Achieving PL/SQL Excellence

Oracle PL/SQL Advanced Techniques
Oracle7 thru Oracle8i
Steven Feuerstein
www.StevenFeuerstein.com www.Quest.com www.OReilly.com
and contributions most excellent from Bill Pribyl and Dick Bolz

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 1

Objective & Outline 

Objective
± Expand your knowledge and awareness of important and new features of the PL/SQL language. 

Outline
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± Building with Packages (Oracle7+) PL/SQL Collections (Oracle7 and Oracle8+) Cursor Variables (Oracle7 and Oracle8+) Dynamic SQL: DBMS_SQL and Native Dynamic SQL (8i) Calling Java from PL/SQL (Oracle8i) and C (Oracle8) Oracle Advanced Queuing with DBMS_AQ (Oracle8) Managing Large Objects with DBMS_LOB (Oracle8) Other Oracle8i New Features
» Autonomous Transactions (Oracle8i) » Invoker Rights Model (Oracle8i) » Row Level Security: DBMS_RLS

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 2

Software Used in Training 

PL/Vision: a library of packages installed on top of PL/SQL.
± PL/Vision Lite - use it, copy, change it for free -- unless you build software to be sold commercially. ± Active PL/SQL Knowledge Base: contains PL/Vision Professional, the fully supported and enhanced version. 

Demonstration scripts executed in the training can be found on the RevealNet PL/SQL Pipeline:
± http://www.revealnet.com/Pipelines/PLSQL/index.htm ± Archives surfboard, Miscellaneous, PL/SQL Seminar Files ± See filedesc.doc for a listing of many of the files.
plsql_ides.txt 

The PL/SQL IDE (Integrated Development Environment).
± You no longer have to use SQL*Plus and a crude editor! Choose from among the many listed in plsql_ides.txt.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 3

Achieving PL/SQL Excellence

Building with PL/SQL Packages 
 

Overview Initialization section Overloading

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 4

What is a Package? 

A collection of code elements, from procedures and functions to TYPE, variable and cursor declarations.
± Single-most important structure within PL/SQL, and almost certainly one of the most under-utilized. ± Conceptually very simple, it can take some time to fully grasp the implications and potential of the package. 

The method of choice by Oracle and other software developers for extending the PL/SQL language.
± You will find packages in the database, in Oracle Developer/2000, in Oracle Application Server. 

Let¶s review some of the benefits of packages.
tmr.pkg dbparm.pkg

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 5

custrules.pks te_employee. ± There's a big difference between a bunch of separate programs and a coherent.pkg insga. ± Puts more structure and organization in your body of code. package-based "component".pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 6 . watch.When to Build a Package  Join physically logically-related code. ± Can lead to performance improvements. te_employee. you call the packaged procedures and functions instead. ± Instead of writing SQL directly in your programs.pkg  Improve transaction integrity by hiding data structures behind the package interface.pkb  Construct very flexible and usable utilities for developers.

the first time any package element is referenced. no Complete request for packaged element. Program references package element the first time in each session.page 7 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± The PL/SQL runtime engine determines when and if this code should be run. Does the package have an init section? yes Run initialization code.Package Initialization  The initialization section is a block of code at the end of the package body that is executed once per session.

± Confirming that package is properly instantiated.  Useful for: ± Performing complex setting of default or initial values. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein BEGIN after/outside of any program defined in the pkg. ± Is not required. PACKAGE BODY pkg IS PROCEDURE proc IS BEGIN END.Package Initialization Structure  The initialization section: ± Is defined after and outside of any programs in the package. FUNCTION func RETURN BEGIN END. most packages you build won't have one. ± Setting up package data which does not change for the duration of a session. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 8 . In fact. BEGIN END pkg. ± Can have its own exception handling section.

