CALL_STACK || CHR(10). next_newline . CHR(10). startpos. BEGIN stk := DBMS_UTILITY.

± Use NAME_RESOLVE to break down an identifier string into its components easily..for encapsulation! showcomp. the way they are attached also follows a complicated syntax. PROCEDURE DBMS_UTILITY. part1 OUT VARCHAR2...NAME_RESOLVE (name IN VARCHAR2. object_number OUT NUMBER). part2 OUT VARCHAR2.sp snc.Resolving Names of Stored Code  Code names have many components. dblink OUT VARCHAR2..pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . see it as an opportunity.page 269 . context IN NUMBER.  Possible "Part 1" Types 5 7 8 9 Synonym Procedure Function Package What a chore! All those arguments. schema OUT VARCHAR2. part1_type OUT NUMBER.but don't see it as a problem.

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