Achieving PL/SQL Excellence

Oracle PL/SQL Advanced Techniques
Oracle7 thru Oracle8i
Steven Feuerstein
www.StevenFeuerstein.com www.Quest.com www.OReilly.com
and contributions most excellent from Bill Pribyl and Dick Bolz

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 1

Objective & Outline 

Objective
± Expand your knowledge and awareness of important and new features of the PL/SQL language. 

Outline
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± Building with Packages (Oracle7+) PL/SQL Collections (Oracle7 and Oracle8+) Cursor Variables (Oracle7 and Oracle8+) Dynamic SQL: DBMS_SQL and Native Dynamic SQL (8i) Calling Java from PL/SQL (Oracle8i) and C (Oracle8) Oracle Advanced Queuing with DBMS_AQ (Oracle8) Managing Large Objects with DBMS_LOB (Oracle8) Other Oracle8i New Features
» Autonomous Transactions (Oracle8i) » Invoker Rights Model (Oracle8i) » Row Level Security: DBMS_RLS

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Software Used in Training 

PL/Vision: a library of packages installed on top of PL/SQL.
± PL/Vision Lite - use it, copy, change it for free -- unless you build software to be sold commercially. ± Active PL/SQL Knowledge Base: contains PL/Vision Professional, the fully supported and enhanced version. 

Demonstration scripts executed in the training can be found on the RevealNet PL/SQL Pipeline:
± http://www.revealnet.com/Pipelines/PLSQL/index.htm ± Archives surfboard, Miscellaneous, PL/SQL Seminar Files ± See filedesc.doc for a listing of many of the files.
plsql_ides.txt 

The PL/SQL IDE (Integrated Development Environment).
± You no longer have to use SQL*Plus and a crude editor! Choose from among the many listed in plsql_ides.txt.

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Achieving PL/SQL Excellence

Building with PL/SQL Packages 
 

Overview Initialization section Overloading

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What is a Package? 

A collection of code elements, from procedures and functions to TYPE, variable and cursor declarations.
± Single-most important structure within PL/SQL, and almost certainly one of the most under-utilized. ± Conceptually very simple, it can take some time to fully grasp the implications and potential of the package. 

The method of choice by Oracle and other software developers for extending the PL/SQL language.
± You will find packages in the database, in Oracle Developer/2000, in Oracle Application Server. 

Let¶s review some of the benefits of packages.
tmr.pkg dbparm.pkg

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pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . you call the packaged procedures and functions instead. ± Can lead to performance improvements.pkg  Improve transaction integrity by hiding data structures behind the package interface.page 6 . ± There's a big difference between a bunch of separate programs and a coherent. custrules. ± Puts more structure and organization in your body of code. ± Instead of writing SQL directly in your programs.pks te_employee. package-based "component".pkb  Construct very flexible and usable utilities for developers. te_employee.When to Build a Package  Join physically logically-related code.pkg insga. watch.

Does the package have an init section? yes Run initialization code. no Complete request for packaged element. ± The PL/SQL runtime engine determines when and if this code should be run.Package Initialization  The initialization section is a block of code at the end of the package body that is executed once per session.page 7 . the first time any package element is referenced. Program references package element the first time in each session. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

± Is not required. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Setting up package data which does not change for the duration of a session. ± Confirming that package is properly instantiated. BEGIN END pkg. In fact. most packages you build won't have one. ± Can have its own exception handling section.Package Initialization Structure  The initialization section: ± Is defined after and outside of any programs in the package.page 8 .  Useful for: ± Performing complex setting of default or initial values. PACKAGE BODY pkg IS PROCEDURE proc IS BEGIN END. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein BEGIN after/outside of any program defined in the pkg. FUNCTION func RETURN BEGIN END.

show_toolbar. */ SELECT lov_flag. defprinter INTO show_lov. END sessinit. tb_flag.  Also a package with many design flaws.tst this user. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 'lpt1'. ± Body contains only initialization section. WHEN OTHERS THEN RAISE_APPLICATION_ERROR (-20000. show_toolbar CHAR(1). */ 'Y'. init. 'Y'. printer FROM user_config WHERE user_id = USER. Section  An unusual package! ± Specification contains only variables. END sessinit. 'No profile for ' || USER)..Configure Session with Init. EXCEPTION WHEN NO_DATA_FOUND THEN /* No record for show_lov := show_toolbar := printer := PACKAGE sessinit IS show_lov CHAR(1).page 9 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .pkg init. printer VARCHAR2(60). PACKAGE BODY sessinit IS /* No declared package elements at all! */ BEGIN /* Get user preferences for this user..

BEGIN fmts(1) := 'DD-MON-RR'. END dt. fmts(4) := 'MM/DD'. fmts(10) := 'MMDDYYYY'. . ± This increases the flexibility of the date conversion process.Populate Collections  The PL/Vision Date package. fmts(12) := 'RRMMDD'.pkg file demonstrates the basic technique (and the reliance on an initialization section) used to achieve this flexibility. ± The datemgr.. employs several PL/SQL tables to convert strings and to perform date arithmetic. fmts(2) := 'DD-MON-YYYY'. Initialization section populates a PL/SQL table. datemgr. fmt_count := 12. PLVdate. fmts(11) := 'YYYYMMDD'.pkg dates.page 10 .. fmts(9) := 'MM/DD/YYYY'.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . fmts(3) := 'DD-MON'.

± You can overload modules in any declaration section and in packages. ± Overloading transfers the "need to know" from the user to the overloaded program. you need to make that code as smart and as easy to use as possible. myproc myproc 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . myproc  Overloading is a critical feature when building comprehensive programmatic interfaces (APIs) or components using packages. ± If you want others to use your code. you give two or more programs the same name.page 11 .Program Overloading  When you overload programs.

date_string := TO_CHAR (SYSDATE.page 12 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± But Oracle couldn't offer that level of convenience without overloading.Overloading in PL/SQL Built-ins  PL/SQL uses overloading in many common functions. 'MMDDYY'). 'MMDDYY'). number_string := TO_CHAR (10000). you would have to deal with something like this: date_string := TO_CHAR_FROM_DATE (SYSDATE. number_string := TO_CHAR_FROM_NUMBER (10000). and took functions like TO_CHAR and TO_DATE totally for granted. ± You just probably never gave it a thought. Without overloading.

There are two different "compile times": ± 1. ± The programs are of different types: procedure and function. IN OUT). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Their formal parameters differ only in datatype and the datatypes are in the same family.How Overloading Works  For two or more modules to be overloaded. OUT. ± 2. VARCHAR2 is not different enough).page 13 . When you compile programs that use the overloaded code. the compiler must be able to distinguish between the two calls at compile-time. ± Arguments differ only in their mode (IN.  Distinguishing characteristics: ± The formal parameters of overloaded modules must differ in number.  Undistinguishing characteristics: ± Functions differ only in their RETURN datatype. When you compile the package or block containing the overloaded code. order or datatype family (CHAR vs.

PACKAGE only_returns IS FUNCTION func1 (val IN VARCHAR2) RETURN DATE. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . which one? param_modes. Only difference is function RETURN type. PACKAGE param_modes IS PROCEDURE proc1 (val IN VARCHAR2). which one? DBMS_OUTPUT.page 14 .calc ('123').proc1 (v_value). END only_returns.Examples of Invalid Overloadings PACKAGE too_similar IS PROCEDURE calc (reg_in IN CHAR). END too_many_cals. PROCEDURE proc1 (val IN OUT VARCHAR2). Only difference is parameter mode. FUNCTION func1 (val IN VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2. END param_modes. Parameter data types cause conflict.PUT_LINE (only_returns. PROCEDURE calc (reg_in IN VARCHAR2).func1 (v_value)). which one? too_similar.

Overload Wherever Possible  Supporting Many Data Combinations ± Apply the same action to different kinds or combinations of data.page 15 .  Overloading by Type. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . so much as providing different ways of requesting the same activity.l substitute does an even better job. In this case.PUT_LINE procedure illustrates this technique -and the PL/Vision p.  Fitting the Program to the User ± To make your code as useful as possible. ± The DBMS_OUTPUT. You use the type of data and not its value to determine which of the overloaded programs should be executed. the overloading does not provide a single name for different activities. not Value ± A less common application of overloading. you may construct different versions of the ³same´ program which correspond to different patterns of use.

boolean_in IN BOOLEAN). PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2. PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2.spb PROCEDURE l (boolean_in IN BOOLEAN). PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2. allowing the user to pass data to the "display engine" without writing "pre-processing" code.HH:MI:SS PM'). YYYY . PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2).page 16 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .HH:MI:SS PM'). mask_in IN VARCHAR2 := 'Month DD. YYYY . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . number_in IN NUMBER). PROCEDURE l (number_in IN NUMBER). date_in IN DATE. END p.sps p.A "Classic" Overloaded Package  Many different datatype combinations. p. mask_in IN VARCHAR2 := µMonth DD. PACKAGE p IS PROCEDURE l (date_in IN DATE.

l (SYSDATE). SQLCODE). p... DBMS_OUTPUT.l ('So what is different?'). 'MM/DD/YY HH:MI:SS')). p. END IF.PUT_LINE ('FALSE'). p. IF print_report_fl THEN DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE (SQLERRM || ': ' || TO_CHAR (SQLCODE)).PUT_LINE (TO_CHAR (SYSDATE. DBMS_OUTPUT.page 17 .l (SQLERRM.l (print_report_fl). DBMS_OUTPUT. p. ELSE DBMS_OUTPUT. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein ‡Extended overloadings are more likely to meet user needs.PUT_LINE ('TRUE').PUT_LINE ('So what is different?').Advantage of Extended Overloading ‡ Minimal overloading means lots of extra coding. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

the user of your package can benefit from writing less code. think about the way it will be used. If you take these different circumstances into account when you design your package specification. ± If you want to write software that is admired. few developers are considerate enough of their users to try to anticipate their needs. appreciated. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . In my experience.and taken completely for granted.Fitting the Program to the User Writing "unnecessary" code? Time to overload!  A single piece of functionality. can be applied or needed under very different circumstances..page 18   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . such as "display data" or "create a file". ± Your code is a a more natural "fit" under a variety of requirements..

FCLOSE (fid). UTL_FILE.flg'.FILE_TYPE. even though you are simply going to close the file immediately after opening it. sometimes you will want to create a file and then perform additional operations.  In other words. 'exists. you have to declare the record to hold the file handle. ± She doesn't care what's in it. ± Here is the code required by UTL_FILE: DECLARE fid UTL_FILE. 'W'). END.page 19  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE. so this is just the way it has to be.PUT_LINE (fid.Creating a File for a Quick Touch  Suppose a developer needs to create a file to be used as a "flag" in the operating system. UTL_FILE. right? WRONG! PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .FOPEN ('tmp/flags'. 'blah'). It just needs to be present. Of course.

pkg PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Use as Procedure BEGIN PLVfile.fcreate ('temp. BEGIN fid := PLVfile. TO_CHAR (SYSDATE)). line_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) RETURN UTL_FILE. custrules. /* Function */ FUNCTION fcreate (file_in IN VARCHAR2.FILE_TYPE.  Overloading of FCreate PACKAGE PLVfile IS /* Procedure */ PROCEDURE fcreate (file_in IN VARCHAR2. END PLVfile. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Use as Function DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.put_line (fid.Procedure and Function Overloaded  Why not overload a "create file" program so that you can pick the one that most closely fits your situation? Consider the PLVfile package of PL/Vision.FILE_TYPE. v_user).ini'.flg').fcreate ('exists. END. line_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL).page 20 . PLVfile.

± Pass a string ³name´ of the datatype. the user does not need to pass data. when you use DBMS_SQL to set up a dynamic query.  There are three ways to accomplish this: ± Don't overload. you must call the DEFINE_COLUMN procedure to define the datatype of the Nth column in the cursor. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Pass a piece of data of the right type. Define a different program name for each datatype.page 21 . but the type of data. ± For example."By-Type" Overloading  In some situations.

VARCHAR2_TYPE..  Now let's look at two examples of overloading by datatype.. 30). lotsa names.NUMBER_TYPE).DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. 'NUMBER'). BEGIN DBMS_SQL.  Nasty hard-coding.. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_INTEGER_COLUMN (cur. Pass a named constant. Lotsa typing. DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN ± PLVgen. 'STRING'. DBMS_SQL.. DBMS_SQL.  So many program names to remember! Pass a literal value. DBMS_SQL.func 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 2. ± DBMS_SQL. 30). 1.Options for Specifying Column Type  Don't even bother overloading...DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.. 1).DEFINE_VARCHAR2_COLUMN (cur. 2. DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur...page 22 .. 30). 2.. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.. 1.

DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. 1.Defining Dynamic SQL Columns  The DBMS_SQL. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. 1.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.DEFINE_COLUMN procedure defines the datatype of a column. you only need to pass a value -. 2. DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . BEGIN DBMS_SQL. 30).GET_TIME).DEFINE_COLUMN. 2.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. ± The three code blocks below are equivalent. 2.any value -. 1. 30). 30).page 23 . from the perspective of DBMS_SQL. v_ename. 1). v_empno).of the correct type. USER. ± To make it easier to accomplish this task.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. 'a'. DBMS_UTILITY.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.

the user indicates the type of function to be generated by providing a value.Generating Functions by Value  In PLVgen. 1) A date function. PROCEDURE func (name_in IN VARCHAR2. please! 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . any Boolean will do.func ('total_salary'. type_in IN NUMBER). any date. PACKAGE PLVgen IS PROCEDURE func (name_in IN VARCHAR2. SQL> exec plvgen. SYSDATE) SQL> exec plvgen. please! A number function.page 24 . any string. type_in IN DATE). PROCEDURE func (name_in IN VARCHAR2.func ('last_date'. type_in IN VARCHAR2). Any number. ± The particular value itself is of no importance.

but you might later found out that you cannot actually call any of the overloaded programs.comp_id%TYPE). END. PL/SQL does not sense a conflict with above overloading even though comp_id is a numeric column. PACKAGE profits IS PROCEDURE calc (comp_id_IN IN NUMBER). ± When I compile profits.  In the above example. I rely on an anchored type (%TYPE) to establish the datatype of the second calc¶s parameter.The Frustrations of Overloading  Watch out! An overloading can compile successfully.page 25 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . PROCEDURE calc (comp_id_IN IN company. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

sales.pkg ? 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . like calc_totals shown above? ± If not. how would you do it? (Don't peek at the next page!) BEGIN sales. END sales. PROCEDURE calc_total (reg_in IN VARCHAR2). why not? ± If so.calc_total ('ZONE2'). sales.calc_total ('NORTHWEST').  Can I overload two programs which have parameters that differ only by name. END.page 26 .Quiz! Nuances of Overloading PACKAGE sales IS PROCEDURE calc_total (zone_in IN VARCHAR2).

what => 'DBMS_DDL.''LOAD1''.submit ( job => v_jobno. interval => 'TRUNC(SYSDATE+1)'). DBMS_JOB. That way you don't have to know and pass default values. This is especially useful when working with infrequently used built-in programs.page 27 . ± You can skip over (not specify values for) any IN parameters that have default values.null. of named notation include: ± Code is more "self-documenting".''ESTIMATE''. namednot.''TENK''' || '.ANALYZE_OBJECT ' || '(''TABLE''. next_date => TRUNC (SYSDATE + 1).'.Using Named Notation <formal parameter name> => <expression>  Explicit association between the formal parameter (the "name") with the actual parameter (the "value").estimate_percent=>50).sql  Advantages 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

page 28 .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence PL/SQL Collections   Collections are single-dimensioned lists of information. Three types of collections: ± Index-by tables (Oracle7 only. originally called PL/SQL tables) ± Nested tables (Oracle8 and above) ± Variable arrays (VARRAYs. Oracle8 and above) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Build hash tables (custom indexing structures).  Emulate bi-directional cursors. Improve query performance by avoiding joins. which are otherwise not supported in PL/SQL Cache data in session-level memory for faster access.When to Use Collections  Maintain any kind of list of related information for use in your programs. Avoid mutating table errors in database triggers. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 29     1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .

Instead.483.  Characteristics of an index-by table: ± Unbounded » Practically speaking. ± Homogeneous » Data in each row has the same structure. ± Sparse » Data does not have to be stored in consecutive rows of information.647 to 2. this broad range allows you to employ the row number as an intelligent key. ± Available only in PL/SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .147.147.Index-By Tables TYPE <table_type> IS TABLE OF <datatype> INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. DECLARE TYPE inmem_emp_t IS TABLE OF emp%ROWTYPE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. Valid row numbers range: -2.483.page 30 . emp_copy inmem_emp_t.647 » You will not actually create tables this large.

children 6306 6412 6810 6904 µBarbara Anne¶ µGary Richard¶ µAdam Russell¶ µLisa Nadezhka¶ datemgr.pkg children 6306 6412 6904 µBarbara Anne¶ µGary Richard¶ µLisa Marie¶ children (6810) := µAdam Russell. Variable declaration children child_list_type.page 31 . Component Selection kid := children (4).Index_by Tables TYPE declaration PACKAGE BODY family IS TYPE child_list_type IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2 (30) INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. children (6904) := 'Lisa Nadezhka'. Error: NO_DATA_FOUND 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

483.147. Valid row numbers range: 1 to 2. but only with explicit EXTEND requests » Practically speaking. but can become sparse if you DELETE inner rows ± Available both in PL/SQL and SQL (as a column in a table) ± The order of elements is not preserved in the database 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . DECLARE TYPE when_t IS TABLE OF DATE.Nested Tables [CREATE OR REPLACE] TYPE <table_type> IS TABLE OF <datatype> [NOT NULL].page 32 .647 ± Initially dense. birthdays when_t. ± Unbounded.  Nested table characteristics ± Homogeneous » Each row contains the same structure of data.

kids child_table_type) NESTED TABLE kids STORE AS kids_ntab.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . For ORACLE's use only db_family surname kids BOLZ BOND Eric Thomas Max Richard Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Marie ntdemo. CREATE TABLE db_family (surname VARCHAR2 (30).Nested Tables CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE child_table_type IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2 (30).page 33 .

