Achieving PL/SQL Excellence

Oracle PL/SQL Advanced Techniques
Oracle7 thru Oracle8i
Steven Feuerstein
www.StevenFeuerstein.com www.Quest.com www.OReilly.com
and contributions most excellent from Bill Pribyl and Dick Bolz

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 1

Objective & Outline 

Objective
± Expand your knowledge and awareness of important and new features of the PL/SQL language. 

Outline
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± Building with Packages (Oracle7+) PL/SQL Collections (Oracle7 and Oracle8+) Cursor Variables (Oracle7 and Oracle8+) Dynamic SQL: DBMS_SQL and Native Dynamic SQL (8i) Calling Java from PL/SQL (Oracle8i) and C (Oracle8) Oracle Advanced Queuing with DBMS_AQ (Oracle8) Managing Large Objects with DBMS_LOB (Oracle8) Other Oracle8i New Features
» Autonomous Transactions (Oracle8i) » Invoker Rights Model (Oracle8i) » Row Level Security: DBMS_RLS

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

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Software Used in Training 

PL/Vision: a library of packages installed on top of PL/SQL.
± PL/Vision Lite - use it, copy, change it for free -- unless you build software to be sold commercially. ± Active PL/SQL Knowledge Base: contains PL/Vision Professional, the fully supported and enhanced version. 

Demonstration scripts executed in the training can be found on the RevealNet PL/SQL Pipeline:
± http://www.revealnet.com/Pipelines/PLSQL/index.htm ± Archives surfboard, Miscellaneous, PL/SQL Seminar Files ± See filedesc.doc for a listing of many of the files.
plsql_ides.txt 

The PL/SQL IDE (Integrated Development Environment).
± You no longer have to use SQL*Plus and a crude editor! Choose from among the many listed in plsql_ides.txt.

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Achieving PL/SQL Excellence

Building with PL/SQL Packages 
 

Overview Initialization section Overloading

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What is a Package? 

A collection of code elements, from procedures and functions to TYPE, variable and cursor declarations.
± Single-most important structure within PL/SQL, and almost certainly one of the most under-utilized. ± Conceptually very simple, it can take some time to fully grasp the implications and potential of the package. 

The method of choice by Oracle and other software developers for extending the PL/SQL language.
± You will find packages in the database, in Oracle Developer/2000, in Oracle Application Server. 

Let¶s review some of the benefits of packages.
tmr.pkg dbparm.pkg

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pkg  Improve transaction integrity by hiding data structures behind the package interface.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Instead of writing SQL directly in your programs. custrules.pkg insga. you call the packaged procedures and functions instead. package-based "component". ± Can lead to performance improvements.pks te_employee. ± There's a big difference between a bunch of separate programs and a coherent.page 6 .pkb  Construct very flexible and usable utilities for developers. ± Puts more structure and organization in your body of code. te_employee. watch.When to Build a Package  Join physically logically-related code.

the first time any package element is referenced. ± The PL/SQL runtime engine determines when and if this code should be run. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 7 . Program references package element the first time in each session. Does the package have an init section? yes Run initialization code.Package Initialization  The initialization section is a block of code at the end of the package body that is executed once per session. no Complete request for packaged element.

PACKAGE BODY pkg IS PROCEDURE proc IS BEGIN END.  Useful for: ± Performing complex setting of default or initial values. ± Setting up package data which does not change for the duration of a session.page 8 . BEGIN END pkg. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . most packages you build won't have one. ± Can have its own exception handling section. ± Is not required.Package Initialization Structure  The initialization section: ± Is defined after and outside of any programs in the package. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein BEGIN after/outside of any program defined in the pkg. FUNCTION func RETURN BEGIN END. In fact. ± Confirming that package is properly instantiated.

show_toolbar CHAR(1). 'lpt1'. init.pkg init. END sessinit. ± Body contains only initialization section. */ 'Y'. tb_flag.. printer VARCHAR2(60). printer FROM user_config WHERE user_id = USER. WHEN OTHERS THEN RAISE_APPLICATION_ERROR (-20000.  Also a package with many design flaws. defprinter INTO show_lov. */ SELECT lov_flag.Configure Session with Init. show_toolbar.. 'Y'. 'No profile for ' || USER).tst this user. EXCEPTION WHEN NO_DATA_FOUND THEN /* No record for show_lov := show_toolbar := printer := PACKAGE sessinit IS show_lov CHAR(1). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END sessinit. PACKAGE BODY sessinit IS /* No declared package elements at all! */ BEGIN /* Get user preferences for this user.page 9 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . Section  An unusual package! ± Specification contains only variables.

fmts(2) := 'DD-MON-YYYY'. . END dt. fmts(9) := 'MM/DD/YYYY'. fmts(11) := 'YYYYMMDD'.pkg dates. datemgr.. BEGIN fmts(1) := 'DD-MON-RR'. fmts(12) := 'RRMMDD'. fmts(4) := 'MM/DD'. Initialization section populates a PL/SQL table. fmts(3) := 'DD-MON'. fmts(10) := 'MMDDYYYY'. ± The datemgr.Populate Collections  The PL/Vision Date package. PLVdate.pkg file demonstrates the basic technique (and the reliance on an initialization section) used to achieve this flexibility.page 10 ..sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± This increases the flexibility of the date conversion process. fmt_count := 12. employs several PL/SQL tables to convert strings and to perform date arithmetic.

myproc  Overloading is a critical feature when building comprehensive programmatic interfaces (APIs) or components using packages. ± You can overload modules in any declaration section and in packages. ± Overloading transfers the "need to know" from the user to the overloaded program. you give two or more programs the same name. you need to make that code as smart and as easy to use as possible.Program Overloading  When you overload programs. ± If you want others to use your code. myproc myproc 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 11 .

and took functions like TO_CHAR and TO_DATE totally for granted. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . you would have to deal with something like this: date_string := TO_CHAR_FROM_DATE (SYSDATE. Without overloading.page 12 . 'MMDDYY'). ± You just probably never gave it a thought. ± But Oracle couldn't offer that level of convenience without overloading. date_string := TO_CHAR (SYSDATE.Overloading in PL/SQL Built-ins  PL/SQL uses overloading in many common functions. 'MMDDYY'). number_string := TO_CHAR_FROM_NUMBER (10000). number_string := TO_CHAR (10000).

± Their formal parameters differ only in datatype and the datatypes are in the same family.  Distinguishing characteristics: ± The formal parameters of overloaded modules must differ in number. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . When you compile the package or block containing the overloaded code. When you compile programs that use the overloaded code. OUT. ± 2. the compiler must be able to distinguish between the two calls at compile-time.How Overloading Works  For two or more modules to be overloaded. ± The programs are of different types: procedure and function. IN OUT). ± Arguments differ only in their mode (IN.page 13 . There are two different "compile times": ± 1. order or datatype family (CHAR vs.  Undistinguishing characteristics: ± Functions differ only in their RETURN datatype. VARCHAR2 is not different enough).

Examples of Invalid Overloadings PACKAGE too_similar IS PROCEDURE calc (reg_in IN CHAR). END only_returns.PUT_LINE (only_returns. PACKAGE only_returns IS FUNCTION func1 (val IN VARCHAR2) RETURN DATE.proc1 (v_value). PROCEDURE calc (reg_in IN VARCHAR2). which one? too_similar.calc ('123'). END param_modes. Parameter data types cause conflict.func1 (v_value)). END too_many_cals. which one? param_modes. Only difference is function RETURN type. Only difference is parameter mode. FUNCTION func1 (val IN VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 14 . PACKAGE param_modes IS PROCEDURE proc1 (val IN VARCHAR2). which one? DBMS_OUTPUT. PROCEDURE proc1 (val IN OUT VARCHAR2).

not Value ± A less common application of overloading.l substitute does an even better job. You use the type of data and not its value to determine which of the overloaded programs should be executed. you may construct different versions of the ³same´ program which correspond to different patterns of use.PUT_LINE procedure illustrates this technique -and the PL/Vision p. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Fitting the Program to the User ± To make your code as useful as possible.  Overloading by Type. so much as providing different ways of requesting the same activity.page 15 . the overloading does not provide a single name for different activities. ± The DBMS_OUTPUT. In this case.Overload Wherever Possible  Supporting Many Data Combinations ± Apply the same action to different kinds or combinations of data.

spb PROCEDURE l (boolean_in IN BOOLEAN). PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2. boolean_in IN BOOLEAN).sps p.A "Classic" Overloaded Package  Many different datatype combinations.page 16 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . PROCEDURE l (number_in IN NUMBER).HH:MI:SS PM'). END p. PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2).HH:MI:SS PM'). mask_in IN VARCHAR2 := µMonth DD. number_in IN NUMBER). YYYY . PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . PACKAGE p IS PROCEDURE l (date_in IN DATE. date_in IN DATE. YYYY . p. PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2. mask_in IN VARCHAR2 := 'Month DD. allowing the user to pass data to the "display engine" without writing "pre-processing" code.

PUT_LINE ('So what is different?').PUT_LINE ('TRUE').. p. SQLCODE). p.l ('So what is different?'). DBMS_OUTPUT. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 17 .. 'MM/DD/YY HH:MI:SS')).Advantage of Extended Overloading ‡ Minimal overloading means lots of extra coding. p.l (SQLERRM.PUT_LINE (TO_CHAR (SYSDATE. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein ‡Extended overloadings are more likely to meet user needs.l (SYSDATE). IF print_report_fl THEN DBMS_OUTPUT. END IF. ELSE DBMS_OUTPUT. DBMS_OUTPUT. p.PUT_LINE ('FALSE').l (print_report_fl). DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE (SQLERRM || ': ' || TO_CHAR (SQLCODE)).

± Your code is a a more natural "fit" under a variety of requirements.and taken completely for granted. such as "display data" or "create a file". In my experience. think about the way it will be used. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . few developers are considerate enough of their users to try to anticipate their needs. If you take these different circumstances into account when you design your package specification.. can be applied or needed under very different circumstances.. ± If you want to write software that is admired. appreciated.Fitting the Program to the User Writing "unnecessary" code? Time to overload!  A single piece of functionality.page 18   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . the user of your package can benefit from writing less code.

± She doesn't care what's in it.page 19  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . you have to declare the record to hold the file handle. so this is just the way it has to be.flg'.FILE_TYPE. 'exists. right? WRONG! PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . sometimes you will want to create a file and then perform additional operations. ± Here is the code required by UTL_FILE: DECLARE fid UTL_FILE. BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE. Of course. 'W'). It just needs to be present. even though you are simply going to close the file immediately after opening it.Creating a File for a Quick Touch  Suppose a developer needs to create a file to be used as a "flag" in the operating system.PUT_LINE (fid.FCLOSE (fid). END. UTL_FILE.FOPEN ('tmp/flags'. UTL_FILE.  In other words. 'blah').

ini'.  Overloading of FCreate PACKAGE PLVfile IS /* Procedure */ PROCEDURE fcreate (file_in IN VARCHAR2. TO_CHAR (SYSDATE)).fcreate ('temp.put_line (fid. /* Function */ FUNCTION fcreate (file_in IN VARCHAR2.FILE_TYPE. line_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) RETURN UTL_FILE.FILE_TYPE.fcreate ('exists. Use as Procedure BEGIN PLVfile. v_user). custrules. line_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL). BEGIN fid := PLVfile.flg'). PLVfile.Procedure and Function Overloaded  Why not overload a "create file" program so that you can pick the one that most closely fits your situation? Consider the PLVfile package of PL/Vision. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Use as Function DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.pkg PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 20 . END PLVfile. END.

"By-Type" Overloading  In some situations. ± Pass a piece of data of the right type. you must call the DEFINE_COLUMN procedure to define the datatype of the Nth column in the cursor.page 21 . the user does not need to pass data. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . when you use DBMS_SQL to set up a dynamic query. Define a different program name for each datatype. ± Pass a string ³name´ of the datatype.  There are three ways to accomplish this: ± Don't overload. but the type of data. ± For example.

.VARCHAR2_TYPE.DEFINE_INTEGER_COLUMN (cur.DEFINE_COLUMN ± PLVgen.DEFINE_VARCHAR2_COLUMN (cur. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL. 2.  So many program names to remember! Pass a literal value.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. Lotsa typing. DBMS_SQL..page 22 .. 2. 2.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. 1)...Options for Specifying Column Type  Don't even bother overloading. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.. 'NUMBER').func 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .. DBMS_SQL. 1. 30). 'STRING'. 30). DBMS_SQL. lotsa names. 1.. Pass a named constant. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.NUMBER_TYPE).DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. ± DBMS_SQL.  Now let's look at two examples of overloading by datatype.  Nasty hard-coding.. 30)... DBMS_SQL..

DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.GET_TIME). 'a'. ± To make it easier to accomplish this task.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.Defining Dynamic SQL Columns  The DBMS_SQL. v_ename. 30). BEGIN DBMS_SQL. 1. 30). 30). USER. 1). BEGIN DBMS_SQL. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .DEFINE_COLUMN procedure defines the datatype of a column. DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. DBMS_SQL.any value -.DEFINE_COLUMN. ± The three code blocks below are equivalent. v_empno).DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. from the perspective of DBMS_SQL.page 23 .of the correct type. 2. 1. DBMS_SQL. 1. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. DBMS_UTILITY. 2.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. you only need to pass a value -. 2.

any string. any Boolean will do. type_in IN VARCHAR2). ± The particular value itself is of no importance. Any number. SYSDATE) SQL> exec plvgen. the user indicates the type of function to be generated by providing a value. 1) A date function. type_in IN DATE). please! 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .func ('last_date'. PROCEDURE func (name_in IN VARCHAR2.Generating Functions by Value  In PLVgen. any date. please! A number function. SQL> exec plvgen. PROCEDURE func (name_in IN VARCHAR2.page 24 .func ('total_salary'. type_in IN NUMBER). PACKAGE PLVgen IS PROCEDURE func (name_in IN VARCHAR2.

PROCEDURE calc (comp_id_IN IN company. PACKAGE profits IS PROCEDURE calc (comp_id_IN IN NUMBER).page 25 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . PL/SQL does not sense a conflict with above overloading even though comp_id is a numeric column.  In the above example.The Frustrations of Overloading  Watch out! An overloading can compile successfully. but you might later found out that you cannot actually call any of the overloaded programs. I rely on an anchored type (%TYPE) to establish the datatype of the second calc¶s parameter.comp_id%TYPE). ± When I compile profits. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END.

 Can I overload two programs which have parameters that differ only by name. how would you do it? (Don't peek at the next page!) BEGIN sales.page 26 .calc_total ('ZONE2'). sales. END.Quiz! Nuances of Overloading PACKAGE sales IS PROCEDURE calc_total (zone_in IN VARCHAR2).calc_total ('NORTHWEST'). PROCEDURE calc_total (reg_in IN VARCHAR2). sales. END sales. like calc_totals shown above? ± If not. why not? ± If so.pkg ? 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

'.Using Named Notation <formal parameter name> => <expression>  Explicit association between the formal parameter (the "name") with the actual parameter (the "value"). of named notation include: ± Code is more "self-documenting". ± You can skip over (not specify values for) any IN parameters that have default values.''ESTIMATE''.page 27 . next_date => TRUNC (SYSDATE + 1).''TENK''' || '.''LOAD1''.null.submit ( job => v_jobno. namednot. interval => 'TRUNC(SYSDATE+1)'). This is especially useful when working with infrequently used built-in programs.sql  Advantages 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . That way you don't have to know and pass default values. DBMS_JOB.ANALYZE_OBJECT ' || '(''TABLE''. what => 'DBMS_DDL.estimate_percent=>50).

page 28 . Three types of collections: ± Index-by tables (Oracle7 only.Achieving PL/SQL Excellence PL/SQL Collections   Collections are single-dimensioned lists of information. Oracle8 and above) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . originally called PL/SQL tables) ± Nested tables (Oracle8 and above) ± Variable arrays (VARRAYs.

page 29     1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Avoid mutating table errors in database triggers. which are otherwise not supported in PL/SQL Cache data in session-level memory for faster access.  Emulate bi-directional cursors. Improve query performance by avoiding joins.When to Use Collections  Maintain any kind of list of related information for use in your programs. Build hash tables (custom indexing structures).

± Homogeneous » Data in each row has the same structure.page 30 .Index-By Tables TYPE <table_type> IS TABLE OF <datatype> INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER.483.147. Valid row numbers range: -2.483. Instead. emp_copy inmem_emp_t. this broad range allows you to employ the row number as an intelligent key. DECLARE TYPE inmem_emp_t IS TABLE OF emp%ROWTYPE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER.147.647 to 2. ± Available only in PL/SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .647 » You will not actually create tables this large.  Characteristics of an index-by table: ± Unbounded » Practically speaking. ± Sparse » Data does not have to be stored in consecutive rows of information.

Variable declaration children child_list_type. Component Selection kid := children (4).Index_by Tables TYPE declaration PACKAGE BODY family IS TYPE child_list_type IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2 (30) INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER.page 31 . Error: NO_DATA_FOUND 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . children (6904) := 'Lisa Nadezhka'.pkg children 6306 6412 6904 µBarbara Anne¶ µGary Richard¶ µLisa Marie¶ children (6810) := µAdam Russell. children 6306 6412 6810 6904 µBarbara Anne¶ µGary Richard¶ µAdam Russell¶ µLisa Nadezhka¶ datemgr.

