Achieving PL/SQL Excellence

Oracle PL/SQL Advanced Techniques
Oracle7 thru Oracle8i
Steven Feuerstein
www.StevenFeuerstein.com www.Quest.com www.OReilly.com
and contributions most excellent from Bill Pribyl and Dick Bolz

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 1

Objective & Outline 

Objective
± Expand your knowledge and awareness of important and new features of the PL/SQL language. 

Outline
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± Building with Packages (Oracle7+) PL/SQL Collections (Oracle7 and Oracle8+) Cursor Variables (Oracle7 and Oracle8+) Dynamic SQL: DBMS_SQL and Native Dynamic SQL (8i) Calling Java from PL/SQL (Oracle8i) and C (Oracle8) Oracle Advanced Queuing with DBMS_AQ (Oracle8) Managing Large Objects with DBMS_LOB (Oracle8) Other Oracle8i New Features
» Autonomous Transactions (Oracle8i) » Invoker Rights Model (Oracle8i) » Row Level Security: DBMS_RLS

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

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Software Used in Training 

PL/Vision: a library of packages installed on top of PL/SQL.
± PL/Vision Lite - use it, copy, change it for free -- unless you build software to be sold commercially. ± Active PL/SQL Knowledge Base: contains PL/Vision Professional, the fully supported and enhanced version. 

Demonstration scripts executed in the training can be found on the RevealNet PL/SQL Pipeline:
± http://www.revealnet.com/Pipelines/PLSQL/index.htm ± Archives surfboard, Miscellaneous, PL/SQL Seminar Files ± See filedesc.doc for a listing of many of the files.
plsql_ides.txt 

The PL/SQL IDE (Integrated Development Environment).
± You no longer have to use SQL*Plus and a crude editor! Choose from among the many listed in plsql_ides.txt.

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Achieving PL/SQL Excellence

Building with PL/SQL Packages 
 

Overview Initialization section Overloading

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What is a Package? 

A collection of code elements, from procedures and functions to TYPE, variable and cursor declarations.
± Single-most important structure within PL/SQL, and almost certainly one of the most under-utilized. ± Conceptually very simple, it can take some time to fully grasp the implications and potential of the package. 

The method of choice by Oracle and other software developers for extending the PL/SQL language.
± You will find packages in the database, in Oracle Developer/2000, in Oracle Application Server. 

Let¶s review some of the benefits of packages.
tmr.pkg dbparm.pkg

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pkg  Improve transaction integrity by hiding data structures behind the package interface. ± Instead of writing SQL directly in your programs. custrules. ± Can lead to performance improvements. ± There's a big difference between a bunch of separate programs and a coherent. package-based "component".When to Build a Package  Join physically logically-related code.pkb  Construct very flexible and usable utilities for developers. te_employee.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Puts more structure and organization in your body of code.page 6 .pkg insga. watch.pks te_employee. you call the packaged procedures and functions instead.

Program references package element the first time in each session. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± The PL/SQL runtime engine determines when and if this code should be run.page 7 . the first time any package element is referenced.Package Initialization  The initialization section is a block of code at the end of the package body that is executed once per session. Does the package have an init section? yes Run initialization code. no Complete request for packaged element.

± Setting up package data which does not change for the duration of a session. most packages you build won't have one.Package Initialization Structure  The initialization section: ± Is defined after and outside of any programs in the package. ± Can have its own exception handling section. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . FUNCTION func RETURN BEGIN END. BEGIN END pkg. In fact. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein BEGIN after/outside of any program defined in the pkg.page 8 . ± Confirming that package is properly instantiated. PACKAGE BODY pkg IS PROCEDURE proc IS BEGIN END.  Useful for: ± Performing complex setting of default or initial values. ± Is not required.

defprinter INTO show_lov. Section  An unusual package! ± Specification contains only variables. ± Body contains only initialization section. tb_flag.  Also a package with many design flaws. printer VARCHAR2(60). EXCEPTION WHEN NO_DATA_FOUND THEN /* No record for show_lov := show_toolbar := printer := PACKAGE sessinit IS show_lov CHAR(1). PACKAGE BODY sessinit IS /* No declared package elements at all! */ BEGIN /* Get user preferences for this user. WHEN OTHERS THEN RAISE_APPLICATION_ERROR (-20000. END sessinit. show_toolbar.tst this user. */ 'Y'. */ SELECT lov_flag. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . printer FROM user_config WHERE user_id = USER. 'No profile for ' || USER).pkg init.page 9 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . show_toolbar CHAR(1). 'Y'. 'lpt1'.Configure Session with Init.. END sessinit. init..

fmts(2) := 'DD-MON-YYYY'. fmts(11) := 'YYYYMMDD'. fmt_count := 12. ± The datemgr. fmts(3) := 'DD-MON'.pkg dates. . fmts(9) := 'MM/DD/YYYY'. fmts(12) := 'RRMMDD'. fmts(4) := 'MM/DD'. BEGIN fmts(1) := 'DD-MON-RR'. Initialization section populates a PL/SQL table.page 10 .. ± This increases the flexibility of the date conversion process. END dt.pkg file demonstrates the basic technique (and the reliance on an initialization section) used to achieve this flexibility. employs several PL/SQL tables to convert strings and to perform date arithmetic. datemgr. PLVdate.. fmts(10) := 'MMDDYYYY'.Populate Collections  The PL/Vision Date package.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

± If you want others to use your code. myproc myproc 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . you need to make that code as smart and as easy to use as possible.Program Overloading  When you overload programs.page 11 . ± You can overload modules in any declaration section and in packages. myproc  Overloading is a critical feature when building comprehensive programmatic interfaces (APIs) or components using packages. ± Overloading transfers the "need to know" from the user to the overloaded program. you give two or more programs the same name.

± You just probably never gave it a thought. number_string := TO_CHAR (10000). number_string := TO_CHAR_FROM_NUMBER (10000). and took functions like TO_CHAR and TO_DATE totally for granted. ± But Oracle couldn't offer that level of convenience without overloading. 'MMDDYY'). you would have to deal with something like this: date_string := TO_CHAR_FROM_DATE (SYSDATE. Without overloading.page 12 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 'MMDDYY'). date_string := TO_CHAR (SYSDATE.Overloading in PL/SQL Built-ins  PL/SQL uses overloading in many common functions.

the compiler must be able to distinguish between the two calls at compile-time.page 13 .  Distinguishing characteristics: ± The formal parameters of overloaded modules must differ in number. When you compile the package or block containing the overloaded code.  Undistinguishing characteristics: ± Functions differ only in their RETURN datatype. ± 2. ± Arguments differ only in their mode (IN. VARCHAR2 is not different enough). When you compile programs that use the overloaded code. ± The programs are of different types: procedure and function. IN OUT). OUT. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Their formal parameters differ only in datatype and the datatypes are in the same family.How Overloading Works  For two or more modules to be overloaded. There are two different "compile times": ± 1. order or datatype family (CHAR vs.

PACKAGE only_returns IS FUNCTION func1 (val IN VARCHAR2) RETURN DATE. END only_returns.PUT_LINE (only_returns. END too_many_cals. PROCEDURE proc1 (val IN OUT VARCHAR2). END param_modes.func1 (v_value)).page 14 .Examples of Invalid Overloadings PACKAGE too_similar IS PROCEDURE calc (reg_in IN CHAR). PROCEDURE calc (reg_in IN VARCHAR2). Only difference is function RETURN type. which one? param_modes. PACKAGE param_modes IS PROCEDURE proc1 (val IN VARCHAR2).calc ('123'). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . which one? too_similar. which one? DBMS_OUTPUT. Only difference is parameter mode. Parameter data types cause conflict. FUNCTION func1 (val IN VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2.proc1 (v_value).

page 15 . You use the type of data and not its value to determine which of the overloaded programs should be executed. the overloading does not provide a single name for different activities.Overload Wherever Possible  Supporting Many Data Combinations ± Apply the same action to different kinds or combinations of data.  Overloading by Type. you may construct different versions of the ³same´ program which correspond to different patterns of use.l substitute does an even better job. not Value ± A less common application of overloading.PUT_LINE procedure illustrates this technique -and the PL/Vision p. ± The DBMS_OUTPUT. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Fitting the Program to the User ± To make your code as useful as possible. so much as providing different ways of requesting the same activity. In this case.

A "Classic" Overloaded Package  Many different datatype combinations. END p. PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2.page 16 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . YYYY . PACKAGE p IS PROCEDURE l (date_in IN DATE. mask_in IN VARCHAR2 := µMonth DD.HH:MI:SS PM'). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . allowing the user to pass data to the "display engine" without writing "pre-processing" code. mask_in IN VARCHAR2 := 'Month DD. PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2. p.HH:MI:SS PM'). number_in IN NUMBER). PROCEDURE l (number_in IN NUMBER). date_in IN DATE. PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2). PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2.sps p.spb PROCEDURE l (boolean_in IN BOOLEAN). boolean_in IN BOOLEAN). YYYY .

DBMS_OUTPUT. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein ‡Extended overloadings are more likely to meet user needs.page 17 . p.l ('So what is different?'). IF print_report_fl THEN DBMS_OUTPUT. DBMS_OUTPUT. 'MM/DD/YY HH:MI:SS')). p. p..PUT_LINE ('So what is different?'). ELSE DBMS_OUTPUT.Advantage of Extended Overloading ‡ Minimal overloading means lots of extra coding. SQLCODE).PUT_LINE ('TRUE').l (print_report_fl).l (SQLERRM. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . p.l (SYSDATE). END IF.PUT_LINE ('FALSE').PUT_LINE (TO_CHAR (SYSDATE..PUT_LINE (SQLERRM || ': ' || TO_CHAR (SQLCODE)). DBMS_OUTPUT.

page 18   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . ± Your code is a a more natural "fit" under a variety of requirements. ± If you want to write software that is admired. If you take these different circumstances into account when you design your package specification. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .. appreciated. think about the way it will be used. such as "display data" or "create a file".Fitting the Program to the User Writing "unnecessary" code? Time to overload!  A single piece of functionality.. few developers are considerate enough of their users to try to anticipate their needs. In my experience.and taken completely for granted. can be applied or needed under very different circumstances. the user of your package can benefit from writing less code.

Creating a File for a Quick Touch  Suppose a developer needs to create a file to be used as a "flag" in the operating system. 'blah'). even though you are simply going to close the file immediately after opening it. BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE. right? WRONG! PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .FILE_TYPE. ± She doesn't care what's in it. UTL_FILE.PUT_LINE (fid.  In other words. ± Here is the code required by UTL_FILE: DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.FOPEN ('tmp/flags'. you have to declare the record to hold the file handle.flg'.page 19  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . UTL_FILE. sometimes you will want to create a file and then perform additional operations. so this is just the way it has to be. It just needs to be present. 'exists.FCLOSE (fid). Of course. 'W'). END.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Use as Function DECLARE fid UTL_FILE. Use as Procedure BEGIN PLVfile. TO_CHAR (SYSDATE)).put_line (fid.page 20 .fcreate ('temp.pkg PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .FILE_TYPE. line_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL).fcreate ('exists.ini'. END PLVfile.FILE_TYPE. /* Function */ FUNCTION fcreate (file_in IN VARCHAR2. line_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) RETURN UTL_FILE.Procedure and Function Overloaded  Why not overload a "create file" program so that you can pick the one that most closely fits your situation? Consider the PLVfile package of PL/Vision. custrules.  Overloading of FCreate PACKAGE PLVfile IS /* Procedure */ PROCEDURE fcreate (file_in IN VARCHAR2. BEGIN fid := PLVfile. PLVfile.flg'). v_user). END.

page 21 . ± Pass a piece of data of the right type. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  There are three ways to accomplish this: ± Don't overload. you must call the DEFINE_COLUMN procedure to define the datatype of the Nth column in the cursor."By-Type" Overloading  In some situations. when you use DBMS_SQL to set up a dynamic query. but the type of data. Define a different program name for each datatype. ± For example. the user does not need to pass data. ± Pass a string ³name´ of the datatype.

DBMS_SQL.  Nasty hard-coding.. ± DBMS_SQL.  Now let's look at two examples of overloading by datatype.. 1. 30). BEGIN DBMS_SQL. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL.. DBMS_SQL.. lotsa names.Options for Specifying Column Type  Don't even bother overloading. 2.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur..VARCHAR2_TYPE.page 22 . 'STRING'.DEFINE_VARCHAR2_COLUMN (cur.. DBMS_SQL. 1).. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.  So many program names to remember! Pass a literal value. Pass a named constant.NUMBER_TYPE). 30).DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.func 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 30). 2.. 2. DBMS_SQL.. 'NUMBER')..DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. 1.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.DEFINE_COLUMN ± PLVgen..DEFINE_INTEGER_COLUMN (cur. Lotsa typing..

DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. 30). DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.of the correct type. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. USER.page 23 . 1. DBMS_UTILITY. 1. 1).DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. from the perspective of DBMS_SQL. v_ename. 2. DBMS_SQL. 'a'.GET_TIME). BEGIN DBMS_SQL.Defining Dynamic SQL Columns  The DBMS_SQL. ± To make it easier to accomplish this task. you only need to pass a value -. ± The three code blocks below are equivalent. 2. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . BEGIN DBMS_SQL. 30). 1.DEFINE_COLUMN procedure defines the datatype of a column. v_empno).DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. 30). DBMS_SQL. 2.DEFINE_COLUMN.any value -.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.

page 24 . type_in IN VARCHAR2). PROCEDURE func (name_in IN VARCHAR2. PACKAGE PLVgen IS PROCEDURE func (name_in IN VARCHAR2. ± The particular value itself is of no importance. 1) A date function. type_in IN DATE). please! 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Generating Functions by Value  In PLVgen. PROCEDURE func (name_in IN VARCHAR2. any Boolean will do. Any number. SYSDATE) SQL> exec plvgen.func ('last_date'. please! A number function.func ('total_salary'. SQL> exec plvgen. the user indicates the type of function to be generated by providing a value. type_in IN NUMBER). any date. any string.

page 25 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . END. PL/SQL does not sense a conflict with above overloading even though comp_id is a numeric column.  In the above example. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± When I compile profits.comp_id%TYPE). but you might later found out that you cannot actually call any of the overloaded programs. I rely on an anchored type (%TYPE) to establish the datatype of the second calc¶s parameter. PROCEDURE calc (comp_id_IN IN company.The Frustrations of Overloading  Watch out! An overloading can compile successfully. PACKAGE profits IS PROCEDURE calc (comp_id_IN IN NUMBER).

END.calc_total ('ZONE2'). how would you do it? (Don't peek at the next page!) BEGIN sales. why not? ± If so. END sales. like calc_totals shown above? ± If not. sales.Quiz! Nuances of Overloading PACKAGE sales IS PROCEDURE calc_total (zone_in IN VARCHAR2). sales.pkg ? 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Can I overload two programs which have parameters that differ only by name.page 26 . PROCEDURE calc_total (reg_in IN VARCHAR2).calc_total ('NORTHWEST').

ANALYZE_OBJECT ' || '(''TABLE''. what => 'DBMS_DDL. ± You can skip over (not specify values for) any IN parameters that have default values. This is especially useful when working with infrequently used built-in programs.''ESTIMATE''. DBMS_JOB.submit ( job => v_jobno.null.page 27 . of named notation include: ± Code is more "self-documenting". That way you don't have to know and pass default values.'. next_date => TRUNC (SYSDATE + 1).''TENK''' || '.sql  Advantages 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .''LOAD1''.Using Named Notation <formal parameter name> => <expression>  Explicit association between the formal parameter (the "name") with the actual parameter (the "value"). namednot.estimate_percent=>50). interval => 'TRUNC(SYSDATE+1)').

Three types of collections: ± Index-by tables (Oracle7 only. originally called PL/SQL tables) ± Nested tables (Oracle8 and above) ± Variable arrays (VARRAYs.Achieving PL/SQL Excellence PL/SQL Collections   Collections are single-dimensioned lists of information. Oracle8 and above) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 28 .

Improve query performance by avoiding joins.page 29     1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .When to Use Collections  Maintain any kind of list of related information for use in your programs. which are otherwise not supported in PL/SQL Cache data in session-level memory for faster access. Build hash tables (custom indexing structures). Avoid mutating table errors in database triggers. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Emulate bi-directional cursors.

± Homogeneous » Data in each row has the same structure. this broad range allows you to employ the row number as an intelligent key.  Characteristics of an index-by table: ± Unbounded » Practically speaking. Valid row numbers range: -2. ± Available only in PL/SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .483.Index-By Tables TYPE <table_type> IS TABLE OF <datatype> INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. DECLARE TYPE inmem_emp_t IS TABLE OF emp%ROWTYPE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. ± Sparse » Data does not have to be stored in consecutive rows of information.147.147.647 » You will not actually create tables this large. emp_copy inmem_emp_t.483.647 to 2. Instead.page 30 .

children (6904) := 'Lisa Nadezhka'.Index_by Tables TYPE declaration PACKAGE BODY family IS TYPE child_list_type IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2 (30) INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER.page 31 .pkg children 6306 6412 6904 µBarbara Anne¶ µGary Richard¶ µLisa Marie¶ children (6810) := µAdam Russell. Error: NO_DATA_FOUND 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Variable declaration children child_list_type. children 6306 6412 6810 6904 µBarbara Anne¶ µGary Richard¶ µAdam Russell¶ µLisa Nadezhka¶ datemgr. Component Selection kid := children (4).