± Variable arrays are actually stored in the DB table 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . can be EXTENDed or TRIMmed. salaries numbers_t. ± Available both in PL/SQL and SQL (as a column in a table) » And the order of elements are preserved in the database. ± Bounded » Upper limit established when the TYPE is defined.647 ± Dense » Never any gaps between defined rows.Variable Arrays [CREATE OR REPLACE] TYPE <table_type> IS VARRAY (N) OF <datatype> [NOT NULL].page 34 .147. Maximum value: 2.483.  Characteristics of variable arrays: ± Homogeneous » Each row contains the same structure of data. DECLARE TYPE numbers_t IS VARRAY (10) OF NUMBER.

Variable Arrays CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE child_va_type IS VARRAY (8) OF VARCHAR2 (30). db_family surname kids BOLZ BOND 1 Barbara Anne 2 Gary Richard 3 Lisa Marie 1 Eric Thomas 2 Max Richard vademo. CREATE TABLE db_family (surname VARCHAR2 (30).sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . kids child_va_type).page 35 .

CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE tabtypes IS TYPE integer_ibt IS TABLE OF INTEGER INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. a collection.Defining Collections  First.page 36 . TYPE integer_nt IS TABLE OF INTEGER. you can define the TYPE in the database with a CREATE statement. .  Then you declare an instance of that type. END tabtypes. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± For nested tables and VARRAYs.. Best option: package specification. ± For index-by tables.. TYPE integer_vat IS VARRAY(10) OF INTEGER. from the TYPE. you define the TYPE of the collection. this can only occur in a PL/SQL declaration section. or in a PL/SQL declaration section. ± You can declare multiple collections from that TYPE.

± The code used to define the collection TYPE  There is no information in the data dictionary available for index-by tables. 'TMRS_VT') T. colldd.elem_type_name = A.owner = USER T.page 37 .Obtaining Collection Information SELECT FROM WHERE AND AND AND A.owner = A.' || A.type_name IN ('NAMES_VT'.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .attr_name || ' . all_type_attrs A T.owner T.  ALL_COLL_TYPES ± The types you have created (or have access to) in the database  ALL_TYPE_ATTRS ± Attributes of the data type used in the TYPE definition.attr_type_name Attributes all_coll_types T.type_name.

300).Initializing Collections  Before you can use a collection. You must initialize them explicitly with a constructor. 300). salary_history numbers_t). 200. 200.Initialize the collection. TYPE defined in PL/SQL TYPE defined in the database Collection used in a table PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 38 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . salaries numbers_t := numbers_t (100. salaries numbers_t := numbers_t (100. / DECLARE -. empty when declared. DECLARE TYPE numbers_t IS VARRAY (10) OF NUMBER. it must be initialized. BEGIN CREATE TYPE numbers_t IS VARRAY (10) OF NUMBER. ± Nested tables and VARRAYs are atomically null. BEGIN CREATE TABLE employee_denorm ( employee_id INTEGER. ± Index-by tables are initialized automatically.

consider putting TYPEs in database or packages. TYPE comp_tabtype IS TABLE OF comp_rectype INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER.3. DECLARE TYPE comp_rectype IS RECORD (comp_id company.page 39 . total_rev NUMBER). the datatype for any of the collection types can also be an object.company_id%TYPE. ± But you cannot have nested composite datatypes.comp_id := 1005. Here we have a three step process. comp_tab comp_tabtype. BEGIN comp_tab(1). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Collections of Composites  Starting with Oracle 7. Again. the ³homogeneous´ contents of an index-by table's row can be a record .  Starting with Oracle8. ± Can easily create an index-by table with the same structure as a database table by declaring a record with %ROWTYPE.

it is very similar to a database table.page 40 . etc. ± In almost every case. order by date. your collections will contain a row's worth of information.Sparse is Nice  The sparse characteristic of index-by tables and nested tables can be put to good use.  Especially handy when caching data from relational tables in user memory. ± You should not fill sequentially. ± Instead. ± In an index-by table.  Rows do not have to be defined sequentially. In this way. unless the order in which items are selected is of importance. a row exists in the table only when a value is assigned to that row. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .). consider using the row value as "smart data" for your application (primary key.

tst  PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .empno) := rec. END. emp_tab emp_tabtype. END. END LOOP. Some questions: ± Why would I put this collection table in a package? ± When is the collection loaded with the data? ± What rows in that collection are utilized? psemp. Initialization section of package 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein  This package moves the entire contents of the emp table into its corresponding collection.Transferring DB Table to Collection CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE psemp IS TYPE emp_tabtype IS TABLE OF emp%ROWTYPE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER.pkg psemp. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY psemp IS BEGIN FOR rec IN (SELECT * FROM emp) LOOP emp_tab (rec.page 41 .

page 42 . you must reference existing rows or a NO_DATA_FOUND exception is raised. ± Not necessary for index-by tables. Jordan'. / DECLARE greedy_ceos names_t := names_t (). but you must do it for VARRAYs and nested tables.  For index-by tables. END. ± Use the EXISTS method to determine if a row existed. the row exists. even if you haven't assigned a value explicitly. / Error -6533! You've got to EXTEND first!  EXTEND before assigning a value to a row. ± For VARRAYs and nested tables. once extended. BEGIN greedy_ceos(1) := 'Hamilton.Collection Gotchas CREATE TYPE names_t IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2(30). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

FIRST)). BEGIN IF salaries. optional argument.  You can EXTEND one or more rows.'). ± Assign a default value with a second.tst  Include a handler for NO_DATA_FOUND or use the EXISTS method to avoid these exceptions.PUT_LINE ('Data for employee not available.EXTEND (10.page 43 . salaries.We are OK.Set the value of each new row to the contents of the first row. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END IF.EXISTS (v_employee_id) THEN -. -. salaries(salaries.Extend by 10 since I know I will need that many. ± Pre-extending a large number of rows in advance can improve performance. preextend. ELSE DBMS_OUTPUT.Handling Collection Gotchas BEGIN -.

EXISTS returns TRUE if the specified row is defined.page 44 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . ± LIMIT tells you the max. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  The built-in package plitblm (PL/sql Index-TaBLe Methods) defines these methods. FIRST/LAST return lowest/highest numbers of defined rows. ± ± ± ±  Modify the contents of the collection ± DELETE deletes one or more rows from the index-by table. NEXT/PRIOR return the closest defined row after/before the specified row. ± EXTEND adds rows to a nested table or VARRAY. number of elements allowed in a VARRAY.Collection Methods  Obtain information about the collection COUNT returns number of rows currently defined in the table. ± TRIM removes rows from a VARRAY.

but you may also want to call DBMS_SESSION.DELETE. -.The DELETE Method  You can delete one or more rows from a collection using DELETE: BEGIN -. DELETE releases memory.DELETE (1400.LAST). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 45 .Delete a range of rows myCollection. END. 17255).DELETE (myCollection.Delete all rows myCollection.Delete one (the last) row myCollection.FREE_UNUSED_USER_MEMORY. -.

Navigating Through Collections 


Use FIRST and NEXT to move from beginning to end. Use LAST and PRIOR to move from end to beginning.
rowind PLS_INTEGER := birthdays.FIRST; -- birthdays.LAST BEGIN LOOP EXIT WHEN rowind IS NULL; DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE (birthdays(rowind).best_present); rowind := birthdays.NEXT (rowind); -- birthdays.PRIOR END LOOP; END;

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Using Collections Inside SQL 

Nested tables and VARRAYs can be defined as columns of a table and referenced directly within SQL. You can also apply SQL operations to the contents of nested tables and VARRAYs with these operators:
± THE - Maps a single column value in a single row to a virtual database table ± CAST - Maps a collection of one type to a collection of another type ± MULTISET - Maps a database table to a collection ± TABLE - Maps a collection to a database table  

Index-by tables are programmatic constructs only.
± You cannot make a direct reference to an index-by table in SQL. ± Instead, so do indirectly with a PL/SQL function.

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Using Collections inside SQL
SELECT column_value FROM TABLE (SELECT children FROM db_family WHERE surname = 'BOLZ'); db_family surname children BOLZ BOND Eric Thomas Max Richard UPDATE TABLE (SELECT children FROM db_family WHERE SURNAME = 'BOLZ) SET column_value = 'Lisa Nadezhka' WHERE column_value = 'Lisa Marie'); db_family surname children BOLZ ...
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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 48

Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Marie

column_value Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Marie

Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Nadezhka

Using the THE Operator 

Use THE to manipulate (retrieve, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE) contents of a nested table in a database table.
± Can only use with nested tables, not VARRAYs or index-by tables. ± Only accessible from within SQL statements in PL/SQL.
CREATE TYPE action_list_t IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2(100); / CREATE TABLE inflation_beater ( focus_area VARCHAR2(100), activities action_list_t) NESTED TABLE activities STORE AS activities_tab; SELECT VALUE (act) FROM THE (SELECT activities FROM inflation_beater WHERE focus_area = 'FORTUNE 100') act; UPDATE THE (SELECT activities FROM inflation_beater WHERE focus_area = 'FORTUNE 100') SET COLUMN_VALUE = 'DISBAND OSHA' WHERE COLUMN_VALUE = 'SIDESTEP OSHA';

the.sql

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Using the TABLE and CAST Operators 

Use CAST to convert a collection from one type to another, TABLE to convert a TYPE into a database table.
± Cannot use with index-by tables. ± Useful when you would like to apply SQL operations against a PL/SQL collection (ie, one not stored in a database table).
DECLARE nyc_devolution cutbacks_for_taxcuts := cutbacks_for_taxcuts ('Stop rat extermination programs', 'Fire building inspectors', 'Close public hospitals'); BEGIN DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE ( 'How to Make the NYC Rich Much, Much Richer:'); FOR rec IN (SELECT COLUMN_VALUE ohmy FROM TABLE (CAST (nyc_devolution AS cutbacks_for_taxcuts))) LOOP DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE (rec.ohmy); END LOOP; cast.sql END;

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genus.species.page 51 .country FROM bird_habitats bh WHERE bh. DECLARE CURSOR bird_curs IS SELECT b. converting a set of data (table. with potential client-server performance impact. CAST(MULTISET(SELECT bh.genus AND bh.genus = b. view.species = b.species) AS country_tab_t) FROM birds b.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . information for the BEGIN master in one trip. Retrieves all detail bird_row bird_curs%ROWTYPE. ± You can use MULTISET to emulate or transform relational joins into collections. ± Cannot use with index-by tables. multiset. b. OPEN bird_curs. FETCH bird_curs into bird_row. END.Using the MULTISET Operator  MULTISET is the inverse of TABLE. query) into a VARRAY or nested table.

Instead. hiredates date_tab.sql PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . call functions that retrieve the table's data.  CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE ibtab IS FUNCTION rowval (indx IN PLS_INTEGER) RETURN DATE. FUNCTION rowval (indx IN PLS_INTEGER) RETURN DATE IS BEGIN RETURN hiredates (indx). END. WNPS. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY ibtab IS TYPE date_tab IS TABLE OF DATE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. WNDS).page 52 . but hide the index-by table structure. PRAGMA RESTRICT_REFERENCES (rowval. END. Make accessible in SQL for Oracle8 and below.Referencing IB Tables inside SQL  You can't directly reference an index-by table's contents inside SQL. END. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein ibtab_in_sql.

 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Examples of Collections in Action  Emulation of bi-directional cursor operations Avoid mutating table problems in database triggers.page 53 .

didn't make it!  Instead. PROCEDURE nextRow. This is particularly useful (read: efficient) when you need to perform multiple passes against the data. Notice that the collection itself is hidden. ± A talked-about feature for Oracle9i -.Bi-Directional Cursor Emulation  Oracle does not yet support the ability to move back and forth (and at random) through a cursor's result set. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE bidir IS /* Iterate through rows in the result set */ PROCEDURE setRow (nth IN PLS_INTEGER).page 54 .  bidir. FUNCTION getRow RETURN employee_plus%ROWTYPE.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . deposit your data in a collection and then provide programs to access that data in the necessary fashion.nope. PROCEDURE prevRow.pkg bidir. END.

Statement Level UPDATE emp SET sal = 1000 UPDATE row 1 Row Level  UPDATE row N Row level triggers cannot query from or change the contents of the table to which it is attached.The Mutating Table Problem  Database triggers can be attached to the SQL statement and/or the individual row operations on a table. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 55 . So what are you supposed to do when a row-level operation needs to "touch" that table? mutating. it is "mutating".sql  Note: in Oracle8i. you can use autonomous transactions to relax restrictions associated with queries.

1st row trigger fires Nth row trigger fires Writes to list Writes to list Work List (PL/SQL Table)  Process data in the list. If you are going to defer the work. you need to defer the action until you get to the statement level. you have to remember what you needed to do.A Solution Based on Index-by Tables  Since you cannot perform the processing desired in the row-level trigger. ± an index-by table is an ideal repository for this reminder list. Statement Trigger 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 56 .

± As the sales amount is updated in this table. we then know which departments to re-rank. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .88 144533. ± By storing the salesperson¶s department ids as they change. the rankings must also change to show the new standings for that department only.page 57 .An Example: Ranking Salespeople  A table holds the rankings based on the amount of annual sales of salespeople within a department. ± We might update more than one department within a statement so we must be able to retain multiple department numbers.25 3 1 2 6 "Deferred work" is not only necessary.91 109000.25 65011. but preferable. Department ID Salesperson ID Sales Amount Rank 1055 1055 1055 1047  64333 65709 65706 70904 74055.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .add_dept (:new. END.sales_amt != NEW.Trigger Logic Required Row Level Trigger CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER Rank_Sales_Rtrg AFTER insert OR update OF sales_amt ON rank_sales FOR EACH ROW WHEN (OLD. END.rank_depts.pkg All details of the ranking are hidden in the package body.dept_id). Statement Level Trigger CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER Rank_Sales_Strg AFTER INSERT OR UPDATE OR DELETE ON rank_sales BEGIN rank. ranking.page 58 . Doesn't fire unless the sales_amt is actually changed.sales_amt) BEGIN rank.

page 59 . END add_dept 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Create row to indicate department to be ranked. PACKAGE BODY rank IS in_process BOOLEAN := FALSE. PROCEDURE rank_depts. END rank. PROCEDURE add_dept (dept_id_in IN INTEGER) IS BEGIN IF NOT in_process THEN dept_tab (dept_id_in) := TRUE. TYPE dept_tabtype IS TABLE OF BOOLEAN INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. Table holds indicator that department needs re-ranking.The Ranking Package PACKAGE rank IS PROCEDURE add_dept (dept_id_in IN INTEGER). END IF. dept_tab dept_tabtype. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

LOOP EXIT WHEN v_deptid IS NULL.page 60 .The Ranking Package. perform_ranking (v_deptid).NEXT (v_deptid). END rank_dept. v_deptid := dept_tab.FIRST. END rank. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .DELETE. dept_tab. END IF. Continued PROCEDURE rank_depts IS v_deptid PLS_INTEGER := dept_tab. END LOOP. Clean up for next time. BEGIN IF NOT in_process THEN in_process := TRUE. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Avoid recursive execution of logic Row number is department number. in_process := FALSE.

You want to use inside SQL.Which Collection Type Should I Use?  Index-by tables ± Need to use in both Oracle7 and Oracle8 applications ± Want to take advantage of sparse nature for "intelligent keys". Set of data is relatively small (avoid row chaining). You don't want to have to worry about sparseness.  VARRAYs ± ± ± ± You want to preserve the order in which elements are stored. ± You want to use inside SQL.page 61 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Nested tables ± You want to store large amounts of persistent data in a column.

Tips for Using Collections 

Wrap access to your collections.
± In many cases, you will want to avoid direct access to (assigning and retrieving) rows in your collections. ± This will give you the flexibility to change your implementation. ± You can also hide complex rules for setting the row number. 

Get creative!
± Don't always fill and use the index-by table sequentially. ± If you can somehow translate your application data to an integer, it can be used as a row number, and therefore offers indexed access. ± Julian date formats and DBMS_UTILITY.GET_HASH_VALUE offer two different methods.

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Achieving PL/SQL Excellence

Cursor Variables

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 63

Architecture of Cursor Variables
With Hard-Coded Cursors
Hard-Coded Cursor

With Cursor Variables

PGA

Cursor Variable

Cursor Variable

Result Set

Shared Global Area

Cursor Object

Result Set 

A cursor variable points to an underlying cursor object in the database.
± The cursor object in turns points to (and keeps its place in) a result set. 