Valid row numbers range: 1 to 2. DECLARE TYPE when_t IS TABLE OF DATE. ± Unbounded. birthdays when_t. but only with explicit EXTEND requests » Practically speaking.Nested Tables [CREATE OR REPLACE] TYPE <table_type> IS TABLE OF <datatype> [NOT NULL].647 ± Initially dense. but can become sparse if you DELETE inner rows ± Available both in PL/SQL and SQL (as a column in a table) ± The order of elements is not preserved in the database 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .483.  Nested table characteristics ± Homogeneous » Each row contains the same structure of data.147.page 32 .

Nested Tables CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE child_table_type IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2 (30). For ORACLE's use only db_family surname kids BOLZ BOND Eric Thomas Max Richard Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Marie ntdemo.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . kids child_table_type) NESTED TABLE kids STORE AS kids_ntab. CREATE TABLE db_family (surname VARCHAR2 (30).page 33 .

DECLARE TYPE numbers_t IS VARRAY (10) OF NUMBER.page 34 . ± Variable arrays are actually stored in the DB table 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Bounded » Upper limit established when the TYPE is defined. salaries numbers_t. ± Available both in PL/SQL and SQL (as a column in a table) » And the order of elements are preserved in the database.147. Maximum value: 2.647 ± Dense » Never any gaps between defined rows. can be EXTENDed or TRIMmed.  Characteristics of variable arrays: ± Homogeneous » Each row contains the same structure of data.Variable Arrays [CREATE OR REPLACE] TYPE <table_type> IS VARRAY (N) OF <datatype> [NOT NULL].483.

sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 35 . CREATE TABLE db_family (surname VARCHAR2 (30). kids child_va_type). db_family surname kids BOLZ BOND 1 Barbara Anne 2 Gary Richard 3 Lisa Marie 1 Eric Thomas 2 Max Richard vademo.Variable Arrays CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE child_va_type IS VARRAY (8) OF VARCHAR2 (30).

you can define the TYPE in the database with a CREATE statement. or in a PL/SQL declaration section.page 36 . END tabtypes. ± For nested tables and VARRAYs.. TYPE integer_nt IS TABLE OF INTEGER. TYPE integer_vat IS VARRAY(10) OF INTEGER. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE tabtypes IS TYPE integer_ibt IS TABLE OF INTEGER INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. from the TYPE.Defining Collections  First.. this can only occur in a PL/SQL declaration section. Best option: package specification. you define the TYPE of the collection. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . a collection. ± For index-by tables. .  Then you declare an instance of that type. ± You can declare multiple collections from that TYPE.

 ALL_COLL_TYPES ± The types you have created (or have access to) in the database  ALL_TYPE_ATTRS ± Attributes of the data type used in the TYPE definition. all_type_attrs A T.owner = A.type_name.owner = USER T.elem_type_name = A. 'TMRS_VT') T.page 37 .Obtaining Collection Information SELECT FROM WHERE AND AND AND A. colldd.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .attr_type_name Attributes all_coll_types T. ± The code used to define the collection TYPE  There is no information in the data dictionary available for index-by tables.type_name IN ('NAMES_VT'.' || A.attr_name || ' .owner T.

page 38 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . 200. You must initialize them explicitly with a constructor.Initializing Collections  Before you can use a collection. 300). salaries numbers_t := numbers_t (100. TYPE defined in PL/SQL TYPE defined in the database Collection used in a table PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 300). / DECLARE -. BEGIN CREATE TYPE numbers_t IS VARRAY (10) OF NUMBER. salaries numbers_t := numbers_t (100. ± Index-by tables are initialized automatically. ± Nested tables and VARRAYs are atomically null.Initialize the collection. DECLARE TYPE numbers_t IS VARRAY (10) OF NUMBER. 200. salary_history numbers_t). empty when declared. BEGIN CREATE TABLE employee_denorm ( employee_id INTEGER. it must be initialized.

the ³homogeneous´ contents of an index-by table's row can be a record . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . total_rev NUMBER). Again. ± But you cannot have nested composite datatypes. BEGIN comp_tab(1).3. comp_tab comp_tabtype. consider putting TYPEs in database or packages. the datatype for any of the collection types can also be an object.comp_id := 1005. TYPE comp_tabtype IS TABLE OF comp_rectype INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER.company_id%TYPE. Here we have a three step process.Collections of Composites  Starting with Oracle 7.page 39 . DECLARE TYPE comp_rectype IS RECORD (comp_id company. ± Can easily create an index-by table with the same structure as a database table by declaring a record with %ROWTYPE.  Starting with Oracle8.

Sparse is Nice  The sparse characteristic of index-by tables and nested tables can be put to good use. a row exists in the table only when a value is assigned to that row.).  Rows do not have to be defined sequentially. your collections will contain a row's worth of information. ± Instead.  Especially handy when caching data from relational tables in user memory. order by date. ± You should not fill sequentially. ± In an index-by table. In this way. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . etc. unless the order in which items are selected is of importance.page 40 . consider using the row value as "smart data" for your application (primary key. it is very similar to a database table. ± In almost every case.

END LOOP. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY psemp IS BEGIN FOR rec IN (SELECT * FROM emp) LOOP emp_tab (rec. Some questions: ± Why would I put this collection table in a package? ± When is the collection loaded with the data? ± What rows in that collection are utilized? psemp.pkg psemp. Initialization section of package 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein  This package moves the entire contents of the emp table into its corresponding collection.Transferring DB Table to Collection CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE psemp IS TYPE emp_tabtype IS TABLE OF emp%ROWTYPE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. END.tst  PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END.empno) := rec. emp_tab emp_tabtype.page 41 .

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Collection Gotchas CREATE TYPE names_t IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2(30). the row exists. but you must do it for VARRAYs and nested tables. END. BEGIN greedy_ceos(1) := 'Hamilton. ± Not necessary for index-by tables. ± For VARRAYs and nested tables. once extended. / Error -6533! You've got to EXTEND first!  EXTEND before assigning a value to a row. ± Use the EXISTS method to determine if a row existed.  For index-by tables. Jordan'. even if you haven't assigned a value explicitly. you must reference existing rows or a NO_DATA_FOUND exception is raised.page 42 . / DECLARE greedy_ceos names_t := names_t ().

page 43 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .tst  Include a handler for NO_DATA_FOUND or use the EXISTS method to avoid these exceptions.We are OK.FIRST)).Extend by 10 since I know I will need that many. salaries.PUT_LINE ('Data for employee not available. optional argument.Set the value of each new row to the contents of the first row.Handling Collection Gotchas BEGIN -.  You can EXTEND one or more rows. ELSE DBMS_OUTPUT.EXISTS (v_employee_id) THEN -. ± Pre-extending a large number of rows in advance can improve performance. preextend. END IF.'). salaries(salaries. ± Assign a default value with a second.EXTEND (10. BEGIN IF salaries. -.

NEXT/PRIOR return the closest defined row after/before the specified row.Collection Methods  Obtain information about the collection COUNT returns number of rows currently defined in the table. ± ± ± ±  Modify the contents of the collection ± DELETE deletes one or more rows from the index-by table. number of elements allowed in a VARRAY. ± TRIM removes rows from a VARRAY. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . FIRST/LAST return lowest/highest numbers of defined rows.  The built-in package plitblm (PL/sql Index-TaBLe Methods) defines these methods.page 44 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . ± LIMIT tells you the max. ± EXTEND adds rows to a nested table or VARRAY. EXISTS returns TRUE if the specified row is defined.

DELETE (1400. -.Delete a range of rows myCollection.FREE_UNUSED_USER_MEMORY.Delete one (the last) row myCollection. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Delete all rows myCollection. DELETE releases memory. -.The DELETE Method  You can delete one or more rows from a collection using DELETE: BEGIN -. but you may also want to call DBMS_SESSION.DELETE (myCollection. END. 17255).LAST).page 45 .DELETE.

Navigating Through Collections 


Use FIRST and NEXT to move from beginning to end. Use LAST and PRIOR to move from end to beginning.
rowind PLS_INTEGER := birthdays.FIRST; -- birthdays.LAST BEGIN LOOP EXIT WHEN rowind IS NULL; DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE (birthdays(rowind).best_present); rowind := birthdays.NEXT (rowind); -- birthdays.PRIOR END LOOP; END;

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Using Collections Inside SQL 

Nested tables and VARRAYs can be defined as columns of a table and referenced directly within SQL. You can also apply SQL operations to the contents of nested tables and VARRAYs with these operators:
± THE - Maps a single column value in a single row to a virtual database table ± CAST - Maps a collection of one type to a collection of another type ± MULTISET - Maps a database table to a collection ± TABLE - Maps a collection to a database table  

Index-by tables are programmatic constructs only.
± You cannot make a direct reference to an index-by table in SQL. ± Instead, so do indirectly with a PL/SQL function.

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Using Collections inside SQL
SELECT column_value FROM TABLE (SELECT children FROM db_family WHERE surname = 'BOLZ'); db_family surname children BOLZ BOND Eric Thomas Max Richard UPDATE TABLE (SELECT children FROM db_family WHERE SURNAME = 'BOLZ) SET column_value = 'Lisa Nadezhka' WHERE column_value = 'Lisa Marie'); db_family surname children BOLZ ...
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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 48

Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Marie

column_value Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Marie

Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Nadezhka

Using the THE Operator 

Use THE to manipulate (retrieve, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE) contents of a nested table in a database table.
± Can only use with nested tables, not VARRAYs or index-by tables. ± Only accessible from within SQL statements in PL/SQL.
CREATE TYPE action_list_t IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2(100); / CREATE TABLE inflation_beater ( focus_area VARCHAR2(100), activities action_list_t) NESTED TABLE activities STORE AS activities_tab; SELECT VALUE (act) FROM THE (SELECT activities FROM inflation_beater WHERE focus_area = 'FORTUNE 100') act; UPDATE THE (SELECT activities FROM inflation_beater WHERE focus_area = 'FORTUNE 100') SET COLUMN_VALUE = 'DISBAND OSHA' WHERE COLUMN_VALUE = 'SIDESTEP OSHA';

the.sql

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Using the TABLE and CAST Operators 

Use CAST to convert a collection from one type to another, TABLE to convert a TYPE into a database table.
± Cannot use with index-by tables. ± Useful when you would like to apply SQL operations against a PL/SQL collection (ie, one not stored in a database table).
DECLARE nyc_devolution cutbacks_for_taxcuts := cutbacks_for_taxcuts ('Stop rat extermination programs', 'Fire building inspectors', 'Close public hospitals'); BEGIN DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE ( 'How to Make the NYC Rich Much, Much Richer:'); FOR rec IN (SELECT COLUMN_VALUE ohmy FROM TABLE (CAST (nyc_devolution AS cutbacks_for_taxcuts))) LOOP DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE (rec.ohmy); END LOOP; cast.sql END;

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DECLARE CURSOR bird_curs IS SELECT b.species.genus = b. b. ± Cannot use with index-by tables. END. query) into a VARRAY or nested table. with potential client-server performance impact. view.country FROM bird_habitats bh WHERE bh. ± You can use MULTISET to emulate or transform relational joins into collections. converting a set of data (table. multiset. FETCH bird_curs into bird_row. OPEN bird_curs.genus. CAST(MULTISET(SELECT bh.page 51 . information for the BEGIN master in one trip.genus AND bh.species) AS country_tab_t) FROM birds b. Retrieves all detail bird_row bird_curs%ROWTYPE.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .species = b.Using the MULTISET Operator  MULTISET is the inverse of TABLE.

sql PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . FUNCTION rowval (indx IN PLS_INTEGER) RETURN DATE IS BEGIN RETURN hiredates (indx). Instead. END.page 52 . hiredates date_tab. END. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein ibtab_in_sql. END. WNDS). PRAGMA RESTRICT_REFERENCES (rowval. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY ibtab IS TYPE date_tab IS TABLE OF DATE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER.Referencing IB Tables inside SQL  You can't directly reference an index-by table's contents inside SQL. Make accessible in SQL for Oracle8 and below. call functions that retrieve the table's data.  CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE ibtab IS FUNCTION rowval (indx IN PLS_INTEGER) RETURN DATE. WNPS. but hide the index-by table structure.

 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 53 .Examples of Collections in Action  Emulation of bi-directional cursor operations Avoid mutating table problems in database triggers.

PROCEDURE prevRow. END.Bi-Directional Cursor Emulation  Oracle does not yet support the ability to move back and forth (and at random) through a cursor's result set.nope.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE bidir IS /* Iterate through rows in the result set */ PROCEDURE setRow (nth IN PLS_INTEGER).pkg bidir.  bidir.page 54 . deposit your data in a collection and then provide programs to access that data in the necessary fashion. Notice that the collection itself is hidden. PROCEDURE nextRow. didn't make it!  Instead. ± A talked-about feature for Oracle9i -. This is particularly useful (read: efficient) when you need to perform multiple passes against the data. FUNCTION getRow RETURN employee_plus%ROWTYPE.

it is "mutating".sql  Note: in Oracle8i. you can use autonomous transactions to relax restrictions associated with queries. So what are you supposed to do when a row-level operation needs to "touch" that table? mutating. Statement Level UPDATE emp SET sal = 1000 UPDATE row 1 Row Level  UPDATE row N Row level triggers cannot query from or change the contents of the table to which it is attached. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .The Mutating Table Problem  Database triggers can be attached to the SQL statement and/or the individual row operations on a table.page 55 .

Statement Trigger 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 1st row trigger fires Nth row trigger fires Writes to list Writes to list Work List (PL/SQL Table)  Process data in the list. you have to remember what you needed to do.page 56 . ± an index-by table is an ideal repository for this reminder list. you need to defer the action until you get to the statement level. If you are going to defer the work.A Solution Based on Index-by Tables  Since you cannot perform the processing desired in the row-level trigger.

An Example: Ranking Salespeople  A table holds the rankings based on the amount of annual sales of salespeople within a department. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . but preferable. ± By storing the salesperson¶s department ids as they change.25 65011.88 144533. we then know which departments to re-rank.91 109000. ± We might update more than one department within a statement so we must be able to retain multiple department numbers.25 3 1 2 6 "Deferred work" is not only necessary. ± As the sales amount is updated in this table. Department ID Salesperson ID Sales Amount Rank 1055 1055 1055 1047  64333 65709 65706 70904 74055.page 57 . the rankings must also change to show the new standings for that department only.

pkg All details of the ranking are hidden in the package body.page 58 . Doesn't fire unless the sales_amt is actually changed.sales_amt) BEGIN rank. END.sales_amt != NEW.add_dept (:new.rank_depts. ranking. END.dept_id). Statement Level Trigger CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER Rank_Sales_Strg AFTER INSERT OR UPDATE OR DELETE ON rank_sales BEGIN rank.Trigger Logic Required Row Level Trigger CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER Rank_Sales_Rtrg AFTER insert OR update OF sales_amt ON rank_sales FOR EACH ROW WHEN (OLD. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

page 59 . PROCEDURE add_dept (dept_id_in IN INTEGER) IS BEGIN IF NOT in_process THEN dept_tab (dept_id_in) := TRUE. PACKAGE BODY rank IS in_process BOOLEAN := FALSE. END add_dept 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Create row to indicate department to be ranked. END rank. Table holds indicator that department needs re-ranking.The Ranking Package PACKAGE rank IS PROCEDURE add_dept (dept_id_in IN INTEGER). TYPE dept_tabtype IS TABLE OF BOOLEAN INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. END IF. dept_tab dept_tabtype. PROCEDURE rank_depts. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

page 60 . dept_tab.The Ranking Package. END rank. END IF. Continued PROCEDURE rank_depts IS v_deptid PLS_INTEGER := dept_tab. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Avoid recursive execution of logic Row number is department number. BEGIN IF NOT in_process THEN in_process := TRUE.NEXT (v_deptid).FIRST.DELETE. END LOOP. perform_ranking (v_deptid). LOOP EXIT WHEN v_deptid IS NULL. END rank_dept. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Clean up for next time. in_process := FALSE. v_deptid := dept_tab.

 VARRAYs ± ± ± ± You want to preserve the order in which elements are stored.page 61 .  Nested tables ± You want to store large amounts of persistent data in a column.Which Collection Type Should I Use?  Index-by tables ± Need to use in both Oracle7 and Oracle8 applications ± Want to take advantage of sparse nature for "intelligent keys". Set of data is relatively small (avoid row chaining). ± You want to use inside SQL. You don't want to have to worry about sparseness. You want to use inside SQL. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Tips for Using Collections 

Wrap access to your collections.
± In many cases, you will want to avoid direct access to (assigning and retrieving) rows in your collections. ± This will give you the flexibility to change your implementation. ± You can also hide complex rules for setting the row number. 

Get creative!
± Don't always fill and use the index-by table sequentially. ± If you can somehow translate your application data to an integer, it can be used as a row number, and therefore offers indexed access. ± Julian date formats and DBMS_UTILITY.GET_HASH_VALUE offer two different methods.

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Achieving PL/SQL Excellence

Cursor Variables

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 63

Architecture of Cursor Variables
With Hard-Coded Cursors
Hard-Coded Cursor

With Cursor Variables

PGA

Cursor Variable

Cursor Variable

Result Set

Shared Global Area

Cursor Object

Result Set 

A cursor variable points to an underlying cursor object in the database.
± The cursor object in turns points to (and keeps its place in) a result set. 