Nested Tables [CREATE OR REPLACE] TYPE <table_type> IS TABLE OF <datatype> [NOT NULL]. DECLARE TYPE when_t IS TABLE OF DATE.483. birthdays when_t. ± Unbounded.  Nested table characteristics ± Homogeneous » Each row contains the same structure of data.page 32 .647 ± Initially dense. but can become sparse if you DELETE inner rows ± Available both in PL/SQL and SQL (as a column in a table) ± The order of elements is not preserved in the database 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . but only with explicit EXTEND requests » Practically speaking.147. Valid row numbers range: 1 to 2.

kids child_table_type) NESTED TABLE kids STORE AS kids_ntab. CREATE TABLE db_family (surname VARCHAR2 (30).page 33 .Nested Tables CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE child_table_type IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2 (30).sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . For ORACLE's use only db_family surname kids BOLZ BOND Eric Thomas Max Richard Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Marie ntdemo.

± Variable arrays are actually stored in the DB table 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .647 ± Dense » Never any gaps between defined rows. ± Bounded » Upper limit established when the TYPE is defined. Maximum value: 2. ± Available both in PL/SQL and SQL (as a column in a table) » And the order of elements are preserved in the database.page 34 .147. can be EXTENDed or TRIMmed.483.  Characteristics of variable arrays: ± Homogeneous » Each row contains the same structure of data. DECLARE TYPE numbers_t IS VARRAY (10) OF NUMBER. salaries numbers_t.Variable Arrays [CREATE OR REPLACE] TYPE <table_type> IS VARRAY (N) OF <datatype> [NOT NULL].

Variable Arrays CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE child_va_type IS VARRAY (8) OF VARCHAR2 (30). kids child_va_type).page 35 . db_family surname kids BOLZ BOND 1 Barbara Anne 2 Gary Richard 3 Lisa Marie 1 Eric Thomas 2 Max Richard vademo. CREATE TABLE db_family (surname VARCHAR2 (30).sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

± For index-by tables. TYPE integer_nt IS TABLE OF INTEGER..page 36 . you can define the TYPE in the database with a CREATE statement. ± For nested tables and VARRAYs. Best option: package specification. a collection.. or in a PL/SQL declaration section. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . . CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE tabtypes IS TYPE integer_ibt IS TABLE OF INTEGER INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. from the TYPE. TYPE integer_vat IS VARRAY(10) OF INTEGER. ± You can declare multiple collections from that TYPE. END tabtypes.Defining Collections  First. you define the TYPE of the collection. this can only occur in a PL/SQL declaration section.  Then you declare an instance of that type.

attr_type_name Attributes all_coll_types T. colldd.type_name. all_type_attrs A T. 'TMRS_VT') T.  ALL_COLL_TYPES ± The types you have created (or have access to) in the database  ALL_TYPE_ATTRS ± Attributes of the data type used in the TYPE definition.attr_name || ' .' || A.type_name IN ('NAMES_VT'.page 37 .Obtaining Collection Information SELECT FROM WHERE AND AND AND A.owner T.elem_type_name = A.owner = A.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .owner = USER T. ± The code used to define the collection TYPE  There is no information in the data dictionary available for index-by tables.

You must initialize them explicitly with a constructor. it must be initialized. 200. BEGIN CREATE TABLE employee_denorm ( employee_id INTEGER. 300). / DECLARE -. TYPE defined in PL/SQL TYPE defined in the database Collection used in a table PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . salary_history numbers_t). 200. DECLARE TYPE numbers_t IS VARRAY (10) OF NUMBER. BEGIN CREATE TYPE numbers_t IS VARRAY (10) OF NUMBER. empty when declared. salaries numbers_t := numbers_t (100. ± Nested tables and VARRAYs are atomically null. 300).page 38 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .Initializing Collections  Before you can use a collection. salaries numbers_t := numbers_t (100. ± Index-by tables are initialized automatically.Initialize the collection.

comp_id := 1005. ± Can easily create an index-by table with the same structure as a database table by declaring a record with %ROWTYPE.Collections of Composites  Starting with Oracle 7. consider putting TYPEs in database or packages.page 39 . ± But you cannot have nested composite datatypes. the datatype for any of the collection types can also be an object. comp_tab comp_tabtype. TYPE comp_tabtype IS TABLE OF comp_rectype INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. Here we have a three step process. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . total_rev NUMBER). BEGIN comp_tab(1). DECLARE TYPE comp_rectype IS RECORD (comp_id company. the ³homogeneous´ contents of an index-by table's row can be a record .3.  Starting with Oracle8.company_id%TYPE. Again.

consider using the row value as "smart data" for your application (primary key. etc.). ± In almost every case.Sparse is Nice  The sparse characteristic of index-by tables and nested tables can be put to good use.  Especially handy when caching data from relational tables in user memory. a row exists in the table only when a value is assigned to that row. ± Instead. unless the order in which items are selected is of importance. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . order by date. ± You should not fill sequentially. ± In an index-by table.  Rows do not have to be defined sequentially. In this way. it is very similar to a database table.page 40 . your collections will contain a row's worth of information.

Some questions: ± Why would I put this collection table in a package? ± When is the collection loaded with the data? ± What rows in that collection are utilized? psemp.page 41 . emp_tab emp_tabtype. END LOOP.tst  PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Transferring DB Table to Collection CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE psemp IS TYPE emp_tabtype IS TABLE OF emp%ROWTYPE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER.pkg psemp. Initialization section of package 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein  This package moves the entire contents of the emp table into its corresponding collection. END. END.empno) := rec. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY psemp IS BEGIN FOR rec IN (SELECT * FROM emp) LOOP emp_tab (rec.

BEGIN greedy_ceos(1) := 'Hamilton. ± Use the EXISTS method to determine if a row existed.Collection Gotchas CREATE TYPE names_t IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2(30).page 42 . even if you haven't assigned a value explicitly. / Error -6533! You've got to EXTEND first!  EXTEND before assigning a value to a row. Jordan'. you must reference existing rows or a NO_DATA_FOUND exception is raised. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Not necessary for index-by tables. but you must do it for VARRAYs and nested tables. the row exists. ± For VARRAYs and nested tables. / DECLARE greedy_ceos names_t := names_t (). once extended. END.  For index-by tables.

EXTEND (10.'). salaries(salaries.PUT_LINE ('Data for employee not available. ELSE DBMS_OUTPUT.Handling Collection Gotchas BEGIN -.EXISTS (v_employee_id) THEN -.We are OK. ± Pre-extending a large number of rows in advance can improve performance.  You can EXTEND one or more rows. -. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Extend by 10 since I know I will need that many. ± Assign a default value with a second.page 43 .FIRST)).tst  Include a handler for NO_DATA_FOUND or use the EXISTS method to avoid these exceptions. END IF. optional argument. salaries. preextend. BEGIN IF salaries.Set the value of each new row to the contents of the first row.

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . number of elements allowed in a VARRAY. ± TRIM removes rows from a VARRAY. EXISTS returns TRUE if the specified row is defined.Collection Methods  Obtain information about the collection COUNT returns number of rows currently defined in the table. NEXT/PRIOR return the closest defined row after/before the specified row. ± EXTEND adds rows to a nested table or VARRAY.  The built-in package plitblm (PL/sql Index-TaBLe Methods) defines these methods. ± ± ± ±  Modify the contents of the collection ± DELETE deletes one or more rows from the index-by table. FIRST/LAST return lowest/highest numbers of defined rows.page 44 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . ± LIMIT tells you the max.

LAST).DELETE (1400. -. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . DELETE releases memory.FREE_UNUSED_USER_MEMORY.Delete a range of rows myCollection.page 45 . but you may also want to call DBMS_SESSION.DELETE (myCollection.Delete all rows myCollection.DELETE. -. END.Delete one (the last) row myCollection.The DELETE Method  You can delete one or more rows from a collection using DELETE: BEGIN -. 17255).

Navigating Through Collections 


Use FIRST and NEXT to move from beginning to end. Use LAST and PRIOR to move from end to beginning.
rowind PLS_INTEGER := birthdays.FIRST; -- birthdays.LAST BEGIN LOOP EXIT WHEN rowind IS NULL; DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE (birthdays(rowind).best_present); rowind := birthdays.NEXT (rowind); -- birthdays.PRIOR END LOOP; END;

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Using Collections Inside SQL 

Nested tables and VARRAYs can be defined as columns of a table and referenced directly within SQL. You can also apply SQL operations to the contents of nested tables and VARRAYs with these operators:
± THE - Maps a single column value in a single row to a virtual database table ± CAST - Maps a collection of one type to a collection of another type ± MULTISET - Maps a database table to a collection ± TABLE - Maps a collection to a database table  

Index-by tables are programmatic constructs only.
± You cannot make a direct reference to an index-by table in SQL. ± Instead, so do indirectly with a PL/SQL function.

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Using Collections inside SQL
SELECT column_value FROM TABLE (SELECT children FROM db_family WHERE surname = 'BOLZ'); db_family surname children BOLZ BOND Eric Thomas Max Richard UPDATE TABLE (SELECT children FROM db_family WHERE SURNAME = 'BOLZ) SET column_value = 'Lisa Nadezhka' WHERE column_value = 'Lisa Marie'); db_family surname children BOLZ ...
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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 48

Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Marie

column_value Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Marie

Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Nadezhka

Using the THE Operator 

Use THE to manipulate (retrieve, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE) contents of a nested table in a database table.
± Can only use with nested tables, not VARRAYs or index-by tables. ± Only accessible from within SQL statements in PL/SQL.
CREATE TYPE action_list_t IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2(100); / CREATE TABLE inflation_beater ( focus_area VARCHAR2(100), activities action_list_t) NESTED TABLE activities STORE AS activities_tab; SELECT VALUE (act) FROM THE (SELECT activities FROM inflation_beater WHERE focus_area = 'FORTUNE 100') act; UPDATE THE (SELECT activities FROM inflation_beater WHERE focus_area = 'FORTUNE 100') SET COLUMN_VALUE = 'DISBAND OSHA' WHERE COLUMN_VALUE = 'SIDESTEP OSHA';

the.sql

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Using the TABLE and CAST Operators 

Use CAST to convert a collection from one type to another, TABLE to convert a TYPE into a database table.
± Cannot use with index-by tables. ± Useful when you would like to apply SQL operations against a PL/SQL collection (ie, one not stored in a database table).
DECLARE nyc_devolution cutbacks_for_taxcuts := cutbacks_for_taxcuts ('Stop rat extermination programs', 'Fire building inspectors', 'Close public hospitals'); BEGIN DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE ( 'How to Make the NYC Rich Much, Much Richer:'); FOR rec IN (SELECT COLUMN_VALUE ohmy FROM TABLE (CAST (nyc_devolution AS cutbacks_for_taxcuts))) LOOP DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE (rec.ohmy); END LOOP; cast.sql END;

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sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .genus. converting a set of data (table. query) into a VARRAY or nested table. END. view. multiset. DECLARE CURSOR bird_curs IS SELECT b.country FROM bird_habitats bh WHERE bh. Retrieves all detail bird_row bird_curs%ROWTYPE.genus = b.Using the MULTISET Operator  MULTISET is the inverse of TABLE. information for the BEGIN master in one trip.genus AND bh. FETCH bird_curs into bird_row. ± Cannot use with index-by tables.species) AS country_tab_t) FROM birds b. with potential client-server performance impact. CAST(MULTISET(SELECT bh. b.species. ± You can use MULTISET to emulate or transform relational joins into collections. OPEN bird_curs.species = b.page 51 .

sql PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END. call functions that retrieve the table's data.  CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE ibtab IS FUNCTION rowval (indx IN PLS_INTEGER) RETURN DATE. Instead. WNDS). FUNCTION rowval (indx IN PLS_INTEGER) RETURN DATE IS BEGIN RETURN hiredates (indx). END. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein ibtab_in_sql. Make accessible in SQL for Oracle8 and below.Referencing IB Tables inside SQL  You can't directly reference an index-by table's contents inside SQL.page 52 . but hide the index-by table structure. WNPS. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY ibtab IS TYPE date_tab IS TABLE OF DATE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. hiredates date_tab. END. PRAGMA RESTRICT_REFERENCES (rowval.

 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 53 .Examples of Collections in Action  Emulation of bi-directional cursor operations Avoid mutating table problems in database triggers.

pkg bidir. PROCEDURE nextRow. FUNCTION getRow RETURN employee_plus%ROWTYPE. PROCEDURE prevRow.page 54 . ± A talked-about feature for Oracle9i -.  bidir. didn't make it!  Instead.Bi-Directional Cursor Emulation  Oracle does not yet support the ability to move back and forth (and at random) through a cursor's result set.nope. Notice that the collection itself is hidden. deposit your data in a collection and then provide programs to access that data in the necessary fashion. This is particularly useful (read: efficient) when you need to perform multiple passes against the data. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE bidir IS /* Iterate through rows in the result set */ PROCEDURE setRow (nth IN PLS_INTEGER). END.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

The Mutating Table Problem  Database triggers can be attached to the SQL statement and/or the individual row operations on a table. you can use autonomous transactions to relax restrictions associated with queries. Statement Level UPDATE emp SET sal = 1000 UPDATE row 1 Row Level  UPDATE row N Row level triggers cannot query from or change the contents of the table to which it is attached. So what are you supposed to do when a row-level operation needs to "touch" that table? mutating. it is "mutating". 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 55 .sql  Note: in Oracle8i.

you need to defer the action until you get to the statement level. Statement Trigger 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± an index-by table is an ideal repository for this reminder list.page 56 . If you are going to defer the work. you have to remember what you needed to do. 1st row trigger fires Nth row trigger fires Writes to list Writes to list Work List (PL/SQL Table)  Process data in the list.A Solution Based on Index-by Tables  Since you cannot perform the processing desired in the row-level trigger.

25 3 1 2 6 "Deferred work" is not only necessary.25 65011. ± By storing the salesperson¶s department ids as they change. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Department ID Salesperson ID Sales Amount Rank 1055 1055 1055 1047  64333 65709 65706 70904 74055.An Example: Ranking Salespeople  A table holds the rankings based on the amount of annual sales of salespeople within a department.91 109000. the rankings must also change to show the new standings for that department only. ± We might update more than one department within a statement so we must be able to retain multiple department numbers. ± As the sales amount is updated in this table. but preferable.page 57 .88 144533. we then know which departments to re-rank.

pkg All details of the ranking are hidden in the package body.rank_depts.sales_amt != NEW. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Statement Level Trigger CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER Rank_Sales_Strg AFTER INSERT OR UPDATE OR DELETE ON rank_sales BEGIN rank. ranking.sales_amt) BEGIN rank. END. END.page 58 .dept_id).add_dept (:new. Doesn't fire unless the sales_amt is actually changed.Trigger Logic Required Row Level Trigger CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER Rank_Sales_Rtrg AFTER insert OR update OF sales_amt ON rank_sales FOR EACH ROW WHEN (OLD.

PROCEDURE add_dept (dept_id_in IN INTEGER) IS BEGIN IF NOT in_process THEN dept_tab (dept_id_in) := TRUE. END rank. PACKAGE BODY rank IS in_process BOOLEAN := FALSE. END add_dept 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Create row to indicate department to be ranked. TYPE dept_tabtype IS TABLE OF BOOLEAN INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. PROCEDURE rank_depts. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 59 .The Ranking Package PACKAGE rank IS PROCEDURE add_dept (dept_id_in IN INTEGER). dept_tab dept_tabtype. Table holds indicator that department needs re-ranking. END IF.

page 60 . Clean up for next time. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Continued PROCEDURE rank_depts IS v_deptid PLS_INTEGER := dept_tab. v_deptid := dept_tab. END IF. END LOOP. END rank. in_process := FALSE. perform_ranking (v_deptid). LOOP EXIT WHEN v_deptid IS NULL.FIRST. BEGIN IF NOT in_process THEN in_process := TRUE. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Avoid recursive execution of logic Row number is department number. END rank_dept. dept_tab.The Ranking Package.DELETE.NEXT (v_deptid).

± You want to use inside SQL.  Nested tables ± You want to store large amounts of persistent data in a column. Set of data is relatively small (avoid row chaining). You don't want to have to worry about sparseness.  VARRAYs ± ± ± ± You want to preserve the order in which elements are stored. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Which Collection Type Should I Use?  Index-by tables ± Need to use in both Oracle7 and Oracle8 applications ± Want to take advantage of sparse nature for "intelligent keys".page 61 . You want to use inside SQL.

Tips for Using Collections 

Wrap access to your collections.
± In many cases, you will want to avoid direct access to (assigning and retrieving) rows in your collections. ± This will give you the flexibility to change your implementation. ± You can also hide complex rules for setting the row number. 

Get creative!
± Don't always fill and use the index-by table sequentially. ± If you can somehow translate your application data to an integer, it can be used as a row number, and therefore offers indexed access. ± Julian date formats and DBMS_UTILITY.GET_HASH_VALUE offer two different methods.

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Achieving PL/SQL Excellence

Cursor Variables

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 63

Architecture of Cursor Variables
With Hard-Coded Cursors
Hard-Coded Cursor

With Cursor Variables

PGA

Cursor Variable

Cursor Variable

Result Set

Shared Global Area

Cursor Object

Result Set 

A cursor variable points to an underlying cursor object in the database.
± The cursor object in turns points to (and keeps its place in) a result set. 