The cursor variable can be passed between programs (even between, say, a Java servlet and a PL/SQL stored procedure).
± Static SQL only -- until Oracle8i.
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1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

Benefits of Cursor Variables 

Share cursor management between programs, even across the client-server divide.
± You don't have to pass the result sets of a cursor in order to allow the client-side program to have direct access to the data in the result set. ± Oracle Developer 2.1 utilizes cursor variables when you choose to construct a "base table block" around stored procedures instead of a database table. 

Share the same code across multiple, different queries.
± Since the cursor name is no longer hard-coded, you can use a single block of code (say, a reporting program) against different queries. ± We will try out this technique at the end of the section.

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Cursor Variable Example
DECLARE TYPE company_curtype IS REF CURSOR RETURN company%ROWTYPE;
Declare a variable cursor TYPE.

company_curvar company_curtype;

Declare cursor variable based on that type. Declare a record from cursor variable. OPEN cursor variable, specifying the query. FETCH from the cursor variable.

company_rec company_curvar%ROWTYPE; BEGIN OPEN company_curvar FOR SELECT * FROM company;

FETCH company_curvar INTO company_rec;
Close the cursor variable.

CLOSE company_curvar; END;
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Explicit Cursors and Cursor Variables 

Both hard-coded cursors and cursor variables work with static SQL.
± The SQL is fixed at compile-time. ± The difference is that with cursor variables, you get to decide which static query is opened. 

Many cursor operations are the same:
± Close a variable cursor with the same syntax as that for static cursors. ± Use cursor attributes (%ISOPEN, %FOUND, %NOTFOUND, %ROWCOUNT) with cursor variables (as of Release 2.3). ± Fetch data from the cursor result set through a cursor variable with the same syntax as that of static cursors. 

Let¶s focus on the new and different capabilities of cursor variables.
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Declaring Cursor Types and Variables 

Cursors are declared in two steps, just like programmerdefined records and PL/SQL tables.
± 1. Define a cursor TYPE -- either "weak" or "strong". ± 2. Define a cursor variable.
DECLARE TYPE weak_curtype IS REF CURSOR; TYPE comp_curtype IS REF CURSOR RETURN company%ROWTYPE; curcmp_new comp_curtype; cur_any weak_curtype; BEGIN
Declare cursor variables from the TYPEs. Declare a STRONG referenced cursor TYPE. Declare a WEAK referenced cursor TYPE.

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Strong vs. Weak Cursor Types 

A strong (or constrained) cursor type has a defined return data specification.
± Can only reference cursor objects which return the same data specification, which can be any single SQL datatype or any previously defined record structure. ± Datatype mismatches are identified at compile time.

TYPE cur_typ_name IS REF CURSOR [ RETURN return_type ]; TYPE cur_typ_name IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE; /* Strong */ 

The weak (or unconstrained) cursor type does not have a RETURN clause.
± It can reference any cursor object, be opened FOR any query. ± Datatype mismatches can only be identified at runtime.

TYPE cur_typ_name IS REF CURSOR; /* Weak */
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Opening with the Cursor Variable
OPEN cursor_name FOR select_statement; 

When you open a cursor variable (whether of the weak or strong variety), you must provide the SQL query that identifies the result set.
± If the variable has not yet been assigned to cursor object, the OPEN FOR statement implicitly creates an object for the variable. ± If the variable is already pointing to a cursor object, the OPEN FOR reuses the existing object and attaches the new query to that cursor object. 

Remember, the cursor object is nothing more than a memory location.
± It is maintained independently of the query itself.
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. a cursor or a programmer-defined record. ± You can establish the return type based on a database table. emp_curvar emp_curtype.. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  STRONG cursor data specifications must match or be compatible with the structure of the SELECT statement.page 71 . Match Needed BEGIN OPEN emp_curvar FOR SELECT * from emp. .Opening with Strong Cursor Types DECLARE TYPE emp_curtype IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE. END.

BEGIN IF get_type_in = µEMP¶ THEN Either query will "do". REF TYPE placed in package so that it is "globally" available. END IF. you can associate any SELECT statement with a weak cursor variable.page 72 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . THEN OPEN retval FOR SELECT * FROM dept. END. RETURN retval. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . OPEN retval FOR SELECT * FROM emp. Verification will take ELSIF get_type_in = µDEPT¶ place at the FETCH. END.cv_type.  A weak cursor TYPE doesn't define the RETURN structure.Opening with Weak Cursor Types PACKAGE pkg IS TYPE cv_type IS REF CURSOR.cv_type IS retval pkg. FUNCTION open_emp_or_dept (get_type_in IN VARCHAR2) RETURN pkg.

mismatch.Fetching from the Cursor Variable FETCH cursor_var_name INTO record_name..   Compatibility checks are performed prior to fetching row. var_name.  Fetching with cursor variables follows the same rules as those with static cursors. ± The ROWTYPE_MISMATCH exception is raised on failure. ± Fetching can continue with a different INTO clause. it match the cursor type data specification. it match the OPEN FOR statement structure. ± FOR WEAK cursor types.. .sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 73 .. The INTO structure must match in number and datatype to: ± FOR STRONG cursor types. FETCH cursor_var_name INTO var_name.

± You could use dynamic SQL to achieve this effect.  Define a base table block in Forms Builder (formerly Oracle Forms) on stored procedures rather than a table directly. Use a single block of code to manipulate multiple queries. ± JDBC recognizes cursor variables.page 74 .  hccursor. but static cursors are more efficient than dynamic SQL and cursor variables are less complicated than DBMS_SQL. you have to repeat the code for each cursor. since cursor names are "hard coded".When to Use Cursor Variables  Make it easier for calling programs (especially non-PL/SQL programs) to manipulate result sets. ± With explicit cursors.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

/ allcurrs. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE allcurs IS bydept CONSTANT INTEGER := 1. ± It also creates the data structures you will need to call the function. TYPE cv_t IS REF CURSOR RETURN int_rt.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 75 .Consolidating Different Cursors  The following package specification hides the SQL behind a single open function.tst explcv. TYPE int_rt IS RECORD (key INTEGER). END.pkg allcurs. bysal CONSTANT INTEGER := 2. FUNCTION open (type_in IN INTEGER) RETURN cv_t.

END IF.Consolidating Different Cursors  The open function simply opens FOR a different SELECT based on the criteria passed to it. RETURN retval. ELSIF type_in = bysal THEN OPEN retval FOR SELECT empno FROM emp ORDER BY SAL. BEGIN IF type_in = bydept THEN OPEN retval FOR SELECT empno FROM emp ORDER BY deptno.page 76 . END. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY allcurs IS FUNCTION open (type_in IN INTEGER) RETURN cv_t IS retval cv_t.

/ 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . EXIT WHEN cv%NOTFOUND. CLOSE cv. p. END LOOP.open (&1).empno%TYPE.l (v_empno).page 77 "Report processor" is independent of the particular SELECT . END. change the ORDER BY clause -without having to change the code you write.cv_t. DECLARE cv allcurs. v_empno emp.in this case.Hiding SQL Variations in Resulting Code  The following block demonstrates that you can alter which SQL statement to query -. BEGIN cv := allcurs. LOOP FETCH cv INTO v_empno.

 Strong and Weak Types ± Create REF CURSORs for specific queries. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Hide Variations in Underlying SQL ± You no longer have to repeat the same code for different cursors. you can build screens that access data using a cursor variable-based procedural API.page 78 .Cursor Variables Let's summarize  Flexibility ± Choose which static SQL statement is executed at run-time. unconstrained type.1.  Improve Client-Side Access to Data ± At least in Oracle Developer 2. or a more general.

Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Dynamic SQL  Dynamic SQL and dynamic PL/SQL: ± The DBMS_SQL package ± Native dynamic SQL in Oracle8i 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 79 .

you no longer have to write SQL to generate SQL to get your job done. ± One example: implement indirect referencing in PL/SQL. ± Very common requirement on the Web.1 and DBMS_SQL. What can you do with Dynamic SQL?  Build ad-hoc query and update applications. ± Also supported with "native dynamic SQL" in Oracle8i.Dynamic SQL and PL/SQL Execution  "Dynamic SQL" mean that you construct the SQL statement or PL/SQL block at runtime and then execute it.  Execute dynamically-constructed PL/SQL programs.page 80 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Available in PL/SQL since Release 2.  Execute DDL inside PL/SQL programs. ± Construct powerful DBA utilities.

   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Method 3: queries with a fixed number of items in the SELECT list and a fixed number of host variables. executed a single time.page 81 . Method 2: non-queries with a fixed number of host variables. Method 4: queries with a variable number of items in the SELECT list and/or non-queries with a variable number of host variables. These methods are in increasing order of complexity. ± NDS does not support method 4. If you can recognize the types. ± Different methods require the use of different programs in DBMS_SQL.Four Methods of Dynamic SQL   Method 1: non-queries without host variables. you can more quickly figure out how to code your solution. execute one or more times.

DML and single row fetches. difficult to use. you would use the DBMS_SQL built-in package to execute dynamic SQL. used for DDL.Native Dynamic SQL  Prior to Oracle8i. ± But this package is very complex.page 82 . and relatively slow (performance did improve significantly as of Oracle8). used for multi-row queries. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± OPEN FOR <sql string>.  The new "native dynamic SQL" or NDS of Oracle8i offers two native statements in the PL/SQL language to implement most of your dynamic SQL requirements: ± EXECUTE IMMEDIATE <sql string>.

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..]..page 83   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . The USING clause allows you to specify bind arguments or variables to be passed into the SQL string before execution. collections and records. | record }] [USING {IN | OUT | IN OUT] bind argument [.EXECUTE IMMEDIATE EXECUTE IMMEDIATE sql-string [INTO {define_variable[. The INTO clause allows you to pass values from the select list of a single row query into local variables. including objects.. {IN | OUT | IN OUT] bind argument].  Use this statement to execute any dynamic SQL statement (including a PL/SQL block) except for multi-row queries.. define_variables].

USER) || '.COUNT(*) For Any Table  Here's a handy and simple utility based on NDS: CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION tabCount ( tab IN VARCHAR2.' || tab || ' WHERE ' || NVL (whr.sf PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . table and retval INTEGER. whr IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. IF tabCount ('citizens'.page 84 .. 'insured = ''NO''') > 40.000. RETURN retval. END.. END IF..000 THEN DBMS_OUTPUT. BEGIN EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'SELECT COUNT(*) FROM ' || NVL (sch. WHERE clause..sf compare with: tabcount. sch IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) RETURN INTEGER IS Specify schema. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein tabcount81.PUT_LINE ( 'Not the best health care system in the world. '1=1') INTO retval. and not much of a democracy either!').

start_in. Pass in bind variables with USING clause. end_in IN DATE. col_in IN VARCHAR2.page 85 . END.. END. PROCEDURE runprog (pkg_in IN VARCHAR2. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END.'. name_in IN VARCHAR2) IS v_str VARCHAR2 (100). end_in. start_in IN DATE. EXECUTE IMMEDIATE v_str. val_in IN NUMBER) IS BEGIN EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'UPDATE ' || tab_in || ' SET ' || col_in || ' = :val WHERE hiredate BETWEEN :lodate AND :hidate' USING val_in.Other Execute Immediate Examples  Perform an update... EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN pl ('Compile Error "' || SQLERRM || '" on: ' || v_str).' || name_in || '.  Execute a stored procedure. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE updnumval ( tab_in IN VARCHAR2. BEGIN v_str := 'BEGIN ' || pkg_in || '..

PROCEDURE add_profit_source ( hosp_name IN VARCHAR2.Using Objects and Collections in NDS  One of the key advantages to NDS over DBMS_SQL is that it works with Oracle8 datatypes. cond IN preexisting_conditions) IS BEGIN EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'INSERT INTO ' || tabname (hosp_name) || ' VALUES (:revenue_generator. ± In the following example. pers IN Person.page 86 . cond. :revenue_inhibitors)' USING pers..pkg PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± No special syntax needed.. END. the USING clause allows me to pass an object and nested table to an INSERT statement with a variable table name. including objects and collections. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein health$.

showcol. BEGIN OPEN cv FOR 'SELECT ' || col || ' FROM ' || tab || ' WHERE ' || NVL (whr. col IN VARCHAR2.sp END. variable syntax! EXIT WHEN cv%NOTFOUND. END LOOP. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE showcol ( tab IN VARCHAR2. whr IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) IS TYPE cv_type IS REF CURSOR. DBMS_OUTPUT. val VARCHAR2(32767).Multiple Row Queries and NDS  Oracle extends the cursor variable feature of Oracle7 to support multi-row dynamic queries. '1 = 1'). ndsutil. ± Here is a simple utility the displays the values of any date. LOOP Familiar cursor FETCH cv INTO val.page 87 . CLOSE cv.PUT_LINE (val). number or string column in any table. cv cv_type.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

page 88 . You can have duplicate placeholders (for bind arguments). column names. provide a value for each distinct placeholder (by name). pass a variable with a NULL value.pkg    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . The USING clause for a query can only have IN bind arguments. ± If dynamic PL/SQL. str2list. ± If dynamic SQL.Some Fine Print for NDS  You cannot pass schema elements (table names. etc. Instead. then you provide a value for each placeholder (by position).) through the USING clause. You cannot pass the NULL literal directly in the USING clause.

Supports all four methods of dynamic SQL.Dynamic SQL using DBMS_SQL  Prior to Oracle8i. The overhead for using DBMS_SQL has decreased significantly in Oracle8 and again in Oracle8i. in particular method 4.     1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . with many rules to follow and lots of code to write. You should only use DBMS_SQL when you cannot use NDS. DBMS_SQL is a very large and complex package. the only way to perform dynamic SQL was with the DBMS_SQL package.page 89 .

page 90 .Learning Through Examples  DDL ± Create an index from within PL/SQL  DML ± Update rows in a table  DML with binding ± Update rows using bind variables  Queries ± Method 3 and a dynamic WHERE clause  PL/SQL Version of "SELECT *" ± Example of Method 4  PL/SQL ± Create a generic calculation program 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

± Construct the DDL statement as a string. fdbk INTEGER.OPEN_CURSOR. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Open a cursor. ± Parse and execute that DDL statement.  creind.sp Creates an index on any column(s) in any table in your schema.NATIVE). col_in IN VARCHAR2) IS cur INTEGER := DBMS_SQL. END. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL. tab_in IN VARCHAR2.EXECUTE (cur).PARSE (cur.DDL with Dynamic SQL PROCEDURE create_index (index_in IN VARCHAR2.page 91 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . DDL_statement.CLOSE_CURSOR (cur). DBMS_SQL. fdbk := DBMS_SQL. which will be used to execute the DDL statement. DDL_statement VARCHAR2(200) := 'CREATE INDEX ' || index_in || ' ON ' || tab_in || ' ( ' || col_in || ')'.

DBMS_SQL. val_in IN NUMBER) IS cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL.ename%TYPE. 'UPDATE emp SET ' || col_in || ' = ' || val_in || ' WHERE ename LIKE UPPER (''' || ename_in || ''')'.PUT_LINE ('Rows updated: ' || TO_CHAR (fdbk)). CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE updnumval ( col_in IN VARCHAR2. DBMS_OUTPUT.Updates with Dynamic SQL  Update numeric column for specified employees.CLOSE_CURSOR (cur).NATIVE). DBMS_SQL. END.OPEN_CURSOR. fdbk PLS_INTEGER. ename_in IN emp. fdbk := DBMS_SQL.page 92 . BEGIN DBMS_SQL. updnval1.EXECUTE (cur).sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .PARSE (cur.

Updates with Bind Variables  Update salaries for date range using binding.BIND_VARIABLE (cur.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE updnumval ( col_in IN VARCHAR2.PARSE (cur. DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL. end_in IN DATE. start_in). fdbk PLS_INTEGER. val_in IN NUMBER) IS cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL.sp updnval3.NATIVE). updnval2. 'hidate'. end_in). 'UPDATE emp SET ' || col_in || ' = ' || val_in || ' WHERE hiredate BETWEEN :lodate AND :hidate'. fdbk := DBMS_SQL.OPEN_CURSOR. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.BIND_VARIABLE (cur.PUT_LINE ('Rows updated: ' || TO_CHAR (fdbk)). END. DBMS_OUTPUT. 'lodate'. DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL.CLOSE_CURSOR (cur). start_in IN DATE.EXECUTE (cur).page 93 .

Processing Flow for a Dynamic Query Allocate cursor memory (OPEN_CURSOR) Fill cursor with data (EXECUTE) Make sure SELECT is well formed (PARSE) Fill buffer with data (FETCH_ROWS) (EXECUTE_AND_FETCH) Bind any variables (BIND_VARIABLE) (BIND_ARRAY) Retrieve the data (COLUMN_VALUE) Give cursor structure (DEFINE_COLUMN) (DEFINE_ARRAY) Release cursor memory (CLOSE_CURSOR) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 94 .