The cursor variable can be passed between programs (even between, say, a Java servlet and a PL/SQL stored procedure).
± Static SQL only -- until Oracle8i.
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1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

Benefits of Cursor Variables 

Share cursor management between programs, even across the client-server divide.
± You don't have to pass the result sets of a cursor in order to allow the client-side program to have direct access to the data in the result set. ± Oracle Developer 2.1 utilizes cursor variables when you choose to construct a "base table block" around stored procedures instead of a database table. 

Share the same code across multiple, different queries.
± Since the cursor name is no longer hard-coded, you can use a single block of code (say, a reporting program) against different queries. ± We will try out this technique at the end of the section.

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Cursor Variable Example
DECLARE TYPE company_curtype IS REF CURSOR RETURN company%ROWTYPE;
Declare a variable cursor TYPE.

company_curvar company_curtype;

Declare cursor variable based on that type. Declare a record from cursor variable. OPEN cursor variable, specifying the query. FETCH from the cursor variable.

company_rec company_curvar%ROWTYPE; BEGIN OPEN company_curvar FOR SELECT * FROM company;

FETCH company_curvar INTO company_rec;
Close the cursor variable.

CLOSE company_curvar; END;
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Explicit Cursors and Cursor Variables 

Both hard-coded cursors and cursor variables work with static SQL.
± The SQL is fixed at compile-time. ± The difference is that with cursor variables, you get to decide which static query is opened. 

Many cursor operations are the same:
± Close a variable cursor with the same syntax as that for static cursors. ± Use cursor attributes (%ISOPEN, %FOUND, %NOTFOUND, %ROWCOUNT) with cursor variables (as of Release 2.3). ± Fetch data from the cursor result set through a cursor variable with the same syntax as that of static cursors. 

Let¶s focus on the new and different capabilities of cursor variables.
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1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

Declaring Cursor Types and Variables 

Cursors are declared in two steps, just like programmerdefined records and PL/SQL tables.
± 1. Define a cursor TYPE -- either "weak" or "strong". ± 2. Define a cursor variable.
DECLARE TYPE weak_curtype IS REF CURSOR; TYPE comp_curtype IS REF CURSOR RETURN company%ROWTYPE; curcmp_new comp_curtype; cur_any weak_curtype; BEGIN
Declare cursor variables from the TYPEs. Declare a STRONG referenced cursor TYPE. Declare a WEAK referenced cursor TYPE.

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Strong vs. Weak Cursor Types 

A strong (or constrained) cursor type has a defined return data specification.
± Can only reference cursor objects which return the same data specification, which can be any single SQL datatype or any previously defined record structure. ± Datatype mismatches are identified at compile time.

TYPE cur_typ_name IS REF CURSOR [ RETURN return_type ]; TYPE cur_typ_name IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE; /* Strong */ 

The weak (or unconstrained) cursor type does not have a RETURN clause.
± It can reference any cursor object, be opened FOR any query. ± Datatype mismatches can only be identified at runtime.

TYPE cur_typ_name IS REF CURSOR; /* Weak */
1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein
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Opening with the Cursor Variable
OPEN cursor_name FOR select_statement; 

When you open a cursor variable (whether of the weak or strong variety), you must provide the SQL query that identifies the result set.
± If the variable has not yet been assigned to cursor object, the OPEN FOR statement implicitly creates an object for the variable. ± If the variable is already pointing to a cursor object, the OPEN FOR reuses the existing object and attaches the new query to that cursor object. 

Remember, the cursor object is nothing more than a memory location.
± It is maintained independently of the query itself.
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1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

a cursor or a programmer-defined record. Match Needed BEGIN OPEN emp_curvar FOR SELECT * from emp.page 71 . ± You can establish the return type based on a database table. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..  STRONG cursor data specifications must match or be compatible with the structure of the SELECT statement. END..Opening with Strong Cursor Types DECLARE TYPE emp_curtype IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE. emp_curvar emp_curtype. .

you can associate any SELECT statement with a weak cursor variable. END. END IF. Verification will take ELSIF get_type_in = µDEPT¶ place at the FETCH. FUNCTION open_emp_or_dept (get_type_in IN VARCHAR2) RETURN pkg.cv_type IS retval pkg.  A weak cursor TYPE doesn't define the RETURN structure.cv_type. REF TYPE placed in package so that it is "globally" available. OPEN retval FOR SELECT * FROM emp. RETURN retval. END. BEGIN IF get_type_in = µEMP¶ THEN Either query will "do". PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 72 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .Opening with Weak Cursor Types PACKAGE pkg IS TYPE cv_type IS REF CURSOR. THEN OPEN retval FOR SELECT * FROM dept.

The INTO structure must match in number and datatype to: ± FOR STRONG cursor types..page 73 .  Fetching with cursor variables follows the same rules as those with static cursors. FETCH cursor_var_name INTO var_name. it match the cursor type data specification.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± FOR WEAK cursor types. mismatch..   Compatibility checks are performed prior to fetching row.. it match the OPEN FOR statement structure. ± The ROWTYPE_MISMATCH exception is raised on failure. . ± Fetching can continue with a different INTO clause. var_name.Fetching from the Cursor Variable FETCH cursor_var_name INTO record_name.

sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Define a base table block in Forms Builder (formerly Oracle Forms) on stored procedures rather than a table directly.  hccursor.When to Use Cursor Variables  Make it easier for calling programs (especially non-PL/SQL programs) to manipulate result sets.page 74 . ± JDBC recognizes cursor variables. Use a single block of code to manipulate multiple queries. ± With explicit cursors. you have to repeat the code for each cursor. but static cursors are more efficient than dynamic SQL and cursor variables are less complicated than DBMS_SQL. since cursor names are "hard coded". ± You could use dynamic SQL to achieve this effect.

/ allcurrs. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE allcurs IS bydept CONSTANT INTEGER := 1. TYPE int_rt IS RECORD (key INTEGER). TYPE cv_t IS REF CURSOR RETURN int_rt. bysal CONSTANT INTEGER := 2. FUNCTION open (type_in IN INTEGER) RETURN cv_t. ± It also creates the data structures you will need to call the function.tst explcv.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .pkg allcurs.Consolidating Different Cursors  The following package specification hides the SQL behind a single open function.page 75 . END.

/ 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . RETURN retval. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY allcurs IS FUNCTION open (type_in IN INTEGER) RETURN cv_t IS retval cv_t. BEGIN IF type_in = bydept THEN OPEN retval FOR SELECT empno FROM emp ORDER BY deptno. END IF. END. ELSIF type_in = bysal THEN OPEN retval FOR SELECT empno FROM emp ORDER BY SAL. END.page 76 .Consolidating Different Cursors  The open function simply opens FOR a different SELECT based on the criteria passed to it.

v_empno emp.page 77 "Report processor" is independent of the particular SELECT .open (&1). CLOSE cv.l (v_empno). / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .in this case. EXIT WHEN cv%NOTFOUND. DECLARE cv allcurs. END.empno%TYPE. END LOOP. LOOP FETCH cv INTO v_empno.cv_t. change the ORDER BY clause -without having to change the code you write. BEGIN cv := allcurs.Hiding SQL Variations in Resulting Code  The following block demonstrates that you can alter which SQL statement to query -. p.

 Hide Variations in Underlying SQL ± You no longer have to repeat the same code for different cursors. unconstrained type.page 78 .1.  Strong and Weak Types ± Create REF CURSORs for specific queries. or a more general.  Improve Client-Side Access to Data ± At least in Oracle Developer 2. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . you can build screens that access data using a cursor variable-based procedural API.Cursor Variables Let's summarize  Flexibility ± Choose which static SQL statement is executed at run-time.

Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Dynamic SQL  Dynamic SQL and dynamic PL/SQL: ± The DBMS_SQL package ± Native dynamic SQL in Oracle8i 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 79 .

 Execute dynamically-constructed PL/SQL programs.Dynamic SQL and PL/SQL Execution  "Dynamic SQL" mean that you construct the SQL statement or PL/SQL block at runtime and then execute it. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .1 and DBMS_SQL.  Execute DDL inside PL/SQL programs. ± Very common requirement on the Web. ± Available in PL/SQL since Release 2. ± Construct powerful DBA utilities. ± One example: implement indirect referencing in PL/SQL. What can you do with Dynamic SQL?  Build ad-hoc query and update applications. you no longer have to write SQL to generate SQL to get your job done. ± Also supported with "native dynamic SQL" in Oracle8i.page 80 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .

executed a single time. These methods are in increasing order of complexity. you can more quickly figure out how to code your solution. ± NDS does not support method 4. If you can recognize the types.Four Methods of Dynamic SQL   Method 1: non-queries without host variables.    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Method 3: queries with a fixed number of items in the SELECT list and a fixed number of host variables. Method 2: non-queries with a fixed number of host variables. execute one or more times. Method 4: queries with a variable number of items in the SELECT list and/or non-queries with a variable number of host variables. ± Different methods require the use of different programs in DBMS_SQL.page 81 .

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . used for DDL. you would use the DBMS_SQL built-in package to execute dynamic SQL.Native Dynamic SQL  Prior to Oracle8i. used for multi-row queries. difficult to use. ± OPEN FOR <sql string>.page 82 . ± But this package is very complex.  The new "native dynamic SQL" or NDS of Oracle8i offers two native statements in the PL/SQL language to implement most of your dynamic SQL requirements: ± EXECUTE IMMEDIATE <sql string>. DML and single row fetches. and relatively slow (performance did improve significantly as of Oracle8).

The USING clause allows you to specify bind arguments or variables to be passed into the SQL string before execution..].page 83   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . collections and records. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .... | record }] [USING {IN | OUT | IN OUT] bind argument [. The INTO clause allows you to pass values from the select list of a single row query into local variables.EXECUTE IMMEDIATE EXECUTE IMMEDIATE sql-string [INTO {define_variable[. including objects.  Use this statement to execute any dynamic SQL statement (including a PL/SQL block) except for multi-row queries. {IN | OUT | IN OUT] bind argument]. define_variables].

and not much of a democracy either!'). '1=1') INTO retval.sf compare with: tabcount.' || tab || ' WHERE ' || NVL (whr.PUT_LINE ( 'Not the best health care system in the world. USER) || '..sf PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . whr IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. BEGIN EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'SELECT COUNT(*) FROM ' || NVL (sch.000 THEN DBMS_OUTPUT. END. RETURN retval.. table and retval INTEGER.. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein tabcount81. WHERE clause.page 84 . sch IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) RETURN INTEGER IS Specify schema.000.COUNT(*) For Any Table  Here's a handy and simple utility based on NDS: CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION tabCount ( tab IN VARCHAR2. 'insured = ''NO''') > 40. IF tabCount ('citizens'. END IF..

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN pl ('Compile Error "' || SQLERRM || '" on: ' || v_str). END. name_in IN VARCHAR2) IS v_str VARCHAR2 (100). PROCEDURE runprog (pkg_in IN VARCHAR2. BEGIN v_str := 'BEGIN ' || pkg_in || '. end_in IN DATE. end_in. END.  Execute a stored procedure. Pass in bind variables with USING clause.Other Execute Immediate Examples  Perform an update. col_in IN VARCHAR2. END. start_in IN DATE.' || name_in || '. start_in.'.. val_in IN NUMBER) IS BEGIN EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'UPDATE ' || tab_in || ' SET ' || col_in || ' = :val WHERE hiredate BETWEEN :lodate AND :hidate' USING val_in.. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE updnumval ( tab_in IN VARCHAR2. EXECUTE IMMEDIATE v_str..page 85 .

pkg PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . including objects and collections. END. ± In the following example. cond. PROCEDURE add_profit_source ( hosp_name IN VARCHAR2.. cond IN preexisting_conditions) IS BEGIN EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'INSERT INTO ' || tabname (hosp_name) || ' VALUES (:revenue_generator.page 86 . pers IN Person.Using Objects and Collections in NDS  One of the key advantages to NDS over DBMS_SQL is that it works with Oracle8 datatypes. the USING clause allows me to pass an object and nested table to an INSERT statement with a variable table name. :revenue_inhibitors)' USING pers. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein health$.. ± No special syntax needed.

END LOOP. DBMS_OUTPUT. ndsutil. col IN VARCHAR2. ± Here is a simple utility the displays the values of any date. number or string column in any table. whr IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) IS TYPE cv_type IS REF CURSOR.page 87 . '1 = 1').PUT_LINE (val). variable syntax! EXIT WHEN cv%NOTFOUND. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE showcol ( tab IN VARCHAR2. val VARCHAR2(32767). CLOSE cv.Multiple Row Queries and NDS  Oracle extends the cursor variable feature of Oracle7 to support multi-row dynamic queries.sp END. showcol. LOOP Familiar cursor FETCH cv INTO val. cv cv_type.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . BEGIN OPEN cv FOR 'SELECT ' || col || ' FROM ' || tab || ' WHERE ' || NVL (whr.

± If dynamic SQL. pass a variable with a NULL value. You cannot pass the NULL literal directly in the USING clause. ± If dynamic PL/SQL.pkg    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . str2list.) through the USING clause. provide a value for each distinct placeholder (by name).Some Fine Print for NDS  You cannot pass schema elements (table names. You can have duplicate placeholders (for bind arguments). Instead. then you provide a value for each placeholder (by position). etc. The USING clause for a query can only have IN bind arguments. column names.page 88 .

You should only use DBMS_SQL when you cannot use NDS. The overhead for using DBMS_SQL has decreased significantly in Oracle8 and again in Oracle8i. Supports all four methods of dynamic SQL.Dynamic SQL using DBMS_SQL  Prior to Oracle8i.page 89 . in particular method 4. with many rules to follow and lots of code to write.     1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . the only way to perform dynamic SQL was with the DBMS_SQL package. DBMS_SQL is a very large and complex package.

page 90 .Learning Through Examples  DDL ± Create an index from within PL/SQL  DML ± Update rows in a table  DML with binding ± Update rows using bind variables  Queries ± Method 3 and a dynamic WHERE clause  PL/SQL Version of "SELECT *" ± Example of Method 4  PL/SQL ± Create a generic calculation program 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

 creind.DDL with Dynamic SQL PROCEDURE create_index (index_in IN VARCHAR2.CLOSE_CURSOR (cur).PARSE (cur. DDL_statement. END. ± Open a cursor. ± Parse and execute that DDL statement. DBMS_SQL. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . DBMS_SQL. tab_in IN VARCHAR2. DDL_statement VARCHAR2(200) := 'CREATE INDEX ' || index_in || ' ON ' || tab_in || ' ( ' || col_in || ')'. fdbk INTEGER.OPEN_CURSOR. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.sp Creates an index on any column(s) in any table in your schema. fdbk := DBMS_SQL. ± Construct the DDL statement as a string.page 91 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . col_in IN VARCHAR2) IS cur INTEGER := DBMS_SQL.NATIVE).EXECUTE (cur). which will be used to execute the DDL statement.

OPEN_CURSOR. val_in IN NUMBER) IS cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL. DBMS_OUTPUT. DBMS_SQL. fdbk := DBMS_SQL. ename_in IN emp.PARSE (cur. END. DBMS_SQL. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .CLOSE_CURSOR (cur).Updates with Dynamic SQL  Update numeric column for specified employees.ename%TYPE. updnval1. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE updnumval ( col_in IN VARCHAR2.PUT_LINE ('Rows updated: ' || TO_CHAR (fdbk)).NATIVE).page 92 .EXECUTE (cur). 'UPDATE emp SET ' || col_in || ' = ' || val_in || ' WHERE ename LIKE UPPER (''' || ename_in || ''')'. fdbk PLS_INTEGER.