The cursor variable can be passed between programs (even between, say, a Java servlet and a PL/SQL stored procedure).
± Static SQL only -- until Oracle8i.
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1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

Benefits of Cursor Variables 

Share cursor management between programs, even across the client-server divide.
± You don't have to pass the result sets of a cursor in order to allow the client-side program to have direct access to the data in the result set. ± Oracle Developer 2.1 utilizes cursor variables when you choose to construct a "base table block" around stored procedures instead of a database table. 

Share the same code across multiple, different queries.
± Since the cursor name is no longer hard-coded, you can use a single block of code (say, a reporting program) against different queries. ± We will try out this technique at the end of the section.

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Cursor Variable Example
DECLARE TYPE company_curtype IS REF CURSOR RETURN company%ROWTYPE;
Declare a variable cursor TYPE.

company_curvar company_curtype;

Declare cursor variable based on that type. Declare a record from cursor variable. OPEN cursor variable, specifying the query. FETCH from the cursor variable.

company_rec company_curvar%ROWTYPE; BEGIN OPEN company_curvar FOR SELECT * FROM company;

FETCH company_curvar INTO company_rec;
Close the cursor variable.

CLOSE company_curvar; END;
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Explicit Cursors and Cursor Variables 

Both hard-coded cursors and cursor variables work with static SQL.
± The SQL is fixed at compile-time. ± The difference is that with cursor variables, you get to decide which static query is opened. 

Many cursor operations are the same:
± Close a variable cursor with the same syntax as that for static cursors. ± Use cursor attributes (%ISOPEN, %FOUND, %NOTFOUND, %ROWCOUNT) with cursor variables (as of Release 2.3). ± Fetch data from the cursor result set through a cursor variable with the same syntax as that of static cursors. 

Let¶s focus on the new and different capabilities of cursor variables.
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Declaring Cursor Types and Variables 

Cursors are declared in two steps, just like programmerdefined records and PL/SQL tables.
± 1. Define a cursor TYPE -- either "weak" or "strong". ± 2. Define a cursor variable.
DECLARE TYPE weak_curtype IS REF CURSOR; TYPE comp_curtype IS REF CURSOR RETURN company%ROWTYPE; curcmp_new comp_curtype; cur_any weak_curtype; BEGIN
Declare cursor variables from the TYPEs. Declare a STRONG referenced cursor TYPE. Declare a WEAK referenced cursor TYPE.

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Strong vs. Weak Cursor Types 

A strong (or constrained) cursor type has a defined return data specification.
± Can only reference cursor objects which return the same data specification, which can be any single SQL datatype or any previously defined record structure. ± Datatype mismatches are identified at compile time.

TYPE cur_typ_name IS REF CURSOR [ RETURN return_type ]; TYPE cur_typ_name IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE; /* Strong */ 

The weak (or unconstrained) cursor type does not have a RETURN clause.
± It can reference any cursor object, be opened FOR any query. ± Datatype mismatches can only be identified at runtime.

TYPE cur_typ_name IS REF CURSOR; /* Weak */
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Opening with the Cursor Variable
OPEN cursor_name FOR select_statement; 

When you open a cursor variable (whether of the weak or strong variety), you must provide the SQL query that identifies the result set.
± If the variable has not yet been assigned to cursor object, the OPEN FOR statement implicitly creates an object for the variable. ± If the variable is already pointing to a cursor object, the OPEN FOR reuses the existing object and attaches the new query to that cursor object. 

Remember, the cursor object is nothing more than a memory location.
± It is maintained independently of the query itself.
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± You can establish the return type based on a database table. . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Match Needed BEGIN OPEN emp_curvar FOR SELECT * from emp.  STRONG cursor data specifications must match or be compatible with the structure of the SELECT statement. emp_curvar emp_curtype.Opening with Strong Cursor Types DECLARE TYPE emp_curtype IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE.. END. a cursor or a programmer-defined record.page 71 ..

REF TYPE placed in package so that it is "globally" available.Opening with Weak Cursor Types PACKAGE pkg IS TYPE cv_type IS REF CURSOR. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . OPEN retval FOR SELECT * FROM emp. Verification will take ELSIF get_type_in = µDEPT¶ place at the FETCH. you can associate any SELECT statement with a weak cursor variable. END.cv_type IS retval pkg. THEN OPEN retval FOR SELECT * FROM dept. END.  A weak cursor TYPE doesn't define the RETURN structure. RETURN retval.cv_type. BEGIN IF get_type_in = µEMP¶ THEN Either query will "do". END IF.page 72 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . FUNCTION open_emp_or_dept (get_type_in IN VARCHAR2) RETURN pkg.

.   Compatibility checks are performed prior to fetching row... The INTO structure must match in number and datatype to: ± FOR STRONG cursor types.page 73 . var_name.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . mismatch. ± FOR WEAK cursor types. FETCH cursor_var_name INTO var_name. ± Fetching can continue with a different INTO clause. it match the OPEN FOR statement structure..Fetching from the Cursor Variable FETCH cursor_var_name INTO record_name.  Fetching with cursor variables follows the same rules as those with static cursors. it match the cursor type data specification. ± The ROWTYPE_MISMATCH exception is raised on failure.

since cursor names are "hard coded". ± JDBC recognizes cursor variables.When to Use Cursor Variables  Make it easier for calling programs (especially non-PL/SQL programs) to manipulate result sets. Use a single block of code to manipulate multiple queries.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 74 .  Define a base table block in Forms Builder (formerly Oracle Forms) on stored procedures rather than a table directly. but static cursors are more efficient than dynamic SQL and cursor variables are less complicated than DBMS_SQL.  hccursor. ± You could use dynamic SQL to achieve this effect. ± With explicit cursors. you have to repeat the code for each cursor.

pkg allcurs. FUNCTION open (type_in IN INTEGER) RETURN cv_t. END.Consolidating Different Cursors  The following package specification hides the SQL behind a single open function.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . / allcurrs. TYPE int_rt IS RECORD (key INTEGER).tst explcv. TYPE cv_t IS REF CURSOR RETURN int_rt. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE allcurs IS bydept CONSTANT INTEGER := 1. bysal CONSTANT INTEGER := 2. ± It also creates the data structures you will need to call the function.page 75 .

BEGIN IF type_in = bydept THEN OPEN retval FOR SELECT empno FROM emp ORDER BY deptno. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY allcurs IS FUNCTION open (type_in IN INTEGER) RETURN cv_t IS retval cv_t. END IF. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END. END.Consolidating Different Cursors  The open function simply opens FOR a different SELECT based on the criteria passed to it.page 76 . ELSIF type_in = bysal THEN OPEN retval FOR SELECT empno FROM emp ORDER BY SAL. RETURN retval.

CLOSE cv.empno%TYPE. DECLARE cv allcurs.cv_t. v_empno emp. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .open (&1). LOOP FETCH cv INTO v_empno.Hiding SQL Variations in Resulting Code  The following block demonstrates that you can alter which SQL statement to query -. END LOOP. EXIT WHEN cv%NOTFOUND.in this case. p.page 77 "Report processor" is independent of the particular SELECT .l (v_empno). change the ORDER BY clause -without having to change the code you write. BEGIN cv := allcurs. END.

or a more general.  Strong and Weak Types ± Create REF CURSORs for specific queries. unconstrained type. you can build screens that access data using a cursor variable-based procedural API.1. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 78 .  Hide Variations in Underlying SQL ± You no longer have to repeat the same code for different cursors.Cursor Variables Let's summarize  Flexibility ± Choose which static SQL statement is executed at run-time.  Improve Client-Side Access to Data ± At least in Oracle Developer 2.

Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Dynamic SQL  Dynamic SQL and dynamic PL/SQL: ± The DBMS_SQL package ± Native dynamic SQL in Oracle8i 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 79 .

± Available in PL/SQL since Release 2.  Execute DDL inside PL/SQL programs.1 and DBMS_SQL. ± Very common requirement on the Web. you no longer have to write SQL to generate SQL to get your job done.page 80 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . ± Construct powerful DBA utilities. What can you do with Dynamic SQL?  Build ad-hoc query and update applications. ± One example: implement indirect referencing in PL/SQL. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Execute dynamically-constructed PL/SQL programs. ± Also supported with "native dynamic SQL" in Oracle8i.Dynamic SQL and PL/SQL Execution  "Dynamic SQL" mean that you construct the SQL statement or PL/SQL block at runtime and then execute it.

Four Methods of Dynamic SQL   Method 1: non-queries without host variables. execute one or more times. Method 2: non-queries with a fixed number of host variables. ± Different methods require the use of different programs in DBMS_SQL. These methods are in increasing order of complexity. Method 3: queries with a fixed number of items in the SELECT list and a fixed number of host variables.    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . you can more quickly figure out how to code your solution. Method 4: queries with a variable number of items in the SELECT list and/or non-queries with a variable number of host variables. ± NDS does not support method 4.page 81 . executed a single time. If you can recognize the types.

Native Dynamic SQL  Prior to Oracle8i.page 82 . and relatively slow (performance did improve significantly as of Oracle8). DML and single row fetches. used for DDL. you would use the DBMS_SQL built-in package to execute dynamic SQL. difficult to use. used for multi-row queries.  The new "native dynamic SQL" or NDS of Oracle8i offers two native statements in the PL/SQL language to implement most of your dynamic SQL requirements: ± EXECUTE IMMEDIATE <sql string>. ± But this package is very complex. ± OPEN FOR <sql string>. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

EXECUTE IMMEDIATE EXECUTE IMMEDIATE sql-string [INTO {define_variable[. including objects. collections and records. The INTO clause allows you to pass values from the select list of a single row query into local variables.. | record }] [USING {IN | OUT | IN OUT] bind argument [..  Use this statement to execute any dynamic SQL statement (including a PL/SQL block) except for multi-row queries. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 83   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . define_variables].]. {IN | OUT | IN OUT] bind argument].. The USING clause allows you to specify bind arguments or variables to be passed into the SQL string before execution..

. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein tabcount81. table and retval INTEGER. END IF.COUNT(*) For Any Table  Here's a handy and simple utility based on NDS: CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION tabCount ( tab IN VARCHAR2. sch IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) RETURN INTEGER IS Specify schema. END.. '1=1') INTO retval.. IF tabCount ('citizens'.000. USER) || '.PUT_LINE ( 'Not the best health care system in the world.' || tab || ' WHERE ' || NVL (whr. and not much of a democracy either!'). 'insured = ''NO''') > 40.000 THEN DBMS_OUTPUT.page 84 .sf PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .sf compare with: tabcount. BEGIN EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'SELECT COUNT(*) FROM ' || NVL (sch. WHERE clause. whr IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. RETURN retval..

'.Other Execute Immediate Examples  Perform an update. start_in.. BEGIN v_str := 'BEGIN ' || pkg_in || '..page 85 . PROCEDURE runprog (pkg_in IN VARCHAR2. END. start_in IN DATE. EXECUTE IMMEDIATE v_str. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN pl ('Compile Error "' || SQLERRM || '" on: ' || v_str). val_in IN NUMBER) IS BEGIN EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'UPDATE ' || tab_in || ' SET ' || col_in || ' = :val WHERE hiredate BETWEEN :lodate AND :hidate' USING val_in. Pass in bind variables with USING clause.' || name_in || '.. END. col_in IN VARCHAR2. end_in IN DATE.  Execute a stored procedure. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE updnumval ( tab_in IN VARCHAR2. name_in IN VARCHAR2) IS v_str VARCHAR2 (100). END. end_in..

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein health$.. cond.page 86 .pkg PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . including objects and collections.Using Objects and Collections in NDS  One of the key advantages to NDS over DBMS_SQL is that it works with Oracle8 datatypes. :revenue_inhibitors)' USING pers. pers IN Person.. ± In the following example. ± No special syntax needed. the USING clause allows me to pass an object and nested table to an INSERT statement with a variable table name. END. PROCEDURE add_profit_source ( hosp_name IN VARCHAR2. cond IN preexisting_conditions) IS BEGIN EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'INSERT INTO ' || tabname (hosp_name) || ' VALUES (:revenue_generator.

pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . val VARCHAR2(32767).PUT_LINE (val). number or string column in any table.page 87 . CLOSE cv.sp END. showcol. ± Here is a simple utility the displays the values of any date. END LOOP. LOOP Familiar cursor FETCH cv INTO val.Multiple Row Queries and NDS  Oracle extends the cursor variable feature of Oracle7 to support multi-row dynamic queries. cv cv_type. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE showcol ( tab IN VARCHAR2. whr IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) IS TYPE cv_type IS REF CURSOR. variable syntax! EXIT WHEN cv%NOTFOUND. '1 = 1'). BEGIN OPEN cv FOR 'SELECT ' || col || ' FROM ' || tab || ' WHERE ' || NVL (whr. DBMS_OUTPUT. col IN VARCHAR2. ndsutil.

str2list. provide a value for each distinct placeholder (by name). pass a variable with a NULL value. Instead. then you provide a value for each placeholder (by position). You can have duplicate placeholders (for bind arguments).page 88 . ± If dynamic SQL.) through the USING clause. You cannot pass the NULL literal directly in the USING clause. The USING clause for a query can only have IN bind arguments. etc. ± If dynamic PL/SQL.pkg    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . column names.Some Fine Print for NDS  You cannot pass schema elements (table names.

page 89 . The overhead for using DBMS_SQL has decreased significantly in Oracle8 and again in Oracle8i. Supports all four methods of dynamic SQL. with many rules to follow and lots of code to write. in particular method 4.Dynamic SQL using DBMS_SQL  Prior to Oracle8i. DBMS_SQL is a very large and complex package.     1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . the only way to perform dynamic SQL was with the DBMS_SQL package. You should only use DBMS_SQL when you cannot use NDS.

Learning Through Examples  DDL ± Create an index from within PL/SQL  DML ± Update rows in a table  DML with binding ± Update rows using bind variables  Queries ± Method 3 and a dynamic WHERE clause  PL/SQL Version of "SELECT *" ± Example of Method 4  PL/SQL ± Create a generic calculation program 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 90 .

 creind.CLOSE_CURSOR (cur). tab_in IN VARCHAR2.PARSE (cur.DDL with Dynamic SQL PROCEDURE create_index (index_in IN VARCHAR2. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . DDL_statement. which will be used to execute the DDL statement. fdbk INTEGER. DDL_statement VARCHAR2(200) := 'CREATE INDEX ' || index_in || ' ON ' || tab_in || ' ( ' || col_in || ')'. DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL. ± Parse and execute that DDL statement. ± Open a cursor. col_in IN VARCHAR2) IS cur INTEGER := DBMS_SQL. fdbk := DBMS_SQL.NATIVE).page 91 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .sp Creates an index on any column(s) in any table in your schema. END.OPEN_CURSOR. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. ± Construct the DDL statement as a string.EXECUTE (cur).

page 92 .CLOSE_CURSOR (cur).OPEN_CURSOR.Updates with Dynamic SQL  Update numeric column for specified employees.EXECUTE (cur). 'UPDATE emp SET ' || col_in || ' = ' || val_in || ' WHERE ename LIKE UPPER (''' || ename_in || ''')'. fdbk PLS_INTEGER. DBMS_SQL.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . fdbk := DBMS_SQL.ename%TYPE. ename_in IN emp.PARSE (cur. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE updnumval ( col_in IN VARCHAR2. updnval1. DBMS_OUTPUT. DBMS_SQL. val_in IN NUMBER) IS cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.NATIVE).PUT_LINE ('Rows updated: ' || TO_CHAR (fdbk)). END.

fdbk PLS_INTEGER.NATIVE). DBMS_SQL.sp updnval3. start_in IN DATE. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE updnumval ( col_in IN VARCHAR2.Updates with Bind Variables  Update salaries for date range using binding. val_in IN NUMBER) IS cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL. 'hidate'.page 93 .EXECUTE (cur).BIND_VARIABLE (cur. DBMS_OUTPUT. 'lodate'. end_in IN DATE.PARSE (cur. end_in). DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL.PUT_LINE ('Rows updated: ' || TO_CHAR (fdbk)).OPEN_CURSOR. updnval2. END.CLOSE_CURSOR (cur). BEGIN DBMS_SQL. start_in).sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 'UPDATE emp SET ' || col_in || ' = ' || val_in || ' WHERE hiredate BETWEEN :lodate AND :hidate'. DBMS_SQL. fdbk := DBMS_SQL.BIND_VARIABLE (cur.

Processing Flow for a Dynamic Query Allocate cursor memory (OPEN_CURSOR) Fill cursor with data (EXECUTE) Make sure SELECT is well formed (PARSE) Fill buffer with data (FETCH_ROWS) (EXECUTE_AND_FETCH) Bind any variables (BIND_VARIABLE) (BIND_ARRAY) Retrieve the data (COLUMN_VALUE) Give cursor structure (DEFINE_COLUMN) (DEFINE_ARRAY) Release cursor memory (CLOSE_CURSOR) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 94 .

empno).DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. DBMS_SQL.empno) || '=' || rec. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE showemps (where_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) IS cur INTEGER := DBMS_SQL..CLOSE_CURSOR (cur).PUT_LINE (TO_CHAR (rec.Queries with Dynamic SQL  Show employees using a dynamic WHERE clause.ename). rec. rec emp%ROWTYPE.OPEN_CURSOR. 1.sp showemp2.NATIVE). 'a'. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.FETCH_ROWS (cur) = 0. LOOP EXIT WHEN DBMS_SQL. 60). 2. fdbk := DBMS_SQL. fdbk INTEGER.sp showemps.ename). DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL.page 95 . ename FROM emp ' || ' WHERE ' || NVL (where_in. END. END LOOP.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.. '1=1'). DBMS_OUTPUT. 'SELECT empno. DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL.EXECUTE (cur). 2.COLUMN_VALUE (cur. rec. 1.PARSE (cur. DBMS_SQL. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein showemps.tst PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 1).COLUMN_VALUE (cur.