'1=1').PARSE (cur.sp showemps.FETCH_ROWS (cur) = 0.CLOSE_CURSOR (cur). rec. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein showemps. 1. 1).tst PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .ename)..page 95 . DBMS_OUTPUT. LOOP EXIT WHEN DBMS_SQL. 2. DBMS_SQL.Queries with Dynamic SQL  Show employees using a dynamic WHERE clause.OPEN_CURSOR.PUT_LINE (TO_CHAR (rec.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. 'SELECT empno.sp showemp2. fdbk := DBMS_SQL. fdbk INTEGER.EXECUTE (cur). 2. END.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. 60).empno).empno) || '=' || rec. DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL. rec. END LOOP. 'a'..COLUMN_VALUE (cur.NATIVE). DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE showemps (where_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) IS cur INTEGER := DBMS_SQL.ename). rec emp%ROWTYPE. ename FROM emp ' || ' WHERE ' || NVL (where_in. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL. 1.COLUMN_VALUE (cur.

NATIVE). ± The resulting code is much more complicated. FOR each-column-in-table LOOP DBMS_SQL. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . val). nth_col. DBMS_SQL.COLUMN_VALUE (cur. END LOOP. datatype). select_string. LOOP fetch-a-row. nth_col.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .Dynamic SELECT * FROM Any Table  Method 4 example: the number of columns queried changes with each table.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. END LOOP. BEGIN FOR each-column-in-table LOOP add-column-to-select-list.page 96 Very simplified pseudo-code intab. END LOOP. END LOOP. END. FOR each-column-in-table LOOP DBMS_SQL.PARSE (cur. DBMS_SQL.

exact_match IN BOOLEAN DEFAULT FALSE) RETURN INTEGER.Using EXECUTE_AND_FETCH FUNCTION execute_and_fetch (cursor_in IN INTEGER. raises NO_DATA_FOUND or raises the TOO_MANY_ROWS exception. numrows := DBMS_SQL. then EXECUTE_AND_FETCH will raise the TOO_MANY_ROWS exception if more than one row is fetched by the SELECT. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± If exact_match is TRUE.page 97 . which returns a single row.EXECUTE_AND_FETCH (cur. numrows := DBMS_SQL. TRUE). ± Even if the exception is raised.  Makes it easy to execute and fetch a single row from a query.EXECUTE_AND_FETCH (cur). the first row will still be fetched and available. ± Very similar to the implicit SELECT cursor in native PL/SQL.

0. NULL.page 98 . I would have to modify my screen every time a new formula was added. FUNCTION dyncalc ( oper_in IN VARCHAR2. arg2_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. arg8_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. arg6_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. NULL.sf dyncalc.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . NULL. a single function will do the trick. NULL.Dynamic Formula Execution  Suppose I am building a user interface that allows a user to select a formula for execution. ± Using static PL/SQL. NULL. nargs_in IN INTEGER := arg1_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg3_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg5_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg7_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg9_in IN VARCHAR2 := ) RETURN VARCHAR2. arg4_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. and enter the arguments. arg10_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL dyncalc. ± With DBMS_SQL.

DBMS_SQL.tst    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Possibilities inherent in dynamic PL/SQL are mind-boggling! dynplsql. END.'). END.  Use BIND_VARIABLE to bind any placeholders in the string -. Use VARIABLE_VALUE to extract a value from any variable you have bound.page 99 .BIND_VARIABLE (cur.VARIABLE_VALUE (cur. fdbk := DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL. µdeptin¶. :salout). µsalout¶.even OUT arguments which are not being bound to any values. DBMS_SQL.sp dynplsql. v_deptin).More on Dynamic PL/SQL BEGIN cur := open_and_parse ('BEGIN get_max_sal (:deptin.sql dynplsql. my_salary).BIND_VARIABLE (cur. You must have a BEGIN-END around the code.EXECUTE (cur). µsalout¶. my_salary).

OPEN_CURSOR.Indirect Referencing with Dyn PL/SQL  Oracle Forms offers support for indirect referencing with the NAME_IN and COPY built-ins.NATIVE). retval). 'val'. RETURN retval. END. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. fdbk PLS_INTEGER.VARIABLE_VALUE (v_cur.'. Here is an example of a "PL/SQL NAME_IN": FUNCTION valbyname (nm IN VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2 IS v_cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL.PARSE (v_cur.EXECUTE (v_cur). PL/SQL does not support indirect referencing. 2000). 'a'.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .dbmaxvc2. 'BEGIN :val := ' || nm || '.pkg dynvar.page 100  dynvar. retval PLV. DBMS_SQL. 'val'. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END.BIND_VARIABLE (v_cur.CLOSE_CURSOR (v_cur). fdbk := DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL. but you can accomplish much of the same thing with dynamic PL/SQL execution. DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL.

 LAST_ROW_ID ± Returns the ROWID of last row processed.page 101 .  LAST_SQL_FUNCTION_CODE ± Returns SQL function code of cursor.DBMS_SQL Status Built-ins  The package offers a set of modules to return information about the lastoperated cursor in your session.  IS_OPEN ± Is the cursor already open?  LAST_ERROR_POSITION ± Returns relative column position in cursor of text causing error condition. ± Call these immediately after your usage to make sure they refer to your cursor. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  LAST_ROW_COUNT ± Returns the cumulative count of rows fetched from the cursor.

page 102 . you define the column as a LONG.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Working with LONG Values  DBMS_SQL provides special procedures so that you can extract values from a LONG column in a table. ± Transfer the LONG contents into an index-by table so that you can transfer a value of more than 32K bytes into your PL/SQL program. dumplong.COLUMN_VALUE_LONG   First.pkg dumplong.DEFINE_COLUMN_LONG ± DBMS_SQL. ± DBMS_SQL. Then you retrieve the column using the special COLUMN_VALUE_LONG variant.

New DBMS_SQL Features PL/SQL8 Extensions to DBMS_SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 103 .

inserts. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .New Features in DBMS_SQL  The functionality of DBMS_SQL has been extended in Oracle8 in several ways: ± Parse very long SQL strings ± Describe cursor columns ± Use "array processing" to perform bulk updates. ± Support for RETURNING clause to avoid unnecessary queries.page 104 . deletes and fetches.

Describing Cursor Columns PROCEDURE DBMS_SQL. desc_t OUT DBMS_SQL. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .DESC_TAB). col_cnt OUT INTEGER.DESCRIBE_COLUMNS.page 105 . ± Now you can call the DBMS_SQL. it was not possible to determine the datatypes of the columns defined in a cursor.DESCRIBE_COLUMNS (c IN INTEGER.  Before PL/SQL8.  Returns all of the column information in an index table of records. ± The record TYPE is also defined in DBMS_SQL.

DBMS_SQL.tst showcols.page 106 .Basic Steps to Describe Columns  The following script shows the individual steps you will need to perform in order to use this feature. ncols PLS_INTEGER. END. cols DBMS_SQL.pkg desccols. DBMS_SQL.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .DESC_TAB.PARSE (cur. FOR colind IN 1 .. desccols.col_name).PUT_LINE (cols(colind).OPEN_CURSOR. DBMS_SQL. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. ncols LOOP DBMS_OUTPUT. ncols. END LOOP. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE show_columns IS cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL. cols). empno FROM emp'.NATIVE).DESCRIBE_COLUMNS (cur.CLOSE_CURSOR (cur). 'SELECT hiredate.

index tables. inserts. DBMS_SQL is executing the specified SQL statement N times. Instead of providing a scalar value for an operation. DBMS_SQL then repeats your action for every row in the table.    This technique still. when you perform updates. can offer a significant performance boost over Oracle7 dynamic SQL. i. deletes and fetches.e. where N is the number of rows in the table. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .. It really isn't "array processing".page 107 . ± In actuality. you specify an index table. however."Array Processing" in DBMS_SQL  PL/SQL8 now allows you to specify the use of "arrays".

 Use the Oracle8i invoker rights model whenever you want to share your dynamic SQL programs among multiple schemas. though you could write variations for those as well. not the invoker of the code. etc.PARSE so that you include the trace in that program. concatenate) whenever possible.Recommendations for Dynamic SQL  Bind (vs.  Encapsulate statements to improve error handling. ± Otherwise that SQL will be executed under the authority of the owner of the code.sql openprse. ± Encapsulate DBMS_SQL. ± With NDS.page 108 . effdsql. column names.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . and easier code to write. only possible for statements that do not need USING and INTO clauses.) through the USING clause. ± Increased chance of reusing parsed SQL.pkg whichsch. ± But remember: you cannot pass schema elements (table names.

of course. Both implementations will still come in handy.. ± If. you have upgraded to Oracle8i!  Major Advantages of NDS: ± Ease of use ± Performance ± Works with all SQL datatypes (including userdefined object and collection types) ± Fetch into records  When You'd Use DBMS_SQL: ± ± ± ± ± ± ± Method 4 Dynamic SQL DESCRIBE columns of cursor SQL statements larger than 32K RETURNING into an array Reuse of parsed SQL statements Bulk dynamic SQL Available from client-side PL/SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 109 ..NDS or DBMS_SQL: Which is Best?  Dynamic SQL and PL/SQL is very useful. but DBMS_SQL is hard to use.

asynchronous.page 110 . persistent messaging subsytem of Oracle 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Oracle Advanced Queuing  The high performance.

page 111 . Distribution Center Coffee Beans Producer Shipping Service Retailer Consumer 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Who Needs Messaging? Everyone!  In the distributed world of the Internet. systems are now heavily reliant on the ability of components to communicate with each other in a dependable. consistent manner.

Applications Relying on Messaging     Stock trading system Airline reservation system Auction portals Any e-commerce application 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 112 .

message propagation. the listen feature and notification capabilities. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Key Features of Oracle AQ  Leverage full power of SQL ± Messages are stored in database tables  Database high availability.page 113 . AQ now offers a publish/subscribe style of messaging between applications. ± Rule-based subscribers. scalability and reliability all carry over to queues ± Strong history and retention ± Backup and recovery ± Comprehensive journaliing  Rich message content increases usefulness of queueing ± Use object types to define highly structured payloads  New to Oracle8i.

page 114 .AQ architectural overview Queue Monitor process Queue table Queue ³Producers´ Enqueued messages Message 4 Message 3 Message 2 Message1 ³Consumers´ Dequeued messages Messages include both control information and ³payload´ (content) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

0.Oracle AQ Highlights  In 8.page 115 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . AQ supports: ± ± ± ± ± Multiple queues Resetting order and priority of queued items Queue management using only SQL & PL/SQL Multiple message recipients Propagation of queue to remote servers  Oracle8i adds: ± ± ± ± Rules-based publish & subscribe Listening on multiple queues Easier monitoring Native Java interface PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

AQ Components  The DBMS_AQ package offers enqueue and dequeue capabilities The DBMS_AQADM package provides administrative functionality to manage queues and queue tables. Underlying database tables and views The queue monitor (background process) ± Set # of processes with the AQ_TM_PROCESSES initialization parameter.    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 116 .

whether multiple consumers Drops table if all queues in the table have been stopped Associates queue table with queue. payload type.DBMS_AQADM Highlights CREATE_QUEUE_TABLE DROP_QUEUE_TABLE CREATE_QUEUE DROP_QUEUE START_QUEUE STOP_QUEUE ADD_SUBSCRIBER Assigns name. assigns retry and retention properties to queue Drops a stopped queue Can also turn on/off enqueue and dequeue operations Stops queue. sort column. optionally waiting for outstanding transactions Adds an ³agent´ as a subscriber 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . storage clause.page 117 .

Define the "payload" Create the queue table DBMS_AQADM.pkg Start the queue PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . queue_table => 'msg'). / BEGIN DBMS_AQADM. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein aq. queue_payload_type => 'message_type'). END.START_QUEUE (queue_name => 'msgqueue'). Define a queue in the queue table DBMS_AQADM. text VARCHAR2(2000)).CREATE_QUEUE (queue_name => 'msgqueue'.CREATE_QUEUE_TABLE (queue_table => 'msg'.page 118 .Creating Queue Tables and Queues CREATE TYPE message_type AS OBJECT (title VARCHAR2(30).

 ENQUEUE puts a message into a specified queue.page 119   aq.The "operational package": DBMS_AQ  DBMS_AQ is deceptively simple. but lots of complexity buried inside the parameters of these procedures.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . and returns a RAW message handle DEQUEUE extracts a message from a specified queue Parameters control message properties such as: ± Visibility (ON_COMMIT or IMMEDIATE) ± ± ± ± Priority Delay Expiration Locking behavior PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Only two procedures.

msgid_type.. BEGIN my_msg := message_type ( 'First Enqueue'.* Place the message on the specified queue and get a msg ID in return. my_msg.MESSAGE_PROPERTIES_T.. msgprops. queueopts. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Set up the payload with an object constructor. msgid). DBMS_AQ. msgid aq. END. Declare records to hold various enqueue and msg properties.ENQUEUE_OPTIONS_T.ENQUEUE ( 'msgqueue'.').page 120 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . aqenq*. 'May there be many more. my_msg message_type.Simple Enqueue Example DECLARE queueopts DBMS_AQ. msgprops DBMS_AQ.

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .sequence_deviation := DBMS_AQ.. 'And this one goes first. my_msg.delay := 3 * 60 * 60 * 24.ENQUEUE ( 'msgqueue'. BEGIN my_msg := message_type ( 'First Enqueue'..relative_msgid := msgid1.More Interesting Enqueue Example DECLARE . END. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Specify a delay before the payload is available. DBMS_AQ. msgprops. 'May there be many more.'). my_msg := message_type ( 'Second Enqueue'.'). msgprops. queueopts... msgprops. my_msg.ENQUEUE ('msgqueue'.. Modify the dequeue sequence by changing the deviation field and relative msg ID. queueopts. msgid2). queueopts.. DBMS_AQ.. msgid1).BEFORE. Same setup as previous page .. queueopts.page 121 .

msgid).REMOVE). END.msgid_type. getmsg (DBMS_AQ. DBMS_AQ.* Declare records to hold various dequeue and msg properties.DEQUEUE_OPTIONS_T. msgprops DBMS_AQ.pkg */ my_msg message_type. END. BEGIN getmsg (DBMS_AQ.DEQUEUE ( 'msgqueue'. queueopts. msgprops. /* defined in aq. Demonstrates destructive and non-destructive dequeuing.MESSAGE_PROPERTIES_T.BROWSE).Dequeue Example DECLARE queueopts DBMS_AQ. Dequeue operation isolated in local module. getmsg (DBMS_AQ. msgid aq.dequeue_mode := mode_in. my_msg.REMOVE). PROCEDURE getmsg (mode_in IN INTEGER) IS BEGIN queueopts. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 122 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . aqdeq*.

queueopts.pkg priority. queueopts. item_obj aqstk_objtype.ENQUEUE ( c_queue.MESSAGE_PROPERTIES_T.1. the higher the priority. aqstk. ± The lower the numeric priority value. g_priority := g_priority . msgprops.* 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .priority := g_priority. DBMS_AQ. END. BEGIN item_obj := aqstk_objtype (item).page 123 . msgid aq.pkg aqstk2. msgprops DBMS_AQ. msgprops.Prioritized Payloads  You can assign priorities to individual payloads and then dequeue according to those priorities.msgid_type.  A stack implementation using AQ demonstrates this well. item_obj.visibility := DBMS_AQ. PROCEDURE push (item IN VARCHAR2) IS queueopts DBMS_AQ.IMMEDIATE. msgid).ENQUEUE_OPTIONS_T.

± The message is then not removed from the queue until all subscribers have dequeued the message.CREATE_QUEUE_TABLE ( queue_table => 'major_qtable'. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein aqmult*.ADD_SUBSCRIBER ( c_queue. SYS.* PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Steps to working with a subscriber list: ± 1.AQ$_AGENT (name_in. The queue table must be defined to support multiple subscribers or consumers. BEGIN DBMS_AQADM. DBMS_AQADM. ± 2. queue_payload_type => 'student_major_t'. NULL)).page 124 .Defining Message Subscribers  You can specify that a message is to be enqueued for a list of subscribers. Add subscribers for the queue. multiple_consumers => TRUE). NULL.

supporting a publish-subscribe model. ± Crucial for Oracle to have a message-oriented middleware in order to offer an all-Oracle solution.page 125 .Summary  Very powerful and flexible architecture. LISTEN capability.Oracle AQ . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Should be strongly supported "down the road". ± Much more robust that DBMS_PIPE.  Considered by Oracle to be a core component of its overall solution. improved security. ± Significant enhancements in Oracle8i.

Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Managing Large Objects with DBMS_LOB 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 126 .

they should no longer be used. etc. though they will probably not be actually desupported.  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Oracle has announced deprecation of LONGs.LOB Terms  LOB = Large OBject: a category of datatype allowing storage of ³unstructured´ data up to 4 gigabytes LOB datatype can be: ± Column in table ± Attribute in object type ± Element in nested table   Possible applications include office documents. sounds. LOB datatypes are the successor to LONGs. Images.page 127 . video.

page 128 . improving performance.  Key programming differences: ± Internal LOBs participate in transactions. external do not ± External LOBs are read-only from within Oracle 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Types of Large Objects  ³Internal´ LOBs ± BLOB: unstructured binary data ± CLOB: single-byte fixedwidth character data ± NCLOB: multi-byte fixedwidth character data (or varying width in )  ³External´ LOBs ± BFILE: pointer to an operating system file  Temporary LOBs ± Internal LOBs that do not participate in transactions.

comparison and length checking ± For internal LOBs: Write. append.page 129 . substring and instring searches. trim ± For external LOBs: File existence test. EMPTY_CLOB() ± BFILENAME 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . copy. open. close  Other built-in functions ± LOADFROMFILE (load an external BFILE into a BLOB) ± EMPTY_LOB().PL/SQL built-ins for LOBs  Package DBMS_LOB ± Supports for all LOBs: Reading. erase.