CLOSE_CURSOR (cur).BIND_VARIABLE (cur.EXECUTE (cur).BIND_VARIABLE (cur. updnval2. END. end_in). start_in IN DATE.OPEN_CURSOR.PARSE (cur. fdbk := DBMS_SQL. val_in IN NUMBER) IS cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE updnumval ( col_in IN VARCHAR2.sp updnval3. DBMS_SQL.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . fdbk PLS_INTEGER. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. DBMS_OUTPUT. DBMS_SQL. end_in IN DATE. 'UPDATE emp SET ' || col_in || ' = ' || val_in || ' WHERE hiredate BETWEEN :lodate AND :hidate'.Updates with Bind Variables  Update salaries for date range using binding. DBMS_SQL. start_in).NATIVE).PUT_LINE ('Rows updated: ' || TO_CHAR (fdbk)).page 93 . 'lodate'. 'hidate'.

page 94 .Processing Flow for a Dynamic Query Allocate cursor memory (OPEN_CURSOR) Fill cursor with data (EXECUTE) Make sure SELECT is well formed (PARSE) Fill buffer with data (FETCH_ROWS) (EXECUTE_AND_FETCH) Bind any variables (BIND_VARIABLE) (BIND_ARRAY) Retrieve the data (COLUMN_VALUE) Give cursor structure (DEFINE_COLUMN) (DEFINE_ARRAY) Release cursor memory (CLOSE_CURSOR) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

fdbk := DBMS_SQL.empno). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein showemps.EXECUTE (cur). 1. 'a'.NATIVE).ename). DBMS_SQL.COLUMN_VALUE (cur.CLOSE_CURSOR (cur). LOOP EXIT WHEN DBMS_SQL. 1).OPEN_CURSOR. END LOOP..PARSE (cur. END.sp showemp2. rec emp%ROWTYPE. DBMS_SQL. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. ename FROM emp ' || ' WHERE ' || NVL (where_in. fdbk INTEGER. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE showemps (where_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) IS cur INTEGER := DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.Queries with Dynamic SQL  Show employees using a dynamic WHERE clause. DBMS_SQL. rec.empno) || '=' || rec.sp showemps. DBMS_SQL. rec. '1=1'). 2.PUT_LINE (TO_CHAR (rec..FETCH_ROWS (cur) = 0. DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.page 95 . 2. DBMS_SQL. 60). 'SELECT empno.ename). DBMS_OUTPUT.COLUMN_VALUE (cur. 1.tst PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

nth_col. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .PARSE (cur.Dynamic SELECT * FROM Any Table  Method 4 example: the number of columns queried changes with each table. DBMS_SQL. FOR each-column-in-table LOOP DBMS_SQL. END LOOP. END LOOP. select_string. nth_col. DBMS_SQL. FOR each-column-in-table LOOP DBMS_SQL. datatype). END LOOP.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. END LOOP. ± The resulting code is much more complicated.COLUMN_VALUE (cur. END. val).NATIVE).sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .page 96 Very simplified pseudo-code intab. BEGIN FOR each-column-in-table LOOP add-column-to-select-list. LOOP fetch-a-row.

page 97 . then EXECUTE_AND_FETCH will raise the TOO_MANY_ROWS exception if more than one row is fetched by the SELECT. exact_match IN BOOLEAN DEFAULT FALSE) RETURN INTEGER.  Makes it easy to execute and fetch a single row from a query.EXECUTE_AND_FETCH (cur). ± Very similar to the implicit SELECT cursor in native PL/SQL. numrows := DBMS_SQL. TRUE). ± If exact_match is TRUE. the first row will still be fetched and available. raises NO_DATA_FOUND or raises the TOO_MANY_ROWS exception. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Even if the exception is raised.EXECUTE_AND_FETCH (cur. numrows := DBMS_SQL.Using EXECUTE_AND_FETCH FUNCTION execute_and_fetch (cursor_in IN INTEGER. which returns a single row.

page 98 . NULL.sf dyncalc. arg4_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. ± With DBMS_SQL. NULL.Dynamic Formula Execution  Suppose I am building a user interface that allows a user to select a formula for execution. I would have to modify my screen every time a new formula was added. arg10_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL dyncalc. arg6_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. a single function will do the trick.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . and enter the arguments. NULL. arg8_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. nargs_in IN INTEGER := arg1_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg3_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg5_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg7_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg9_in IN VARCHAR2 := ) RETURN VARCHAR2. FUNCTION dyncalc ( oper_in IN VARCHAR2. NULL. arg2_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. 0. NULL. ± Using static PL/SQL.

sql dynplsql. DBMS_SQL. END. µsalout¶. DBMS_SQL.page 99 .'). v_deptin).BIND_VARIABLE (cur.sp dynplsql. :salout).VARIABLE_VALUE (cur. You must have a BEGIN-END around the code.BIND_VARIABLE (cur.More on Dynamic PL/SQL BEGIN cur := open_and_parse ('BEGIN get_max_sal (:deptin. fdbk := DBMS_SQL.EXECUTE (cur). my_salary). µsalout¶. Use VARIABLE_VALUE to extract a value from any variable you have bound. DBMS_SQL. END. my_salary).even OUT arguments which are not being bound to any values.tst    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Use BIND_VARIABLE to bind any placeholders in the string -. Possibilities inherent in dynamic PL/SQL are mind-boggling! dynplsql. µdeptin¶.

'val'. but you can accomplish much of the same thing with dynamic PL/SQL execution.EXECUTE (v_cur).NATIVE).pkg dynvar. fdbk PLS_INTEGER.Indirect Referencing with Dyn PL/SQL  Oracle Forms offers support for indirect referencing with the NAME_IN and COPY built-ins.PARSE (v_cur. 'a'.CLOSE_CURSOR (v_cur). BEGIN DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL. Here is an example of a "PL/SQL NAME_IN": FUNCTION valbyname (nm IN VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2 IS v_cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL. END. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . PL/SQL does not support indirect referencing. END. DBMS_SQL.page 100  dynvar.'. DBMS_SQL. 2000). RETURN retval.BIND_VARIABLE (v_cur.OPEN_CURSOR.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .VARIABLE_VALUE (v_cur. 'BEGIN :val := ' || nm || '. fdbk := DBMS_SQL. retval).dbmaxvc2. retval PLV. 'val'.

 LAST_SQL_FUNCTION_CODE ± Returns SQL function code of cursor. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  IS_OPEN ± Is the cursor already open?  LAST_ERROR_POSITION ± Returns relative column position in cursor of text causing error condition.  LAST_ROW_COUNT ± Returns the cumulative count of rows fetched from the cursor. ± Call these immediately after your usage to make sure they refer to your cursor.  LAST_ROW_ID ± Returns the ROWID of last row processed.page 101 .DBMS_SQL Status Built-ins  The package offers a set of modules to return information about the lastoperated cursor in your session.

DEFINE_COLUMN_LONG ± DBMS_SQL. ± DBMS_SQL.page 102 .tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .pkg dumplong.COLUMN_VALUE_LONG   First.Working with LONG Values  DBMS_SQL provides special procedures so that you can extract values from a LONG column in a table. ± Transfer the LONG contents into an index-by table so that you can transfer a value of more than 32K bytes into your PL/SQL program. you define the column as a LONG. dumplong. Then you retrieve the column using the special COLUMN_VALUE_LONG variant.

New DBMS_SQL Features PL/SQL8 Extensions to DBMS_SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 103 .

New Features in DBMS_SQL  The functionality of DBMS_SQL has been extended in Oracle8 in several ways: ± Parse very long SQL strings ± Describe cursor columns ± Use "array processing" to perform bulk updates. inserts. ± Support for RETURNING clause to avoid unnecessary queries. deletes and fetches. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 104 .

page 105 .  Before PL/SQL8.DESC_TAB). desc_t OUT DBMS_SQL. col_cnt OUT INTEGER.DESCRIBE_COLUMNS.  Returns all of the column information in an index table of records. ± Now you can call the DBMS_SQL.DESCRIBE_COLUMNS (c IN INTEGER. ± The record TYPE is also defined in DBMS_SQL. it was not possible to determine the datatypes of the columns defined in a cursor. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Describing Cursor Columns PROCEDURE DBMS_SQL.

col_name).DESCRIBE_COLUMNS (cur.OPEN_CURSOR.Basic Steps to Describe Columns  The following script shows the individual steps you will need to perform in order to use this feature. ncols LOOP DBMS_OUTPUT. desccols. ncols.NATIVE). CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE show_columns IS cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL.CLOSE_CURSOR (cur).page 106 . DBMS_SQL. ncols PLS_INTEGER. END. empno FROM emp'.pkg desccols. END LOOP. 'SELECT hiredate.PARSE (cur. cols DBMS_SQL.. FOR colind IN 1 . cols). DBMS_SQL.DESC_TAB.PUT_LINE (cols(colind).tst showcols. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . DBMS_SQL.

can offer a significant performance boost over Oracle7 dynamic SQL. where N is the number of rows in the table. deletes and fetches. ± In actuality. DBMS_SQL is executing the specified SQL statement N times. inserts.e.. DBMS_SQL then repeats your action for every row in the table. It really isn't "array processing". i. however. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . when you perform updates. index tables."Array Processing" in DBMS_SQL  PL/SQL8 now allows you to specify the use of "arrays".page 107 . Instead of providing a scalar value for an operation.    This technique still. you specify an index table.

column names. ± But remember: you cannot pass schema elements (table names.Recommendations for Dynamic SQL  Bind (vs. ± Increased chance of reusing parsed SQL.page 108 . ± Encapsulate DBMS_SQL. only possible for statements that do not need USING and INTO clauses. ± With NDS. not the invoker of the code.PARSE so that you include the trace in that program.pkg whichsch. concatenate) whenever possible. and easier code to write. effdsql.  Use the Oracle8i invoker rights model whenever you want to share your dynamic SQL programs among multiple schemas.  Encapsulate statements to improve error handling. though you could write variations for those as well.) through the USING clause.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . etc.sql openprse. ± Otherwise that SQL will be executed under the authority of the owner of the code.

± If. but DBMS_SQL is hard to use..NDS or DBMS_SQL: Which is Best?  Dynamic SQL and PL/SQL is very useful. of course..page 109 . Both implementations will still come in handy. you have upgraded to Oracle8i!  Major Advantages of NDS: ± Ease of use ± Performance ± Works with all SQL datatypes (including userdefined object and collection types) ± Fetch into records  When You'd Use DBMS_SQL: ± ± ± ± ± ± ± Method 4 Dynamic SQL DESCRIBE columns of cursor SQL statements larger than 32K RETURNING into an array Reuse of parsed SQL statements Bulk dynamic SQL Available from client-side PL/SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

page 110 .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Oracle Advanced Queuing  The high performance. persistent messaging subsytem of Oracle 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . asynchronous.

systems are now heavily reliant on the ability of components to communicate with each other in a dependable. consistent manner. Distribution Center Coffee Beans Producer Shipping Service Retailer Consumer 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 111 .Who Needs Messaging? Everyone!  In the distributed world of the Internet.

Applications Relying on Messaging     Stock trading system Airline reservation system Auction portals Any e-commerce application 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 112 .

the listen feature and notification capabilities.page 113 . scalability and reliability all carry over to queues ± Strong history and retention ± Backup and recovery ± Comprehensive journaliing  Rich message content increases usefulness of queueing ± Use object types to define highly structured payloads  New to Oracle8i. message propagation. ± Rule-based subscribers. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . AQ now offers a publish/subscribe style of messaging between applications.Key Features of Oracle AQ  Leverage full power of SQL ± Messages are stored in database tables  Database high availability.

AQ architectural overview Queue Monitor process Queue table Queue ³Producers´ Enqueued messages Message 4 Message 3 Message 2 Message1 ³Consumers´ Dequeued messages Messages include both control information and ³payload´ (content) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 114 .

Oracle AQ Highlights  In 8.0. AQ supports: ± ± ± ± ± Multiple queues Resetting order and priority of queued items Queue management using only SQL & PL/SQL Multiple message recipients Propagation of queue to remote servers  Oracle8i adds: ± ± ± ± Rules-based publish & subscribe Listening on multiple queues Easier monitoring Native Java interface PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 115 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .

AQ Components  The DBMS_AQ package offers enqueue and dequeue capabilities The DBMS_AQADM package provides administrative functionality to manage queues and queue tables.    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 116 . Underlying database tables and views The queue monitor (background process) ± Set # of processes with the AQ_TM_PROCESSES initialization parameter.

sort column. payload type.DBMS_AQADM Highlights CREATE_QUEUE_TABLE DROP_QUEUE_TABLE CREATE_QUEUE DROP_QUEUE START_QUEUE STOP_QUEUE ADD_SUBSCRIBER Assigns name. assigns retry and retention properties to queue Drops a stopped queue Can also turn on/off enqueue and dequeue operations Stops queue. storage clause.page 117 . whether multiple consumers Drops table if all queues in the table have been stopped Associates queue table with queue. optionally waiting for outstanding transactions Adds an ³agent´ as a subscriber 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Define a queue in the queue table DBMS_AQADM. queue_payload_type => 'message_type'). END.pkg Start the queue PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Define the "payload" Create the queue table DBMS_AQADM.START_QUEUE (queue_name => 'msgqueue').page 118 .CREATE_QUEUE (queue_name => 'msgqueue'. / BEGIN DBMS_AQADM.Creating Queue Tables and Queues CREATE TYPE message_type AS OBJECT (title VARCHAR2(30). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein aq. queue_table => 'msg'). text VARCHAR2(2000)).CREATE_QUEUE_TABLE (queue_table => 'msg'.

and returns a RAW message handle DEQUEUE extracts a message from a specified queue Parameters control message properties such as: ± Visibility (ON_COMMIT or IMMEDIATE) ± ± ± ± Priority Delay Expiration Locking behavior PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  ENQUEUE puts a message into a specified queue.page 119   aq.The "operational package": DBMS_AQ  DBMS_AQ is deceptively simple. ± Only two procedures. but lots of complexity buried inside the parameters of these procedures.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .

msgid aq.. msgid).page 120 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .msgid_type. msgprops DBMS_AQ. queueopts.ENQUEUE_OPTIONS_T.').ENQUEUE ( 'msgqueue'.Simple Enqueue Example DECLARE queueopts DBMS_AQ. my_msg. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . aqenq*.MESSAGE_PROPERTIES_T. DBMS_AQ. 'May there be many more. Declare records to hold various enqueue and msg properties. BEGIN my_msg := message_type ( 'First Enqueue'. Set up the payload with an object constructor.. msgprops. END.* Place the message on the specified queue and get a msg ID in return. my_msg message_type.

delay := 3 * 60 * 60 * 24.. DBMS_AQ. msgid2). my_msg.ENQUEUE ('msgqueue'..ENQUEUE ( 'msgqueue'. BEGIN my_msg := message_type ( 'First Enqueue'.'). queueopts.More Interesting Enqueue Example DECLARE .').. 'And this one goes first. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Specify a delay before the payload is available. Modify the dequeue sequence by changing the deviation field and relative msg ID. my_msg. queueopts. 'May there be many more. msgprops.. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . my_msg := message_type ( 'Second Enqueue'. msgid1). msgprops.sequence_deviation := DBMS_AQ.. DBMS_AQ.. END. Same setup as previous page ..page 121 . msgprops. queueopts. queueopts.relative_msgid := msgid1.BEFORE..

DEQUEUE ( 'msgqueue'. PROCEDURE getmsg (mode_in IN INTEGER) IS BEGIN queueopts.REMOVE).REMOVE).DEQUEUE_OPTIONS_T. msgprops DBMS_AQ. my_msg.page 122 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .Dequeue Example DECLARE queueopts DBMS_AQ. msgid). END. msgprops. aqdeq*.BROWSE).msgid_type. Dequeue operation isolated in local module. getmsg (DBMS_AQ. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . BEGIN getmsg (DBMS_AQ. END. queueopts.dequeue_mode := mode_in. Demonstrates destructive and non-destructive dequeuing. msgid aq.* Declare records to hold various dequeue and msg properties.MESSAGE_PROPERTIES_T. DBMS_AQ.pkg */ my_msg message_type. getmsg (DBMS_AQ. /* defined in aq.

item_obj.visibility := DBMS_AQ.  A stack implementation using AQ demonstrates this well.page 123 . ± The lower the numeric priority value. END. BEGIN item_obj := aqstk_objtype (item). DBMS_AQ. queueopts.pkg aqstk2.IMMEDIATE.MESSAGE_PROPERTIES_T.1. g_priority := g_priority .* 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . msgid). PROCEDURE push (item IN VARCHAR2) IS queueopts DBMS_AQ. msgprops DBMS_AQ. msgprops. msgid aq. the higher the priority.Prioritized Payloads  You can assign priorities to individual payloads and then dequeue according to those priorities.pkg priority. msgprops.ENQUEUE_OPTIONS_T.ENQUEUE ( c_queue. aqstk. queueopts.msgid_type. item_obj aqstk_objtype.priority := g_priority.

multiple_consumers => TRUE). queue_payload_type => 'student_major_t'. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein aqmult*. BEGIN DBMS_AQADM. DBMS_AQADM. The queue table must be defined to support multiple subscribers or consumers. Add subscribers for the queue.Defining Message Subscribers  You can specify that a message is to be enqueued for a list of subscribers.page 124 . SYS.  Steps to working with a subscriber list: ± 1. NULL. ± 2.AQ$_AGENT (name_in.* PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . NULL)). ± The message is then not removed from the queue until all subscribers have dequeued the message.CREATE_QUEUE_TABLE ( queue_table => 'major_qtable'.ADD_SUBSCRIBER ( c_queue.

± Crucial for Oracle to have a message-oriented middleware in order to offer an all-Oracle solution. ± Much more robust that DBMS_PIPE. supporting a publish-subscribe model. ± Significant enhancements in Oracle8i.  Considered by Oracle to be a core component of its overall solution.Summary  Very powerful and flexible architecture. LISTEN capability. improved security.Oracle AQ . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 125 . ± Should be strongly supported "down the road".

page 126 .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Managing Large Objects with DBMS_LOB 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

LOB Terms  LOB = Large OBject: a category of datatype allowing storage of ³unstructured´ data up to 4 gigabytes LOB datatype can be: ± Column in table ± Attribute in object type ± Element in nested table   Possible applications include office documents. LOB datatypes are the successor to LONGs. they should no longer be used. sounds. though they will probably not be actually desupported.  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . etc. Images. ± Oracle has announced deprecation of LONGs. video.page 127 .

improving performance.Types of Large Objects  ³Internal´ LOBs ± BLOB: unstructured binary data ± CLOB: single-byte fixedwidth character data ± NCLOB: multi-byte fixedwidth character data (or varying width in )  ³External´ LOBs ± BFILE: pointer to an operating system file  Temporary LOBs ± Internal LOBs that do not participate in transactions.page 128 . external do not ± External LOBs are read-only from within Oracle 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Key programming differences: ± Internal LOBs participate in transactions.