DBMS_SQL. END LOOP. DBMS_SQL. val). select_string. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . FOR each-column-in-table LOOP DBMS_SQL. BEGIN FOR each-column-in-table LOOP add-column-to-select-list. END LOOP.NATIVE).sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . END LOOP. FOR each-column-in-table LOOP DBMS_SQL.PARSE (cur. LOOP fetch-a-row.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. datatype). END. nth_col.COLUMN_VALUE (cur. ± The resulting code is much more complicated.Dynamic SELECT * FROM Any Table  Method 4 example: the number of columns queried changes with each table.page 96 Very simplified pseudo-code intab. nth_col. END LOOP.

± Even if the exception is raised.Using EXECUTE_AND_FETCH FUNCTION execute_and_fetch (cursor_in IN INTEGER. the first row will still be fetched and available. numrows := DBMS_SQL. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± If exact_match is TRUE. exact_match IN BOOLEAN DEFAULT FALSE) RETURN INTEGER.page 97 .EXECUTE_AND_FETCH (cur.  Makes it easy to execute and fetch a single row from a query.EXECUTE_AND_FETCH (cur). ± Very similar to the implicit SELECT cursor in native PL/SQL. raises NO_DATA_FOUND or raises the TOO_MANY_ROWS exception. numrows := DBMS_SQL. then EXECUTE_AND_FETCH will raise the TOO_MANY_ROWS exception if more than one row is fetched by the SELECT. TRUE). which returns a single row.

NULL.page 98 . NULL. arg6_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. nargs_in IN INTEGER := arg1_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg3_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg5_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg7_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg9_in IN VARCHAR2 := ) RETURN VARCHAR2. arg4_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. FUNCTION dyncalc ( oper_in IN VARCHAR2. NULL. a single function will do the trick. I would have to modify my screen every time a new formula was added. NULL. arg2_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL.sf dyncalc.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . and enter the arguments.Dynamic Formula Execution  Suppose I am building a user interface that allows a user to select a formula for execution. arg10_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL dyncalc. 0. ± Using static PL/SQL. ± With DBMS_SQL. arg8_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. NULL.

µsalout¶. µdeptin¶. DBMS_SQL.tst    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . my_salary). END.even OUT arguments which are not being bound to any values. DBMS_SQL. :salout). µsalout¶. v_deptin).BIND_VARIABLE (cur. You must have a BEGIN-END around the code. Use VARIABLE_VALUE to extract a value from any variable you have bound.'). Possibilities inherent in dynamic PL/SQL are mind-boggling! dynplsql. my_salary).EXECUTE (cur).sp dynplsql.page 99 .sql dynplsql.BIND_VARIABLE (cur.  Use BIND_VARIABLE to bind any placeholders in the string -. END.VARIABLE_VALUE (cur. fdbk := DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL.More on Dynamic PL/SQL BEGIN cur := open_and_parse ('BEGIN get_max_sal (:deptin.

page 100  dynvar. DBMS_SQL. fdbk := DBMS_SQL. 'val'. fdbk PLS_INTEGER.BIND_VARIABLE (v_cur.EXECUTE (v_cur).NATIVE). Here is an example of a "PL/SQL NAME_IN": FUNCTION valbyname (nm IN VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2 IS v_cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL. PL/SQL does not support indirect referencing.CLOSE_CURSOR (v_cur).PARSE (v_cur.VARIABLE_VALUE (v_cur. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. END.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . 'val'. retval). 'BEGIN :val := ' || nm || '. but you can accomplish much of the same thing with dynamic PL/SQL execution. DBMS_SQL.dbmaxvc2.Indirect Referencing with Dyn PL/SQL  Oracle Forms offers support for indirect referencing with the NAME_IN and COPY built-ins. retval PLV.pkg dynvar. RETURN retval.'. END. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .OPEN_CURSOR. 2000). DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL. 'a'.

 LAST_ROW_ID ± Returns the ROWID of last row processed.  LAST_ROW_COUNT ± Returns the cumulative count of rows fetched from the cursor.page 101 .  IS_OPEN ± Is the cursor already open?  LAST_ERROR_POSITION ± Returns relative column position in cursor of text causing error condition.  LAST_SQL_FUNCTION_CODE ± Returns SQL function code of cursor. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .DBMS_SQL Status Built-ins  The package offers a set of modules to return information about the lastoperated cursor in your session. ± Call these immediately after your usage to make sure they refer to your cursor.

pkg dumplong. ± Transfer the LONG contents into an index-by table so that you can transfer a value of more than 32K bytes into your PL/SQL program. ± DBMS_SQL.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .DEFINE_COLUMN_LONG ± DBMS_SQL.page 102 .Working with LONG Values  DBMS_SQL provides special procedures so that you can extract values from a LONG column in a table. dumplong.COLUMN_VALUE_LONG   First. you define the column as a LONG. Then you retrieve the column using the special COLUMN_VALUE_LONG variant.

page 103 .New DBMS_SQL Features PL/SQL8 Extensions to DBMS_SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

inserts.New Features in DBMS_SQL  The functionality of DBMS_SQL has been extended in Oracle8 in several ways: ± Parse very long SQL strings ± Describe cursor columns ± Use "array processing" to perform bulk updates. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . deletes and fetches. ± Support for RETURNING clause to avoid unnecessary queries.page 104 .

Describing Cursor Columns PROCEDURE DBMS_SQL.DESCRIBE_COLUMNS. desc_t OUT DBMS_SQL. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .DESCRIBE_COLUMNS (c IN INTEGER.  Returns all of the column information in an index table of records.  Before PL/SQL8. ± The record TYPE is also defined in DBMS_SQL. col_cnt OUT INTEGER.page 105 . ± Now you can call the DBMS_SQL. it was not possible to determine the datatypes of the columns defined in a cursor.DESC_TAB).

OPEN_CURSOR.tst showcols.NATIVE). FOR colind IN 1 . ncols LOOP DBMS_OUTPUT. ncols. DBMS_SQL. empno FROM emp'..page 106 .CLOSE_CURSOR (cur). DBMS_SQL. END.PARSE (cur.PUT_LINE (cols(colind).Basic Steps to Describe Columns  The following script shows the individual steps you will need to perform in order to use this feature.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END LOOP. DBMS_SQL. ncols PLS_INTEGER. cols). cols DBMS_SQL.pkg desccols. desccols. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.DESC_TAB.col_name). 'SELECT hiredate.DESCRIBE_COLUMNS (cur. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE show_columns IS cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL.

index tables. however. i. when you perform updates. DBMS_SQL then repeats your action for every row in the table."Array Processing" in DBMS_SQL  PL/SQL8 now allows you to specify the use of "arrays". DBMS_SQL is executing the specified SQL statement N times. deletes and fetches.. can offer a significant performance boost over Oracle7 dynamic SQL. ± In actuality.page 107 .    This technique still. where N is the number of rows in the table. It really isn't "array processing". 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Instead of providing a scalar value for an operation. inserts. you specify an index table.e.

sql openprse. column names.  Use the Oracle8i invoker rights model whenever you want to share your dynamic SQL programs among multiple schemas.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± But remember: you cannot pass schema elements (table names. only possible for statements that do not need USING and INTO clauses. ± Encapsulate DBMS_SQL. and easier code to write.Recommendations for Dynamic SQL  Bind (vs.page 108 .  Encapsulate statements to improve error handling.) through the USING clause. etc. ± Otherwise that SQL will be executed under the authority of the owner of the code. ± With NDS. though you could write variations for those as well. ± Increased chance of reusing parsed SQL.PARSE so that you include the trace in that program. concatenate) whenever possible. effdsql.pkg whichsch. not the invoker of the code.

you have upgraded to Oracle8i!  Major Advantages of NDS: ± Ease of use ± Performance ± Works with all SQL datatypes (including userdefined object and collection types) ± Fetch into records  When You'd Use DBMS_SQL: ± ± ± ± ± ± ± Method 4 Dynamic SQL DESCRIBE columns of cursor SQL statements larger than 32K RETURNING into an array Reuse of parsed SQL statements Bulk dynamic SQL Available from client-side PL/SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ...page 109 . ± If. but DBMS_SQL is hard to use. of course. Both implementations will still come in handy.NDS or DBMS_SQL: Which is Best?  Dynamic SQL and PL/SQL is very useful.

Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Oracle Advanced Queuing  The high performance. asynchronous.page 110 . persistent messaging subsytem of Oracle 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Distribution Center Coffee Beans Producer Shipping Service Retailer Consumer 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Who Needs Messaging? Everyone!  In the distributed world of the Internet. consistent manner. systems are now heavily reliant on the ability of components to communicate with each other in a dependable.page 111 .

Applications Relying on Messaging     Stock trading system Airline reservation system Auction portals Any e-commerce application 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 112 .

± Rule-based subscribers. the listen feature and notification capabilities. message propagation. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . AQ now offers a publish/subscribe style of messaging between applications. scalability and reliability all carry over to queues ± Strong history and retention ± Backup and recovery ± Comprehensive journaliing  Rich message content increases usefulness of queueing ± Use object types to define highly structured payloads  New to Oracle8i.Key Features of Oracle AQ  Leverage full power of SQL ± Messages are stored in database tables  Database high availability.page 113 .

AQ architectural overview Queue Monitor process Queue table Queue ³Producers´ Enqueued messages Message 4 Message 3 Message 2 Message1 ³Consumers´ Dequeued messages Messages include both control information and ³payload´ (content) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 114 .

AQ supports: ± ± ± ± ± Multiple queues Resetting order and priority of queued items Queue management using only SQL & PL/SQL Multiple message recipients Propagation of queue to remote servers  Oracle8i adds: ± ± ± ± Rules-based publish & subscribe Listening on multiple queues Easier monitoring Native Java interface PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Oracle AQ Highlights  In 8.0.page 115 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .

AQ Components  The DBMS_AQ package offers enqueue and dequeue capabilities The DBMS_AQADM package provides administrative functionality to manage queues and queue tables. Underlying database tables and views The queue monitor (background process) ± Set # of processes with the AQ_TM_PROCESSES initialization parameter.    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 116 .

page 117 . assigns retry and retention properties to queue Drops a stopped queue Can also turn on/off enqueue and dequeue operations Stops queue. optionally waiting for outstanding transactions Adds an ³agent´ as a subscriber 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . sort column. whether multiple consumers Drops table if all queues in the table have been stopped Associates queue table with queue. storage clause. payload type.DBMS_AQADM Highlights CREATE_QUEUE_TABLE DROP_QUEUE_TABLE CREATE_QUEUE DROP_QUEUE START_QUEUE STOP_QUEUE ADD_SUBSCRIBER Assigns name.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein aq.page 118 . queue_table => 'msg'). END.pkg Start the queue PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .CREATE_QUEUE_TABLE (queue_table => 'msg'. queue_payload_type => 'message_type').START_QUEUE (queue_name => 'msgqueue').Creating Queue Tables and Queues CREATE TYPE message_type AS OBJECT (title VARCHAR2(30). Define a queue in the queue table DBMS_AQADM. / BEGIN DBMS_AQADM. Define the "payload" Create the queue table DBMS_AQADM. text VARCHAR2(2000)).CREATE_QUEUE (queue_name => 'msgqueue'.

but lots of complexity buried inside the parameters of these procedures.page 119   aq.The "operational package": DBMS_AQ  DBMS_AQ is deceptively simple. and returns a RAW message handle DEQUEUE extracts a message from a specified queue Parameters control message properties such as: ± Visibility (ON_COMMIT or IMMEDIATE) ± ± ± ± Priority Delay Expiration Locking behavior PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Only two procedures.  ENQUEUE puts a message into a specified queue.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .

* Place the message on the specified queue and get a msg ID in return. aqenq*.'). my_msg.MESSAGE_PROPERTIES_T.msgid_type. msgid). msgid aq. BEGIN my_msg := message_type ( 'First Enqueue'. my_msg message_type.. 'May there be many more. Set up the payload with an object constructor. Declare records to hold various enqueue and msg properties. msgprops.. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .ENQUEUE ( 'msgqueue'.Simple Enqueue Example DECLARE queueopts DBMS_AQ.ENQUEUE_OPTIONS_T. END.page 120 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . msgprops DBMS_AQ. queueopts. DBMS_AQ.

'). Same setup as previous page .. msgprops. queueopts....More Interesting Enqueue Example DECLARE . msgid2). DBMS_AQ. DBMS_AQ.relative_msgid := msgid1. my_msg := message_type ( 'Second Enqueue'. msgid1). BEGIN my_msg := message_type ( 'First Enqueue'.sequence_deviation := DBMS_AQ. 'May there be many more. 'And this one goes first. queueopts. my_msg.. queueopts..BEFORE. msgprops. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ... Modify the dequeue sequence by changing the deviation field and relative msg ID. queueopts.page 121 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Specify a delay before the payload is available.ENQUEUE ( 'msgqueue'. msgprops. END.ENQUEUE ('msgqueue'.').delay := 3 * 60 * 60 * 24. my_msg.

msgid_type. Demonstrates destructive and non-destructive dequeuing. queueopts. msgid).BROWSE). BEGIN getmsg (DBMS_AQ. DBMS_AQ. msgid aq.* Declare records to hold various dequeue and msg properties.DEQUEUE_OPTIONS_T. END. my_msg. getmsg (DBMS_AQ.DEQUEUE ( 'msgqueue'.dequeue_mode := mode_in. msgprops. END.page 122 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . PROCEDURE getmsg (mode_in IN INTEGER) IS BEGIN queueopts.pkg */ my_msg message_type. /* defined in aq. aqdeq*. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .REMOVE). Dequeue operation isolated in local module. getmsg (DBMS_AQ.REMOVE).MESSAGE_PROPERTIES_T. msgprops DBMS_AQ.Dequeue Example DECLARE queueopts DBMS_AQ.

the higher the priority. msgprops.Prioritized Payloads  You can assign priorities to individual payloads and then dequeue according to those priorities.IMMEDIATE. msgid).MESSAGE_PROPERTIES_T.priority := g_priority. msgprops.1. msgid aq.visibility := DBMS_AQ. ± The lower the numeric priority value.  A stack implementation using AQ demonstrates this well. queueopts.pkg aqstk2.msgid_type. g_priority := g_priority . PROCEDURE push (item IN VARCHAR2) IS queueopts DBMS_AQ. item_obj aqstk_objtype.ENQUEUE ( c_queue. DBMS_AQ.pkg priority. queueopts. END. aqstk.* 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .ENQUEUE_OPTIONS_T.page 123 . BEGIN item_obj := aqstk_objtype (item). item_obj. msgprops DBMS_AQ.

SYS.ADD_SUBSCRIBER ( c_queue. ± The message is then not removed from the queue until all subscribers have dequeued the message. multiple_consumers => TRUE).* PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Add subscribers for the queue. DBMS_AQADM.  Steps to working with a subscriber list: ± 1. ± 2. BEGIN DBMS_AQADM.AQ$_AGENT (name_in. NULL. NULL)).page 124 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein aqmult*.CREATE_QUEUE_TABLE ( queue_table => 'major_qtable'. The queue table must be defined to support multiple subscribers or consumers.Defining Message Subscribers  You can specify that a message is to be enqueued for a list of subscribers. queue_payload_type => 'student_major_t'.