Deceptively simple example  BLOB-typed column in a table CREATE TABLE incoming_faxes (fax_id INTEGER. Question: What¶s in the_fax? 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . FETCH fax_cur INTO the_fax. fax BLOB).  Retrieve record with BLOB into PL/SQL variable DECLARE CURSOR fax_cur IS SELECT fax FROM incoming_faxes.page 130 . received DATE. BEGIN OPEN fax_cur. CLOSE fax_cur. the_fax BLOB. END.

The ³LOB locator´ LOB t l sel es [ ll ] t i i t r .page 131 . tt LOBs <lob segment> fax_id 281937 received 12-JAN-98 fax <lob locator> Updati  t e LOB anges t e pointer is ompli ates se of LOBs ± LOB locators cannot span transactions ± Programs must lock records containing LOBs efore updating ± Programs performing L must accommodate dynamic LOB locator alues 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

EMPTY_CLOB()) RETURNING htmlloc INTO the_loc..url%TYPE := 'http://www. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Example: Piecewise CLOB programmatic insert  Create a table CREATE TABLE web_pages ( url VARCHAR2(512) PRIMARY KEY. htmlloc CLOB). BEGIN INSERT INTO web_pages VALUES (the_url. the_loc CLOB. 1 of 2  Must get a new LOB locator before writing into the LOB: DECLARE the_url web_pages..oodb. .com'.page 132 .

page 133 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein BEGIN . several likely exceptions offset => running_total.Example: Piecewise CLOB programmatic insert DECLARE the_url web_pages. EMPTY_CLOB()) and loads a web page RETURNING htmlloc INTO the_loc.com'. the_loc CLOB. FOR the_piece_no IN 1. running_total PLS_INTEGER := 1.REQUEST_PIECES(url => the_url). This block retrieves INSERT INTO web_pages VALUES (the_url..HTML_PIECES. into a CLOB column html_tab := UTL_HTTP. END.COUNT LOOP piece_length := LENGTH(html_tab(the_piece_no)).url%TYPE := 'http://www. END LOOP. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . running_total := running_total + piece_length. html_tab UTL_HTTP.html_tab.WRITE(lob_loc => the_loc.oodb. Note: We are ignoring amount => piece_length. buffer => html_tab(the_piece_no)). DBMS_LOB. piece_length PLS_INTEGER.

END IF.WRITE(lob_loc => the_loc.Example: Piecewise CLOB programmatic update DECLARE Program must lock the record explicitly CURSOR hcur IS SELECT htmlloc FROM web_pages WHERE url = 'http://www. END. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . str_offset := DBMS_LOB. pattern => 'oodb').INSTR(lob_loc => the_loc. amount => 4.com' FOR UPDATE. str_offset INTEGER. BEGIN OPEN hcur.oodb. offset => str_offset. IF str_offset != 0 THEN DBMS_LOB. buffer => 'cool'). FETCH hcur INTO the_loc.page 134 . CLOSE hcur. the_loc CLOB.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 135 .Preparing to use BFILEs  You must first create an Oracle I ORY´ ± Creates logical alias for full directory pat ± imilar to LIBRARY (used for C "external procedures"). ut IRECTORY namespace is global  Syntax: CREATE OR REPLACE DIRECTORY <directory name> AS '<full path to directory>'.  Example: CREATE DIRECTORY web_pix AS 'D:\bill\training\pix'.

. phones Phone_tab_t. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . CREATE TABLE web_graphics ( image_id INTEGER. scanned_card_image BFILE )..Using BFILE datatype in DDL  In a table. image BFILE). CREATE TYPE Business_card_t AS OBJECT ( name Name_t... addresses Address_tab_t.  In an object type.page 136 .

file_exprn) RETURN BFILE. 'prodicon. Spec: FUNCTION BFILENAME(directory_exprn.page 137 . /  Notes: ± No automatic file checking or synchronization ± No participation in transactions 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Example: DECLARE picture BFILE := BFILENAME('WEB_PIX'. BEGIN INSERT INTO web_graphics VALUES (100015.The built-in BFILENAME function  Returns value of datatype BFILE. END.gif'). picture).

image BLOB). DBMS_LOB. END. pic_blob_loc) RETURNING image INTO pic_blob_loc. src_lob => pic_file. DBMS_LOB.FILE_READONLY).gif'). DBMS_LOB. / loadblob.FILEOPEN(pic_file. 'prodicon.FILECLOSE(pic_file). pic_blob_loc BLOB := EMPTY_BLOB(). BEGIN INSERT INTO web_graphic_blobs VALUES (1.LOADFROMFILE(dest_lob => pic_blob_loc.page 138 . amount => DBMS_LOB. DBMS_LOB.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . DECLARE pic_file BFILE := BFILENAME('WEB_PIX'.Loading File into Database BLOB CREATE TABLE web_graphic_blobs ( image_id INTEGER.GETLENGTH(pic_file)).

or transaction  Ability to retrieve LOB ³chunk size´ ± Allows programmer to tune READs and WRITEs  For all internal LOBs ± OPEN & CLOSE allow control over timing.page 139 . call.New DBMS_LOB APIs in 8i  Support for temporary LOBs ± No logging or rollback faster! ± Lifespan: session. that can mean less I/O » Trigger will not fire until CLOSE » Indexes will not update until CLOSE ± ISOPEN 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

COLD 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Complete support in PL/SQL (and other APIs) ± Much better performance and control than with LONGs ± Usable in object types HOT  Some weaknesses.page 140 . ± LOB locator behavior slightly abstruse ± Inability to modify BFILEs directly from within PL/SQL...Summary  LOB support in Oracle is now significantly improved.Large Object .

Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Leveraging Java Inside PL/SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 141 .

a BRIEF introduction to Java.. mid-tier.. functions..Overview of Java interoperability  Java inside or outside 8i server can call PL/SQL ± Standard JDBC and SQLJ calls with Oracle extensions ± Same Java on client. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 142 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . or server Not covered in this seminar  PL/SQL can call Java inside 8i server ± ± ± ± Command-line tools load Java classes DDL extensions publish Java classes Writing stored procedures. triggers in Java Distinct Java & PL/SQL namespaces  But first..

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± The end of programming history as we know it? ± The easiest..page 143 . slickest piece of software ever designed by human beings? ± Just the latest in a series of "silver bullets" promoted by software vendors in order to prop up quarterly sales? ± The first and only successful O-O language? ± None of the above?  We don't really need to take a vote. fastest. ± We just need to keep a firm grip on common sense and stay focused on delivering solutions..Question 1: What is Java?  Could it be.

and very aggressively.page 144 .  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Ubiquitous in thousands of production applications and millions of lines of code. ± A language in which hundreds of thousands of developers are trained. it is very unlikely and totally unthinkable for years to come.Question 2: Will Java Replace PL/SQL?  While that scenario is certainly possible. ± Supported and improved by Oracle -. PL/SQL will still be: ± Faster and more productive than Java for database operations. to boot.

Some Important Things to Remember  Java is a case sensitive language...  You don't have to know how to do everything with Java to get lots of value out of it.. ± Don't get overwhelmed by all the classes and all the strange quirks.. you have to instantiate an object from that class.. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .. ± Before you can call a (non-static) class method.  Everything is a class (or an object instantiated from a class). everything exception the primitive datatypes. ± string is definitely not the same as String.page 145 . ± Well.

by the way: the PL/SQL version 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 146 . END.. no methods. } }  No members. except the "special" main method.println ("Hello world!"). public class Hello { public static void main (String[] args) { System. ± Used to test or run stand-alone a class..Building a Java Class  Let's start from the very beginning. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE hello IS BEGIN DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE ('Hello world!'). Oh.out.

1. you must compile it with the javac command. ± It will also automatically recompile any classes used by your class that has not been compiled since last change.java file to a .zip.zip.d:\java D:> javac Hello.7b\lib\classes. ± This will convert the .java -classpath d:\java 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . e:\jdk1. ± You must also either have set the CLASSPATH or include it in your javac call.page 147 .class file.Compiling Classes  Before you can use a class. SET CLASSPATH = d:\Oracle\Ora81\jdbc\lib\classes111.

java 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Running a Class  Run a class? What does that mean? It means that if your class contains a method with this header: public static void main (String[] args)  then you can "run" the main method with the java command: d:\java> java Hello  You can also pass one or more arguments on the command line: d:\java> java Hello mom Hello2.page 148 .

you will use a class by instantiating objects from the class and then invoking class methods on the object. Usually. however.   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Let's build a performance analyzer class to explore these ideas.page 149 .Using a Class  The main method is handy for providing a built-in test mechanism of your class.

System.l ("Elapsed time for " + context.page 150 .java 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . } public long elapsed () { return (System.l ("Elapsed time ".currentTimeMillis() .java InFile. class Tmr { private long Gstart = 0.Gstart).currentTimeMillis() . } public void showElapsed () { p. } } p. } public void showElapsed (String context) { p.Gstart).java Tmr.currentTimeMillis().currentTimeMillis to calculate elapsed time to nearest thousandth of a second.Compare Performance of Methods  Use System. public void capture () { Gstart = System. elapsed()).

.  Interface class ± The class only contains unimplemented methods. but at least one method remains unimplemented.page 151 .Types of Classes  There are several different kinds of classes in Java. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..  Inner class ± Classes that are defined inside other classes.  Abstract class ± The class can contain members and methods. besides the "regular" kind we just saw.

± Static polymorphism: form is chosen at compile-time (PL/SQL overloading). ± Dynamic polymorphism: form is determined at run-time.And Now for Some Scary Buzzwords!  Inheritance ± Subclasses inherit methods and variables from extended superclasses. supertype/"wider" Citizen Person Employee Hourly Worker Salaried Worker subtype/"narrower" War Criminal Person. either as its own class or as any superclass.java A Class Hierarchy Management NonManagement Corporation 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Polymorphism ± An object of a class can have "multiple" forms.page 152 .

boolean char byte short int long float double  Strings ± A String object is a read-only.equals(YourName)) foundFamily(). ± Can't do a direct == comparison. if (myName.page 153 . myName = "Steven". String myName. myName = "Feuerstein".Language Basics  Comments // Single line comment /* Block comment */ /** Documentation comment */  Primitive datatypes ± So I lied. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . you are actually allocating a new object. if you assign a new value to it. these are not objects instantiated from classes.

hasMoreElements ()) { processIt (enum. for (initialize.Writing Loops in Java  Three kinds of loops: while. System.println (args[indx]).length. indx++) System.NextElement()).page 154 .out. expression. step) { lotsaStuff } while (expression) { lostsaStuff } do { lostsaStuff } while (expression). do-while and for ± Note: you need squiggly brackets only if there is more than one statement in the loop body.out. static void processAll (Enumeration enum) { while (enum. Examples: for (indx indx=0. indx < args.nextElement()) } } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .println ( (String)enum.

you must supply a value for each parameter. ± If a method has no arguments. } public String name () { return mname. you still include the open and close parentheses.name()). class PuterLingo { private String mname..page 155 .out. } } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .println (Java.Passing Parameters  Some important differences from PL/SQL. ± No default values for arguments. System. public PuterLingo (String name) { mname = name. } } class LotsALingos { public static void main (String args[]) { PuterLingo Java = new PuterLingo("Java").. ± Only positional notation is supported.

out.println (e. } catch (Exception e) { System.toString()). "WHEN OTHERS" } in Java } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . rather than raise and handle.equals("")) throw new Exception ("Filename is NULL"). } File-related catch (SecurityException e) { exceptions return -1.page 156 .Exception Handling in Java  Very similar to PL/SQL. Throwing my own public static int numBytes (String filename) { exception try { if (filename. you "throw" and "catch" exceptions.length(). Put inside try clause File myFile = new File (filename). return myFile.

NoSuchFile { .. } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  You must inform users of your method of which exceptions may be thrown. as in: public static int numBytes (String filename) throws SecurityException..page 157 . ± Use the throws clause in your specification. ± So you can pass them as arguments and do anything and everything else you can do with objects.Differences Between Java & PL/SQL  Exceptions are objects derived directly or indirectly from the Exception class.

 Now let's explore how you can put Java to work for you inside PL/SQL programs.Java's Not So Tough!  You can learn enough Java in less than a week to: ± Build simple classes ± Leverage Java inside PL/SQL  Moving to the next level of expertise will be more of a challenge. ± Object oriented development (Java) is very different from procedural coding (PL/SQL). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 158 .

Java Stored Procedures (JSPs) Java applet or app. using JDBC or SQLJ Oracle 8i server PL/SQL cover for Java method Java virtual machine running Java method Oracle Developer client (PL/SQL) Net8 OCI or Pro*C client VB or C++ via OO4O or ODBC 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 159 .

page 160 . network communication in/out PL/SQL replacement ± More standard language ± Good performer for numeric processing tasks ± Beware database I/O & string manipulation performance Scaleable deployment of third party code ± Vertical application ± Web server ± XML parser/generator 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . better file I/O ± RMI callouts.JSPs: Some sample uses PL/SQL extender ± For example.

Publish PL/SQL cover using AS LANGUAGE JAVA. rather than BEGIN.END 4.. Grant privileges as desired 5.Creating JSP to call from PL/SQL   1.. Load into server using ³loadjava´ command-line tool 3... Call from PL/SQL (or SQL) as if calling PL/SQL    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 161 . Create Java classes in your favorite IDE 2.

CEOCompensation = PceoComp. public Corporation ( String Pname.println main method is used to test the class.java Advanced Techniques .page 162 PL/SQL . long PceoComp) { name = Pname. System. long CEOCompensation. Entry points must be public static in most cases Classes may call other classes Avoid GUI calls     person.Create Java class(es) class Corporation extends Person { long layoffs. 5000000. long Playoffs. 50000000).out. }} 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Notes on Java classes  toString method automatically used by System.println (TheGlobalMonster). } public static void main (String[] args) { // A very scary company Corporation TheGlobalMonster = new Corporation ( "Northrup-Ford-Mattel-Yahoo-ATT".out. } public String toString () { return name + " is a transnational entity with " + layoffs + " laid-off employees. paying its" + " Chief Executive Officer " + CEOCompensation. layoffs = Playoffs.

class options (abbreviated) -oci8 -resolve loadjava will connect using OCI driver Resolves external class references at compile time -resolver (shown later) Search path like CLASSPATH 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .java file Java resource file .jar file Oracle 8i server Java class Java source Java resource loadjava Example: loadjava loadjava -user scott/tiger -oci8 -resolve datacraft/bill/Hello.page 163 .class file .Upload using ³loadjava´ utility .

.Emp(int) return java.String'. /  Syntax (simplified) CREATE [ OR REPLACE PROCE URE FUNCTION <name> <sqlt pe> ] [ [ <ar s> ) ] [ AUTHID { DEFINER | CURRENT_USER } ] AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME '<met fullname> (<Ja a t pe fullname>. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 164 .) [ return <Ja a t pe fullname> ]'. .lang..Publish  Example (top-level call spec) CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION hello_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2 AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.bill.Hello.

PUT_LINE(hello_emp(7499)). for example.Call the wrapped method  Method 1: Call as if PL/SQL module BEGIN DBMS_OUTPUT.page 165 .  Method 2: Use 8i SQL CALL statement. PRINT :thename ± CALL avoids overhead of SELECT fn FROM DUAL jsp. from SQL*Plus: VARIABLE thename VARCHAR2(12) CALL hello_emp(7499) INTO :thename. END.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

BigDecimal oracle.ARRAY 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .lang.more concepts Shape mapping ± Java methods declared ³void´ become PL/SQL procedures ± Signature mismatches detected only at runtime Type mapping (typical) VARCHAR2 DATE NUMBER user-defined object type user-defined object type object REFerence user-defined collection type java.page 166 .sql.Timestamp java.math.sql.sql.sql.Publishing -.STRUCT <named type> oracle.String java.REF oracle.

/ (No package body required in this case) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .util.String'.. END.page 167 ..Publish in PL/SQL Package Spec  Designate Java module in PL/SQL package spec.Hello.Emp(int) return java. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE hello_pkg AS FUNCTION hi_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2 AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.lang.

END.or in package body CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE hello_pkg2 AS FUNCTION hi_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2. / CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY hello_pkg2 AS FUNCTION hi_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2 IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.Publish as module in package body  . END. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..String'.page 168 .lang.util..Hello.Emp(int) return java.

Emp(int) return java. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . MEMBER FUNCTION hello_emp RETURN VARCHAR2).Hello.util.lang.String'). MEMBER FUNCTION hello_emp RETURN VARCHAR2 IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft. / or in the body: CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE foo_t AS OBJECT ( bar VARCHAR2(30). / CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE BODY foo_t AS MEMBER FUNCTION hello_emp RETURN VARCHAR2 IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.Emp(int) return java.util. END.String'.lang.page 169 .Publish as object type method  Either in spec: CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE foo_t AS OBJECT ( bar VARCHAR2(30).Hello.