PL/SQL built-ins for LOBs  Package DBMS_LOB ± Supports for all LOBs: Reading.page 129 . comparison and length checking ± For internal LOBs: Write. open. copy. substring and instring searches. trim ± For external LOBs: File existence test. append. EMPTY_CLOB() ± BFILENAME 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . close  Other built-in functions ± LOADFROMFILE (load an external BFILE into a BLOB) ± EMPTY_LOB(). erase.

Deceptively simple example  BLOB-typed column in a table CREATE TABLE incoming_faxes (fax_id INTEGER.page 130 . Question: What¶s in the_fax? 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . BEGIN OPEN fax_cur. received DATE. END. the_fax BLOB. CLOSE fax_cur. fax BLOB). FETCH fax_cur INTO the_fax.  Retrieve record with BLOB into PL/SQL variable DECLARE CURSOR fax_cur IS SELECT fax FROM incoming_faxes.

The ³LOB locator´ LOB t l sel es [ ll ] t i i t r . tt LOBs <lob segment> fax_id 281937 received 12-JAN-98 fax <lob locator> Updati  t e LOB anges t e pointer is ompli ates se of LOBs ± LOB locators cannot span transactions ± Programs must lock records containing LOBs efore updating ± Programs performing L must accommodate dynamic LOB locator alues 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 131 .

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 132 . . the_loc CLOB.oodb.com'. BEGIN INSERT INTO web_pages VALUES (the_url. EMPTY_CLOB()) RETURNING htmlloc INTO the_loc..Example: Piecewise CLOB programmatic insert  Create a table CREATE TABLE web_pages ( url VARCHAR2(512) PRIMARY KEY.. 1 of 2  Must get a new LOB locator before writing into the LOB: DECLARE the_url web_pages. htmlloc CLOB).url%TYPE := 'http://www.

REQUEST_PIECES(url => the_url). html_tab UTL_HTTP. running_total := running_total + piece_length. piece_length PLS_INTEGER. Note: We are ignoring amount => piece_length. END LOOP.page 133 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein BEGIN .html_tab.com'.oodb. into a CLOB column html_tab := UTL_HTTP. running_total PLS_INTEGER := 1. buffer => html_tab(the_piece_no)). FOR the_piece_no IN 1. EMPTY_CLOB()) and loads a web page RETURNING htmlloc INTO the_loc.WRITE(lob_loc => the_loc. DBMS_LOB. several likely exceptions offset => running_total. END.HTML_PIECES. the_loc CLOB.Example: Piecewise CLOB programmatic insert DECLARE the_url web_pages. This block retrieves INSERT INTO web_pages VALUES (the_url..COUNT LOOP piece_length := LENGTH(html_tab(the_piece_no)). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .url%TYPE := 'http://www.

CLOSE hcur. offset => str_offset. amount => 4. buffer => 'cool'). str_offset INTEGER. IF str_offset != 0 THEN DBMS_LOB.Example: Piecewise CLOB programmatic update DECLARE Program must lock the record explicitly CURSOR hcur IS SELECT htmlloc FROM web_pages WHERE url = 'http://www.INSTR(lob_loc => the_loc. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .oodb. pattern => 'oodb'). END. FETCH hcur INTO the_loc. BEGIN OPEN hcur. END IF.com' FOR UPDATE.page 134 .WRITE(lob_loc => the_loc. str_offset := DBMS_LOB. the_loc CLOB.

 Example: CREATE DIRECTORY web_pix AS 'D:\bill\training\pix'.Preparing to use BFILEs  You must first create an Oracle I ORY´ ± Creates logical alias for full directory pat ± imilar to LIBRARY (used for C "external procedures").page 135 . ut IRECTORY namespace is global  Syntax: CREATE OR REPLACE DIRECTORY <directory name> AS '<full path to directory>'. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

phones Phone_tab_t.. image BFILE). addresses Address_tab_t... / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  In an object type.page 136 .Using BFILE datatype in DDL  In a table.. CREATE TYPE Business_card_t AS OBJECT ( name Name_t. scanned_card_image BFILE ). CREATE TABLE web_graphics ( image_id INTEGER.

 Example: DECLARE picture BFILE := BFILENAME('WEB_PIX'. BEGIN INSERT INTO web_graphics VALUES (100015. /  Notes: ± No automatic file checking or synchronization ± No participation in transactions 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .The built-in BFILENAME function  Returns value of datatype BFILE. 'prodicon. file_exprn) RETURN BFILE. Spec: FUNCTION BFILENAME(directory_exprn. END. picture).page 137 .gif').

FILE_READONLY). END.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . BEGIN INSERT INTO web_graphic_blobs VALUES (1. DBMS_LOB. DECLARE pic_file BFILE := BFILENAME('WEB_PIX'.GETLENGTH(pic_file)).page 138 . 'prodicon. DBMS_LOB.LOADFROMFILE(dest_lob => pic_blob_loc. DBMS_LOB. amount => DBMS_LOB. pic_blob_loc) RETURNING image INTO pic_blob_loc. DBMS_LOB. src_lob => pic_file.FILEOPEN(pic_file. image BLOB). pic_blob_loc BLOB := EMPTY_BLOB().FILECLOSE(pic_file).gif'). / loadblob.Loading File into Database BLOB CREATE TABLE web_graphic_blobs ( image_id INTEGER.

page 139 . or transaction  Ability to retrieve LOB ³chunk size´ ± Allows programmer to tune READs and WRITEs  For all internal LOBs ± OPEN & CLOSE allow control over timing. call.New DBMS_LOB APIs in 8i  Support for temporary LOBs ± No logging or rollback faster! ± Lifespan: session. that can mean less I/O » Trigger will not fire until CLOSE » Indexes will not update until CLOSE ± ISOPEN 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Large Object .Summary  LOB support in Oracle is now significantly improved.. ± LOB locator behavior slightly abstruse ± Inability to modify BFILEs directly from within PL/SQL.page 140 . ± Complete support in PL/SQL (and other APIs) ± Much better performance and control than with LONGs ± Usable in object types HOT  Some weaknesses.. COLD 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

page 141 .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Leveraging Java Inside PL/SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

a BRIEF introduction to Java.. mid-tier..page 142 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . or server Not covered in this seminar  PL/SQL can call Java inside 8i server ± ± ± ± Command-line tools load Java classes DDL extensions publish Java classes Writing stored procedures.Overview of Java interoperability  Java inside or outside 8i server can call PL/SQL ± Standard JDBC and SQLJ calls with Oracle extensions ± Same Java on client.. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . triggers in Java Distinct Java & PL/SQL namespaces  But first. functions..

page 143 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . slickest piece of software ever designed by human beings? ± Just the latest in a series of "silver bullets" promoted by software vendors in order to prop up quarterly sales? ± The first and only successful O-O language? ± None of the above?  We don't really need to take a vote... fastest. ± We just need to keep a firm grip on common sense and stay focused on delivering solutions.Question 1: What is Java?  Could it be. ± The end of programming history as we know it? ± The easiest.

± Ubiquitous in thousands of production applications and millions of lines of code.Question 2: Will Java Replace PL/SQL?  While that scenario is certainly possible. ± A language in which hundreds of thousands of developers are trained.and very aggressively. PL/SQL will still be: ± Faster and more productive than Java for database operations. to boot. ± Supported and improved by Oracle -. it is very unlikely and totally unthinkable for years to come.page 144 .  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

 You don't have to know how to do everything with Java to get lots of value out of it. ± Well. you have to instantiate an object from that class... ± Before you can call a (non-static) class method.Some Important Things to Remember  Java is a case sensitive language. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 145 .  Everything is a class (or an object instantiated from a class)... ± Don't get overwhelmed by all the classes and all the strange quirks.. everything exception the primitive datatypes.. ± string is definitely not the same as String.

.PUT_LINE ('Hello world!'). CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE hello IS BEGIN DBMS_OUTPUT.println ("Hello world!"). END. except the "special" main method.. by the way: the PL/SQL version 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Building a Java Class  Let's start from the very beginning. ± Used to test or run stand-alone a class.out. public class Hello { public static void main (String[] args) { System. Oh. } }  No members.page 146 . no methods.

Compiling Classes  Before you can use a class. ± You must also either have set the CLASSPATH or include it in your javac call.class file. SET CLASSPATH = d:\Oracle\Ora81\jdbc\lib\classes111. ± This will convert the .page 147 .zip.7b\lib\classes.zip.java file to a .java -classpath d:\java 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . you must compile it with the javac command.d:\java D:> javac Hello.1. ± It will also automatically recompile any classes used by your class that has not been compiled since last change. e:\jdk1.

page 148 .Running a Class  Run a class? What does that mean? It means that if your class contains a method with this header: public static void main (String[] args)  then you can "run" the main method with the java command: d:\java> java Hello  You can also pass one or more arguments on the command line: d:\java> java Hello mom Hello2.java 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

you will use a class by instantiating objects from the class and then invoking class methods on the object.   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 149 . Usually. however. Let's build a performance analyzer class to explore these ideas.Using a Class  The main method is handy for providing a built-in test mechanism of your class.

} public long elapsed () { return (System.page 150 .Compare Performance of Methods  Use System.currentTimeMillis() . public void capture () { Gstart = System.currentTimeMillis().java InFile.Gstart).Gstart).java Tmr.l ("Elapsed time for " + context.java 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . } public void showElapsed () { p.l ("Elapsed time ". System.currentTimeMillis to calculate elapsed time to nearest thousandth of a second.currentTimeMillis() . class Tmr { private long Gstart = 0. elapsed()). } } p. } public void showElapsed (String context) { p.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . besides the "regular" kind we just saw..page 151 .  Interface class ± The class only contains unimplemented methods.Types of Classes  There are several different kinds of classes in Java. but at least one method remains unimplemented..  Abstract class ± The class can contain members and methods.  Inner class ± Classes that are defined inside other classes.

page 152 .  Polymorphism ± An object of a class can have "multiple" forms. ± Dynamic polymorphism: form is determined at run-time. either as its own class or as any superclass.And Now for Some Scary Buzzwords!  Inheritance ± Subclasses inherit methods and variables from extended superclasses. ± Static polymorphism: form is chosen at compile-time (PL/SQL overloading). supertype/"wider" Citizen Person Employee Hourly Worker Salaried Worker subtype/"narrower" War Criminal Person.java A Class Hierarchy Management NonManagement Corporation 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

page 153 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . if (myName. ± Can't do a direct == comparison. String myName. myName = "Feuerstein".Language Basics  Comments // Single line comment /* Block comment */ /** Documentation comment */  Primitive datatypes ± So I lied.equals(YourName)) foundFamily(). myName = "Steven". these are not objects instantiated from classes. if you assign a new value to it. boolean char byte short int long float double  Strings ± A String object is a read-only. you are actually allocating a new object.

indx++) System.Writing Loops in Java  Three kinds of loops: while.hasMoreElements ()) { processIt (enum. static void processAll (Enumeration enum) { while (enum. indx < args. Examples: for (indx indx=0. System.out. step) { lotsaStuff } while (expression) { lostsaStuff } do { lostsaStuff } while (expression). expression.out.NextElement()).page 154 . do-while and for ± Note: you need squiggly brackets only if there is more than one statement in the loop body.println ( (String)enum.length. for (initialize.println (args[indx]).nextElement()) } } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

± If a method has no arguments. } public String name () { return mname..page 155 . } } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± No default values for arguments. public PuterLingo (String name) { mname = name.println (Java. you still include the open and close parentheses. System. } } class LotsALingos { public static void main (String args[]) { PuterLingo Java = new PuterLingo("Java")..name()). you must supply a value for each parameter. ± Only positional notation is supported.out.Passing Parameters  Some important differences from PL/SQL. class PuterLingo { private String mname.

Throwing my own public static int numBytes (String filename) { exception try { if (filename.toString()).equals("")) throw new Exception ("Filename is NULL").println (e. "WHEN OTHERS" } in Java } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Put inside try clause File myFile = new File (filename). rather than raise and handle.page 156 .length(). } File-related catch (SecurityException e) { exceptions return -1. } catch (Exception e) { System. you "throw" and "catch" exceptions.out.Exception Handling in Java  Very similar to PL/SQL. return myFile.

Differences Between Java & PL/SQL  Exceptions are objects derived directly or indirectly from the Exception class.  You must inform users of your method of which exceptions may be thrown.. ± Use the throws clause in your specification. } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . NoSuchFile { . ± So you can pass them as arguments and do anything and everything else you can do with objects..page 157 . as in: public static int numBytes (String filename) throws SecurityException.

Java's Not So Tough!  You can learn enough Java in less than a week to: ± Build simple classes ± Leverage Java inside PL/SQL  Moving to the next level of expertise will be more of a challenge. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Object oriented development (Java) is very different from procedural coding (PL/SQL).page 158 .  Now let's explore how you can put Java to work for you inside PL/SQL programs.

using JDBC or SQLJ Oracle 8i server PL/SQL cover for Java method Java virtual machine running Java method Oracle Developer client (PL/SQL) Net8 OCI or Pro*C client VB or C++ via OO4O or ODBC 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Java Stored Procedures (JSPs) Java applet or app.page 159 .

page 160 .JSPs: Some sample uses PL/SQL extender ± For example. better file I/O ± RMI callouts. network communication in/out PL/SQL replacement ± More standard language ± Good performer for numeric processing tasks ± Beware database I/O & string manipulation performance Scaleable deployment of third party code ± Vertical application ± Web server ± XML parser/generator 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

rather than BEGIN. Publish PL/SQL cover using AS LANGUAGE JAVA. Create Java classes in your favorite IDE 2. Call from PL/SQL (or SQL) as if calling PL/SQL    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Creating JSP to call from PL/SQL   1...page 161 ..END 4.. Load into server using ³loadjava´ command-line tool 3. Grant privileges as desired 5.

System.java Advanced Techniques . }} 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Notes on Java classes  toString method automatically used by System.out. 5000000. public Corporation ( String Pname. long PceoComp) { name = Pname. } public String toString () { return name + " is a transnational entity with " + layoffs + " laid-off employees.Create Java class(es) class Corporation extends Person { long layoffs.println (TheGlobalMonster). paying its" + " Chief Executive Officer " + CEOCompensation.page 162 PL/SQL . Entry points must be public static in most cases Classes may call other classes Avoid GUI calls     person. } public static void main (String[] args) { // A very scary company Corporation TheGlobalMonster = new Corporation ( "Northrup-Ford-Mattel-Yahoo-ATT".println main method is used to test the class. long Playoffs. 50000000). long CEOCompensation.out. layoffs = Playoffs. CEOCompensation = PceoComp.

page 163 .class options (abbreviated) -oci8 -resolve loadjava will connect using OCI driver Resolves external class references at compile time -resolver (shown later) Search path like CLASSPATH 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .class file .java file Java resource file .jar file Oracle 8i server Java class Java source Java resource loadjava Example: loadjava loadjava -user scott/tiger -oci8 -resolve datacraft/bill/Hello.Upload using ³loadjava´ utility .

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .. .lang..Hello. /  Syntax (simplified) CREATE [ OR REPLACE PROCE URE FUNCTION <name> <sqlt pe> ] [ [ <ar s> ) ] [ AUTHID { DEFINER | CURRENT_USER } ] AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME '<met fullname> (<Ja a t pe fullname>.String'.) [ return <Ja a t pe fullname> ]'.bill.Emp(int) return java.Publish  Example (top-level call spec) CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION hello_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2 AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.page 164 .

 Method 2: Use 8i SQL CALL statement. PRINT :thename ± CALL avoids overhead of SELECT fn FROM DUAL jsp.Call the wrapped method  Method 1: Call as if PL/SQL module BEGIN DBMS_OUTPUT.page 165 . END. from SQL*Plus: VARIABLE thename VARCHAR2(12) CALL hello_emp(7499) INTO :thename.PUT_LINE(hello_emp(7499)).sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . for example.

Publishing -.REF oracle.sql.page 166 .BigDecimal oracle.STRUCT <named type> oracle.Timestamp java.math.sql.sql.String java.more concepts Shape mapping ± Java methods declared ³void´ become PL/SQL procedures ± Signature mismatches detected only at runtime Type mapping (typical) VARCHAR2 DATE NUMBER user-defined object type user-defined object type object REFerence user-defined collection type java.ARRAY 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .lang.sql.

page 167 .util..Publish in PL/SQL Package Spec  Designate Java module in PL/SQL package spec.Emp(int) return java.String'. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE hello_pkg AS FUNCTION hi_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2 AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft. END.lang..Hello. / (No package body required in this case) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Publish as module in package body  .or in package body CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE hello_pkg2 AS FUNCTION hi_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2.lang. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Emp(int) return java. / CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY hello_pkg2 AS FUNCTION hi_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2 IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.page 168 .. END.. END.String'.util.Hello.

util. END. / or in the body: CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE foo_t AS OBJECT ( bar VARCHAR2(30). MEMBER FUNCTION hello_emp RETURN VARCHAR2).String'.Hello. MEMBER FUNCTION hello_emp RETURN VARCHAR2 IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.Publish as object type method  Either in spec: CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE foo_t AS OBJECT ( bar VARCHAR2(30).lang.Hello.lang.Emp(int) return java. / CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE BODY foo_t AS MEMBER FUNCTION hello_emp RETURN VARCHAR2 IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .String').page 169 .util.Emp(int) return java.