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Section  An unusual package! ± Specification contains only variables. END sessinit..page 9 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . END sessinit. printer FROM user_config WHERE user_id = USER. defprinter INTO show_lov. show_toolbar. ± Body contains only initialization section. WHEN OTHERS THEN RAISE_APPLICATION_ERROR (-20000. EXCEPTION WHEN NO_DATA_FOUND THEN /* No record for show_lov := show_toolbar := printer := PACKAGE sessinit IS show_lov CHAR(1). show_toolbar CHAR(1). tb_flag.. init.  Also a package with many design flaws.pkg init. printer VARCHAR2(60).tst this user. 'lpt1'. 'Y'. */ SELECT lov_flag.Configure Session with Init. */ 'Y'. 'No profile for ' || USER). PACKAGE BODY sessinit IS /* No declared package elements at all! */ BEGIN /* Get user preferences for this user.

fmt_count := 12. Initialization section populates a PL/SQL table. fmts(3) := 'DD-MON'.pkg dates. ± This increases the flexibility of the date conversion process.Populate Collections  The PL/Vision Date package. fmts(4) := 'MM/DD'. fmts(12) := 'RRMMDD'.. BEGIN fmts(1) := 'DD-MON-RR'.page 10 . fmts(11) := 'YYYYMMDD'. ± The datemgr. END dt. .pkg file demonstrates the basic technique (and the reliance on an initialization section) used to achieve this flexibility. fmts(9) := 'MM/DD/YYYY'. datemgr.. fmts(2) := 'DD-MON-YYYY'. fmts(10) := 'MMDDYYYY'.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . PLVdate. employs several PL/SQL tables to convert strings and to perform date arithmetic.

you give two or more programs the same name. myproc  Overloading is a critical feature when building comprehensive programmatic interfaces (APIs) or components using packages.page 11 . you need to make that code as smart and as easy to use as possible. ± If you want others to use your code.Program Overloading  When you overload programs. ± You can overload modules in any declaration section and in packages. ± Overloading transfers the "need to know" from the user to the overloaded program. myproc myproc 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

you would have to deal with something like this: date_string := TO_CHAR_FROM_DATE (SYSDATE. 'MMDDYY'). ± You just probably never gave it a thought.page 12 . number_string := TO_CHAR_FROM_NUMBER (10000). number_string := TO_CHAR (10000). date_string := TO_CHAR (SYSDATE. Without overloading.Overloading in PL/SQL Built-ins  PL/SQL uses overloading in many common functions. 'MMDDYY'). ± But Oracle couldn't offer that level of convenience without overloading. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . and took functions like TO_CHAR and TO_DATE totally for granted.

There are two different "compile times": ± 1. order or datatype family (CHAR vs. When you compile programs that use the overloaded code. the compiler must be able to distinguish between the two calls at compile-time. When you compile the package or block containing the overloaded code.  Undistinguishing characteristics: ± Functions differ only in their RETURN datatype. VARCHAR2 is not different enough).How Overloading Works  For two or more modules to be overloaded. ± 2.  Distinguishing characteristics: ± The formal parameters of overloaded modules must differ in number.page 13 . ± Their formal parameters differ only in datatype and the datatypes are in the same family. IN OUT). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Arguments differ only in their mode (IN. OUT. ± The programs are of different types: procedure and function.

proc1 (v_value). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END param_modes. FUNCTION func1 (val IN VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2.calc ('123'). which one? param_modes. PACKAGE param_modes IS PROCEDURE proc1 (val IN VARCHAR2).PUT_LINE (only_returns.func1 (v_value)). PROCEDURE proc1 (val IN OUT VARCHAR2).Examples of Invalid Overloadings PACKAGE too_similar IS PROCEDURE calc (reg_in IN CHAR). which one? DBMS_OUTPUT. PACKAGE only_returns IS FUNCTION func1 (val IN VARCHAR2) RETURN DATE. END too_many_cals. which one? too_similar. Parameter data types cause conflict. Only difference is parameter mode.page 14 . END only_returns. Only difference is function RETURN type. PROCEDURE calc (reg_in IN VARCHAR2).

l substitute does an even better job. not Value ± A less common application of overloading. ± The DBMS_OUTPUT.Overload Wherever Possible  Supporting Many Data Combinations ± Apply the same action to different kinds or combinations of data. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . the overloading does not provide a single name for different activities.PUT_LINE procedure illustrates this technique -and the PL/Vision p. you may construct different versions of the ³same´ program which correspond to different patterns of use. so much as providing different ways of requesting the same activity.  Overloading by Type.  Fitting the Program to the User ± To make your code as useful as possible.page 15 . In this case. You use the type of data and not its value to determine which of the overloaded programs should be executed.