JAVASYSPRIV (needed for file IO operations). JAVA_ADMIN.   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . class. resolves Java class references. JAVADEBUGPRIV ± You can also grant specific privileges. or resource ± Can read file designated with BFILE() function  ALTER JAVA: compiles Java source. JAVAIDPRIV. DROP JAVA: drops a named Java library unit Several roles available for Java operations: ± JAVAUSERPRIV.New DDL Statements and Roles  CREATE JAVA ± Alternative to ³loadjava´ utility ± Creates or replaces an Oracle ³library unit´ from Java source.page 170 .

Passing Oracle8 objects Oracle8i server Object in O-R table Java application Java object   Harder than you¶d think Three different interfacing techniques ± oracle.jdbc2.STRUCT ± oracle.CustomDatum ± oracle.sql.sql.SQLData 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 171 .

page 172 .JPublisher utility Database server Definition of type or REF in data dictionary User-supplied JPublisher input file What does it do? ± Generates Java that encapsulates type and REF types of mapping supported for methods JPublisher ± ³Oracle mapping´ ± ³JDBC mapping´ ± ³Object JDBC mapping´ Three Generated Java file(s) for use in Java programs 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

AccountRuntime.Account_t)'.save (datacraft.bill.bill. they become available to use in mapping Example of passing an Account_t object: CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE account_save (new_acct IN Account_t) IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.Passing object using JPub-generated Java  After generating and uploading classes with JPub.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 173 . /  jspobj.

Java offers many file-related classes with much greater capabilities.   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 174 .Example: Improving File I/O  You can read/write files in PL/SQL with UTL_FILE. Let's see how we can make that great Java stuff available from within PL/SQL. but that package is very limited.

± The File class offers a length method that returns the number of bytes in a file. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Instead build a static method that instantiates a Java object from the class and then invokes the relevant method against that object.Encapsulate Java Classes  You won't generally access native Java methods in your PL/SQL wrapper.  Let's start with something simple. ± This is not available through UTL_FILE (though you can get it through DBMS_LOB).page 175 ...

length(). } } JFile2.File. return myFile.page 176 . ± Call the method of choice against that object and return the value.My Own Java Class for File Manipulation  Accept the name of a file and return its length. public class JFile2 { public static long length (String fileName) { File myFile = new File (fileName).io. ± Instantiate a File object for the specified name. import java.java  Take each of these steps: ± Import the File class to resolve reference. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

± I translate the Java long to a PL/SQL NUMBER.page 177 .String) return long'. END. / CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY xfile IS FUNCTION length (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN NUMBER AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'JFile. / xfile2.length (java.lang. END. we will certainly want to add more functionality over time. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE xfile IS FUNCTION length (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN NUMBER.Build a Package over Java Method  Let's put it in a package.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Not so! To pass a Boolean back from Java to PL/SQL. ± 3. ± 2.Mapping the Boolean Datatype  Both Java and PL/SQL support a native Boolean datatype.  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Write a "public" PL/SQL wrapper function to convert that number to a true PL/SQL Boolean. so you'd expect smooth sailing. Write a "hidden" PL/SQL wrapper function that returns the string or number. Convert the Java boolean to a String or number and return that value.page 178 . you will need to take these steps: ± 1.

page 179 . if (retval) return 1. } } JFile3.io.File. import java.Translate Boolean to Number  Accept the name of a file and return its length. boolean retval = myFile. not a Boolean class. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± And don't forget: this is a boolean primitive.canRead(). public class JFile3 { public static int canRead (String fileName) { File myFile = new File (fileName).java  Translate TRUE to 1 and FALSE to 0. else return 0.

lang. JFile4. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE xfile IS FUNCTION canRead (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN BOOLEAN.pkg END. END.java END. FUNCTION canRead (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN BOOLEAN AS BEGIN xfile3...page 180 . xfile4.pkg RETURN IcanRead (file) = 1.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .canRead (java.java / xfile. JFile. / CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY xfile IS FUNCTION IcanRead (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN NUMBER AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'JFile3.Wrapper for Pseudo-Boolean function  Simple translation back to PL/SQL Boolean.String) return int'. ± Avoid the hard-codings with named constants.

getAttributes(). } } Extract individual attribute values from the array. System.page 181 .println ( "Pay " + laborType + " $" + hourly_rate + " per hour"). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein UnionBuster. // starting with 0 String laborType = (String)(attribs[0]). Object[] attribs = e.out. throws java.tst PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .SQLException { // Get the attributes of the labor_source object. BigDecimal hourly_rate = (BigDecimal)(attribs[1]).java passobj.Passing Objects to Java with STRUCT  You can pass Oracle object information to Java without relying on JPub by using the STRUCT class. public class UnionBuster { Obtain attributes of public static void wageStrategy (STRUCT e) the Oracle object. // Access individual attributes by array index.sql.

Wrapping a STRUCT-based Method  You can pass Oracle object information to Java without relying on JPub by using the STRUCT class.sql. END. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . / BEGIN bust_em_with ( labor_source ('Workfare'.page 182 . / CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE bust_em_with ( labor_source_in IN labor_source_t) AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'UnionBuster.wageStrategy (oracle.STRUCT)'. 0)). The Oracle object type definition CREATE TYPE labor_source_t AS OBJECT ( labor_type VARCHAR2(30). hourly_rate NUMBER). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Fully specify the STRUCT class in parameter list. bust_em_with ( labor_source ('Prisoners'. '5')).

SET_OUTPUT (1000000). i++) { System.PUT_LINE: System.out. ± Call it within methods and output will display in your Java environment.println ( "Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello All!").sql file: SET SERVEROUTPUT ON SIZE 1000000 CALL DBMS_JAVA. you can redirect the output to the DBMS_OUTPUT buffer. HelloAll. i < count. }}}  When called within a PL/SQL wrapper.println.Viewing Output from Java Methods  Java provides a "print line" method similar to DBMS_OUTPUT.java HelloAll.out.page 183 .tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . public class HelloAll { public static void lotsaText ( int count) { for (int i = 0. ± Here is a good nucleus for a login.

SQLException.Error Handling with Java-PL/SQL  Java offers a very similar.1.  Any error not caught by the JVM (Java virtual machine) will be thrown back to the PL/SQL block or SQL statement. ± Instead of raising and handling.page 184 . such as java. but more robust error handling mechanism than PL/SQL.5). ± And also spew out the entire Java error stack! (at least through 8. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . getErrorCode() and getMessage() to obtain information about the error thrown. ± Exceptions are objects instantiated from the Exception class or a subclass of it.sql. ± Use two methods. you "throw" and "catch".

driver.check_error(KprbDBAccess.driver.jdbc.sp dropany2.tst ORA-29532: Java call terminated by uncaught Java exception: java. / SQL> 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 java.SQLException: getErrInfo.java) at oracle.jdbc.driver.driver.OracleStatement.SQLException: ORA-00942: table or view does not exist at oracle.java) at oracle.OracleStatement.sql.tst ORA-00942: table or view does not exist 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .executeUpdate(OracleStatement. and you have to do some digging to extract the Oracle error information.java) at oracle.OracleStatement. 'blip'). BEGIN dropany ('TABLE'.doExecute(OracleStatement.jdbc.kprb. END.page 185 .java:14) DropAny.kprb.jdbc.jdbc.java) at oracle.object(DropAny.KprbDBAccess.doExecuteWithTimeout(OracleStatement.PUT_LINE (SQLCODE). DBMS_OUTPUT.java) at oracle.KprbDBAccess. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN DBMS_OUTPUT.driver.java -29532 dropany.doExecuteWithBatch(OracleStatement.java) at DropAny.PUT_LINE (SQLERRM).java) at oracle.sql.OracleStatement.jdbc.parseExecuteFetch(KprbDBAccess.Trapping and Identifying Errors  Currently. the entire Java stack is displayed on your screen.OracleStatement.doExecuteOther(OracleStatement.jdbc.

 An Oracle8 feature that allowed relatively "native" callouts to C from PL/SQL for the first time.Achieving PL/SQL Excellence External Procedures  An external procedure is a 3GL routine that can serve as the ³body´ of a PL/SQL function. ± Must be a shared object library on Unix or a dynamically linked library (DLL) on Windows. procedure. or method.page 186 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

so file extproc returns results returns results 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 187 .DLL or .Process & data flow Application Makes request Net8 External Procedure Listener spawns External Shared Library Calls PL/SQL Runtime Engine PL/SQL body Client or server-side application returns results calls routine from Routine in .

sql diskspace.page 188 .sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .External procedures: Sample uses      Send email Invoke operating system command Invoke custom or legacy application Call C runtime library function Perform admin tasks email.

create an Oracle8 ³library´: CREATE OR REPLACE LIBRARY nt_kernel AS 'c:\winnt\system32\kernel32.Determine free disk space on NT (1/4)  Use pre-existing routine: ± GetDiskFreeSpaceA in kernel32. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .dll ± For given drive letter. this function returns: » » » » » sectors per cluster bytes per sector number of free clusters total number of clusters ³return code´ indicating success or failure  First.page 189 .dll'.

number_of_free_clusters OUT PLS_INTEGER.Package spec (2/4)  Nothing unexpected here: CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE disk_util AS FUNCTION get_disk_free_space (root_path IN VARCHAR2.page 190 . sectors_per_cluster OUT PLS_INTEGER. total_number_of_clusters OUT PLS_INTEGER) RETURN PLS_INTEGER. bytes_per_sector OUT PLS_INTEGER. END disk_util. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

page 191  All the magic is in the EXTERNAL section 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .0 (3/4) CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY disk_util AS FUNCTION get_disk_free_space (root_path IN VARCHAR2. bytes_per_sector BY REFERENCE LONG. RETURN LONG). END disk_util. bytes_per_sector OUT PLS_INTEGER. total_number_of_clusters OUT PLS_INTEGER) RETURN PLS_INTEGER IS EXTERNAL LIBRARY nt_kernel NAME "GetDiskFreeSpaceA" LANGUAGE C CALLING STANDARD PASCAL PARAMETERS (root_path STRING. sectors_per_cluster OUT PLS_INTEGER. sectors_per_cluster BY REFERENCE LONG. total_number_of_clusters BY REFERENCE LONG. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . number_of_free_clusters OUT pls_integer.Package body in Oracle 8. number_of_free_clusters BY REFERENCE LONG.

Usage (4/4)
DECLARE lroot_path VARCHAR2(3) := 'C:\'; lsectors_per_cluster PLS_INTEGER; lbytes_per_sector PLS_INTEGER; lnumber_of_free_clusters PLS_INTEGER; ltotal_number_of_clusters PLS_INTEGER; return_code PLS_INTEGER; free_meg REAL; BEGIN return_code := disk_util.get_disk_free_space (lroot_path, lsectors_per_cluster, lbytes_per_sector, lnumber_of_free_clusters, ltotal_number_of_clusters); free_meg := lsectors_per_cluster * lbytes_per_sector * lnumber_of_free_clusters / 1024 / 1024; DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('free disk space, Mb = ' || free_meg); diskspace.sql END;
1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein
PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 192

Creating your own external procedure 

1. Identify or create shared library 2. Identify or CREATE LIBRARY within Oracle 3. Map the parameters using:
± EXTERNAL clause (Oracle8) or ± LANGUAGE clause (Oracle8i)  

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 193

1. Identify/create external routine 


Prerequisite: O/S must support shared libraries Some useful routines are pre-built in C runtime library
± On Unix: /lib/libc.so ± On NT: <systemroot>\system32\crtdll.dll 

Building a shared library of your own requires knowledge of:
± Appropriate language (typically C) ± Compiler & linker

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 194

2. Create the Oracle library 

Syntax:
CREATE OR REPLACE LIBRARY <library name> AS '<full path to file>'; 

Assigns a programmer-defined alias to a specific shared library file Notes
± Requires CREATE LIBRARY pri ilege ± Does not alidate directory ± Can¶t use symbolic link 

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 195

3. Map the parameters
This can get complicated, because«
± Must pass extra parameters to designate:
» NULL/NOT NULL state » String length » Maximum allocated length

± Six choices of parameter mode
» » » » » » IN RETURN IN BY REFERENCE RETURN BY REFERENCE OUT IN OUT

These details are better suited for close reading«
PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 196

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

page 197 .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Oracle8i New Features Autonomous Transactions Invoker Rights Model Row Level Security 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

± And the learning curve to take advantage of these features is generally not too steep.    Autonomous Transactions The Invoker Rights Model Row level security 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Oracle8i New Features  Oracle8i offers a number of PL/SQL-specific features that give you tremendous additional flexibility and capability.page 198 .

± There was only one transaction allowed per connection. you can now define a PL/SQL block to execute as an "autonomous transaction".Autonomous Transactions  Prior to Oracle8i.page 199 .  With Oracle8i. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE loginfo ( code IN PLS_INTEGER. ± Any changes made within that block can be saved or reversed without affecting the outer or main transaction. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . a COMMIT or ROLLBACK in any program in your session committed or rolled back all changes in your session. msg IN VARCHAR2) AS PRAGMA AUTONOMOUS_TRANSACTION.

 Tracing Code Usage ± Build retry mechanisms.When to Use Autonomous Transactions  Reusable Application Components ± ATs are more or less required in the new distributed application architecture of the Internet.page 200 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . software usage meter. ± Now you can avoid the complexities (need for ROLLBACK TO savepoints and so on). ± One component should not have any impact (esp.  Logging Mechanism ± Commonly developers lot to database tables. which can cause all sorts of complications: your log entry becomes a part of your transaction.  Call functions within SQL that change the database. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . something like a COMMIT) on other components. etc.

Logging with ATs  Don't forget that ROLLBACK in the exception section! CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY log IS PROCEDURE putline ( code_in IN INTEGER. While we're at it. rec. SYSDATE.tst retry. text_in IN VARCHAR2 ) IS PRAGMA AUTONOMOUS_TRANSACTION. logger.machine. let's add some session information.pkg log81*.page 201 . rec.tst PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Avoid interdependencies with the main transaction. USER. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN ROLLBACK. BEGIN INSERT INTO logtab VALUES (code_in. COMMIT. text_in. SYSDATE.pkg retry.program ).sp log81. END. USER. END.

autonserial.sql autontrigger*. ± Place the SET TRANSACTION statement in the outer transaction.Tips and Gotchas with ATs  An AT program must COMMIT or ROLLBACK before terminating. or an error is raised.page 202 .sql auton_in_sql. The AT PRAGMA can be used only with individual programs and toplevel anonymous blocks. ± You cannot define an entire package as an AT. ± You cannot tell by looking at the package spec if you are calling ATs or not -and this info is not available in the data dictionary.  Any changes committed in an AT are visible in the outer transaction. ± You cannot define a nested anonymous block to be an AT. ± You can use the SET TRANSACTION ISOLATION LEVEL SERIALIZABLE to indicate that you do not want the changes visible until the outer transaction commits.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .   The AT PRAGMA goes in the body of packages.

you can now decide at compilation time whether your program or package will execute in the definer's schema (the default) or the schema of the invoker of the code. whenever you executed a stored program.page 203 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . ± This is called the « Invoker Rights Model PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . it ran under the privileges of the account in which the program was defined. ± This is called the « Definer Rights Model  With Oracle8i.The Invoker Rights Model  Prior to Oracle8i.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Note: Oracle built-in packages have long had the capability of running under the invoker's authority. OE Code Order_Mgt Place Cancel Sam_Sales Close Old Orders  OE Data X  Orders Cannot alter table directly. But it can be a source of confusion and architectural problems.page 204 .About Definer Rights  Allows you to centralize access to and control of underlying data structures. Ignores roles and relies on directly-granted privileges.

unless you write code in the package to essentially recreate roles programmatically. each user has own copy of table(s).page 205 .and now you do! 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ...it's all or nothing.Problems with Definer Rights  Deployment & maintenance ± Must install module in all remote databases where needed ± In some databases. requiring copy of stored module  Security ± No declarative way to restrict privileges on certain modules in a package -. ± Can bypass 8i¶s ³fine-grained´ access features (see the DBMS_RLS package) ± Difficult to audit privileges  Sure would be nice to have a choice.

and must be at the package level. ± In other words. You could also create local.  For modules with separate spec and body. Synonyms may be necessary if modules use object names not qualified by schema..Oracle8i Invoker Rights Syntax  For top level modules: CREATE [ OR REPLACE ] <module type> [ AUTHID { DEFINER | CURRENT_USER } ] AS . do what it takes to get the code to compile.page 206 . the objects referenced may well be different from those against which it compiled. ± At run-time. AUTHID goes only in spec.  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . "dummy" objects..

).. Central Code schema PACKAGE acct_mgr make AUTHID CURRENT_USER User/Data schema PROCEDURE mng_account IS BEGIN .page 207 . yet have all references to data structures "reflect back" into your own schema. you can execute code owned by another schema....FROM accounts WHERE. accounts table 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .acct_mgr. modify destroy .. code.destroy(.. END."Reflection" Capability of Invoker Rights  With invoker rights...