JAVADEBUGPRIV ± You can also grant specific privileges. DROP JAVA: drops a named Java library unit Several roles available for Java operations: ± JAVAUSERPRIV. JAVAIDPRIV. resolves Java class references.page 170 .   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . or resource ± Can read file designated with BFILE() function  ALTER JAVA: compiles Java source. class. JAVA_ADMIN.New DDL Statements and Roles  CREATE JAVA ± Alternative to ³loadjava´ utility ± Creates or replaces an Oracle ³library unit´ from Java source. JAVASYSPRIV (needed for file IO operations).

Passing Oracle8 objects Oracle8i server Object in O-R table Java application Java object   Harder than you¶d think Three different interfacing techniques ± oracle.jdbc2.SQLData 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .sql.page 171 .STRUCT ± oracle.sql.CustomDatum ± oracle.

page 172 .JPublisher utility Database server Definition of type or REF in data dictionary User-supplied JPublisher input file What does it do? ± Generates Java that encapsulates type and REF types of mapping supported for methods JPublisher ± ³Oracle mapping´ ± ³JDBC mapping´ ± ³Object JDBC mapping´ Three Generated Java file(s) for use in Java programs 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

they become available to use in mapping Example of passing an Account_t object: CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE account_save (new_acct IN Account_t) IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.Passing object using JPub-generated Java  After generating and uploading classes with JPub.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 173 .Account_t)'.save (datacraft.bill.AccountRuntime. /  jspobj.bill.

Example: Improving File I/O  You can read/write files in PL/SQL with UTL_FILE. Java offers many file-related classes with much greater capabilities.page 174 . Let's see how we can make that great Java stuff available from within PL/SQL. but that package is very limited.   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Encapsulate Java Classes  You won't generally access native Java methods in your PL/SQL wrapper.  Let's start with something simple. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± This is not available through UTL_FILE (though you can get it through DBMS_LOB)..page 175 .. ± The File class offers a length method that returns the number of bytes in a file. ± Instead build a static method that instantiates a Java object from the class and then invokes the relevant method against that object.

length(). public class JFile2 { public static long length (String fileName) { File myFile = new File (fileName). ± Call the method of choice against that object and return the value. } } JFile2.page 176 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .My Own Java Class for File Manipulation  Accept the name of a file and return its length. import java.File. ± Instantiate a File object for the specified name.io. return myFile.java  Take each of these steps: ± Import the File class to resolve reference.

CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE xfile IS FUNCTION length (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN NUMBER. END. END.String) return long'. ± I translate the Java long to a PL/SQL NUMBER. / CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY xfile IS FUNCTION length (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN NUMBER AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'JFile. / xfile2.Build a Package over Java Method  Let's put it in a package. we will certainly want to add more functionality over time.lang.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .length (java.page 177 .

± 3. you will need to take these steps: ± 1. so you'd expect smooth sailing.page 178 . ± 2. Not so! To pass a Boolean back from Java to PL/SQL.  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Write a "public" PL/SQL wrapper function to convert that number to a true PL/SQL Boolean. Write a "hidden" PL/SQL wrapper function that returns the string or number.Mapping the Boolean Datatype  Both Java and PL/SQL support a native Boolean datatype. Convert the Java boolean to a String or number and return that value.

not a Boolean class. else return 0.Translate Boolean to Number  Accept the name of a file and return its length.page 179 . ± And don't forget: this is a boolean primitive. public class JFile3 { public static int canRead (String fileName) { File myFile = new File (fileName).File. } } JFile3. boolean retval = myFile.canRead(). import java.java  Translate TRUE to 1 and FALSE to 0. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .io. if (retval) return 1.

CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE xfile IS FUNCTION canRead (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN BOOLEAN. ± Avoid the hard-codings with named constants.page 180 ..pkg END. / CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY xfile IS FUNCTION IcanRead (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN NUMBER AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'JFile3.Wrapper for Pseudo-Boolean function  Simple translation back to PL/SQL Boolean. JFile.lang.canRead (java. FUNCTION canRead (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN BOOLEAN AS BEGIN xfile3.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . JFile4.. END.pkg RETURN IcanRead (file) = 1.String) return int'.java / xfile.java END. xfile4.

SQLException { // Get the attributes of the labor_source object.java passobj. BigDecimal hourly_rate = (BigDecimal)(attribs[1]).sql. // Access individual attributes by array index.Passing Objects to Java with STRUCT  You can pass Oracle object information to Java without relying on JPub by using the STRUCT class.out.println ( "Pay " + laborType + " $" + hourly_rate + " per hour"). // starting with 0 String laborType = (String)(attribs[0]).getAttributes(). throws java.tst PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . System. } } Extract individual attribute values from the array. public class UnionBuster { Obtain attributes of public static void wageStrategy (STRUCT e) the Oracle object. Object[] attribs = e. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein UnionBuster.page 181 .

END. bust_em_with ( labor_source ('Prisoners'. hourly_rate NUMBER). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Fully specify the STRUCT class in parameter list. / CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE bust_em_with ( labor_source_in IN labor_source_t) AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'UnionBuster. The Oracle object type definition CREATE TYPE labor_source_t AS OBJECT ( labor_type VARCHAR2(30). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .STRUCT)'. 0)).sql. / BEGIN bust_em_with ( labor_source ('Workfare'.wageStrategy (oracle.Wrapping a STRUCT-based Method  You can pass Oracle object information to Java without relying on JPub by using the STRUCT class.page 182 . '5')).

you can redirect the output to the DBMS_OUTPUT buffer.out.java HelloAll.PUT_LINE: System.page 183 .println.sql file: SET SERVEROUTPUT ON SIZE 1000000 CALL DBMS_JAVA.println ( "Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello All!"). ± Here is a good nucleus for a login. i < count. }}}  When called within a PL/SQL wrapper. ± Call it within methods and output will display in your Java environment.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .SET_OUTPUT (1000000). HelloAll.Viewing Output from Java Methods  Java provides a "print line" method similar to DBMS_OUTPUT. public class HelloAll { public static void lotsaText ( int count) { for (int i = 0. i++) { System.out.

getErrorCode() and getMessage() to obtain information about the error thrown. but more robust error handling mechanism than PL/SQL. ± Exceptions are objects instantiated from the Exception class or a subclass of it.page 184 .1.  Any error not caught by the JVM (Java virtual machine) will be thrown back to the PL/SQL block or SQL statement. ± Use two methods. such as java.sql. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± And also spew out the entire Java error stack! (at least through 8. you "throw" and "catch".SQLException.Error Handling with Java-PL/SQL  Java offers a very similar. ± Instead of raising and handling.5).

Trapping and Identifying Errors  Currently.page 185 .jdbc.PUT_LINE (SQLERRM).KprbDBAccess.java) at oracle.java:14) DropAny.doExecuteWithTimeout(OracleStatement. 'blip'). DBMS_OUTPUT.driver.tst ORA-00942: table or view does not exist 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .OracleStatement. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN DBMS_OUTPUT. the entire Java stack is displayed on your screen.OracleStatement.driver.jdbc.OracleStatement.java) at oracle.OracleStatement.driver. END.tst ORA-29532: Java call terminated by uncaught Java exception: java.driver.doExecute(OracleStatement.OracleStatement.sql.KprbDBAccess.kprb. and you have to do some digging to extract the Oracle error information.SQLException: getErrInfo.java) at oracle.jdbc.executeUpdate(OracleStatement.jdbc.jdbc.jdbc.driver.java) at DropAny.sql.kprb.java -29532 dropany.jdbc.java) at oracle.java) at oracle. / SQL> 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 java.SQLException: ORA-00942: table or view does not exist at oracle.doExecuteOther(OracleStatement.parseExecuteFetch(KprbDBAccess.check_error(KprbDBAccess. BEGIN dropany ('TABLE'.doExecuteWithBatch(OracleStatement.PUT_LINE (SQLCODE).sp dropany2.object(DropAny.java) at oracle.

or method. procedure.page 186 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  An Oracle8 feature that allowed relatively "native" callouts to C from PL/SQL for the first time.Achieving PL/SQL Excellence External Procedures  An external procedure is a 3GL routine that can serve as the ³body´ of a PL/SQL function. ± Must be a shared object library on Unix or a dynamically linked library (DLL) on Windows.

DLL or .so file extproc returns results returns results 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 187 .Process & data flow Application Makes request Net8 External Procedure Listener spawns External Shared Library Calls PL/SQL Runtime Engine PL/SQL body Client or server-side application returns results calls routine from Routine in .

sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .External procedures: Sample uses      Send email Invoke operating system command Invoke custom or legacy application Call C runtime library function Perform admin tasks email.sql diskspace.page 188 .

page 189 . this function returns: » » » » » sectors per cluster bytes per sector number of free clusters total number of clusters ³return code´ indicating success or failure  First.dll'.dll ± For given drive letter. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . create an Oracle8 ³library´: CREATE OR REPLACE LIBRARY nt_kernel AS 'c:\winnt\system32\kernel32.Determine free disk space on NT (1/4)  Use pre-existing routine: ± GetDiskFreeSpaceA in kernel32.

Package spec (2/4)  Nothing unexpected here: CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE disk_util AS FUNCTION get_disk_free_space (root_path IN VARCHAR2. total_number_of_clusters OUT PLS_INTEGER) RETURN PLS_INTEGER. bytes_per_sector OUT PLS_INTEGER. sectors_per_cluster OUT PLS_INTEGER. number_of_free_clusters OUT PLS_INTEGER. END disk_util.page 190 . / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

END disk_util. number_of_free_clusters OUT pls_integer. sectors_per_cluster OUT PLS_INTEGER.page 191  All the magic is in the EXTERNAL section 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .Package body in Oracle 8. number_of_free_clusters BY REFERENCE LONG. total_number_of_clusters BY REFERENCE LONG. RETURN LONG). bytes_per_sector OUT PLS_INTEGER.0 (3/4) CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY disk_util AS FUNCTION get_disk_free_space (root_path IN VARCHAR2. total_number_of_clusters OUT PLS_INTEGER) RETURN PLS_INTEGER IS EXTERNAL LIBRARY nt_kernel NAME "GetDiskFreeSpaceA" LANGUAGE C CALLING STANDARD PASCAL PARAMETERS (root_path STRING. sectors_per_cluster BY REFERENCE LONG. bytes_per_sector BY REFERENCE LONG. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Usage (4/4)
DECLARE lroot_path VARCHAR2(3) := 'C:\'; lsectors_per_cluster PLS_INTEGER; lbytes_per_sector PLS_INTEGER; lnumber_of_free_clusters PLS_INTEGER; ltotal_number_of_clusters PLS_INTEGER; return_code PLS_INTEGER; free_meg REAL; BEGIN return_code := disk_util.get_disk_free_space (lroot_path, lsectors_per_cluster, lbytes_per_sector, lnumber_of_free_clusters, ltotal_number_of_clusters); free_meg := lsectors_per_cluster * lbytes_per_sector * lnumber_of_free_clusters / 1024 / 1024; DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('free disk space, Mb = ' || free_meg); diskspace.sql END;
1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein
PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 192

Creating your own external procedure 

1. Identify or create shared library 2. Identify or CREATE LIBRARY within Oracle 3. Map the parameters using:
± EXTERNAL clause (Oracle8) or ± LANGUAGE clause (Oracle8i)  

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 193

1. Identify/create external routine 


Prerequisite: O/S must support shared libraries Some useful routines are pre-built in C runtime library
± On Unix: /lib/libc.so ± On NT: <systemroot>\system32\crtdll.dll 

Building a shared library of your own requires knowledge of:
± Appropriate language (typically C) ± Compiler & linker

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 194

2. Create the Oracle library 

Syntax:
CREATE OR REPLACE LIBRARY <library name> AS '<full path to file>'; 

Assigns a programmer-defined alias to a specific shared library file Notes
± Requires CREATE LIBRARY pri ilege ± Does not alidate directory ± Can¶t use symbolic link 

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 195

3. Map the parameters
This can get complicated, because«
± Must pass extra parameters to designate:
» NULL/NOT NULL state » String length » Maximum allocated length

± Six choices of parameter mode
» » » » » » IN RETURN IN BY REFERENCE RETURN BY REFERENCE OUT IN OUT

These details are better suited for close reading«
PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 196

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

page 197 .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Oracle8i New Features Autonomous Transactions Invoker Rights Model Row Level Security 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

   Autonomous Transactions The Invoker Rights Model Row level security 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± And the learning curve to take advantage of these features is generally not too steep.Oracle8i New Features  Oracle8i offers a number of PL/SQL-specific features that give you tremendous additional flexibility and capability.page 198 .

msg IN VARCHAR2) AS PRAGMA AUTONOMOUS_TRANSACTION. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE loginfo ( code IN PLS_INTEGER. ± There was only one transaction allowed per connection. ± Any changes made within that block can be saved or reversed without affecting the outer or main transaction.Autonomous Transactions  Prior to Oracle8i. a COMMIT or ROLLBACK in any program in your session committed or rolled back all changes in your session. you can now define a PL/SQL block to execute as an "autonomous transaction". 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 199 .  With Oracle8i.

When to Use Autonomous Transactions  Reusable Application Components ± ATs are more or less required in the new distributed application architecture of the Internet. ± One component should not have any impact (esp.  Logging Mechanism ± Commonly developers lot to database tables.  Call functions within SQL that change the database. etc. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 200 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . ± Now you can avoid the complexities (need for ROLLBACK TO savepoints and so on). software usage meter.  Tracing Code Usage ± Build retry mechanisms. which can cause all sorts of complications: your log entry becomes a part of your transaction. something like a COMMIT) on other components.

rec. let's add some session information. text_in IN VARCHAR2 ) IS PRAGMA AUTONOMOUS_TRANSACTION. text_in. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN ROLLBACK. USER.page 201 . SYSDATE.tst PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Avoid interdependencies with the main transaction. BEGIN INSERT INTO logtab VALUES (code_in.tst retry. COMMIT. SYSDATE.program ).pkg retry. rec. While we're at it.Logging with ATs  Don't forget that ROLLBACK in the exception section! CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY log IS PROCEDURE putline ( code_in IN INTEGER. END.sp log81. END. logger.pkg log81*. USER.machine.

sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . or an error is raised.page 202 .sql auton_in_sql. ± You cannot tell by looking at the package spec if you are calling ATs or not -and this info is not available in the data dictionary.Tips and Gotchas with ATs  An AT program must COMMIT or ROLLBACK before terminating. autonserial.sql autontrigger*. ± You can use the SET TRANSACTION ISOLATION LEVEL SERIALIZABLE to indicate that you do not want the changes visible until the outer transaction commits. ± You cannot define a nested anonymous block to be an AT. ± You cannot define an entire package as an AT.   The AT PRAGMA goes in the body of packages.  Any changes committed in an AT are visible in the outer transaction. ± Place the SET TRANSACTION statement in the outer transaction. The AT PRAGMA can be used only with individual programs and toplevel anonymous blocks.

page 203 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . ± This is called the « Invoker Rights Model PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± This is called the « Definer Rights Model  With Oracle8i. whenever you executed a stored program. it ran under the privileges of the account in which the program was defined.The Invoker Rights Model  Prior to Oracle8i. you can now decide at compilation time whether your program or package will execute in the definer's schema (the default) or the schema of the invoker of the code.

page 204 . Note: Oracle built-in packages have long had the capability of running under the invoker's authority. OE Code Order_Mgt Place Cancel Sam_Sales Close Old Orders  OE Data X  Orders Cannot alter table directly.About Definer Rights  Allows you to centralize access to and control of underlying data structures. But it can be a source of confusion and architectural problems. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Ignores roles and relies on directly-granted privileges.

page 205 . requiring copy of stored module  Security ± No declarative way to restrict privileges on certain modules in a package -. each user has own copy of table(s).. unless you write code in the package to essentially recreate roles programmatically.Problems with Definer Rights  Deployment & maintenance ± Must install module in all remote databases where needed ± In some databases.. ± Can bypass 8i¶s ³fine-grained´ access features (see the DBMS_RLS package) ± Difficult to audit privileges  Sure would be nice to have a choice.and now you do! 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .it's all or nothing.

.. and must be at the package level. the objects referenced may well be different from those against which it compiled. AUTHID goes only in spec. "dummy" objects. Synonyms may be necessary if modules use object names not qualified by schema.page 206 .Oracle8i Invoker Rights Syntax  For top level modules: CREATE [ OR REPLACE ] <module type> [ AUTHID { DEFINER | CURRENT_USER } ] AS . ± In other words.  For modules with separate spec and body.  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± At run-time. do what it takes to get the code to compile. You could also create local.

FROM accounts WHERE.acct_mgr. Central Code schema PACKAGE acct_mgr make AUTHID CURRENT_USER User/Data schema PROCEDURE mng_account IS BEGIN . modify destroy .. END.... code. yet have all references to data structures "reflect back" into your own schema. accounts table 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ....destroy(."Reflection" Capability of Invoker Rights  With invoker rights.. you can execute code owned by another schema.page 207 .).

oneversion. Note: cannot use with wrapped code.sql handy. the definer rights model is always applied to resolve the reference. only data ± When your stored code references another stored code element. taking advantage of the invoker rights model whenever possible? ± A creative use of SQL*Plus substitution variables comes in very invdefinv.  Once a definer rights program is called. ± AUTHID CURRENT_USER is ignored. all other calls in stack are resolved according to definer rights.Tips and Gotchas for Invoker Rights  Does not apply to code objects. ± Both static and dynamic SQL is supported.page 208 .  Information about the rights model is not available in the data dictionary What if you want to maintain a single version of your code for both pre-Oracle8i and Oracle8i installations.sql  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 209 . ± Share a program that uses dynamic SQL (whether DBMS_SQL or the new native implementation) and you end up taking the most unexpected DDL and DML detours. but you want their own directly-granted privileges to determine access.When to Invoke Invoker Rights  You want to reuse the same code among many users.sql whichsch*. National HQ Check City Statistics New York Schema stolenlives Chicago Schema stolenlives  Especially handy with dynamic SQL. authid.