PROCEDURE l (number_in IN NUMBER). YYYY . number_in IN NUMBER). date_in IN DATE. END p. mask_in IN VARCHAR2 := 'Month DD.A "Classic" Overloaded Package  Many different datatype combinations. allowing the user to pass data to the "display engine" without writing "pre-processing" code. PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2).spb PROCEDURE l (boolean_in IN BOOLEAN).sps p. PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2. boolean_in IN BOOLEAN). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .HH:MI:SS PM').page 16 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .HH:MI:SS PM'). PACKAGE p IS PROCEDURE l (date_in IN DATE. mask_in IN VARCHAR2 := µMonth DD. p. YYYY . PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2. PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2.

p. DBMS_OUTPUT. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . p.page 17 . p.PUT_LINE ('So what is different?'). 'MM/DD/YY HH:MI:SS')). p. ELSE DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE ('FALSE').PUT_LINE (TO_CHAR (SYSDATE.. SQLCODE).l (SQLERRM.l (SYSDATE). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein ‡Extended overloadings are more likely to meet user needs.Advantage of Extended Overloading ‡ Minimal overloading means lots of extra coding. DBMS_OUTPUT. IF print_report_fl THEN DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE (SQLERRM || ': ' || TO_CHAR (SQLCODE)). DBMS_OUTPUT.l (print_report_fl).l ('So what is different?').PUT_LINE ('TRUE').. END IF.

can be applied or needed under very different circumstances. ± If you want to write software that is admired..and taken completely for granted. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . such as "display data" or "create a file". the user of your package can benefit from writing less code. In my experience.. think about the way it will be used.page 18   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .Fitting the Program to the User Writing "unnecessary" code? Time to overload!  A single piece of functionality. ± Your code is a a more natural "fit" under a variety of requirements. few developers are considerate enough of their users to try to anticipate their needs. If you take these different circumstances into account when you design your package specification. appreciated.

right? WRONG! PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  In other words. 'W'). END. ± She doesn't care what's in it. UTL_FILE.PUT_LINE (fid.FOPEN ('tmp/flags'. so this is just the way it has to be.Creating a File for a Quick Touch  Suppose a developer needs to create a file to be used as a "flag" in the operating system. 'exists.flg'.page 19  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . 'blah'). Of course. It just needs to be present.FCLOSE (fid). BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE. UTL_FILE.FILE_TYPE. you have to declare the record to hold the file handle. even though you are simply going to close the file immediately after opening it. ± Here is the code required by UTL_FILE: DECLARE fid UTL_FILE. sometimes you will want to create a file and then perform additional operations.

ini'. Use as Procedure BEGIN PLVfile.fcreate ('exists. v_user).Procedure and Function Overloaded  Why not overload a "create file" program so that you can pick the one that most closely fits your situation? Consider the PLVfile package of PL/Vision. BEGIN fid := PLVfile.FILE_TYPE.  Overloading of FCreate PACKAGE PLVfile IS /* Procedure */ PROCEDURE fcreate (file_in IN VARCHAR2. line_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) RETURN UTL_FILE.fcreate ('temp. /* Function */ FUNCTION fcreate (file_in IN VARCHAR2. PLVfile. END.put_line (fid. line_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL). END PLVfile.page 20 . custrules.FILE_TYPE. TO_CHAR (SYSDATE)). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Use as Function DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.flg').pkg PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

 There are three ways to accomplish this: ± Don't overload.page 21 . ± Pass a string ³name´ of the datatype. the user does not need to pass data. when you use DBMS_SQL to set up a dynamic query."By-Type" Overloading  In some situations. but the type of data. ± Pass a piece of data of the right type. Define a different program name for each datatype. ± For example. you must call the DEFINE_COLUMN procedure to define the datatype of the Nth column in the cursor. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

'NUMBER')..  Now let's look at two examples of overloading by datatype.  Nasty hard-coding. 'STRING'.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. 30). DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_INTEGER_COLUMN (cur..VARCHAR2_TYPE... 30). DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL.func 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 1). DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.NUMBER_TYPE). 2... 1. 2. 2. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.Options for Specifying Column Type  Don't even bother overloading. ± DBMS_SQL. lotsa names...DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. Pass a named constant.page 22 . DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_VARCHAR2_COLUMN (cur. 30).. Lotsa typing.  So many program names to remember! Pass a literal value. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. 1..DEFINE_COLUMN ± PLVgen...

DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. 2.DEFINE_COLUMN.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. 30). DBMS_UTILITY. 1. v_empno). BEGIN DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.page 23 . DBMS_SQL. v_ename. DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.any value -.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. 2. 2. from the perspective of DBMS_SQL. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.Defining Dynamic SQL Columns  The DBMS_SQL. ± The three code blocks below are equivalent. 1. USER. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN procedure defines the datatype of a column. 30). you only need to pass a value -. 1. 1).GET_TIME).of the correct type.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. 30). 'a'. ± To make it easier to accomplish this task.

any Boolean will do.func ('total_salary'. please! 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . PROCEDURE func (name_in IN VARCHAR2. type_in IN DATE). type_in IN VARCHAR2). PROCEDURE func (name_in IN VARCHAR2. any date. any string.page 24 . the user indicates the type of function to be generated by providing a value. type_in IN NUMBER). PACKAGE PLVgen IS PROCEDURE func (name_in IN VARCHAR2.Generating Functions by Value  In PLVgen. please! A number function.func ('last_date'. SQL> exec plvgen. SYSDATE) SQL> exec plvgen. ± The particular value itself is of no importance. Any number. 1) A date function.

The Frustrations of Overloading  Watch out! An overloading can compile successfully.  In the above example. PROCEDURE calc (comp_id_IN IN company.page 25 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . PACKAGE profits IS PROCEDURE calc (comp_id_IN IN NUMBER). END. ± When I compile profits. PL/SQL does not sense a conflict with above overloading even though comp_id is a numeric column. I rely on an anchored type (%TYPE) to establish the datatype of the second calc¶s parameter. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . but you might later found out that you cannot actually call any of the overloaded programs.comp_id%TYPE).

END sales. how would you do it? (Don't peek at the next page!) BEGIN sales. sales. like calc_totals shown above? ± If not. END. why not? ± If so.  Can I overload two programs which have parameters that differ only by name. PROCEDURE calc_total (reg_in IN VARCHAR2). sales.pkg ? 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .calc_total ('NORTHWEST').calc_total ('ZONE2').Quiz! Nuances of Overloading PACKAGE sales IS PROCEDURE calc_total (zone_in IN VARCHAR2).page 26 .

namednot.''ESTIMATE''.null. next_date => TRUNC (SYSDATE + 1).submit ( job => v_jobno. what => 'DBMS_DDL.'.sql  Advantages 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . interval => 'TRUNC(SYSDATE+1)'). This is especially useful when working with infrequently used built-in programs.''TENK''' || '.''LOAD1''. ± You can skip over (not specify values for) any IN parameters that have default values. That way you don't have to know and pass default values.Using Named Notation <formal parameter name> => <expression>  Explicit association between the formal parameter (the "name") with the actual parameter (the "value").estimate_percent=>50). DBMS_JOB.ANALYZE_OBJECT ' || '(''TABLE''.page 27 . of named notation include: ± Code is more "self-documenting".

Three types of collections: ± Index-by tables (Oracle7 only.Achieving PL/SQL Excellence PL/SQL Collections   Collections are single-dimensioned lists of information.page 28 . Oracle8 and above) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . originally called PL/SQL tables) ± Nested tables (Oracle8 and above) ± Variable arrays (VARRAYs.

Improve query performance by avoiding joins.  Emulate bi-directional cursors. which are otherwise not supported in PL/SQL Cache data in session-level memory for faster access. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Avoid mutating table errors in database triggers. Build hash tables (custom indexing structures).page 29     1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .When to Use Collections  Maintain any kind of list of related information for use in your programs.

483.Index-By Tables TYPE <table_type> IS TABLE OF <datatype> INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER.647 to 2.  Characteristics of an index-by table: ± Unbounded » Practically speaking.483.647 » You will not actually create tables this large. ± Available only in PL/SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Valid row numbers range: -2. ± Homogeneous » Data in each row has the same structure. ± Sparse » Data does not have to be stored in consecutive rows of information. emp_copy inmem_emp_t.147.page 30 .147. Instead. DECLARE TYPE inmem_emp_t IS TABLE OF emp%ROWTYPE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. this broad range allows you to employ the row number as an intelligent key.