 Considered by Oracle to be a core component of its overall solution. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . LISTEN capability. ± Crucial for Oracle to have a message-oriented middleware in order to offer an all-Oracle solution.Oracle AQ . improved security. ± Significant enhancements in Oracle8i. ± Should be strongly supported "down the road".Summary  Very powerful and flexible architecture. ± Much more robust that DBMS_PIPE. supporting a publish-subscribe model.page 125 .

page 126 .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Managing Large Objects with DBMS_LOB 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Images. ± Oracle has announced deprecation of LONGs. they should no longer be used.LOB Terms  LOB = Large OBject: a category of datatype allowing storage of ³unstructured´ data up to 4 gigabytes LOB datatype can be: ± Column in table ± Attribute in object type ± Element in nested table   Possible applications include office documents. video. though they will probably not be actually desupported.page 127 . etc. LOB datatypes are the successor to LONGs.  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . sounds.

external do not ± External LOBs are read-only from within Oracle 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Key programming differences: ± Internal LOBs participate in transactions.Types of Large Objects  ³Internal´ LOBs ± BLOB: unstructured binary data ± CLOB: single-byte fixedwidth character data ± NCLOB: multi-byte fixedwidth character data (or varying width in )  ³External´ LOBs ± BFILE: pointer to an operating system file  Temporary LOBs ± Internal LOBs that do not participate in transactions.page 128 . improving performance.

copy. open. append.page 129 . EMPTY_CLOB() ± BFILENAME 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . erase. substring and instring searches. close  Other built-in functions ± LOADFROMFILE (load an external BFILE into a BLOB) ± EMPTY_LOB().PL/SQL built-ins for LOBs  Package DBMS_LOB ± Supports for all LOBs: Reading. trim ± For external LOBs: File existence test. comparison and length checking ± For internal LOBs: Write.

fax BLOB). received DATE.page 130 . BEGIN OPEN fax_cur. Question: What¶s in the_fax? 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END. the_fax BLOB. CLOSE fax_cur.Deceptively simple example  BLOB-typed column in a table CREATE TABLE incoming_faxes (fax_id INTEGER.  Retrieve record with BLOB into PL/SQL variable DECLARE CURSOR fax_cur IS SELECT fax FROM incoming_faxes. FETCH fax_cur INTO the_fax.

page 131 .The ³LOB locator´ LOB t l sel es [ ll ] t i i t r . tt LOBs <lob segment> fax_id 281937 received 12-JAN-98 fax <lob locator> Updati  t e LOB anges t e pointer is ompli ates se of LOBs ± LOB locators cannot span transactions ± Programs must lock records containing LOBs efore updating ± Programs performing L must accommodate dynamic LOB locator alues 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

.oodb. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . EMPTY_CLOB()) RETURNING htmlloc INTO the_loc. . BEGIN INSERT INTO web_pages VALUES (the_url.. 1 of 2  Must get a new LOB locator before writing into the LOB: DECLARE the_url web_pages.page 132 . the_loc CLOB.url%TYPE := 'http://www.com'. htmlloc CLOB).Example: Piecewise CLOB programmatic insert  Create a table CREATE TABLE web_pages ( url VARCHAR2(512) PRIMARY KEY.

END LOOP. running_total := running_total + piece_length. into a CLOB column html_tab := UTL_HTTP.COUNT LOOP piece_length := LENGTH(html_tab(the_piece_no)).oodb.url%TYPE := 'http://www. END. FOR the_piece_no IN 1. several likely exceptions offset => running_total.WRITE(lob_loc => the_loc.Example: Piecewise CLOB programmatic insert DECLARE the_url web_pages.com'.html_tab. html_tab UTL_HTTP. This block retrieves INSERT INTO web_pages VALUES (the_url..REQUEST_PIECES(url => the_url). running_total PLS_INTEGER := 1. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . buffer => html_tab(the_piece_no)). the_loc CLOB. Note: We are ignoring amount => piece_length. EMPTY_CLOB()) and loads a web page RETURNING htmlloc INTO the_loc. piece_length PLS_INTEGER.HTML_PIECES.page 133 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein BEGIN . DBMS_LOB.

Example: Piecewise CLOB programmatic update DECLARE Program must lock the record explicitly CURSOR hcur IS SELECT htmlloc FROM web_pages WHERE url = 'http://www.com' FOR UPDATE.page 134 . str_offset INTEGER. offset => str_offset. the_loc CLOB. pattern => 'oodb'). BEGIN OPEN hcur. CLOSE hcur.INSTR(lob_loc => the_loc.WRITE(lob_loc => the_loc. amount => 4. END. str_offset := DBMS_LOB. IF str_offset != 0 THEN DBMS_LOB. FETCH hcur INTO the_loc. END IF. buffer => 'cool'). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .oodb.

Preparing to use BFILEs  You must first create an Oracle I ORY´ ± Creates logical alias for full directory pat ± imilar to LIBRARY (used for C "external procedures"). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ut IRECTORY namespace is global  Syntax: CREATE OR REPLACE DIRECTORY <directory name> AS '<full path to directory>'.page 135 .  Example: CREATE DIRECTORY web_pix AS 'D:\bill\training\pix'.

.. image BFILE). / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . CREATE TYPE Business_card_t AS OBJECT ( name Name_t.. scanned_card_image BFILE ). phones Phone_tab_t.page 136 . addresses Address_tab_t.. CREATE TABLE web_graphics ( image_id INTEGER.Using BFILE datatype in DDL  In a table.  In an object type.

Spec: FUNCTION BFILENAME(directory_exprn. picture). BEGIN INSERT INTO web_graphics VALUES (100015. file_exprn) RETURN BFILE.The built-in BFILENAME function  Returns value of datatype BFILE.page 137 . END.  Example: DECLARE picture BFILE := BFILENAME('WEB_PIX'. /  Notes: ± No automatic file checking or synchronization ± No participation in transactions 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 'prodicon.gif').

DBMS_LOB.Loading File into Database BLOB CREATE TABLE web_graphic_blobs ( image_id INTEGER. DBMS_LOB.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .FILECLOSE(pic_file). 'prodicon. src_lob => pic_file. DBMS_LOB.GETLENGTH(pic_file)). DBMS_LOB.gif'). pic_blob_loc) RETURNING image INTO pic_blob_loc. amount => DBMS_LOB. DECLARE pic_file BFILE := BFILENAME('WEB_PIX'. END.page 138 . image BLOB). / loadblob.FILE_READONLY). BEGIN INSERT INTO web_graphic_blobs VALUES (1. pic_blob_loc BLOB := EMPTY_BLOB().FILEOPEN(pic_file.LOADFROMFILE(dest_lob => pic_blob_loc.

New DBMS_LOB APIs in 8i  Support for temporary LOBs ± No logging or rollback faster! ± Lifespan: session.page 139 . or transaction  Ability to retrieve LOB ³chunk size´ ± Allows programmer to tune READs and WRITEs  For all internal LOBs ± OPEN & CLOSE allow control over timing. that can mean less I/O » Trigger will not fire until CLOSE » Indexes will not update until CLOSE ± ISOPEN 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . call.

Large Object .page 140 . ± LOB locator behavior slightly abstruse ± Inability to modify BFILEs directly from within PL/SQL.Summary  LOB support in Oracle is now significantly improved. COLD 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .. ± Complete support in PL/SQL (and other APIs) ± Much better performance and control than with LONGs ± Usable in object types HOT  Some weaknesses..

page 141 .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Leveraging Java Inside PL/SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

functions.Overview of Java interoperability  Java inside or outside 8i server can call PL/SQL ± Standard JDBC and SQLJ calls with Oracle extensions ± Same Java on client. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . mid-tier. triggers in Java Distinct Java & PL/SQL namespaces  But first.a BRIEF introduction to Java.....page 142 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . or server Not covered in this seminar  PL/SQL can call Java inside 8i server ± ± ± ± Command-line tools load Java classes DDL extensions publish Java classes Writing stored procedures.

page 143 . fastest. slickest piece of software ever designed by human beings? ± Just the latest in a series of "silver bullets" promoted by software vendors in order to prop up quarterly sales? ± The first and only successful O-O language? ± None of the above?  We don't really need to take a vote. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .. ± We just need to keep a firm grip on common sense and stay focused on delivering solutions.Question 1: What is Java?  Could it be.. ± The end of programming history as we know it? ± The easiest.

it is very unlikely and totally unthinkable for years to come.Question 2: Will Java Replace PL/SQL?  While that scenario is certainly possible. ± A language in which hundreds of thousands of developers are trained. PL/SQL will still be: ± Faster and more productive than Java for database operations.page 144 . ± Ubiquitous in thousands of production applications and millions of lines of code.and very aggressively. ± Supported and improved by Oracle -. to boot.  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

you have to instantiate an object from that class. ± string is definitely not the same as String. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . everything exception the primitive datatypes...page 145 .  Everything is a class (or an object instantiated from a class). ± Don't get overwhelmed by all the classes and all the strange quirks...Some Important Things to Remember  Java is a case sensitive language.  You don't have to know how to do everything with Java to get lots of value out of it. ± Well. ± Before you can call a (non-static) class method...

END.. Oh. no methods. ± Used to test or run stand-alone a class. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE hello IS BEGIN DBMS_OUTPUT. except the "special" main method.Building a Java Class  Let's start from the very beginning.out.page 146 .PUT_LINE ('Hello world!').println ("Hello world!"). public class Hello { public static void main (String[] args) { System. by the way: the PL/SQL version 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .. } }  No members.

1.java -classpath d:\java 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . SET CLASSPATH = d:\Oracle\Ora81\jdbc\lib\classes111. ± It will also automatically recompile any classes used by your class that has not been compiled since last change.7b\lib\classes. you must compile it with the javac command.zip. e:\jdk1.java file to a .d:\java D:> javac Hello.Compiling Classes  Before you can use a class.page 147 .class file. ± You must also either have set the CLASSPATH or include it in your javac call.zip. ± This will convert the .

java 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Running a Class  Run a class? What does that mean? It means that if your class contains a method with this header: public static void main (String[] args)  then you can "run" the main method with the java command: d:\java> java Hello  You can also pass one or more arguments on the command line: d:\java> java Hello mom Hello2.page 148 .

however.   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Let's build a performance analyzer class to explore these ideas. you will use a class by instantiating objects from the class and then invoking class methods on the object.Using a Class  The main method is handy for providing a built-in test mechanism of your class. Usually.page 149 .

java Tmr.l ("Elapsed time ".currentTimeMillis().l ("Elapsed time for " + context. System.currentTimeMillis() .java 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Gstart).currentTimeMillis() .currentTimeMillis to calculate elapsed time to nearest thousandth of a second. } public void showElapsed (String context) { p. class Tmr { private long Gstart = 0. public void capture () { Gstart = System.page 150 . elapsed()). } public long elapsed () { return (System. } } p.java InFile.Gstart). } public void showElapsed () { p.Compare Performance of Methods  Use System.

page 151 .Types of Classes  There are several different kinds of classes in Java.  Interface class ± The class only contains unimplemented methods.  Inner class ± Classes that are defined inside other classes. besides the "regular" kind we just saw.. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . but at least one method remains unimplemented.  Abstract class ± The class can contain members and methods..

± Static polymorphism: form is chosen at compile-time (PL/SQL overloading).page 152 . either as its own class or as any superclass.java A Class Hierarchy Management NonManagement Corporation 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Dynamic polymorphism: form is determined at run-time. supertype/"wider" Citizen Person Employee Hourly Worker Salaried Worker subtype/"narrower" War Criminal Person.And Now for Some Scary Buzzwords!  Inheritance ± Subclasses inherit methods and variables from extended superclasses.  Polymorphism ± An object of a class can have "multiple" forms.

myName = "Feuerstein". String myName. boolean char byte short int long float double  Strings ± A String object is a read-only. myName = "Steven". if you assign a new value to it. ± Can't do a direct == comparison. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . you are actually allocating a new object. if (myName.Language Basics  Comments // Single line comment /* Block comment */ /** Documentation comment */  Primitive datatypes ± So I lied. these are not objects instantiated from classes.equals(YourName)) foundFamily().page 153 .

out.out. step) { lotsaStuff } while (expression) { lostsaStuff } do { lostsaStuff } while (expression). indx++) System. Examples: for (indx indx=0. System.println ( (String)enum.nextElement()) } } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .println (args[indx]).length.NextElement()).hasMoreElements ()) { processIt (enum. static void processAll (Enumeration enum) { while (enum.page 154 .Writing Loops in Java  Three kinds of loops: while. indx < args. do-while and for ± Note: you need squiggly brackets only if there is more than one statement in the loop body. expression. for (initialize.

name()).. public PuterLingo (String name) { mname = name.page 155 . you still include the open and close parentheses. } } class LotsALingos { public static void main (String args[]) { PuterLingo Java = new PuterLingo("Java").println (Java.. System. ± Only positional notation is supported. class PuterLingo { private String mname.Passing Parameters  Some important differences from PL/SQL. } } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .out. you must supply a value for each parameter. ± If a method has no arguments. } public String name () { return mname. ± No default values for arguments.

} File-related catch (SecurityException e) { exceptions return -1.toString()).length(). "WHEN OTHERS" } in Java } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .println (e.page 156 . you "throw" and "catch" exceptions. rather than raise and handle.Exception Handling in Java  Very similar to PL/SQL. } catch (Exception e) { System.equals("")) throw new Exception ("Filename is NULL"). return myFile. Throwing my own public static int numBytes (String filename) { exception try { if (filename. Put inside try clause File myFile = new File (filename).out.

± So you can pass them as arguments and do anything and everything else you can do with objects..  You must inform users of your method of which exceptions may be thrown. as in: public static int numBytes (String filename) throws SecurityException. NoSuchFile { . } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 157 .Differences Between Java & PL/SQL  Exceptions are objects derived directly or indirectly from the Exception class. ± Use the throws clause in your specification..

 Now let's explore how you can put Java to work for you inside PL/SQL programs. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 158 . ± Object oriented development (Java) is very different from procedural coding (PL/SQL).Java's Not So Tough!  You can learn enough Java in less than a week to: ± Build simple classes ± Leverage Java inside PL/SQL  Moving to the next level of expertise will be more of a challenge.

Java Stored Procedures (JSPs) Java applet or app. using JDBC or SQLJ Oracle 8i server PL/SQL cover for Java method Java virtual machine running Java method Oracle Developer client (PL/SQL) Net8 OCI or Pro*C client VB or C++ via OO4O or ODBC 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 159 .

better file I/O ± RMI callouts.page 160 .JSPs: Some sample uses PL/SQL extender ± For example. network communication in/out PL/SQL replacement ± More standard language ± Good performer for numeric processing tasks ± Beware database I/O & string manipulation performance Scaleable deployment of third party code ± Vertical application ± Web server ± XML parser/generator 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

END 4.Creating JSP to call from PL/SQL   1.. Publish PL/SQL cover using AS LANGUAGE JAVA. Create Java classes in your favorite IDE 2... Call from PL/SQL (or SQL) as if calling PL/SQL    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Load into server using ³loadjava´ command-line tool 3. rather than BEGIN. Grant privileges as desired 5..page 161 .

} public static void main (String[] args) { // A very scary company Corporation TheGlobalMonster = new Corporation ( "Northrup-Ford-Mattel-Yahoo-ATT". layoffs = Playoffs.out. System. }} 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Notes on Java classes  toString method automatically used by System. CEOCompensation = PceoComp. } public String toString () { return name + " is a transnational entity with " + layoffs + " laid-off employees.out.println (TheGlobalMonster). 5000000. long PceoComp) { name = Pname.Create Java class(es) class Corporation extends Person { long layoffs. long Playoffs.java Advanced Techniques .println main method is used to test the class. long CEOCompensation. public Corporation ( String Pname. Entry points must be public static in most cases Classes may call other classes Avoid GUI calls     person. paying its" + " Chief Executive Officer " + CEOCompensation. 50000000).page 162 PL/SQL .

class options (abbreviated) -oci8 -resolve loadjava will connect using OCI driver Resolves external class references at compile time -resolver (shown later) Search path like CLASSPATH 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .jar file Oracle 8i server Java class Java source Java resource loadjava Example: loadjava loadjava -user scott/tiger -oci8 -resolve datacraft/bill/Hello.Upload using ³loadjava´ utility .java file Java resource file .class file .page 163 .

bill. . /  Syntax (simplified) CREATE [ OR REPLACE PROCE URE FUNCTION <name> <sqlt pe> ] [ [ <ar s> ) ] [ AUTHID { DEFINER | CURRENT_USER } ] AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME '<met fullname> (<Ja a t pe fullname>.Emp(int) return java.) [ return <Ja a t pe fullname> ]'.String'..lang.Publish  Example (top-level call spec) CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION hello_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2 AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.page 164 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..Hello.

sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 165 . END.PUT_LINE(hello_emp(7499)). for example. PRINT :thename ± CALL avoids overhead of SELECT fn FROM DUAL jsp. from SQL*Plus: VARIABLE thename VARCHAR2(12) CALL hello_emp(7499) INTO :thename.  Method 2: Use 8i SQL CALL statement.Call the wrapped method  Method 1: Call as if PL/SQL module BEGIN DBMS_OUTPUT.

STRUCT <named type> oracle.lang.sql.sql.Timestamp java.REF oracle.String java.math.ARRAY 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .sql.more concepts Shape mapping ± Java methods declared ³void´ become PL/SQL procedures ± Signature mismatches detected only at runtime Type mapping (typical) VARCHAR2 DATE NUMBER user-defined object type user-defined object type object REFerence user-defined collection type java.sql.page 166 .Publishing -.BigDecimal oracle.

CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE hello_pkg AS FUNCTION hi_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2 AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.util..String'. END.Publish in PL/SQL Package Spec  Designate Java module in PL/SQL package spec..page 167 . / (No package body required in this case) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Emp(int) return java.Hello.lang.

String'. END..Emp(int) return java. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 168 ..Publish as module in package body  .util. / CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY hello_pkg2 AS FUNCTION hi_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2 IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.lang. END.Hello.or in package body CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE hello_pkg2 AS FUNCTION hi_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2.

END.String').Emp(int) return java. MEMBER FUNCTION hello_emp RETURN VARCHAR2).Emp(int) return java.lang.Hello. / CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE BODY foo_t AS MEMBER FUNCTION hello_emp RETURN VARCHAR2 IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.String'.util.page 169 . / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .lang. / or in the body: CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE foo_t AS OBJECT ( bar VARCHAR2(30).Publish as object type method  Either in spec: CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE foo_t AS OBJECT ( bar VARCHAR2(30).Hello. MEMBER FUNCTION hello_emp RETURN VARCHAR2 IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.util.