± AUTHID CURRENT_USER is ignored. Note: cannot use with wrapped code. the definer rights model is always applied to resolve the reference.Tips and Gotchas for Invoker Rights  Does not apply to code objects.page 208 .sql handy. taking advantage of the invoker rights model whenever possible? ± A creative use of SQL*Plus substitution variables comes in very invdefinv. all other calls in stack are resolved according to definer rights.sql  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Both static and dynamic SQL is supported.  Once a definer rights program is called. oneversion.  Information about the rights model is not available in the data dictionary What if you want to maintain a single version of your code for both pre-Oracle8i and Oracle8i installations. only data ± When your stored code references another stored code element.

authid.When to Invoke Invoker Rights  You want to reuse the same code among many users.page 209 .sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .sql whichsch*. but you want their own directly-granted privileges to determine access. ± Share a program that uses dynamic SQL (whether DBMS_SQL or the new native implementation) and you end up taking the most unexpected DDL and DML detours. National HQ Check City Statistics New York Schema stolenlives Chicago Schema stolenlives  Especially handy with dynamic SQL.

HQ Chicago Check City Statistics  New York stolenlives Analyze Pattern stolenlives perpetrators perp.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Rely on definer rights to access centralized data from any schema.page 210 .Combining Invoker & Definer Rights  Rely on invoker rights to allow centralized code to work with schema-specific data.

page 211 .Row Level Security DBMS_RLS Row-Level Security 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

page 212   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .Row-Level Security with DBMS_RLS  Oracle8i offers a new package. The DBMS_RLS package (along with "system contexts") now allow you to do so in a foolproof manner. you could achieve this only partially through the use of views. Prior to Oracle8i. DBMS_RLS. Row Level Security  The establishment of security policies on (restricted access to) individual rows of a table. with which to implement automated row-level security (also referred to as "fine grained access control"). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

the system context is a named set of attributevalue pairs global to your session.  Security Policy Packages ± You will need to write a package containing functions that establish the security policies to be applied to a particular table.  Database Logon Triggers ± I want to make sure that when a person logs in.Components Needed for RLS  System Contexts ± A new feature in Oracle8i. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . their context information is set properly.  DBMS_RLS ± Use programs in DBMS_RLS to associate your security policies with tables.  Let's step through a simple example to see how all these pieces tie together.page 213 .

fgac. no more private insurance companies soaking up 30 cents on the dollar.  We need a top-notch. all children are vaccinated. ± Regulators can only see patients who reside in the same state.sql  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± A massive. all pregnant women receive excellent prenatal care.page 214 . popular uprising in the United States has forced the establishment of a national healthcare system. ± Patients can only see information about themselves. clinic and regulator.A National Health Care System  The year is 2010. The main tables are patient. Here are some rules: ± Doctors can only see patients who are assigned to their clinic. doctor. highly secure database for NHCS. No more for-profit hospitals pulling billions of dollars out of the system.

CREATE CONTEXT patient_restriction USING nhc_pkg. and create a procedure that will set the context attributes (type and ID) upon login. doc_rec doc_cur%ROWTYPE. c_person_type_attr.sql for logic that identifies SELECT doctor_id FROM doctor different types of people and WHERE schema_name = USER. PROCEDURE set_context IS This is a simplification. doc_rec. FETCH doc_cur INTO doc_rec. 'DOCTOR'). See CURSOR doc_cur IS fgac.page 215 . BEGIN OPEN doc_cur.SET_CONTEXT ( 'patient_restriction'. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . DBMS_SESSION.SET_CONTEXT ( 'patient_restriction'. DBMS_SESSION.Set the Context  Define a context in the database. sets the context accordingly. END.doctor_id). c_person_id_attr.

connection. information for this retval VARCHAR2(2000). person. name_in VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2 IS l_context VARCHAR2(100) := Extract the context SYS_CONTEXT (c_context. c_person_type_attr). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Define the Predicate  A predicate is a string that will be appended to the WHERE clause of the table to which this security policy is associated (see next page).page 216 . FUNCTION person_predicate ( schema_in VARCHAR2. BEGIN IF l_context = 'DOCTOR' THEN retval := 'home_clinic_id IN (SELECT home_clinic_id FROM doctor We need a different string WHERE doctor_id = SYS_CONTEXT (''' || to modify the WHERE c_context || '''. ''' || clause for each type of c_person_id_attr || '''))'.

ADD_POLICY OBJECT_SCHEMA OBJECT_NAME POLICY_NAME FUNCTION_SCHEMA POLICY_FUNCTION STATEMENT_TYPES END. ( => => => => => => 'SCOTT'. 'patient_privacy'.person_predicate'.ADD_POLICY procedure. 'SCOTT'. BEGIN DBMS_RLS.Create the Security Policy  Use the DBMS_RLS. 'nhc_pkg.nhc_pkg package. 'patient'.PATIENT table will be modified by the string returned by the person_predicate function of the SCOTT. update or delete against the SCOTT. 'SELECT.page 217 .UPDATE. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± The following procedure call specifies that the WHERE clause of any query.DELETE').

EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN DBMS_OUTPUT. Setting Context  By setting the context in the logon trigger.PUT_LINE ( 'Error ' || SQLCODE || ' setting context for ' || USER').page 218 . logon is disabled.set_context. END. CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER set_id_on_logon AFTER LOGON ON DATABASE BEGIN nhc_pkg. we guarantee that the context is set (and the predicate applied) no matter which product is the entry point to Oracle.Create Logon Trigger. fgac. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .sql Exception handling in trigger is critical! If you allow an exception to go unhandled.

Predicate: home_clinic_id IN (SELECT home_clinic_id FROM doctor WHERE doctor_id = SYS_CONTEXT ('patient_restriction'.IL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Patient sees only himself.IL Context Information for "CSILVA": Type: PATIENT ID: Predicate: schema_name = 'CSILVA' Patients Visible to "CSILVA": CSILVA .Veva Silva .Chris Silva . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 219 . 'person_id')) Patients Visible to "SWALLACE": CSILVA .IL VSILVA . Context Information for "SWALLACE": Type: DOCTOR Doctor sees only her ID: 1060 patients.Chris Silva .Queries Transparently Filtered  What you see is determined automatically by who you are.

... It's so easy to fall into a rut with a programming language..and play a new tune with PL/SQL! 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..Take Full Advantage of PL/SQL! January. Jump out of your rut .. May. and you use only what you know.. February...page 220 . March.. April.  ± You learn what you need to get the job done.

k.Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Appendices (a..page 221 .a. If time permits«)     UTL_FILE ± file IO DBMS_JOB ± Job scheduling DBMS_PIPE ± Pipe-based communication DBMS_UTILITY ± the kitchen sink package 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Built-in Packages: UTL_FILE UTL_FILE Server-side File I/O Application FOPEN GET_LINE PUT_LINE ..page 222 . Physical Files 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..

5.UTL_FILE: Server-side I/O  Allows you to read from and write to operating system files on the database server. ± Maximum of 1023 bytes per line (read or write) until Oracle 8. A "version 1" (fairly primitive) utility. no use of environmental variables). when it jumps to 32K.   But you can read lines from a file and write lines to a file. copy. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .0. ± Limitations on files you can access (no mapped files.page 223 .. delete.. random access to contents). ± No higher-level file operations supported (change privileges.

UTL_FILE Module Outline FCLOSE FCLOSE_ALL FFLUSH FOPEN GET_LINE IS_OPEN NEW_LINE PUT PUT_LINE PUTF Close the specified file Close all open files in your session Flush all data from the UTL_FILE buffer to your file Open a file Get the next line from a file Returns TRUE if the file is open (sort of) Insert a new line character in file at the end of current line Puts text into the UTL_FILE buffer Puts text and new line character into UTL_FILE buffer. Puts formatted text into the buffer PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 224 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .

± Use a separate entry for each directory (and subdirectory.page 225 Allows read & write for current directory.Authorizing Directory Access  Oracle requires you to list explicitly those directories you wish to be able to read/write with UTL_FILE. utl_file_dir = /tmp utl_file_dir = /accounts/newdev  And don't do either of the following: utl_file_dir = . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . there is no subdirectory recursion). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . no trailing delimiter. ± You do this by adding lines to the instance parameter file. ± No single or double quotes around directory. utl_file_dir = * Allows read & write for any directory.  Follow these rules to avoid many headaches.

FOPEN ('c:\temp'. */ fid := UTL_FILE. BEGIN /* Change the directory name to one to which you at least || THINK you have read/write access.FCLOSE (fid).txt'. / utlfile.FILE_TYPE. modify your initialization file. UTL_FILE. 'W').page 226 . 'hello').tst  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .PUT_LINE (fid. and then run the following test script (it can't get much simpler than this): DECLARE fid UTL_FILE. restart your database. 'test.Test UTL_FILE Access  About the hardest part to working with UTL_FILE is simply getting started. UTL_FILE. So before you write anything fancy. END.

page 227 .. BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE.   Maximum of 10 files may be opened in each user session. 'W' for Write and 'A' for Append. name and operation type.  Specify file location. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .FILE_TYPE.FILE_TYPE. END.FOPEN ('c:\temp'. ± Currently contains a single ID field.  The FOPEN function returns a record ("file handle") based on the UTL_FILE. 'test. 'W'). Not much of a test.Opening a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE. ± Types are 'R' for Read. Test to see if file is open with the IS_OPEN function.txt'.. ± In actuality. this function simply returns TRUE if the file handle's id field is NOT NULL.

myline). UTL_FILE. UTL_FILE.FILE_TYPE.FCLOSE (fid). Lines in the file cannot be longer than 1023 bytes in length.   Can only read from a file opened with the "R" mode.page 228 . BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE. the ceiling is raised to 32K. END.txt'.0.FOPEN ('c:\temp'.5 and above. ± You might want to build your own GET_LINE which handles the exception and returns an EOF Boolean status flag. getnext. ± In Oracle8 Release 8.GET_LINE (fid.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 'R'). 'test.Reading from a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.  The NO_DATA_FOUND exception is raised if you read past the end of the file.

UTL_FILE is so much fun that I never want to stop Resulting Text  You can use PUT. 'is so much fun').FOPEN ('c:\temp'. 'W').FCLOSE (fid).txt'.FILE_TYPE. ± PUTF is like the C printf program. BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE.page 229 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . ' that I never\nwant to %s'. allowing for some formatting.PUT_LINE (fid. ± The file buffers are automatically flushed when you close a file or exit your session. PUT_LINE or PUTF.PUTF (fid.  Call FFLUSH to make sure that everything you have written to the buffer is flushed out to the file. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END. UTL_FILE. 'UTL_FILE'). 'test. UTL_FILE.PUT (fid. '&1').Writing to a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE. UTL_FILE. UTL_FILE.

READ_ERROR THEN UTL_FILE.FILE_TYPE. 'test.  If you do not close the file. you will not see the data you have (supposedly) written to that file. BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE. END.GET_LINE (fid. UTL_FILE. myline). UTL_FILE. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .FCLOSE (fid). You should close files in exception handlers to make sure that files are not left "hanging" open. EXCEPTION WHEN UTL_FILE. 'R').txt'.page 230   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .FCLOSE (fid). You can close a single file with FCLOSE or all open files with FCLOSE_ALL.FOPEN ('c:\temp'.Closing a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.

page 231 . ± NO_DATA_FOUND when you try to read past the end of the file. ± They all share a common SQLCODE of 1. EXCEPTION.Error Handling in UTL_FILE PACKAGE UTL_FILE IS invalid_path invalid_mode invalid_filehandle invalid_operation read_error write_error internal_error END. EXCEPTION. EXCEPTION. EXCEPTION. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± UTL_FILE-named exceptions in other cases. EXCEPTION. EXCEPTION.  UTL_FILE relies on a combination of user-defined exceptions and STANDARD exceptions to communicate errors. EXCEPTION.  You have to take special care to trap and handle the named exceptions.

utlflexc. translating the generic user-defined exception into an understandable message. Re-raise exception if you want it to propagate from that block.INVALID_OPERATION THEN recNgo (PLVfile. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .INVALID_PATH THEN recNgo (PLVfile. RAISE.c_read_error). RAISE.c_write_error).c_invalid_filehandle). WHEN UTL_FILE.page 232  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . RAISE.c_invalid_path).c_internal_error). WHEN UTL_FILE. RAISE. RAISE. RAISE. WHEN UTL_FILE. RAISE.INVALID_FILEHANDLE THEN recNgo (PLVfile.READ_ERROR THEN recNgo (PLVfile. WHEN UTL_FILE.c_invalid_mode).c_invalid_operation). END.INTERNAL_ERROR THEN recNgo (PLVfile.WRITE_ERROR THEN recNgo (PLVfile.INVALID_MODE THEN recNgo (PLVfile. WHEN UTL_FILE. record the error.sql  Trap locally by name. WHEN UTL_FILE.Recommended Exception Section EXCEPTION WHEN UTL_FILE.

. Background Process DBA_JOBS Oracle Job Queue Subsystem 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 233 ..Built-in Packages: DBMS_JOB DBMS_JOB Scheduled Execution of Stored Procedures Application SUBMIT RUN REMOVE .

Schedule large batch jobs to run on "off hours". Create a listener program to poll the contents of a pipe and take action.2.1. Schedule regular maintenance on instances. ± ± ± ±    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Made its debut in PL/SQL Release 2. You can use DBMS_JOB to: Replicate data between different database instances.Overview of DBMS_JOB  DBMS_JOB provides an API to the Oracle job queues. ± Spawn background processes to avoid blocking client process. Built by Oracle to support snapshots and replication. but only ³publicly available´ and supported in PL/SQL Release 2. which in turn offers job scheduling capabilities within the Oracle Server.page 234 .

page 235 CHANGE INTERVAL ISUBMIT NEXT_DATE REMOVE RUN SUBMIT USER_EXPORT WHAT 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . Returns the job string for a job number.DBMS_JOB Module Outline BROKEN Marks the job as either FIXED or BROKEN. Changes one or all attributes of a job. Forces immediate execution of the specified job number. Changes the job string of a job. Broken jobs will not run as scheduled. Changes the interval between executions of a job. Changes when a queued job will run. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Removes the job from the queue. Submits a job to the queue returning a unique job number. Submits a job to the queue using a predefined job number.

'.SUBMIT (job#. ± In the above example. you specify the date on which it should next execute. BEGIN DBMS_JOB.ISUBMIT and supply the job number. Notice that the start time is a DATE expression. SYSDATE. instead of having DBMS_JOB generate one for you. 'calculate_totals.Submitting a Job DECLARE job# BINARY_INTEGER. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  When you submit a job. I run calculate_totals immediately and then on a daily basis thereafter.  A job is a call to a stored procedure or an anonymous block ± It must end with a semi-colon and can contain ³hard-coded´ arguments. and then the job¶s execution interval (frequency of execution). END. while the interval is a string (this is dynamic PL/SQL!)  You can also call DBMS_JOB.page 236 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . 'SYSDATE + 1').

DBMS_DDL. interval => 'TRUNC(SYSDATE+1)' ).'.l (v_jobno). BEGIN DBMS_JOB.ANALYZE_OBJECT ' || '(''TABLE''. next_date => TRUNC (SYSDATE + 1). /  This block submits a job that uses a built-in procedure.''ESTIMATE''.null. END. to analyze a specific table every evening at midnight.page 237 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . what => 'DBMS_DDL.submit ( job => v_jobno.ANALYZE_OBJECT.''LOAD1''.Submit Job Example DECLARE v_jobno INTEGER. p. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .''TENK''' || '.estimate_percent=>50).

± Job 1 passes a string and number into procedure MY_JOB1.ISubmit Job Example BEGIN DBMS_JOB.' . executes immediately. END.'BEGIN null.DBMS_JOB. executes for the first time tomorrow and every 10 minutes thereafter.page 238 .what => 'my_job1(''string_parm_value''.SYSDATE. runs it in one hour and executes every day thereafter.next_date => SYSDATE + 1/24 . DBMS_JOB. 'my_job2(date_IN=>SYSDATE).null). DBMS_JOB.interval => 'SYSDATE +1').ISUBMIT (2. and will be removed from the queue automatically.SYSDATE+1.' . ± Job 2 passes a date into procedure MY_JOB2. END. numbered 1.120).ISUBMIT (job => 1 .'.ISUBMIT(3. /  This block submits three jobs to the job queue. and 3. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Job 3 is a PL/SQL block which does nothing.2.'SYSDATE+10/1440').

Specifying Job Times & Frequencies  Probably the most complicated part of using DBMS_JOB is to get the string expression of the job interval right. ''FRIDAY''))) + 18/24' PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ''SATURDAY'') 2/24' 'NEXT_DAY ( ADD_MONTHS (TRUNC (SYSDATE. ± Since it's a string. 3). NEXT_DAY (SYSDATE. ''MONDAY'') + 9/24' 'TRUNC (LEAST ( NEXT_DAY (SYSDATE. ''MONDAY''). Wednesday and Friday at 6 PM 'SYSDATE + 1/24' 'NEXT_DAY (TRUNC (SYSDATE). NEXT_DAY (SYSDATE. ''Q'').page 239 + 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . ± Use date arithmetic to request intervals smaller than a day. at 9 AM Every Monday. Every hour Every Sunday at 2 AM First Monday of each quarter. you must use 2 single quotes to embed strings. ''WEDNESDAY'').