Variable declaration children child_list_type. Component Selection kid := children (4). Error: NO_DATA_FOUND 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . children 6306 6412 6810 6904 µBarbara Anne¶ µGary Richard¶ µAdam Russell¶ µLisa Nadezhka¶ datemgr.pkg children 6306 6412 6904 µBarbara Anne¶ µGary Richard¶ µLisa Marie¶ children (6810) := µAdam Russell.Index_by Tables TYPE declaration PACKAGE BODY family IS TYPE child_list_type IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2 (30) INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. children (6904) := 'Lisa Nadezhka'.page 31 .

 Nested table characteristics ± Homogeneous » Each row contains the same structure of data.Nested Tables [CREATE OR REPLACE] TYPE <table_type> IS TABLE OF <datatype> [NOT NULL]. birthdays when_t. ± Unbounded. Valid row numbers range: 1 to 2.647 ± Initially dense. but can become sparse if you DELETE inner rows ± Available both in PL/SQL and SQL (as a column in a table) ± The order of elements is not preserved in the database 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .147.page 32 . but only with explicit EXTEND requests » Practically speaking.483. DECLARE TYPE when_t IS TABLE OF DATE.

Nested Tables CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE child_table_type IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2 (30). For ORACLE's use only db_family surname kids BOLZ BOND Eric Thomas Max Richard Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Marie ntdemo.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . CREATE TABLE db_family (surname VARCHAR2 (30).page 33 . kids child_table_type) NESTED TABLE kids STORE AS kids_ntab.

 Characteristics of variable arrays: ± Homogeneous » Each row contains the same structure of data. ± Available both in PL/SQL and SQL (as a column in a table) » And the order of elements are preserved in the database.147.page 34 . Maximum value: 2. can be EXTENDed or TRIMmed.647 ± Dense » Never any gaps between defined rows. ± Bounded » Upper limit established when the TYPE is defined.483. ± Variable arrays are actually stored in the DB table 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Variable Arrays [CREATE OR REPLACE] TYPE <table_type> IS VARRAY (N) OF <datatype> [NOT NULL]. DECLARE TYPE numbers_t IS VARRAY (10) OF NUMBER. salaries numbers_t.

CREATE TABLE db_family (surname VARCHAR2 (30).page 35 .sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Variable Arrays CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE child_va_type IS VARRAY (8) OF VARCHAR2 (30). kids child_va_type). db_family surname kids BOLZ BOND 1 Barbara Anne 2 Gary Richard 3 Lisa Marie 1 Eric Thomas 2 Max Richard vademo.

page 36 . you can define the TYPE in the database with a CREATE statement. you define the TYPE of the collection. ± For nested tables and VARRAYs.. a collection. ± You can declare multiple collections from that TYPE. Best option: package specification. TYPE integer_vat IS VARRAY(10) OF INTEGER. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . from the TYPE. TYPE integer_nt IS TABLE OF INTEGER.  Then you declare an instance of that type. ± For index-by tables. . END tabtypes..Defining Collections  First. or in a PL/SQL declaration section. this can only occur in a PL/SQL declaration section. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE tabtypes IS TYPE integer_ibt IS TABLE OF INTEGER INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER.

colldd. all_type_attrs A T.Obtaining Collection Information SELECT FROM WHERE AND AND AND A.type_name.' || A.owner = USER T.page 37 .owner T.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± The code used to define the collection TYPE  There is no information in the data dictionary available for index-by tables.attr_name || ' . 'TMRS_VT') T.owner = A.type_name IN ('NAMES_VT'.  ALL_COLL_TYPES ± The types you have created (or have access to) in the database  ALL_TYPE_ATTRS ± Attributes of the data type used in the TYPE definition.elem_type_name = A.attr_type_name Attributes all_coll_types T.

/ DECLARE -. 200. ± Index-by tables are initialized automatically. 300). salary_history numbers_t).Initialize the collection. it must be initialized. BEGIN CREATE TABLE employee_denorm ( employee_id INTEGER. ± Nested tables and VARRAYs are atomically null. empty when declared. BEGIN CREATE TYPE numbers_t IS VARRAY (10) OF NUMBER. salaries numbers_t := numbers_t (100.Initializing Collections  Before you can use a collection. 200. You must initialize them explicitly with a constructor. DECLARE TYPE numbers_t IS VARRAY (10) OF NUMBER. 300).page 38 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . salaries numbers_t := numbers_t (100. TYPE defined in PL/SQL TYPE defined in the database Collection used in a table PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