DROP JAVA: drops a named Java library unit Several roles available for Java operations: ± JAVAUSERPRIV.page 170 . or resource ± Can read file designated with BFILE() function  ALTER JAVA: compiles Java source.   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . JAVA_ADMIN. resolves Java class references. JAVASYSPRIV (needed for file IO operations).New DDL Statements and Roles  CREATE JAVA ± Alternative to ³loadjava´ utility ± Creates or replaces an Oracle ³library unit´ from Java source. JAVADEBUGPRIV ± You can also grant specific privileges. class. JAVAIDPRIV.

page 171 .Passing Oracle8 objects Oracle8i server Object in O-R table Java application Java object   Harder than you¶d think Three different interfacing techniques ± oracle.sql.STRUCT ± oracle.CustomDatum ± oracle.SQLData 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .jdbc2.sql.

page 172 .JPublisher utility Database server Definition of type or REF in data dictionary User-supplied JPublisher input file What does it do? ± Generates Java that encapsulates type and REF types of mapping supported for methods JPublisher ± ³Oracle mapping´ ± ³JDBC mapping´ ± ³Object JDBC mapping´ Three Generated Java file(s) for use in Java programs 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Passing object using JPub-generated Java  After generating and uploading classes with JPub.AccountRuntime.bill.bill.save (datacraft.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 173 . /  jspobj. they become available to use in mapping Example of passing an Account_t object: CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE account_save (new_acct IN Account_t) IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.Account_t)'.

page 174 . Let's see how we can make that great Java stuff available from within PL/SQL. but that package is very limited.Example: Improving File I/O  You can read/write files in PL/SQL with UTL_FILE. Java offers many file-related classes with much greater capabilities.   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Encapsulate Java Classes  You won't generally access native Java methods in your PL/SQL wrapper. ± This is not available through UTL_FILE (though you can get it through DBMS_LOB).. ± The File class offers a length method that returns the number of bytes in a file.. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 175 . ± Instead build a static method that instantiates a Java object from the class and then invokes the relevant method against that object.  Let's start with something simple.

io. ± Call the method of choice against that object and return the value. return myFile.File. ± Instantiate a File object for the specified name. import java.My Own Java Class for File Manipulation  Accept the name of a file and return its length. public class JFile2 { public static long length (String fileName) { File myFile = new File (fileName). } } JFile2.page 176 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .length().java  Take each of these steps: ± Import the File class to resolve reference.

page 177 . END. END. / xfile2. we will certainly want to add more functionality over time. ± I translate the Java long to a PL/SQL NUMBER. / CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY xfile IS FUNCTION length (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN NUMBER AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'JFile.lang.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .length (java.String) return long'. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE xfile IS FUNCTION length (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN NUMBER.Build a Package over Java Method  Let's put it in a package.

Convert the Java boolean to a String or number and return that value. Not so! To pass a Boolean back from Java to PL/SQL. ± 2. Write a "public" PL/SQL wrapper function to convert that number to a true PL/SQL Boolean.page 178 . ± 3.Mapping the Boolean Datatype  Both Java and PL/SQL support a native Boolean datatype. so you'd expect smooth sailing. Write a "hidden" PL/SQL wrapper function that returns the string or number. you will need to take these steps: ± 1.  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

not a Boolean class.canRead(). if (retval) return 1. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . public class JFile3 { public static int canRead (String fileName) { File myFile = new File (fileName). ± And don't forget: this is a boolean primitive.java  Translate TRUE to 1 and FALSE to 0. boolean retval = myFile.io.page 179 . import java.File. else return 0. } } JFile3.Translate Boolean to Number  Accept the name of a file and return its length.

pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . JFile4. ± Avoid the hard-codings with named constants. xfile4.pkg RETURN IcanRead (file) = 1. / CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY xfile IS FUNCTION IcanRead (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN NUMBER AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'JFile3.String) return int'. END.java / xfile... JFile.page 180 . CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE xfile IS FUNCTION canRead (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN BOOLEAN.java END.Wrapper for Pseudo-Boolean function  Simple translation back to PL/SQL Boolean. FUNCTION canRead (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN BOOLEAN AS BEGIN xfile3.lang.pkg END.canRead (java.

} } Extract individual attribute values from the array. BigDecimal hourly_rate = (BigDecimal)(attribs[1]). // starting with 0 String laborType = (String)(attribs[0]).Passing Objects to Java with STRUCT  You can pass Oracle object information to Java without relying on JPub by using the STRUCT class.getAttributes(). System.sql.println ( "Pay " + laborType + " $" + hourly_rate + " per hour").page 181 . public class UnionBuster { Obtain attributes of public static void wageStrategy (STRUCT e) the Oracle object.tst PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . throws java. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein UnionBuster. Object[] attribs = e.SQLException { // Get the attributes of the labor_source object.out. // Access individual attributes by array index.java passobj.

wageStrategy (oracle.Wrapping a STRUCT-based Method  You can pass Oracle object information to Java without relying on JPub by using the STRUCT class.sql. 0)).page 182 . / CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE bust_em_with ( labor_source_in IN labor_source_t) AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'UnionBuster. bust_em_with ( labor_source ('Prisoners'. The Oracle object type definition CREATE TYPE labor_source_t AS OBJECT ( labor_type VARCHAR2(30). / BEGIN bust_em_with ( labor_source ('Workfare'. END. '5')). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Fully specify the STRUCT class in parameter list. hourly_rate NUMBER).STRUCT)'. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

out.println. ± Here is a good nucleus for a login. i < count. ± Call it within methods and output will display in your Java environment.out. HelloAll.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .SET_OUTPUT (1000000). }}}  When called within a PL/SQL wrapper.Viewing Output from Java Methods  Java provides a "print line" method similar to DBMS_OUTPUT. i++) { System.PUT_LINE: System.sql file: SET SERVEROUTPUT ON SIZE 1000000 CALL DBMS_JAVA.java HelloAll. you can redirect the output to the DBMS_OUTPUT buffer.page 183 . public class HelloAll { public static void lotsaText ( int count) { for (int i = 0.println ( "Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello All!").

getErrorCode() and getMessage() to obtain information about the error thrown.5). ± And also spew out the entire Java error stack! (at least through 8. you "throw" and "catch".1.page 184 .SQLException. such as java. ± Use two methods. ± Exceptions are objects instantiated from the Exception class or a subclass of it. but more robust error handling mechanism than PL/SQL.sql. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Error Handling with Java-PL/SQL  Java offers a very similar. ± Instead of raising and handling.  Any error not caught by the JVM (Java virtual machine) will be thrown back to the PL/SQL block or SQL statement.

KprbDBAccess.java) at oracle.kprb.sql. DBMS_OUTPUT.sp dropany2.jdbc.OracleStatement.jdbc.OracleStatement.jdbc.executeUpdate(OracleStatement.jdbc.driver.jdbc.KprbDBAccess.tst ORA-00942: table or view does not exist 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .java) at oracle.Trapping and Identifying Errors  Currently.object(DropAny.SQLException: getErrInfo.doExecuteOther(OracleStatement. BEGIN dropany ('TABLE'.PUT_LINE (SQLCODE).parseExecuteFetch(KprbDBAccess.OracleStatement.doExecuteWithBatch(OracleStatement.page 185 .java) at oracle.sql.java) at DropAny.jdbc.tst ORA-29532: Java call terminated by uncaught Java exception: java.driver.doExecuteWithTimeout(OracleStatement. the entire Java stack is displayed on your screen.driver.java) at oracle. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN DBMS_OUTPUT.OracleStatement.kprb.check_error(KprbDBAccess. END. / SQL> 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 java.driver.java) at oracle.java) at oracle. and you have to do some digging to extract the Oracle error information.doExecute(OracleStatement.java -29532 dropany.java:14) DropAny.OracleStatement.SQLException: ORA-00942: table or view does not exist at oracle.jdbc. 'blip').driver.PUT_LINE (SQLERRM).

± Must be a shared object library on Unix or a dynamically linked library (DLL) on Windows.page 186 .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence External Procedures  An external procedure is a 3GL routine that can serve as the ³body´ of a PL/SQL function. or method.  An Oracle8 feature that allowed relatively "native" callouts to C from PL/SQL for the first time. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . procedure.

so file extproc returns results returns results 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 187 .DLL or .Process & data flow Application Makes request Net8 External Procedure Listener spawns External Shared Library Calls PL/SQL Runtime Engine PL/SQL body Client or server-side application returns results calls routine from Routine in .

sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 188 .External procedures: Sample uses      Send email Invoke operating system command Invoke custom or legacy application Call C runtime library function Perform admin tasks email.sql diskspace.

dll'. create an Oracle8 ³library´: CREATE OR REPLACE LIBRARY nt_kernel AS 'c:\winnt\system32\kernel32.Determine free disk space on NT (1/4)  Use pre-existing routine: ± GetDiskFreeSpaceA in kernel32.dll ± For given drive letter.page 189 . this function returns: » » » » » sectors per cluster bytes per sector number of free clusters total number of clusters ³return code´ indicating success or failure  First. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Package spec (2/4)  Nothing unexpected here: CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE disk_util AS FUNCTION get_disk_free_space (root_path IN VARCHAR2.page 190 . total_number_of_clusters OUT PLS_INTEGER) RETURN PLS_INTEGER. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END disk_util. bytes_per_sector OUT PLS_INTEGER. sectors_per_cluster OUT PLS_INTEGER. number_of_free_clusters OUT PLS_INTEGER.

bytes_per_sector BY REFERENCE LONG. RETURN LONG). bytes_per_sector OUT PLS_INTEGER. sectors_per_cluster OUT PLS_INTEGER. number_of_free_clusters BY REFERENCE LONG. END disk_util. total_number_of_clusters BY REFERENCE LONG. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Package body in Oracle 8. number_of_free_clusters OUT pls_integer. sectors_per_cluster BY REFERENCE LONG.page 191  All the magic is in the EXTERNAL section 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . total_number_of_clusters OUT PLS_INTEGER) RETURN PLS_INTEGER IS EXTERNAL LIBRARY nt_kernel NAME "GetDiskFreeSpaceA" LANGUAGE C CALLING STANDARD PASCAL PARAMETERS (root_path STRING.0 (3/4) CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY disk_util AS FUNCTION get_disk_free_space (root_path IN VARCHAR2.

Usage (4/4)
DECLARE lroot_path VARCHAR2(3) := 'C:\'; lsectors_per_cluster PLS_INTEGER; lbytes_per_sector PLS_INTEGER; lnumber_of_free_clusters PLS_INTEGER; ltotal_number_of_clusters PLS_INTEGER; return_code PLS_INTEGER; free_meg REAL; BEGIN return_code := disk_util.get_disk_free_space (lroot_path, lsectors_per_cluster, lbytes_per_sector, lnumber_of_free_clusters, ltotal_number_of_clusters); free_meg := lsectors_per_cluster * lbytes_per_sector * lnumber_of_free_clusters / 1024 / 1024; DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('free disk space, Mb = ' || free_meg); diskspace.sql END;
1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein
PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 192

Creating your own external procedure 

1. Identify or create shared library 2. Identify or CREATE LIBRARY within Oracle 3. Map the parameters using:
± EXTERNAL clause (Oracle8) or ± LANGUAGE clause (Oracle8i)  

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 193

1. Identify/create external routine 


Prerequisite: O/S must support shared libraries Some useful routines are pre-built in C runtime library
± On Unix: /lib/libc.so ± On NT: <systemroot>\system32\crtdll.dll 

Building a shared library of your own requires knowledge of:
± Appropriate language (typically C) ± Compiler & linker

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 194

2. Create the Oracle library 

Syntax:
CREATE OR REPLACE LIBRARY <library name> AS '<full path to file>'; 

Assigns a programmer-defined alias to a specific shared library file Notes
± Requires CREATE LIBRARY pri ilege ± Does not alidate directory ± Can¶t use symbolic link 

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 195

3. Map the parameters
This can get complicated, because«
± Must pass extra parameters to designate:
» NULL/NOT NULL state » String length » Maximum allocated length

± Six choices of parameter mode
» » » » » » IN RETURN IN BY REFERENCE RETURN BY REFERENCE OUT IN OUT

These details are better suited for close reading«
PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 196

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Oracle8i New Features Autonomous Transactions Invoker Rights Model Row Level Security 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 197 .

   Autonomous Transactions The Invoker Rights Model Row level security 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± And the learning curve to take advantage of these features is generally not too steep.page 198 .Oracle8i New Features  Oracle8i offers a number of PL/SQL-specific features that give you tremendous additional flexibility and capability.

you can now define a PL/SQL block to execute as an "autonomous transaction". msg IN VARCHAR2) AS PRAGMA AUTONOMOUS_TRANSACTION. ± There was only one transaction allowed per connection. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  With Oracle8i. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE loginfo ( code IN PLS_INTEGER. ± Any changes made within that block can be saved or reversed without affecting the outer or main transaction.page 199 . a COMMIT or ROLLBACK in any program in your session committed or rolled back all changes in your session.Autonomous Transactions  Prior to Oracle8i.

 Logging Mechanism ± Commonly developers lot to database tables. which can cause all sorts of complications: your log entry becomes a part of your transaction. ± Now you can avoid the complexities (need for ROLLBACK TO savepoints and so on).  Tracing Code Usage ± Build retry mechanisms. something like a COMMIT) on other components.  Call functions within SQL that change the database. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . etc. software usage meter.page 200 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . ± One component should not have any impact (esp.When to Use Autonomous Transactions  Reusable Application Components ± ATs are more or less required in the new distributed application architecture of the Internet.

USER. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN ROLLBACK. let's add some session information. SYSDATE.machine.pkg log81*. SYSDATE. rec. USER.sp log81. text_in IN VARCHAR2 ) IS PRAGMA AUTONOMOUS_TRANSACTION.tst retry. rec. BEGIN INSERT INTO logtab VALUES (code_in. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Avoid interdependencies with the main transaction. COMMIT. logger.page 201 . END.program ).Logging with ATs  Don't forget that ROLLBACK in the exception section! CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY log IS PROCEDURE putline ( code_in IN INTEGER. text_in. While we're at it.pkg retry.tst PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END.

autonserial. ± Place the SET TRANSACTION statement in the outer transaction.  Any changes committed in an AT are visible in the outer transaction.page 202 . ± You cannot define a nested anonymous block to be an AT.   The AT PRAGMA goes in the body of packages. ± You can use the SET TRANSACTION ISOLATION LEVEL SERIALIZABLE to indicate that you do not want the changes visible until the outer transaction commits.sql auton_in_sql.Tips and Gotchas with ATs  An AT program must COMMIT or ROLLBACK before terminating.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . The AT PRAGMA can be used only with individual programs and toplevel anonymous blocks.sql autontrigger*. ± You cannot define an entire package as an AT. or an error is raised. ± You cannot tell by looking at the package spec if you are calling ATs or not -and this info is not available in the data dictionary.

page 203 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . ± This is called the « Invoker Rights Model PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . it ran under the privileges of the account in which the program was defined. ± This is called the « Definer Rights Model  With Oracle8i. whenever you executed a stored program.The Invoker Rights Model  Prior to Oracle8i. you can now decide at compilation time whether your program or package will execute in the definer's schema (the default) or the schema of the invoker of the code.

OE Code Order_Mgt Place Cancel Sam_Sales Close Old Orders  OE Data X  Orders Cannot alter table directly.page 204 . But it can be a source of confusion and architectural problems. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .About Definer Rights  Allows you to centralize access to and control of underlying data structures. Ignores roles and relies on directly-granted privileges. Note: Oracle built-in packages have long had the capability of running under the invoker's authority.

page 205 . unless you write code in the package to essentially recreate roles programmatically.. requiring copy of stored module  Security ± No declarative way to restrict privileges on certain modules in a package -.and now you do! 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Can bypass 8i¶s ³fine-grained´ access features (see the DBMS_RLS package) ± Difficult to audit privileges  Sure would be nice to have a choice.Problems with Definer Rights  Deployment & maintenance ± Must install module in all remote databases where needed ± In some databases. each user has own copy of table(s).it's all or nothing..

Oracle8i Invoker Rights Syntax  For top level modules: CREATE [ OR REPLACE ] <module type> [ AUTHID { DEFINER | CURRENT_USER } ] AS . do what it takes to get the code to compile. ± In other words.page 206 .  For modules with separate spec and body.. the objects referenced may well be different from those against which it compiled. You could also create local. and must be at the package level. AUTHID goes only in spec. Synonyms may be necessary if modules use object names not qualified by schema.  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± At run-time. "dummy" objects..

Central Code schema PACKAGE acct_mgr make AUTHID CURRENT_USER User/Data schema PROCEDURE mng_account IS BEGIN . code.FROM accounts WHERE.)...destroy(... you can execute code owned by another schema.acct_mgr.. modify destroy .."Reflection" Capability of Invoker Rights  With invoker rights.. END. yet have all references to data structures "reflect back" into your own schema.page 207 . accounts table 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..