Combining Invoker & Definer Rights  Rely on invoker rights to allow centralized code to work with schema-specific data.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 210 . HQ Chicago Check City Statistics  New York stolenlives Analyze Pattern stolenlives perpetrators perp. Rely on definer rights to access centralized data from any schema.

Row Level Security DBMS_RLS Row-Level Security 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 211 .

page 212   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . Row Level Security  The establishment of security policies on (restricted access to) individual rows of a table. you could achieve this only partially through the use of views. with which to implement automated row-level security (also referred to as "fine grained access control"). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Prior to Oracle8i.Row-Level Security with DBMS_RLS  Oracle8i offers a new package. DBMS_RLS. The DBMS_RLS package (along with "system contexts") now allow you to do so in a foolproof manner.

page 213 .Components Needed for RLS  System Contexts ± A new feature in Oracle8i.  Security Policy Packages ± You will need to write a package containing functions that establish the security policies to be applied to a particular table. the system context is a named set of attributevalue pairs global to your session.  Database Logon Triggers ± I want to make sure that when a person logs in. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Let's step through a simple example to see how all these pieces tie together.  DBMS_RLS ± Use programs in DBMS_RLS to associate your security policies with tables. their context information is set properly.

highly secure database for NHCS. ± Regulators can only see patients who reside in the same state. The main tables are patient. popular uprising in the United States has forced the establishment of a national healthcare system.page 214 . all pregnant women receive excellent prenatal care. no more private insurance companies soaking up 30 cents on the dollar.A National Health Care System  The year is 2010. clinic and regulator. Here are some rules: ± Doctors can only see patients who are assigned to their clinic.sql  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  We need a top-notch. No more for-profit hospitals pulling billions of dollars out of the system. ± Patients can only see information about themselves. fgac. doctor. all children are vaccinated. ± A massive.

sets the context accordingly. and create a procedure that will set the context attributes (type and ID) upon login. PROCEDURE set_context IS This is a simplification. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . doc_rec doc_cur%ROWTYPE. FETCH doc_cur INTO doc_rec. END.sql for logic that identifies SELECT doctor_id FROM doctor different types of people and WHERE schema_name = USER.SET_CONTEXT ( 'patient_restriction'. CREATE CONTEXT patient_restriction USING nhc_pkg. c_person_id_attr. DBMS_SESSION.page 215 . DBMS_SESSION.SET_CONTEXT ( 'patient_restriction'. BEGIN OPEN doc_cur. 'DOCTOR').doctor_id). c_person_type_attr. See CURSOR doc_cur IS fgac.Set the Context  Define a context in the database. doc_rec.

FUNCTION person_predicate ( schema_in VARCHAR2.page 216 . connection. BEGIN IF l_context = 'DOCTOR' THEN retval := 'home_clinic_id IN (SELECT home_clinic_id FROM doctor We need a different string WHERE doctor_id = SYS_CONTEXT (''' || to modify the WHERE c_context || '''. information for this retval VARCHAR2(2000). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Define the Predicate  A predicate is a string that will be appended to the WHERE clause of the table to which this security policy is associated (see next page). person. c_person_type_attr). ''' || clause for each type of c_person_id_attr || '''))'. name_in VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2 IS l_context VARCHAR2(100) := Extract the context SYS_CONTEXT (c_context.

PATIENT table will be modified by the string returned by the person_predicate function of the SCOTT.ADD_POLICY OBJECT_SCHEMA OBJECT_NAME POLICY_NAME FUNCTION_SCHEMA POLICY_FUNCTION STATEMENT_TYPES END. ± The following procedure call specifies that the WHERE clause of any query. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .DELETE'). ( => => => => => => 'SCOTT'. 'nhc_pkg.ADD_POLICY procedure. update or delete against the SCOTT. 'patient_privacy'.page 217 . 'patient'. BEGIN DBMS_RLS.Create the Security Policy  Use the DBMS_RLS.nhc_pkg package. 'SCOTT'.person_predicate'. 'SELECT.UPDATE.

END. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN DBMS_OUTPUT. CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER set_id_on_logon AFTER LOGON ON DATABASE BEGIN nhc_pkg.sql Exception handling in trigger is critical! If you allow an exception to go unhandled. we guarantee that the context is set (and the predicate applied) no matter which product is the entry point to Oracle. fgac. logon is disabled.set_context.page 218 .PUT_LINE ( 'Error ' || SQLCODE || ' setting context for ' || USER').Create Logon Trigger. Setting Context  By setting the context in the logon trigger. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

IL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Patient sees only himself. Context Information for "SWALLACE": Type: DOCTOR Doctor sees only her ID: 1060 patients.Veva Silva .IL VSILVA .IL Context Information for "CSILVA": Type: PATIENT ID: Predicate: schema_name = 'CSILVA' Patients Visible to "CSILVA": CSILVA .Queries Transparently Filtered  What you see is determined automatically by who you are. Predicate: home_clinic_id IN (SELECT home_clinic_id FROM doctor WHERE doctor_id = SYS_CONTEXT ('patient_restriction'.page 219 . 'person_id')) Patients Visible to "SWALLACE": CSILVA . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Chris Silva .Chris Silva .

. and you use only what you know.page 220 . Jump out of your rut . May.and play a new tune with PL/SQL! 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ... March. April..Take Full Advantage of PL/SQL! January.. It's so easy to fall into a rut with a programming language...  ± You learn what you need to get the job done. February....

Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Appendices (a.k.a.. If time permits«)     UTL_FILE ± file IO DBMS_JOB ± Job scheduling DBMS_PIPE ± Pipe-based communication DBMS_UTILITY ± the kitchen sink package 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 221 .

Physical Files 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Built-in Packages: UTL_FILE UTL_FILE Server-side File I/O Application FOPEN GET_LINE PUT_LINE ...page 222 .

. random access to contents). no use of environmental variables).. delete. when it jumps to 32K.   But you can read lines from a file and write lines to a file. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .0. copy. ± Limitations on files you can access (no mapped files. ± No higher-level file operations supported (change privileges. ± Maximum of 1023 bytes per line (read or write) until Oracle 8.UTL_FILE: Server-side I/O  Allows you to read from and write to operating system files on the database server. A "version 1" (fairly primitive) utility.5.page 223 .

UTL_FILE Module Outline FCLOSE FCLOSE_ALL FFLUSH FOPEN GET_LINE IS_OPEN NEW_LINE PUT PUT_LINE PUTF Close the specified file Close all open files in your session Flush all data from the UTL_FILE buffer to your file Open a file Get the next line from a file Returns TRUE if the file is open (sort of) Insert a new line character in file at the end of current line Puts text into the UTL_FILE buffer Puts text and new line character into UTL_FILE buffer. Puts formatted text into the buffer PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 224 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .

± Use a separate entry for each directory (and subdirectory.  Follow these rules to avoid many headaches. there is no subdirectory recursion). ± You do this by adding lines to the instance parameter file. utl_file_dir = /tmp utl_file_dir = /accounts/newdev  And don't do either of the following: utl_file_dir = . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .page 225 Allows read & write for current directory.Authorizing Directory Access  Oracle requires you to list explicitly those directories you wish to be able to read/write with UTL_FILE. utl_file_dir = * Allows read & write for any directory. no trailing delimiter. ± No single or double quotes around directory.

/ utlfile.FILE_TYPE. restart your database. UTL_FILE.FCLOSE (fid). BEGIN /* Change the directory name to one to which you at least || THINK you have read/write access. 'hello').PUT_LINE (fid.FOPEN ('c:\temp'. END. So before you write anything fancy.txt'. 'W'). UTL_FILE. modify your initialization file. */ fid := UTL_FILE. and then run the following test script (it can't get much simpler than this): DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.page 226 . 'test.Test UTL_FILE Access  About the hardest part to working with UTL_FILE is simply getting started.tst  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

'test. 'W'). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± In actuality. 'W' for Write and 'A' for Append.   Maximum of 10 files may be opened in each user session.  The FOPEN function returns a record ("file handle") based on the UTL_FILE. END. this function simply returns TRUE if the file handle's id field is NOT NULL. ± Types are 'R' for Read.FOPEN ('c:\temp'.FILE_TYPE.FILE_TYPE.txt'.. name and operation type.  Specify file location.page 227 .. BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE. Not much of a test. Test to see if file is open with the IS_OPEN function. ± Currently contains a single ID field.Opening a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.

'R').FILE_TYPE.page 228 . BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE.  The NO_DATA_FOUND exception is raised if you read past the end of the file.0.GET_LINE (fid.txt'. UTL_FILE.FCLOSE (fid).FOPEN ('c:\temp'. END. the ceiling is raised to 32K.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± You might want to build your own GET_LINE which handles the exception and returns an EOF Boolean status flag.   Can only read from a file opened with the "R" mode. myline).5 and above. getnext. ± In Oracle8 Release 8. UTL_FILE. Lines in the file cannot be longer than 1023 bytes in length.Reading from a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE. 'test.

UTL_FILE.PUT (fid. 'is so much fun'). ± PUTF is like the C printf program. 'UTL_FILE').PUT_LINE (fid. END. '&1'). UTL_FILE is so much fun that I never want to stop Resulting Text  You can use PUT. allowing for some formatting. BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . UTL_FILE. ' that I never\nwant to %s'.PUTF (fid. 'W').Writing to a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE. UTL_FILE.txt'.page 229 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .FILE_TYPE. PUT_LINE or PUTF.FCLOSE (fid). UTL_FILE.FOPEN ('c:\temp'.  Call FFLUSH to make sure that everything you have written to the buffer is flushed out to the file. ± The file buffers are automatically flushed when you close a file or exit your session. 'test.

BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE.FCLOSE (fid). 'test. You should close files in exception handlers to make sure that files are not left "hanging" open. EXCEPTION WHEN UTL_FILE.  If you do not close the file.FCLOSE (fid). UTL_FILE. 'R').page 230   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . myline). UTL_FILE. you will not see the data you have (supposedly) written to that file.FILE_TYPE.FOPEN ('c:\temp'.GET_LINE (fid.Closing a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE. END.READ_ERROR THEN UTL_FILE. You can close a single file with FCLOSE or all open files with FCLOSE_ALL. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .txt'.

± UTL_FILE-named exceptions in other cases. EXCEPTION.  UTL_FILE relies on a combination of user-defined exceptions and STANDARD exceptions to communicate errors. ± They all share a common SQLCODE of 1. EXCEPTION.Error Handling in UTL_FILE PACKAGE UTL_FILE IS invalid_path invalid_mode invalid_filehandle invalid_operation read_error write_error internal_error END.page 231 . EXCEPTION.  You have to take special care to trap and handle the named exceptions. EXCEPTION. ± NO_DATA_FOUND when you try to read past the end of the file. EXCEPTION. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . EXCEPTION. EXCEPTION.

END.READ_ERROR THEN recNgo (PLVfile. translating the generic user-defined exception into an understandable message.sql  Trap locally by name.INVALID_MODE THEN recNgo (PLVfile.INVALID_FILEHANDLE THEN recNgo (PLVfile. WHEN UTL_FILE. WHEN UTL_FILE. RAISE. record the error.page 232  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . WHEN UTL_FILE. WHEN UTL_FILE. RAISE. RAISE.INTERNAL_ERROR THEN recNgo (PLVfile. Re-raise exception if you want it to propagate from that block.c_invalid_path). utlflexc.INVALID_OPERATION THEN recNgo (PLVfile. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . WHEN UTL_FILE.c_invalid_mode).WRITE_ERROR THEN recNgo (PLVfile.c_invalid_filehandle). RAISE. RAISE.Recommended Exception Section EXCEPTION WHEN UTL_FILE.c_invalid_operation).c_write_error). RAISE.c_read_error).INVALID_PATH THEN recNgo (PLVfile. WHEN UTL_FILE.c_internal_error). RAISE.

Background Process DBA_JOBS Oracle Job Queue Subsystem 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Built-in Packages: DBMS_JOB DBMS_JOB Scheduled Execution of Stored Procedures Application SUBMIT RUN REMOVE ...page 233 .

1.2. which in turn offers job scheduling capabilities within the Oracle Server.page 234 . but only ³publicly available´ and supported in PL/SQL Release 2. Made its debut in PL/SQL Release 2. ± ± ± ±    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Schedule regular maintenance on instances.Overview of DBMS_JOB  DBMS_JOB provides an API to the Oracle job queues. You can use DBMS_JOB to: Replicate data between different database instances. Built by Oracle to support snapshots and replication. Create a listener program to poll the contents of a pipe and take action. ± Spawn background processes to avoid blocking client process. Schedule large batch jobs to run on "off hours".

Removes the job from the queue. Changes the job string of a job. Broken jobs will not run as scheduled. Changes one or all attributes of a job. Changes when a queued job will run. Submits a job to the queue returning a unique job number. Forces immediate execution of the specified job number. Changes the interval between executions of a job.page 235 CHANGE INTERVAL ISUBMIT NEXT_DATE REMOVE RUN SUBMIT USER_EXPORT WHAT 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .DBMS_JOB Module Outline BROKEN Marks the job as either FIXED or BROKEN. Returns the job string for a job number. Submits a job to the queue using a predefined job number.

'. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  When you submit a job.page 236 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . 'SYSDATE + 1'). ± In the above example. while the interval is a string (this is dynamic PL/SQL!)  You can also call DBMS_JOB.  A job is a call to a stored procedure or an anonymous block ± It must end with a semi-colon and can contain ³hard-coded´ arguments. I run calculate_totals immediately and then on a daily basis thereafter. END.ISUBMIT and supply the job number. SYSDATE. instead of having DBMS_JOB generate one for you. BEGIN DBMS_JOB. 'calculate_totals. and then the job¶s execution interval (frequency of execution).Submitting a Job DECLARE job# BINARY_INTEGER. you specify the date on which it should next execute.SUBMIT (job#. Notice that the start time is a DATE expression.

to analyze a specific table every evening at midnight. next_date => TRUNC (SYSDATE + 1).''TENK''' || '.''LOAD1''.''ESTIMATE''.estimate_percent=>50). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END.ANALYZE_OBJECT. what => 'DBMS_DDL. p.null.page 237 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . DBMS_DDL.Submit Job Example DECLARE v_jobno INTEGER.ANALYZE_OBJECT ' || '(''TABLE''. BEGIN DBMS_JOB. /  This block submits a job that uses a built-in procedure.l (v_jobno).'.submit ( job => v_jobno. interval => 'TRUNC(SYSDATE+1)' ).

next_date => SYSDATE + 1/24 .DBMS_JOB. runs it in one hour and executes every day thereafter. END.interval => 'SYSDATE +1'). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .' .ISUBMIT(3. ± Job 2 passes a date into procedure MY_JOB2.SYSDATE+1.ISubmit Job Example BEGIN DBMS_JOB.page 238 .null). executes immediately.'. ± Job 3 is a PL/SQL block which does nothing.' .'BEGIN null. /  This block submits three jobs to the job queue.'SYSDATE+10/1440').120).2. and 3. ± Job 1 passes a string and number into procedure MY_JOB1. END.SYSDATE.ISUBMIT (job => 1 . 'my_job2(date_IN=>SYSDATE). executes for the first time tomorrow and every 10 minutes thereafter. DBMS_JOB. numbered 1. and will be removed from the queue automatically.ISUBMIT (2. DBMS_JOB.what => 'my_job1(''string_parm_value''.

''FRIDAY''))) + 18/24' PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ''SATURDAY'') 2/24' 'NEXT_DAY ( ADD_MONTHS (TRUNC (SYSDATE.page 239 + 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . ''Q''). you must use 2 single quotes to embed strings. ''MONDAY''). ''MONDAY'') + 9/24' 'TRUNC (LEAST ( NEXT_DAY (SYSDATE. NEXT_DAY (SYSDATE. ± Use date arithmetic to request intervals smaller than a day. NEXT_DAY (SYSDATE. Every hour Every Sunday at 2 AM First Monday of each quarter. Wednesday and Friday at 6 PM 'SYSDATE + 1/24' 'NEXT_DAY (TRUNC (SYSDATE). at 9 AM Every Monday. ''WEDNESDAY''). ± Since it's a string. 3).Specifying Job Times & Frequencies  Probably the most complicated part of using DBMS_JOB is to get the string expression of the job interval right.

job). retaining current job number.Other Job Queue Operations  Remove a job from the queue. Remove all jobs for current schema. ± Uses DBMS_JOB.page 240 .RUN (my_job#). DBMS_JOB.REMOVE (rec. ± Performs an implicit COMMIT in current session.  Export jobs from the queue.  Run a job immediately.ISUBMIT. ± Produces a string that can be used to recreate an existing job in the job queue. expjob. ± Only if the job was submitted from same schema BEGIN FOR rec IN (SELECT * FROM USER_JOBS) LOOP DBMS_JOB.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END LOOP.

page 241 .job ORDER BY jr.job = j.this_date .what job_id username start_date job_definition jr j s showjobs.jr. who owns them and when they began.job .V$SESSION WHERE s. ± The following query blends job information with session information to display currently-executing jobs.sid = jr. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .sid AND jr.Job Queue Views  You can also view the job queue by looking at the DBA_JOBS_RUNNING. DBA_JOBS and USER_JOBS views.sql FROM DBA_JOBS_RUNNING .DBA_JOBS .this_date. SELECT jr.username .

of one hour).  You will need to set three parameters in the init.ora (initialization) file for your database instance: ± job_queue_processes=N where n is the number of concurrent background processes permitted. You will have to take special DBA action if you want to restrict who can run jobs.Setting up the Job Facility  Make sure that the correct access is set up for the DBMS_JOB package. ± job_queue_interval=N where N is the interval in seconds to check the job queue. ± The default is PUBLIC access. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . therefore.page 242 . The valid range is 1 to 3600 (a maximum. The valid range is 0 through 36.