± Produces a string that can be used to recreate an existing job in the job queue. ± Only if the job was submitted from same schema BEGIN FOR rec IN (SELECT * FROM USER_JOBS) LOOP DBMS_JOB.Other Job Queue Operations  Remove a job from the queue. END LOOP.job). ± Performs an implicit COMMIT in current session. retaining current job number. expjob.REMOVE (rec.  Run a job immediately.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 240 . DBMS_JOB. ± Uses DBMS_JOB.  Export jobs from the queue. Remove all jobs for current schema.RUN (my_job#).ISUBMIT.

who owns them and when they began.sid = jr.jr. DBA_JOBS and USER_JOBS views.sid AND jr.job ORDER BY jr.username .DBA_JOBS . SELECT jr.job .sql FROM DBA_JOBS_RUNNING .job = j. ± The following query blends job information with session information to display currently-executing jobs.this_date .this_date.Job Queue Views  You can also view the job queue by looking at the DBA_JOBS_RUNNING.what job_id username start_date job_definition jr j s showjobs.page 241 .V$SESSION WHERE s. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . The valid range is 1 to 3600 (a maximum. ± The default is PUBLIC access. ± job_queue_interval=N where N is the interval in seconds to check the job queue.  You will need to set three parameters in the init. of one hour). therefore. You will have to take special DBA action if you want to restrict who can run jobs.Setting up the Job Facility  Make sure that the correct access is set up for the DBMS_JOB package. The valid range is 0 through 36.page 242 .ora (initialization) file for your database instance: ± job_queue_processes=N where n is the number of concurrent background processes permitted.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . the job facility will mark your job as broken.Error Handling with DBMS_JOB  What if your stored procedure fails? ± After 16 attempts. Then you can go ahead and submit it. ± Always include a WHEN OTHERS exception handler in your job program which traps any and all problems and automatically sets the job status to broken.page 243 . it may cause the background processes to fail and no longer run any jobs at all. ± Do you want it to try 16 times? ± In addition. if your failure raises an unhandled exception.  To avoid unexpected and unhandled failures of scheduled jobs: ± Always use the RUN built-in to execute your job in a ³test´ mode.

BROKEN (job#.page 244 . ± Now the job facility will not try to run this program again.. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .job (µcalc_totals¶) DBMS_JOB.. spacelog. TRUE).log (µcalc_totals¶. END.sql showspc.sql  The WHEN OTHERS exception handler of the calc_totals procedure traps any kind of failure. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN job# := job_pkg. ± Obtains the job number from a packaged function by passing the name of the procedure. ± Calls log program of package to record that failure took place. µFAIL¶).Stopping the Job When It Fails PROCEDURE calc_totals IS BEGIN . job_pkg. You can go in and fix the problem. ± Uses a call to BROKEN to set the status of the job to ³broken´.

 You will need to fully-qualify all database links (with user name and password) to get them to work properly."Good to Knows" for DBMS_JOB  You may find it useful to always wrap your stored procedure call (the what) inside a BEGIN-END block. ± We've noticed some aberrant.page 245 . difficult to reproduce behavior at times with "straight" procedure calls. it picks up the current execution environment for the user. You can use the DBMS_IJOB to manage the jobs of other users.    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . perform a COMMIT after your submit. When a job runs. ± DBMS_JOB only allows you to modify characteristics and behavior of jobs submitted by the current schema. If you find that you submit a job to run immediately and it does not start.

Built-in Packages: DBMS_PIPE DBMS_PIPE Inter-session Communication 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 246 .

Oracle uses database pipes to parallelize database operations. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Perform and commit DML in a separate transaction space from your main transaction. ± Operates outside of database transaction limitations. You can parallelize your own code.DBMS_PIPE Overview  Allows communication between different Oracle sessions through a pipe in the RDBMS Shared Global Area. ± More sophisticated debugging inside PL/SQL programs (work around fundamental limitations of DBMS_OUTPUT).page 247 . ± Interface PL/SQL-database activities with operating system functions and programs written in other languages.  Uses for DBMS_PIPE include: ± Parallelization of program execution.

± The pipe sends/receives a message. They are reserved for Oracle use).page 248 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . which can be composed of one or more separate packets.Architecture of DBMS_PIPE Shared Global Area ³Sue´ ³Bob´ Message Buffer Message Buffer Session A  Session B A pipe is a named object that uses the System Global Area to provide a non-transaction based conduit of information. using a maximum of 4096 bytes. ± Names can be up to 128 chars long (do not use names beginning with ³ORA$´.

you can wait for up to 1000 days (or 86400000 seconds) for the pipe to be cleared. ± There is just one message buffer per session. so you should always specify a timeout period. ROWID or RAW.Processing Flow of DBMS_PIPE  Construct a message from packets of information.  Send the message to a named pipe. number. ± Each packet can be a string.sql PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Receive a message from that pipe.sql pipex2. date.page 249 . ± You can wait for up to 1000 days for a message. ± Separate out the individual packets in the message (again: string. date or number). ± This is the default. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein pipex1. ± If there isn¶t currently room in the pipe.  Unpack the message packets and take action.

UNPACK_MESSAGE Unpacks the next item from the local message buffer and deposits it into the specified local variable. Clears your buffer so that PACK_MESSAGE and UNPACK_MESSAGE can work from the first item. UNIQUE_SESSION_NAME Returns name that is unique among all sessions in the database. SEND_MESSAGE Sends contents of message buffer to the specified pipe. PACK_MESSAGE Packs an item into the message buffer for your session. making it a candidate for removal with a LRU algorithm. RECEIVE_MESSAGE Receives a message from pipe and copies to local buffer.page 250 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . NEXT_ITEM_TYPE Returns the datatype of the next item in the piped message. REMOVE_PIPE RESET_BUFFER Removes a pipe explicitly created via CREATE_PIPE.DBMS_PIPE Module Outline Module Name CREATE_PIPE Description Creates a PUBLIC or PRIVATE pipe. PURGE Empties the contents of a pipe into your local buffer freeing it for removal.

private => TRUE).  An explicit pipe can be private (accessible only to sessions with matching userID or SYSDBA privileges). ± Implicitly-created pipes are always public.CREATE_PIPE ( pipename => 'bbs'.page 251 . ± Send messages to non-existent pipe implicitly create it. maxpipesize => 20000.  A public pipe is accessible as long as you know its name. ± Use CREATE_PIPE to create a pipe explicitly. ± Specify TRUE for private argument of CREATE_PIPE. BEGIN stat := DBMS_PIPE.Creating Public and Private Pipes  There are two ways to create pipes: implicitly and explicitly. PROCEDURE newpipe IS stat INTEGER. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

PACK_MESSAGE ( total_sales (month_num)). maxpipesize IN INTEGER DEFAULT 8192) RETURN INTEGER.Sending a Message Provide pipe name. pipe_stat := DBMS_PIPE. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Fill your message buffer with packets of data. 60.. seconds you will wait. Status of 0 means message was sent. expanding pipe size to 40 Kbytes. timeout IN INTEGER DEFAULT maxwait. Send to "monthly" pipe. END LOOP.page 252 . IF pipe_stat != 0 THEN RAISE could_not_send. and new max pipe size (you can make it bigger. FOR month_num IN 1 . waiting up to 1 minute. 12 LOOP DBMS_PIPE. FUNCTION send_message (pipename IN VARCHAR2.SEND_MESSAGE ( µmonthly¶. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 10 * 4096). but not smaller).

± Specify pipe and number of seconds you will wait before you time out.  First you pull the message from the pipe and place it in buffer with RECEIVE_MESSAGE. PROCEDURE unpack_message (item OUT VARCHAR2). timeout IN INTEGER DEFAULT maxwait) RETURN INTEGER. PROCEDURE unpack_message (item OUT DATE).  Then you call UNPACK_MESSAGE to extract individual packets from the message.page 253 . ± Pipe status of 0 means the message was read successfully. ± You need to know the datatype of packet or check it using NEXT_ITEM_TYPE.Receiving and Unpack a Message FUNCTION receive_message (pipename IN VARCHAR2. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . PROCEDURE unpack_message (item OUT NUMBER).

prod_total).page 254 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . ELSE RAISE_APPLICATION_ERROR ( Stop process if -20000. END. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END IF. Wait up to N prod_total NUMBER.'). If I got something. 'Production data unavailable. END LOOP. pass it on to the IF pipe_status = 0 computation THEN program. analyze_production (SYSDATE.RECEIVE_MESSAGE ( 'production'. PROCEDURE analyze_assembly_data (every_n_secs IN INTEGER) IS pipe_status INTEGER. LOOP pipe_status := DBMS_PIPE. seconds for the BEGIN next report. data not received.A Pipe-based Listener Program  Program wakes up every N seconds to read the data from the pipe and analyze results from assembly line (an intentional "infinite loop"!).UNPACK_MESSAGE (prod_total). every_n_secs). DBMS_PIPE.

page 255 .tst  Since a message can be composed of packets of different datatypes. Returns one of the following values: Value 0 6 9 11 12 23 Description or Data type No more items in buffer NUMBER VARCHAR2 ROWID DATE RAW dbpipe. you have to make sure that you unpack a packet into the right kind of variable. ± Or you use the built-in NEXT_ITEM_TYPE to tell you in advance the datatype of the next packet in the message and take appropriate action.Unpacking the Message FUNCTION next_item_type RETURN INTEGER. Either: ± You know the datatype and therefore can ³hard-code´ the correct variable into the call to UNPACK_MESSAGE. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .sql dbpipe.

total office expenses and total compensation. ± These programs each take 15 minutes.page 256 . ± The CEO is decidedly unhappy about the delay. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Suppose I want to calculate my net profit.Parallelizing Your Code with Pipes  Oracle uses DBMS_PIPE to improve RDBMS performance. In order to do so I must first compute total sales. you can do the same for your application if: ± You have multiple CPUs available. I must execute them sequentially and incur an elapsed time of 45 minutes before I calculate the profits. but are not dependent on each other. ± You have processes which can run in parallel.  Without pipes.

page 257 .Sequential vs. Parallel Execution Sequential Execution: Maximum Elapsed Time S t a r t E n d Process A Process B Process C Parallel Execution: Minimum Elapsed Time Start Process A Process B Process C End 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

page 258 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .  The ³kick off´ programs pass their messages to separate pipes. kick_off_exp_calc. it puts a message (perhaps even a value) into the pipe. Then net profits can be computed -. END. wait_for_confirmation.Parallelizing PL/SQL Execution BEGIN kick_off_sales_calc.  The ³wait´ program waits till it receives a message from each program. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Other programs running in the background grab the messages and start their corresponding calculation program. calculate_net_profits. kick_off_totcomp_calc. ± When each program is complete.in a muchdecreased elapsed time.

stat := DBMS_PIPE.SEND_MESSAGE (µsales¶). END IF. DBMS_PIPE. END. stat := DBMS_PIPE.Code to Kick Off and Calculate PROCEDURE kick_off_sales_calc IS stat INTEGER. END. Receive the year.SEND_MESSAGE (µsales¶). ELSE DBMS_PIPE. and send back the results.SEND_MESSAGE (µsales¶). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Send message to start calculations. PROCEDURE calculate_sales IS stat INTEGER.PACK_MESSAGE (sales$). stat := DBMS_PIPE. IF stat = 0 THEN lots_of_number_crunching.RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µsales¶). BEGIN DBMS_PIPE.PACK_MESSAGE (NULL). BEGIN stat := DBMS_PIPE.PACK_MESSAGE (1995). calculate sales.page 259 . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

UNPACK_MESSAGE (comp$).Waiting for Confirmation PROCEDURE wait_for_confirmation IS stat INTEGER. Wait for all calculations to finish. The order in which you wait is insignificant. stat := DBMS_PIPE. Perform final calculation. END.offexp$ .sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . PROCEDURE calculate_net_profits IS BEGIN net_profits := sales$ . DBMS_PIPE.RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µcomp¶). BEGIN stat := DBMS_PIPE. END. DBMS_PIPE.RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µoffexp¶).page 260 . parallel.comp$. DBMS_PIPE.UNPACK_MESSAGE (sales$).RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µsales¶). stat := DBMS_PIPE.UNPACK_MESSAGE (offexp$).

pkg syscache.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . in-memory cache. syscache. obtains the data. ± Demonstrates the use of toggles and switches in packages. and sends it to the pipe. ± The requester reads the information from the pipe.page 261 . ± A request for data is passed to a "central" pipe.Other DBMS_PIPE Examples  Simple trace package that sends it output either to screen or to pipe. watch. ± A listener program grabs the request (including the return pipe name).pkg  Implementation of a system-wide.pkg p_and_l.

A µgrab-bag¶ of miscellaneous operations SCHEMA 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ...Built-in Packages: DBMS_UTILITY DBMS_UTILITY Application GET_TIME GET_HASH_VALUE FORMAT_CALL_STACK .page 262 .

Recompile INVALID objects in specified schema. Gets file number part of data block address. Returns execution call stack. Returns hash value for string. Returns database version (Oracle8) Executes DDL statement (Oracle8). Parses comma-delimited list to index-by table.page 263 dbver. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Gets block number part of data block address.pkg COMMA_TO_TABLE COMPILE_SCHEMA DATA_BLOCK_ADDRESS_BLOCK DATA_BLOCK_ADDRESS_FILE DB_VERSION EXEC_DDL_STATEMENT FORMAT_CALL_STACK FORMAT_ERROR_STACK GET_HASH_VALUE 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . Returns error stack.DBMS_UTILITY Module Outline ANALYZE_DATABASE ANALYZE_PART_OBJECT Analyze objects in database Runs ANALYZE TABLE or ANALYZE INDEX for each partition of the object (Oracle8).pkg dbparm.

Returns "current time" down to hundredth of second. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Returns TRUE if in parallel server mode. GET_PARAMETER_VALUE GET_TIME IS_PARALLEL_SERVER MAKE_DATA_BLOCK_ADDRESS NAME_RESOLVE NAME_TOKENIZE PORT_STRING TABLE_TO_COMMA Retrieves value of database parameter (Oracle8). Resolves name of object into component parts.page 264 . cont.DBMS_UTILITY Module Outline. Parses string object designator into components. Converts list (in index-by-table) of elements into a comma-delimited list (string). Returns platform and version of database. Creates data block address from block & file numbers.

BEGIN v_start := DBMS_UTILITY.v_start).GET_TIME. ± SYSDATE only reflects times down to the nearest second.page 265 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . so GET_TIME offers significant additional granularity.GET_TIME . DECLARE v_start BINARY_INTEGER. Basic steps necessary to convert GET_TIME into a performance analysis tool. calc_totals. especially those that run in sub-second time. ± Useful when analyzing individual PL/SQL programs.Sub-Second Timings with GET_TIME  GET_TIME returns the number of 100ths of seconds that have elapsed since an arbitrary point in time. END.PUT_LINE (DBMS_UTILITY. DBMS_OUTPUT. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Compare results from consecutive calls to GET_TIME to determine the elapsed time of PL/SQL code execution.

sql plvtmr.show_elapsed. PLVtmr. PROCEDURE set_factor (factor_in IN NUMBER). END. Clean and lean timing code ovrhead.Building a Layer Over GET_TIME Partial package specification PACKAGE PLVtmr IS PROCEDURE turn_on. END PLVtmr.page 266 . PROCEDURE capture ( context_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) PROCEDURE show_elapsed (prefix_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. calc_totals.sps plvtmr. BEGIN PLVtmr.spb 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .capture. reset_in IN BOOLEAN := TRUE). PROCEDURE turn_off. adjust_in IN NUMBER := 0.

page 267 .PL/SQL Call Stack ----object line object handle number name 88ce3f74 88e49fc4 88e49390 88e2bd20 8 2 1 1 package STEVEN. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .PUT_LINE ( DBMS_UTILITY. END. equivalent to CHR(10). ----. only the package name.Accessing the Execution Call Stack Use in the exception section to show context of error.COMPANY_TYPE procedure STEVEN. ± Most recent program at beginning of "report". EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN DBMS_OUTPUT.FORMAT_CALL_STACK). ± Does not show package elements.VALIDATE_REQUEST function STEVEN.CALC_NET_WORTH anonymous block  "Little known facts" about FORMAT_CALL_STACK: ± Contains embedded new-line characters.

1). CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE dispcs IS stk VARCHAR2(10000).pkg plvcs. dispcs.tst callstack.sps DBMS_OUTPUT.Accessing Call Stack Contents  The call stack length can easily exceed 255 bytes. Instead. next_line := SUBSTR ( stk. CHR(10). BEGIN stk := DBMS_UTILITY. next_newline . END LOOP. startpos.startpos + 1). startpos. LOOP next_newline := INSTR (stk.PUT_LINE (next_line). startpos INTEGER := 1.sp dispcs.FORMAT_CALL_STACK || CHR(10). EXIT WHEN next_newline = 0. startpos := next_newline + 1. use a loop to read through the stack. which means you cannot pass it to DBMS_OUTPUT directly. next_line VARCHAR2(255). END. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . next_newline INTEGER.page 268 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .

but don't see it as a problem.for encapsulation! showcomp. context IN NUMBER. ± Use NAME_RESOLVE to break down an identifier string into its components easily.page 269 . part1_type OUT NUMBER. part2 OUT VARCHAR2.  Possible "Part 1" Types 5 7 8 9 Synonym Procedure Function Package What a chore! All those arguments. part1 OUT VARCHAR2. schema OUT VARCHAR2...pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..sp snc. object_number OUT NUMBER). dblink OUT VARCHAR2. see it as an opportunity.. PROCEDURE DBMS_UTILITY. the way they are attached also follows a complicated syntax.NAME_RESOLVE (name IN VARCHAR2.Resolving Names of Stored Code  Code names have many components.

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