 Once a definer rights program is called.sql  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Information about the rights model is not available in the data dictionary What if you want to maintain a single version of your code for both pre-Oracle8i and Oracle8i installations. all other calls in stack are resolved according to definer rights. taking advantage of the invoker rights model whenever possible? ± A creative use of SQL*Plus substitution variables comes in very invdefinv. the definer rights model is always applied to resolve the reference. Note: cannot use with wrapped code.Tips and Gotchas for Invoker Rights  Does not apply to code objects. ± AUTHID CURRENT_USER is ignored.page 208 .sql handy. ± Both static and dynamic SQL is supported. oneversion. only data ± When your stored code references another stored code element.

sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . authid. but you want their own directly-granted privileges to determine access. ± Share a program that uses dynamic SQL (whether DBMS_SQL or the new native implementation) and you end up taking the most unexpected DDL and DML detours.page 209 .When to Invoke Invoker Rights  You want to reuse the same code among many users.sql whichsch*. National HQ Check City Statistics New York Schema stolenlives Chicago Schema stolenlives  Especially handy with dynamic SQL.

page 210 . Rely on definer rights to access centralized data from any schema.Combining Invoker & Definer Rights  Rely on invoker rights to allow centralized code to work with schema-specific data. HQ Chicago Check City Statistics  New York stolenlives Analyze Pattern stolenlives perpetrators perp.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Row Level Security DBMS_RLS Row-Level Security 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 211 .

Row-Level Security with DBMS_RLS  Oracle8i offers a new package. you could achieve this only partially through the use of views. The DBMS_RLS package (along with "system contexts") now allow you to do so in a foolproof manner. Row Level Security  The establishment of security policies on (restricted access to) individual rows of a table.page 212   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . DBMS_RLS. with which to implement automated row-level security (also referred to as "fine grained access control"). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Prior to Oracle8i.

 Database Logon Triggers ± I want to make sure that when a person logs in. the system context is a named set of attributevalue pairs global to your session.  Security Policy Packages ± You will need to write a package containing functions that establish the security policies to be applied to a particular table.Components Needed for RLS  System Contexts ± A new feature in Oracle8i.page 213 . their context information is set properly.  Let's step through a simple example to see how all these pieces tie together.  DBMS_RLS ± Use programs in DBMS_RLS to associate your security policies with tables. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

popular uprising in the United States has forced the establishment of a national healthcare system. highly secure database for NHCS. doctor. ± Regulators can only see patients who reside in the same state. all pregnant women receive excellent prenatal care. ± A massive. Here are some rules: ± Doctors can only see patients who are assigned to their clinic. The main tables are patient. fgac.sql  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . No more for-profit hospitals pulling billions of dollars out of the system.page 214 . all children are vaccinated. ± Patients can only see information about themselves. no more private insurance companies soaking up 30 cents on the dollar. clinic and regulator.  We need a top-notch.A National Health Care System  The year is 2010.

PROCEDURE set_context IS This is a simplification. sets the context accordingly. DBMS_SESSION. END.SET_CONTEXT ( 'patient_restriction'.sql for logic that identifies SELECT doctor_id FROM doctor different types of people and WHERE schema_name = USER.page 215 . CREATE CONTEXT patient_restriction USING nhc_pkg. DBMS_SESSION.doctor_id).SET_CONTEXT ( 'patient_restriction'. BEGIN OPEN doc_cur. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . See CURSOR doc_cur IS fgac. c_person_type_attr. c_person_id_attr. doc_rec.Set the Context  Define a context in the database. and create a procedure that will set the context attributes (type and ID) upon login. doc_rec doc_cur%ROWTYPE. 'DOCTOR'). FETCH doc_cur INTO doc_rec.

information for this retval VARCHAR2(2000). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . person.Define the Predicate  A predicate is a string that will be appended to the WHERE clause of the table to which this security policy is associated (see next page). FUNCTION person_predicate ( schema_in VARCHAR2. c_person_type_attr).page 216 . BEGIN IF l_context = 'DOCTOR' THEN retval := 'home_clinic_id IN (SELECT home_clinic_id FROM doctor We need a different string WHERE doctor_id = SYS_CONTEXT (''' || to modify the WHERE c_context || '''. ''' || clause for each type of c_person_id_attr || '''))'. name_in VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2 IS l_context VARCHAR2(100) := Extract the context SYS_CONTEXT (c_context. connection.

'nhc_pkg.Create the Security Policy  Use the DBMS_RLS. 'patient'.UPDATE.ADD_POLICY OBJECT_SCHEMA OBJECT_NAME POLICY_NAME FUNCTION_SCHEMA POLICY_FUNCTION STATEMENT_TYPES END.DELETE'). BEGIN DBMS_RLS. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .PATIENT table will be modified by the string returned by the person_predicate function of the SCOTT. 'SELECT. 'SCOTT'. ± The following procedure call specifies that the WHERE clause of any query.ADD_POLICY procedure.person_predicate'.page 217 . 'patient_privacy'. ( => => => => => => 'SCOTT'.nhc_pkg package. update or delete against the SCOTT.

fgac.PUT_LINE ( 'Error ' || SQLCODE || ' setting context for ' || USER').page 218 .sql Exception handling in trigger is critical! If you allow an exception to go unhandled.Create Logon Trigger. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN DBMS_OUTPUT. we guarantee that the context is set (and the predicate applied) no matter which product is the entry point to Oracle. Setting Context  By setting the context in the logon trigger. END. logon is disabled. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER set_id_on_logon AFTER LOGON ON DATABASE BEGIN nhc_pkg.set_context.

Predicate: home_clinic_id IN (SELECT home_clinic_id FROM doctor WHERE doctor_id = SYS_CONTEXT ('patient_restriction'.Chris Silva . 'person_id')) Patients Visible to "SWALLACE": CSILVA .Queries Transparently Filtered  What you see is determined automatically by who you are.page 219 .Veva Silva . Context Information for "SWALLACE": Type: DOCTOR Doctor sees only her ID: 1060 patients.IL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Patient sees only himself.IL VSILVA . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Chris Silva .IL Context Information for "CSILVA": Type: PATIENT ID: Predicate: schema_name = 'CSILVA' Patients Visible to "CSILVA": CSILVA .

.. and you use only what you know.. February. Jump out of your rut .  ± You learn what you need to get the job done. March. April...Take Full Advantage of PL/SQL! January. May..page 220 . It's so easy to fall into a rut with a programming language.and play a new tune with PL/SQL! 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .....

Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Appendices (a..page 221 .a.k. If time permits«)     UTL_FILE ± file IO DBMS_JOB ± Job scheduling DBMS_PIPE ± Pipe-based communication DBMS_UTILITY ± the kitchen sink package 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

.. Physical Files 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 222 .Built-in Packages: UTL_FILE UTL_FILE Server-side File I/O Application FOPEN GET_LINE PUT_LINE .

.. random access to contents). delete.   But you can read lines from a file and write lines to a file.5. ± Maximum of 1023 bytes per line (read or write) until Oracle 8.page 223 .UTL_FILE: Server-side I/O  Allows you to read from and write to operating system files on the database server.0. when it jumps to 32K. no use of environmental variables). ± No higher-level file operations supported (change privileges. A "version 1" (fairly primitive) utility. copy. ± Limitations on files you can access (no mapped files. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

page 224 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .UTL_FILE Module Outline FCLOSE FCLOSE_ALL FFLUSH FOPEN GET_LINE IS_OPEN NEW_LINE PUT PUT_LINE PUTF Close the specified file Close all open files in your session Flush all data from the UTL_FILE buffer to your file Open a file Get the next line from a file Returns TRUE if the file is open (sort of) Insert a new line character in file at the end of current line Puts text into the UTL_FILE buffer Puts text and new line character into UTL_FILE buffer. Puts formatted text into the buffer PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

page 225 Allows read & write for current directory. there is no subdirectory recursion). ± Use a separate entry for each directory (and subdirectory. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . utl_file_dir = /tmp utl_file_dir = /accounts/newdev  And don't do either of the following: utl_file_dir = . ± You do this by adding lines to the instance parameter file.Authorizing Directory Access  Oracle requires you to list explicitly those directories you wish to be able to read/write with UTL_FILE. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± No single or double quotes around directory. no trailing delimiter.  Follow these rules to avoid many headaches. utl_file_dir = * Allows read & write for any directory.

FCLOSE (fid). and then run the following test script (it can't get much simpler than this): DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.FOPEN ('c:\temp'. So before you write anything fancy. 'test. restart your database.FILE_TYPE. / utlfile.page 226 .txt'. 'W').tst  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 'hello'). modify your initialization file. BEGIN /* Change the directory name to one to which you at least || THINK you have read/write access. */ fid := UTL_FILE. UTL_FILE.Test UTL_FILE Access  About the hardest part to working with UTL_FILE is simply getting started. END. UTL_FILE.PUT_LINE (fid.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .FILE_TYPE. ± In actuality.. 'test. BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE.. this function simply returns TRUE if the file handle's id field is NOT NULL. name and operation type. Test to see if file is open with the IS_OPEN function. Not much of a test. ± Currently contains a single ID field. 'W' for Write and 'A' for Append.  Specify file location.   Maximum of 10 files may be opened in each user session.Opening a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.FILE_TYPE. 'W').FOPEN ('c:\temp'. ± Types are 'R' for Read.  The FOPEN function returns a record ("file handle") based on the UTL_FILE.txt'. END.page 227 .

GET_LINE (fid. ± In Oracle8 Release 8. BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE.txt'.FCLOSE (fid). the ceiling is raised to 32K. getnext.0.   Can only read from a file opened with the "R" mode. END.Reading from a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.page 228 .FOPEN ('c:\temp'. Lines in the file cannot be longer than 1023 bytes in length.  The NO_DATA_FOUND exception is raised if you read past the end of the file. 'R'). UTL_FILE. UTL_FILE.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .FILE_TYPE. ± You might want to build your own GET_LINE which handles the exception and returns an EOF Boolean status flag.5 and above. myline). 'test.

FILE_TYPE. UTL_FILE. 'UTL_FILE'). BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE. PUT_LINE or PUTF. '&1').page 229 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . ' that I never\nwant to %s'. 'W').FOPEN ('c:\temp'. END. 'test. UTL_FILE is so much fun that I never want to stop Resulting Text  You can use PUT. allowing for some formatting.Writing to a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.FCLOSE (fid). UTL_FILE. ± PUTF is like the C printf program. 'is so much fun'). UTL_FILE.PUT (fid.  Call FFLUSH to make sure that everything you have written to the buffer is flushed out to the file.txt'. ± The file buffers are automatically flushed when you close a file or exit your session. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .PUT_LINE (fid. UTL_FILE.PUTF (fid.

UTL_FILE. EXCEPTION WHEN UTL_FILE. 'test.READ_ERROR THEN UTL_FILE. 'R').Closing a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.FILE_TYPE. You can close a single file with FCLOSE or all open files with FCLOSE_ALL.FOPEN ('c:\temp'.FCLOSE (fid). UTL_FILE.GET_LINE (fid. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE. myline). you will not see the data you have (supposedly) written to that file.page 230   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .  If you do not close the file.FCLOSE (fid). You should close files in exception handlers to make sure that files are not left "hanging" open.txt'. END.

page 231 . EXCEPTION. EXCEPTION.  UTL_FILE relies on a combination of user-defined exceptions and STANDARD exceptions to communicate errors. EXCEPTION. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± They all share a common SQLCODE of 1. EXCEPTION. EXCEPTION. ± UTL_FILE-named exceptions in other cases. ± NO_DATA_FOUND when you try to read past the end of the file. EXCEPTION.Error Handling in UTL_FILE PACKAGE UTL_FILE IS invalid_path invalid_mode invalid_filehandle invalid_operation read_error write_error internal_error END.  You have to take special care to trap and handle the named exceptions. EXCEPTION.

RAISE. WHEN UTL_FILE.WRITE_ERROR THEN recNgo (PLVfile. WHEN UTL_FILE. record the error.c_internal_error).INVALID_PATH THEN recNgo (PLVfile. translating the generic user-defined exception into an understandable message. END.c_read_error). RAISE. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Recommended Exception Section EXCEPTION WHEN UTL_FILE. utlflexc. RAISE.INVALID_FILEHANDLE THEN recNgo (PLVfile.c_write_error). Re-raise exception if you want it to propagate from that block.INVALID_MODE THEN recNgo (PLVfile. WHEN UTL_FILE. RAISE.INVALID_OPERATION THEN recNgo (PLVfile.c_invalid_path). RAISE. RAISE. WHEN UTL_FILE.INTERNAL_ERROR THEN recNgo (PLVfile.sql  Trap locally by name.c_invalid_operation). RAISE.page 232  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .c_invalid_filehandle). WHEN UTL_FILE.c_invalid_mode). WHEN UTL_FILE.READ_ERROR THEN recNgo (PLVfile.

Background Process DBA_JOBS Oracle Job Queue Subsystem 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Built-in Packages: DBMS_JOB DBMS_JOB Scheduled Execution of Stored Procedures Application SUBMIT RUN REMOVE .page 233 ...

2. ± Spawn background processes to avoid blocking client process. You can use DBMS_JOB to: Replicate data between different database instances.page 234 . ± ± ± ±    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . but only ³publicly available´ and supported in PL/SQL Release 2. which in turn offers job scheduling capabilities within the Oracle Server. Made its debut in PL/SQL Release 2. Schedule large batch jobs to run on "off hours".1.Overview of DBMS_JOB  DBMS_JOB provides an API to the Oracle job queues. Schedule regular maintenance on instances. Built by Oracle to support snapshots and replication. Create a listener program to poll the contents of a pipe and take action.

Broken jobs will not run as scheduled. Returns the job string for a job number. Changes when a queued job will run. Changes one or all attributes of a job. Changes the job string of a job. Forces immediate execution of the specified job number. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Changes the interval between executions of a job. Removes the job from the queue. Submits a job to the queue returning a unique job number.page 235 CHANGE INTERVAL ISUBMIT NEXT_DATE REMOVE RUN SUBMIT USER_EXPORT WHAT 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . Submits a job to the queue using a predefined job number.DBMS_JOB Module Outline BROKEN Marks the job as either FIXED or BROKEN.

END. BEGIN DBMS_JOB. I run calculate_totals immediately and then on a daily basis thereafter. while the interval is a string (this is dynamic PL/SQL!)  You can also call DBMS_JOB.  A job is a call to a stored procedure or an anonymous block ± It must end with a semi-colon and can contain ³hard-coded´ arguments.  When you submit a job. instead of having DBMS_JOB generate one for you.page 236 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . SYSDATE. Notice that the start time is a DATE expression.SUBMIT (job#. 'calculate_totals.Submitting a Job DECLARE job# BINARY_INTEGER. and then the job¶s execution interval (frequency of execution). 'SYSDATE + 1'). ± In the above example. you specify the date on which it should next execute. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .ISUBMIT and supply the job number.'.

/  This block submits a job that uses a built-in procedure.''TENK''' || '.Submit Job Example DECLARE v_jobno INTEGER. BEGIN DBMS_JOB.null.ANALYZE_OBJECT ' || '(''TABLE''. DBMS_DDL. interval => 'TRUNC(SYSDATE+1)' ). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .''ESTIMATE''. p.'.submit ( job => v_jobno. to analyze a specific table every evening at midnight.page 237 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .''LOAD1''. next_date => TRUNC (SYSDATE + 1).l (v_jobno). END. what => 'DBMS_DDL.estimate_percent=>50).ANALYZE_OBJECT.

numbered 1. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END.page 238 .SYSDATE+1. executes immediately.ISUBMIT(3.120).' .' . ± Job 3 is a PL/SQL block which does nothing.interval => 'SYSDATE +1'). and 3.what => 'my_job1(''string_parm_value''.SYSDATE.next_date => SYSDATE + 1/24 . executes for the first time tomorrow and every 10 minutes thereafter. DBMS_JOB.ISUBMIT (job => 1 .null).DBMS_JOB.2. runs it in one hour and executes every day thereafter. DBMS_JOB. ± Job 2 passes a date into procedure MY_JOB2. 'my_job2(date_IN=>SYSDATE). and will be removed from the queue automatically.'BEGIN null. ± Job 1 passes a string and number into procedure MY_JOB1.ISubmit Job Example BEGIN DBMS_JOB.'SYSDATE+10/1440'). END.ISUBMIT (2.'. /  This block submits three jobs to the job queue.

3). ''MONDAY'') + 9/24' 'TRUNC (LEAST ( NEXT_DAY (SYSDATE. ''WEDNESDAY''). Wednesday and Friday at 6 PM 'SYSDATE + 1/24' 'NEXT_DAY (TRUNC (SYSDATE). ± Use date arithmetic to request intervals smaller than a day. ''MONDAY''). ''SATURDAY'') 2/24' 'NEXT_DAY ( ADD_MONTHS (TRUNC (SYSDATE. you must use 2 single quotes to embed strings. ''Q''). ''FRIDAY''))) + 18/24' PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . NEXT_DAY (SYSDATE. Every hour Every Sunday at 2 AM First Monday of each quarter.page 239 + 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . NEXT_DAY (SYSDATE. ± Since it's a string. at 9 AM Every Monday.Specifying Job Times & Frequencies  Probably the most complicated part of using DBMS_JOB is to get the string expression of the job interval right.