± Always include a WHEN OTHERS exception handler in your job program which traps any and all problems and automatically sets the job status to broken.page 243 . Then you can go ahead and submit it. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . the job facility will mark your job as broken. it may cause the background processes to fail and no longer run any jobs at all.  To avoid unexpected and unhandled failures of scheduled jobs: ± Always use the RUN built-in to execute your job in a ³test´ mode. if your failure raises an unhandled exception.Error Handling with DBMS_JOB  What if your stored procedure fails? ± After 16 attempts. ± Do you want it to try 16 times? ± In addition.

sql showspc.Stopping the Job When It Fails PROCEDURE calc_totals IS BEGIN .job (µcalc_totals¶) DBMS_JOB.. ± Calls log program of package to record that failure took place..log (µcalc_totals¶. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN job# := job_pkg. ± Obtains the job number from a packaged function by passing the name of the procedure. ± Now the job facility will not try to run this program again. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END. spacelog. TRUE).BROKEN (job#. job_pkg. ± Uses a call to BROKEN to set the status of the job to ³broken´. You can go in and fix the problem.sql  The WHEN OTHERS exception handler of the calc_totals procedure traps any kind of failure.page 244 . µFAIL¶).

When a job runs. ± DBMS_JOB only allows you to modify characteristics and behavior of jobs submitted by the current schema. difficult to reproduce behavior at times with "straight" procedure calls. it picks up the current execution environment for the user.page 245 .    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . perform a COMMIT after your submit.  You will need to fully-qualify all database links (with user name and password) to get them to work properly. You can use the DBMS_IJOB to manage the jobs of other users."Good to Knows" for DBMS_JOB  You may find it useful to always wrap your stored procedure call (the what) inside a BEGIN-END block. If you find that you submit a job to run immediately and it does not start. ± We've noticed some aberrant.

Built-in Packages: DBMS_PIPE DBMS_PIPE Inter-session Communication 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 246 .

± Interface PL/SQL-database activities with operating system functions and programs written in other languages. ± Operates outside of database transaction limitations. Oracle uses database pipes to parallelize database operations. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Uses for DBMS_PIPE include: ± Parallelization of program execution.page 247 . You can parallelize your own code. ± More sophisticated debugging inside PL/SQL programs (work around fundamental limitations of DBMS_OUTPUT). ± Perform and commit DML in a separate transaction space from your main transaction.DBMS_PIPE Overview  Allows communication between different Oracle sessions through a pipe in the RDBMS Shared Global Area.

± The pipe sends/receives a message. They are reserved for Oracle use). which can be composed of one or more separate packets. ± Names can be up to 128 chars long (do not use names beginning with ³ORA$´. using a maximum of 4096 bytes.page 248 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Architecture of DBMS_PIPE Shared Global Area ³Sue´ ³Bob´ Message Buffer Message Buffer Session A  Session B A pipe is a named object that uses the System Global Area to provide a non-transaction based conduit of information.

 Send the message to a named pipe. so you should always specify a timeout period. ± Separate out the individual packets in the message (again: string.  Receive a message from that pipe. you can wait for up to 1000 days (or 86400000 seconds) for the pipe to be cleared.  Unpack the message packets and take action. ± You can wait for up to 1000 days for a message. date or number).sql pipex2.Processing Flow of DBMS_PIPE  Construct a message from packets of information. ± There is just one message buffer per session. ± This is the default. ± If there isn¶t currently room in the pipe. ROWID or RAW. ± Each packet can be a string. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein pipex1. date. number.sql PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 249 .

PURGE Empties the contents of a pipe into your local buffer freeing it for removal. UNIQUE_SESSION_NAME Returns name that is unique among all sessions in the database. RECEIVE_MESSAGE Receives a message from pipe and copies to local buffer.page 250 . Clears your buffer so that PACK_MESSAGE and UNPACK_MESSAGE can work from the first item. SEND_MESSAGE Sends contents of message buffer to the specified pipe. UNPACK_MESSAGE Unpacks the next item from the local message buffer and deposits it into the specified local variable. REMOVE_PIPE RESET_BUFFER Removes a pipe explicitly created via CREATE_PIPE. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . making it a candidate for removal with a LRU algorithm.DBMS_PIPE Module Outline Module Name CREATE_PIPE Description Creates a PUBLIC or PRIVATE pipe. PACK_MESSAGE Packs an item into the message buffer for your session. NEXT_ITEM_TYPE Returns the datatype of the next item in the piped message.

± Send messages to non-existent pipe implicitly create it.  An explicit pipe can be private (accessible only to sessions with matching userID or SYSDBA privileges).CREATE_PIPE ( pipename => 'bbs'. ± Implicitly-created pipes are always public. ± Use CREATE_PIPE to create a pipe explicitly. PROCEDURE newpipe IS stat INTEGER.Creating Public and Private Pipes  There are two ways to create pipes: implicitly and explicitly.page 251 . maxpipesize => 20000. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  A public pipe is accessible as long as you know its name. private => TRUE). BEGIN stat := DBMS_PIPE. ± Specify TRUE for private argument of CREATE_PIPE.

Status of 0 means message was sent. 10 * 4096). waiting up to 1 minute. FOR month_num IN 1 . and new max pipe size (you can make it bigger.PACK_MESSAGE ( total_sales (month_num)).. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . timeout IN INTEGER DEFAULT maxwait. FUNCTION send_message (pipename IN VARCHAR2. maxpipesize IN INTEGER DEFAULT 8192) RETURN INTEGER. expanding pipe size to 40 Kbytes.page 252 . but not smaller).SEND_MESSAGE ( µmonthly¶. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Fill your message buffer with packets of data. 12 LOOP DBMS_PIPE. 60. seconds you will wait. IF pipe_stat != 0 THEN RAISE could_not_send.Sending a Message Provide pipe name. END LOOP. Send to "monthly" pipe. pipe_stat := DBMS_PIPE.

Receiving and Unpack a Message FUNCTION receive_message (pipename IN VARCHAR2. PROCEDURE unpack_message (item OUT NUMBER).  Then you call UNPACK_MESSAGE to extract individual packets from the message. PROCEDURE unpack_message (item OUT VARCHAR2).page 253 . ± Pipe status of 0 means the message was read successfully. timeout IN INTEGER DEFAULT maxwait) RETURN INTEGER. ± Specify pipe and number of seconds you will wait before you time out. ± You need to know the datatype of packet or check it using NEXT_ITEM_TYPE.  First you pull the message from the pipe and place it in buffer with RECEIVE_MESSAGE. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . PROCEDURE unpack_message (item OUT DATE).

END IF.UNPACK_MESSAGE (prod_total). END LOOP. END. If I got something. prod_total). pass it on to the IF pipe_status = 0 computation THEN program.page 254 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . DBMS_PIPE. Wait up to N prod_total NUMBER. data not received. ELSE RAISE_APPLICATION_ERROR ( Stop process if -20000. PROCEDURE analyze_assembly_data (every_n_secs IN INTEGER) IS pipe_status INTEGER. 'Production data unavailable.RECEIVE_MESSAGE ( 'production'. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .'). seconds for the BEGIN next report.A Pipe-based Listener Program  Program wakes up every N seconds to read the data from the pipe and analyze results from assembly line (an intentional "infinite loop"!). analyze_production (SYSDATE. LOOP pipe_status := DBMS_PIPE. every_n_secs).

Either: ± You know the datatype and therefore can ³hard-code´ the correct variable into the call to UNPACK_MESSAGE. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .tst  Since a message can be composed of packets of different datatypes.Unpacking the Message FUNCTION next_item_type RETURN INTEGER.page 255 .sql dbpipe. ± Or you use the built-in NEXT_ITEM_TYPE to tell you in advance the datatype of the next packet in the message and take appropriate action. you have to make sure that you unpack a packet into the right kind of variable. Returns one of the following values: Value 0 6 9 11 12 23 Description or Data type No more items in buffer NUMBER VARCHAR2 ROWID DATE RAW dbpipe.

 Suppose I want to calculate my net profit.page 256 .  Without pipes. you can do the same for your application if: ± You have multiple CPUs available. ± These programs each take 15 minutes. but are not dependent on each other.Parallelizing Your Code with Pipes  Oracle uses DBMS_PIPE to improve RDBMS performance. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . In order to do so I must first compute total sales. ± You have processes which can run in parallel. I must execute them sequentially and incur an elapsed time of 45 minutes before I calculate the profits. total office expenses and total compensation. ± The CEO is decidedly unhappy about the delay.

Parallel Execution Sequential Execution: Maximum Elapsed Time S t a r t E n d Process A Process B Process C Parallel Execution: Minimum Elapsed Time Start Process A Process B Process C End 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Sequential vs.page 257 .

it puts a message (perhaps even a value) into the pipe. ± When each program is complete. wait_for_confirmation. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Other programs running in the background grab the messages and start their corresponding calculation program. END.  The ³wait´ program waits till it receives a message from each program.  The ³kick off´ programs pass their messages to separate pipes. Then net profits can be computed -.Parallelizing PL/SQL Execution BEGIN kick_off_sales_calc. kick_off_exp_calc. calculate_net_profits. kick_off_totcomp_calc.page 258 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .in a muchdecreased elapsed time.

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . stat := DBMS_PIPE. IF stat = 0 THEN lots_of_number_crunching. BEGIN DBMS_PIPE. PROCEDURE calculate_sales IS stat INTEGER.PACK_MESSAGE (1995). ELSE DBMS_PIPE.RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µsales¶).SEND_MESSAGE (µsales¶).page 259 . stat := DBMS_PIPE.SEND_MESSAGE (µsales¶). stat := DBMS_PIPE. END IF. END. calculate sales. DBMS_PIPE.SEND_MESSAGE (µsales¶).Code to Kick Off and Calculate PROCEDURE kick_off_sales_calc IS stat INTEGER.PACK_MESSAGE (NULL). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Send message to start calculations. END.PACK_MESSAGE (sales$). BEGIN stat := DBMS_PIPE. Receive the year. and send back the results.

END. BEGIN stat := DBMS_PIPE.UNPACK_MESSAGE (sales$).offexp$ . stat := DBMS_PIPE. The order in which you wait is insignificant.Waiting for Confirmation PROCEDURE wait_for_confirmation IS stat INTEGER.RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µsales¶). stat := DBMS_PIPE. DBMS_PIPE.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µoffexp¶). Wait for all calculations to finish. parallel. END. DBMS_PIPE.comp$.UNPACK_MESSAGE (comp$). Perform final calculation.page 260 .UNPACK_MESSAGE (offexp$). PROCEDURE calculate_net_profits IS BEGIN net_profits := sales$ . DBMS_PIPE.RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µcomp¶).

± A listener program grabs the request (including the return pipe name). ± The requester reads the information from the pipe. syscache. and sends it to the pipe.pkg syscache.pkg  Implementation of a system-wide.pkg p_and_l. in-memory cache.page 261 . ± Demonstrates the use of toggles and switches in packages. ± A request for data is passed to a "central" pipe. obtains the data.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . watch.Other DBMS_PIPE Examples  Simple trace package that sends it output either to screen or to pipe.

. A µgrab-bag¶ of miscellaneous operations SCHEMA 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 262 .Built-in Packages: DBMS_UTILITY DBMS_UTILITY Application GET_TIME GET_HASH_VALUE FORMAT_CALL_STACK ..

Returns execution call stack. Recompile INVALID objects in specified schema.pkg COMMA_TO_TABLE COMPILE_SCHEMA DATA_BLOCK_ADDRESS_BLOCK DATA_BLOCK_ADDRESS_FILE DB_VERSION EXEC_DDL_STATEMENT FORMAT_CALL_STACK FORMAT_ERROR_STACK GET_HASH_VALUE 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .page 263 dbver.DBMS_UTILITY Module Outline ANALYZE_DATABASE ANALYZE_PART_OBJECT Analyze objects in database Runs ANALYZE TABLE or ANALYZE INDEX for each partition of the object (Oracle8). Returns hash value for string. Parses comma-delimited list to index-by table. Returns database version (Oracle8) Executes DDL statement (Oracle8). Returns error stack. Gets block number part of data block address. Gets file number part of data block address.pkg dbparm. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . GET_PARAMETER_VALUE GET_TIME IS_PARALLEL_SERVER MAKE_DATA_BLOCK_ADDRESS NAME_RESOLVE NAME_TOKENIZE PORT_STRING TABLE_TO_COMMA Retrieves value of database parameter (Oracle8). Returns "current time" down to hundredth of second. Resolves name of object into component parts.DBMS_UTILITY Module Outline. Parses string object designator into components. Returns platform and version of database. cont.page 264 . Creates data block address from block & file numbers. Converts list (in index-by-table) of elements into a comma-delimited list (string). Returns TRUE if in parallel server mode.

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .v_start). ± SYSDATE only reflects times down to the nearest second.page 265 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . DBMS_OUTPUT.Sub-Second Timings with GET_TIME  GET_TIME returns the number of 100ths of seconds that have elapsed since an arbitrary point in time. END. especially those that run in sub-second time. Basic steps necessary to convert GET_TIME into a performance analysis tool. so GET_TIME offers significant additional granularity. calc_totals.GET_TIME . ± Useful when analyzing individual PL/SQL programs. DECLARE v_start BINARY_INTEGER.  Compare results from consecutive calls to GET_TIME to determine the elapsed time of PL/SQL code execution.PUT_LINE (DBMS_UTILITY.GET_TIME. BEGIN v_start := DBMS_UTILITY.

PROCEDURE set_factor (factor_in IN NUMBER). END PLVtmr. adjust_in IN NUMBER := 0.sps plvtmr. BEGIN PLVtmr. PROCEDURE turn_off.capture. calc_totals. END.sql plvtmr.show_elapsed. PLVtmr.page 266 . PROCEDURE capture ( context_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) PROCEDURE show_elapsed (prefix_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL.spb 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Clean and lean timing code ovrhead. reset_in IN BOOLEAN := TRUE).Building a Layer Over GET_TIME Partial package specification PACKAGE PLVtmr IS PROCEDURE turn_on.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .FORMAT_CALL_STACK). only the package name.PL/SQL Call Stack ----object line object handle number name 88ce3f74 88e49fc4 88e49390 88e2bd20 8 2 1 1 package STEVEN.VALIDATE_REQUEST function STEVEN. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN DBMS_OUTPUT.Accessing the Execution Call Stack Use in the exception section to show context of error.COMPANY_TYPE procedure STEVEN.PUT_LINE ( DBMS_UTILITY. ----. ± Does not show package elements.page 267 . END. equivalent to CHR(10). ± Most recent program at beginning of "report".CALC_NET_WORTH anonymous block  "Little known facts" about FORMAT_CALL_STACK: ± Contains embedded new-line characters.

startpos := next_newline + 1.page 268 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . next_newline . which means you cannot pass it to DBMS_OUTPUT directly. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . next_newline INTEGER. startpos. 1). END. use a loop to read through the stack. startpos INTEGER := 1.sp dispcs.tst callstack.startpos + 1). dispcs. next_line VARCHAR2(255).Accessing Call Stack Contents  The call stack length can easily exceed 255 bytes. EXIT WHEN next_newline = 0. END LOOP.pkg plvcs. LOOP next_newline := INSTR (stk.FORMAT_CALL_STACK || CHR(10). Instead.PUT_LINE (next_line). next_line := SUBSTR ( stk. BEGIN stk := DBMS_UTILITY. CHR(10). startpos. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE dispcs IS stk VARCHAR2(10000).sps DBMS_OUTPUT.

. context IN NUMBER. see it as an opportunity.Resolving Names of Stored Code  Code names have many components. part2 OUT VARCHAR2.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .sp snc. PROCEDURE DBMS_UTILITY. ± Use NAME_RESOLVE to break down an identifier string into its components easily.. dblink OUT VARCHAR2.NAME_RESOLVE (name IN VARCHAR2. part1 OUT VARCHAR2. the way they are attached also follows a complicated syntax.but don't see it as a problem.page 269 .for encapsulation! showcomp.  Possible "Part 1" Types 5 7 8 9 Synonym Procedure Function Package What a chore! All those arguments. schema OUT VARCHAR2. object_number OUT NUMBER).. part1_type OUT NUMBER..

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