REMOVE (rec.page 240 .sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Export jobs from the queue.RUN (my_job#). ± Only if the job was submitted from same schema BEGIN FOR rec IN (SELECT * FROM USER_JOBS) LOOP DBMS_JOB.  Run a job immediately. ± Uses DBMS_JOB. Remove all jobs for current schema.ISUBMIT. expjob.Other Job Queue Operations  Remove a job from the queue. DBMS_JOB. END LOOP. ± Produces a string that can be used to recreate an existing job in the job queue. ± Performs an implicit COMMIT in current session.job). retaining current job number.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . who owns them and when they began.jr.job .job ORDER BY jr.username .sid AND jr.Job Queue Views  You can also view the job queue by looking at the DBA_JOBS_RUNNING. SELECT jr. ± The following query blends job information with session information to display currently-executing jobs.sql FROM DBA_JOBS_RUNNING .DBA_JOBS .this_date.page 241 .what job_id username start_date job_definition jr j s showjobs.sid = jr.V$SESSION WHERE s. DBA_JOBS and USER_JOBS views.this_date .job = j.

Setting up the Job Facility  Make sure that the correct access is set up for the DBMS_JOB package.page 242 . The valid range is 0 through 36. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . of one hour). The valid range is 1 to 3600 (a maximum. You will have to take special DBA action if you want to restrict who can run jobs. therefore.  You will need to set three parameters in the init. ± job_queue_interval=N where N is the interval in seconds to check the job queue. ± The default is PUBLIC access.ora (initialization) file for your database instance: ± job_queue_processes=N where n is the number of concurrent background processes permitted.

± Always include a WHEN OTHERS exception handler in your job program which traps any and all problems and automatically sets the job status to broken.Error Handling with DBMS_JOB  What if your stored procedure fails? ± After 16 attempts.  To avoid unexpected and unhandled failures of scheduled jobs: ± Always use the RUN built-in to execute your job in a ³test´ mode. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Then you can go ahead and submit it. if your failure raises an unhandled exception.page 243 . it may cause the background processes to fail and no longer run any jobs at all. ± Do you want it to try 16 times? ± In addition. the job facility will mark your job as broken.

± Obtains the job number from a packaged function by passing the name of the procedure.sql  The WHEN OTHERS exception handler of the calc_totals procedure traps any kind of failure.sql showspc..page 244 . END. ± Now the job facility will not try to run this program again.. TRUE). job_pkg. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . µFAIL¶). You can go in and fix the problem. ± Calls log program of package to record that failure took place.BROKEN (job#.log (µcalc_totals¶. spacelog.Stopping the Job When It Fails PROCEDURE calc_totals IS BEGIN . ± Uses a call to BROKEN to set the status of the job to ³broken´. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN job# := job_pkg.job (µcalc_totals¶) DBMS_JOB.

± DBMS_JOB only allows you to modify characteristics and behavior of jobs submitted by the current schema. it picks up the current execution environment for the user. ± We've noticed some aberrant."Good to Knows" for DBMS_JOB  You may find it useful to always wrap your stored procedure call (the what) inside a BEGIN-END block. perform a COMMIT after your submit. difficult to reproduce behavior at times with "straight" procedure calls. You can use the DBMS_IJOB to manage the jobs of other users. If you find that you submit a job to run immediately and it does not start.page 245 .    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . When a job runs.  You will need to fully-qualify all database links (with user name and password) to get them to work properly.

Built-in Packages: DBMS_PIPE DBMS_PIPE Inter-session Communication 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 246 .

You can parallelize your own code. ± More sophisticated debugging inside PL/SQL programs (work around fundamental limitations of DBMS_OUTPUT).DBMS_PIPE Overview  Allows communication between different Oracle sessions through a pipe in the RDBMS Shared Global Area.page 247 .  Uses for DBMS_PIPE include: ± Parallelization of program execution. ± Interface PL/SQL-database activities with operating system functions and programs written in other languages. ± Perform and commit DML in a separate transaction space from your main transaction. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Oracle uses database pipes to parallelize database operations. ± Operates outside of database transaction limitations.

Architecture of DBMS_PIPE Shared Global Area ³Sue´ ³Bob´ Message Buffer Message Buffer Session A  Session B A pipe is a named object that uses the System Global Area to provide a non-transaction based conduit of information. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . They are reserved for Oracle use).page 248 . ± The pipe sends/receives a message. using a maximum of 4096 bytes. ± Names can be up to 128 chars long (do not use names beginning with ³ORA$´. which can be composed of one or more separate packets.

± Separate out the individual packets in the message (again: string. so you should always specify a timeout period. ± Each packet can be a string. ± If there isn¶t currently room in the pipe. ± There is just one message buffer per session. number. date. ± This is the default.sql pipex2.sql PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . date or number).Processing Flow of DBMS_PIPE  Construct a message from packets of information. you can wait for up to 1000 days (or 86400000 seconds) for the pipe to be cleared. ± You can wait for up to 1000 days for a message. ROWID or RAW. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein pipex1.  Receive a message from that pipe.  Send the message to a named pipe.  Unpack the message packets and take action.page 249 .

SEND_MESSAGE Sends contents of message buffer to the specified pipe. PURGE Empties the contents of a pipe into your local buffer freeing it for removal. UNPACK_MESSAGE Unpacks the next item from the local message buffer and deposits it into the specified local variable. RECEIVE_MESSAGE Receives a message from pipe and copies to local buffer. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . PACK_MESSAGE Packs an item into the message buffer for your session. UNIQUE_SESSION_NAME Returns name that is unique among all sessions in the database. NEXT_ITEM_TYPE Returns the datatype of the next item in the piped message.page 250 . REMOVE_PIPE RESET_BUFFER Removes a pipe explicitly created via CREATE_PIPE.DBMS_PIPE Module Outline Module Name CREATE_PIPE Description Creates a PUBLIC or PRIVATE pipe. Clears your buffer so that PACK_MESSAGE and UNPACK_MESSAGE can work from the first item. making it a candidate for removal with a LRU algorithm.

PROCEDURE newpipe IS stat INTEGER. ± Send messages to non-existent pipe implicitly create it. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Specify TRUE for private argument of CREATE_PIPE. ± Implicitly-created pipes are always public.  A public pipe is accessible as long as you know its name.  An explicit pipe can be private (accessible only to sessions with matching userID or SYSDBA privileges). maxpipesize => 20000. private => TRUE). ± Use CREATE_PIPE to create a pipe explicitly.CREATE_PIPE ( pipename => 'bbs'.Creating Public and Private Pipes  There are two ways to create pipes: implicitly and explicitly. BEGIN stat := DBMS_PIPE.page 251 .

12 LOOP DBMS_PIPE. waiting up to 1 minute.PACK_MESSAGE ( total_sales (month_num)).Sending a Message Provide pipe name. timeout IN INTEGER DEFAULT maxwait. and new max pipe size (you can make it bigger. IF pipe_stat != 0 THEN RAISE could_not_send.page 252 . END LOOP. expanding pipe size to 40 Kbytes. Status of 0 means message was sent. maxpipesize IN INTEGER DEFAULT 8192) RETURN INTEGER. but not smaller). Send to "monthly" pipe. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Fill your message buffer with packets of data. FUNCTION send_message (pipename IN VARCHAR2.. seconds you will wait. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . pipe_stat := DBMS_PIPE. 60. 10 * 4096). FOR month_num IN 1 .SEND_MESSAGE ( µmonthly¶.

 First you pull the message from the pipe and place it in buffer with RECEIVE_MESSAGE. PROCEDURE unpack_message (item OUT VARCHAR2).Receiving and Unpack a Message FUNCTION receive_message (pipename IN VARCHAR2. ± Specify pipe and number of seconds you will wait before you time out. PROCEDURE unpack_message (item OUT DATE). ± Pipe status of 0 means the message was read successfully. timeout IN INTEGER DEFAULT maxwait) RETURN INTEGER. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . PROCEDURE unpack_message (item OUT NUMBER).  Then you call UNPACK_MESSAGE to extract individual packets from the message. ± You need to know the datatype of packet or check it using NEXT_ITEM_TYPE.page 253 .

analyze_production (SYSDATE. DBMS_PIPE. data not received.A Pipe-based Listener Program  Program wakes up every N seconds to read the data from the pipe and analyze results from assembly line (an intentional "infinite loop"!).'). pass it on to the IF pipe_status = 0 computation THEN program. Wait up to N prod_total NUMBER. 'Production data unavailable.RECEIVE_MESSAGE ( 'production'. ELSE RAISE_APPLICATION_ERROR ( Stop process if -20000. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 254 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . seconds for the BEGIN next report.UNPACK_MESSAGE (prod_total). If I got something. LOOP pipe_status := DBMS_PIPE. prod_total). END IF. END. PROCEDURE analyze_assembly_data (every_n_secs IN INTEGER) IS pipe_status INTEGER. every_n_secs). END LOOP.

page 255 .sql dbpipe.Unpacking the Message FUNCTION next_item_type RETURN INTEGER. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .tst  Since a message can be composed of packets of different datatypes. Returns one of the following values: Value 0 6 9 11 12 23 Description or Data type No more items in buffer NUMBER VARCHAR2 ROWID DATE RAW dbpipe. ± Or you use the built-in NEXT_ITEM_TYPE to tell you in advance the datatype of the next packet in the message and take appropriate action. Either: ± You know the datatype and therefore can ³hard-code´ the correct variable into the call to UNPACK_MESSAGE. you have to make sure that you unpack a packet into the right kind of variable.

page 256 . you can do the same for your application if: ± You have multiple CPUs available.Parallelizing Your Code with Pipes  Oracle uses DBMS_PIPE to improve RDBMS performance. I must execute them sequentially and incur an elapsed time of 45 minutes before I calculate the profits. but are not dependent on each other. ± You have processes which can run in parallel. ± The CEO is decidedly unhappy about the delay. In order to do so I must first compute total sales. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Suppose I want to calculate my net profit.  Without pipes. ± These programs each take 15 minutes. total office expenses and total compensation.

page 257 . Parallel Execution Sequential Execution: Maximum Elapsed Time S t a r t E n d Process A Process B Process C Parallel Execution: Minimum Elapsed Time Start Process A Process B Process C End 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Sequential vs.

wait_for_confirmation. kick_off_exp_calc.in a muchdecreased elapsed time.  The ³wait´ program waits till it receives a message from each program.  The ³kick off´ programs pass their messages to separate pipes.page 258 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . END. calculate_net_profits. it puts a message (perhaps even a value) into the pipe. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Other programs running in the background grab the messages and start their corresponding calculation program.Parallelizing PL/SQL Execution BEGIN kick_off_sales_calc. kick_off_totcomp_calc. Then net profits can be computed -. ± When each program is complete.

page 259 .PACK_MESSAGE (sales$). stat := DBMS_PIPE. END. calculate sales.Code to Kick Off and Calculate PROCEDURE kick_off_sales_calc IS stat INTEGER. stat := DBMS_PIPE.SEND_MESSAGE (µsales¶). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Send message to start calculations. END IF.PACK_MESSAGE (NULL). ELSE DBMS_PIPE. IF stat = 0 THEN lots_of_number_crunching. PROCEDURE calculate_sales IS stat INTEGER. BEGIN stat := DBMS_PIPE.PACK_MESSAGE (1995). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .SEND_MESSAGE (µsales¶).SEND_MESSAGE (µsales¶). DBMS_PIPE. END. stat := DBMS_PIPE. BEGIN DBMS_PIPE.RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µsales¶). and send back the results. Receive the year.

comp$. Perform final calculation. The order in which you wait is insignificant.offexp$ . END.RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µcomp¶).Waiting for Confirmation PROCEDURE wait_for_confirmation IS stat INTEGER.RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µsales¶). Wait for all calculations to finish.page 260 . DBMS_PIPE. parallel. stat := DBMS_PIPE.UNPACK_MESSAGE (sales$). BEGIN stat := DBMS_PIPE. stat := DBMS_PIPE.UNPACK_MESSAGE (offexp$). PROCEDURE calculate_net_profits IS BEGIN net_profits := sales$ . END.UNPACK_MESSAGE (comp$). DBMS_PIPE.RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µoffexp¶). DBMS_PIPE.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

in-memory cache. ± A listener program grabs the request (including the return pipe name).Other DBMS_PIPE Examples  Simple trace package that sends it output either to screen or to pipe. ± A request for data is passed to a "central" pipe.pkg  Implementation of a system-wide. obtains the data. ± The requester reads the information from the pipe. watch. ± Demonstrates the use of toggles and switches in packages. syscache.pkg p_and_l.page 261 .pkg syscache. and sends it to the pipe.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Built-in Packages: DBMS_UTILITY DBMS_UTILITY Application GET_TIME GET_HASH_VALUE FORMAT_CALL_STACK . A µgrab-bag¶ of miscellaneous operations SCHEMA 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 262 ...

Parses comma-delimited list to index-by table. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Returns database version (Oracle8) Executes DDL statement (Oracle8). Returns hash value for string. Returns error stack.pkg dbparm.page 263 dbver. Gets file number part of data block address. Gets block number part of data block address.pkg COMMA_TO_TABLE COMPILE_SCHEMA DATA_BLOCK_ADDRESS_BLOCK DATA_BLOCK_ADDRESS_FILE DB_VERSION EXEC_DDL_STATEMENT FORMAT_CALL_STACK FORMAT_ERROR_STACK GET_HASH_VALUE 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .DBMS_UTILITY Module Outline ANALYZE_DATABASE ANALYZE_PART_OBJECT Analyze objects in database Runs ANALYZE TABLE or ANALYZE INDEX for each partition of the object (Oracle8). Returns execution call stack. Recompile INVALID objects in specified schema.

Converts list (in index-by-table) of elements into a comma-delimited list (string). cont. Creates data block address from block & file numbers. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .DBMS_UTILITY Module Outline. Returns platform and version of database.page 264 . Parses string object designator into components. Returns "current time" down to hundredth of second. Returns TRUE if in parallel server mode. Resolves name of object into component parts. GET_PARAMETER_VALUE GET_TIME IS_PARALLEL_SERVER MAKE_DATA_BLOCK_ADDRESS NAME_RESOLVE NAME_TOKENIZE PORT_STRING TABLE_TO_COMMA Retrieves value of database parameter (Oracle8).

Sub-Second Timings with GET_TIME  GET_TIME returns the number of 100ths of seconds that have elapsed since an arbitrary point in time.PUT_LINE (DBMS_UTILITY. so GET_TIME offers significant additional granularity. DBMS_OUTPUT. END.GET_TIME. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . DECLARE v_start BINARY_INTEGER. ± SYSDATE only reflects times down to the nearest second.  Compare results from consecutive calls to GET_TIME to determine the elapsed time of PL/SQL code execution. ± Useful when analyzing individual PL/SQL programs. calc_totals.v_start). Basic steps necessary to convert GET_TIME into a performance analysis tool. BEGIN v_start := DBMS_UTILITY. especially those that run in sub-second time.page 265 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .GET_TIME .

PROCEDURE turn_off. END.spb 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .show_elapsed. PROCEDURE capture ( context_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) PROCEDURE show_elapsed (prefix_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. calc_totals.Building a Layer Over GET_TIME Partial package specification PACKAGE PLVtmr IS PROCEDURE turn_on.sql plvtmr. PROCEDURE set_factor (factor_in IN NUMBER). Clean and lean timing code ovrhead.sps plvtmr. reset_in IN BOOLEAN := TRUE). PLVtmr.capture.page 266 . adjust_in IN NUMBER := 0. BEGIN PLVtmr. END PLVtmr.

----.PUT_LINE ( DBMS_UTILITY.CALC_NET_WORTH anonymous block  "Little known facts" about FORMAT_CALL_STACK: ± Contains embedded new-line characters.PL/SQL Call Stack ----object line object handle number name 88ce3f74 88e49fc4 88e49390 88e2bd20 8 2 1 1 package STEVEN.Accessing the Execution Call Stack Use in the exception section to show context of error. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN DBMS_OUTPUT. equivalent to CHR(10). ± Does not show package elements. ± Most recent program at beginning of "report".VALIDATE_REQUEST function STEVEN.page 267 .FORMAT_CALL_STACK). END.COMPANY_TYPE procedure STEVEN. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . only the package name.

startpos.sps DBMS_OUTPUT. EXIT WHEN next_newline = 0. BEGIN stk := DBMS_UTILITY. dispcs. next_newline INTEGER. next_newline . Instead. startpos. CHR(10). LOOP next_newline := INSTR (stk. next_line := SUBSTR ( stk. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE dispcs IS stk VARCHAR2(10000). startpos INTEGER := 1. startpos := next_newline + 1.sp dispcs. which means you cannot pass it to DBMS_OUTPUT directly. END.tst callstack.startpos + 1).pkg plvcs. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . next_line VARCHAR2(255). END LOOP.Accessing Call Stack Contents  The call stack length can easily exceed 255 bytes.page 268 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .FORMAT_CALL_STACK || CHR(10). use a loop to read through the stack.PUT_LINE (next_line). 1).

see it as an opportunity. context IN NUMBER.Resolving Names of Stored Code  Code names have many components..sp snc. part1_type OUT NUMBER.page 269 .. schema OUT VARCHAR2.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . object_number OUT NUMBER). PROCEDURE DBMS_UTILITY.but don't see it as a problem. ± Use NAME_RESOLVE to break down an identifier string into its components easily. dblink OUT VARCHAR2.. the way they are attached also follows a complicated syntax. part1 OUT VARCHAR2..  Possible "Part 1" Types 5 7 8 9 Synonym Procedure Function Package What a chore! All those arguments.for encapsulation! showcomp.NAME_RESOLVE (name IN VARCHAR2. part2 OUT VARCHAR2.

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