the datatype for any of the collection types can also be an object. ± But you cannot have nested composite datatypes. comp_tab comp_tabtype.comp_id := 1005. Here we have a three step process.page 39 . BEGIN comp_tab(1). the ³homogeneous´ contents of an index-by table's row can be a record .Collections of Composites  Starting with Oracle 7. ± Can easily create an index-by table with the same structure as a database table by declaring a record with %ROWTYPE. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . total_rev NUMBER). Again. consider putting TYPEs in database or packages.  Starting with Oracle8.company_id%TYPE.3. TYPE comp_tabtype IS TABLE OF comp_rectype INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. DECLARE TYPE comp_rectype IS RECORD (comp_id company.

consider using the row value as "smart data" for your application (primary key. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Especially handy when caching data from relational tables in user memory.  Rows do not have to be defined sequentially.Sparse is Nice  The sparse characteristic of index-by tables and nested tables can be put to good use.page 40 . ± Instead. it is very similar to a database table.). your collections will contain a row's worth of information. ± In an index-by table. etc. ± You should not fill sequentially. a row exists in the table only when a value is assigned to that row. unless the order in which items are selected is of importance. order by date. In this way. ± In almost every case.

page 41 . emp_tab emp_tabtype. Initialization section of package 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein  This package moves the entire contents of the emp table into its corresponding collection. END LOOP. END. END.empno) := rec. Some questions: ± Why would I put this collection table in a package? ± When is the collection loaded with the data? ± What rows in that collection are utilized? psemp.pkg psemp.tst  PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Transferring DB Table to Collection CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE psemp IS TYPE emp_tabtype IS TABLE OF emp%ROWTYPE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY psemp IS BEGIN FOR rec IN (SELECT * FROM emp) LOOP emp_tab (rec.

END. ± Use the EXISTS method to determine if a row existed. but you must do it for VARRAYs and nested tables. Jordan'. BEGIN greedy_ceos(1) := 'Hamilton. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± For VARRAYs and nested tables. / DECLARE greedy_ceos names_t := names_t (). the row exists. you must reference existing rows or a NO_DATA_FOUND exception is raised.  For index-by tables. even if you haven't assigned a value explicitly. ± Not necessary for index-by tables.Collection Gotchas CREATE TYPE names_t IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2(30).page 42 . once extended. / Error -6533! You've got to EXTEND first!  EXTEND before assigning a value to a row.

Set the value of each new row to the contents of the first row.page 43 . salaries(salaries.tst  Include a handler for NO_DATA_FOUND or use the EXISTS method to avoid these exceptions. salaries. -.Handling Collection Gotchas BEGIN -. optional argument.EXTEND (10. ± Assign a default value with a second. ± Pre-extending a large number of rows in advance can improve performance.EXISTS (v_employee_id) THEN -. ELSE DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE ('Data for employee not available.').  You can EXTEND one or more rows.FIRST)). preextend. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .We are OK. END IF.Extend by 10 since I know I will need that many. BEGIN IF salaries.

Collection Methods  Obtain information about the collection COUNT returns number of rows currently defined in the table. ± LIMIT tells you the max. EXISTS returns TRUE if the specified row is defined. ± TRIM removes rows from a VARRAY.  The built-in package plitblm (PL/sql Index-TaBLe Methods) defines these methods. NEXT/PRIOR return the closest defined row after/before the specified row. ± ± ± ±  Modify the contents of the collection ± DELETE deletes one or more rows from the index-by table. FIRST/LAST return lowest/highest numbers of defined rows.page 44 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . ± EXTEND adds rows to a nested table or VARRAY. number of elements allowed in a VARRAY. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

-.page 45 .Delete one (the last) row myCollection. -.The DELETE Method  You can delete one or more rows from a collection using DELETE: BEGIN -.Delete all rows myCollection.FREE_UNUSED_USER_MEMORY. DELETE releases memory.DELETE. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END.DELETE (1400.Delete a range of rows myCollection. 17255).DELETE (myCollection.LAST). but you may also want to call DBMS_SESSION.

Navigating Through Collections 


Use FIRST and NEXT to move from beginning to end. Use LAST and PRIOR to move from end to beginning.
rowind PLS_INTEGER := birthdays.FIRST; -- birthdays.LAST BEGIN LOOP EXIT WHEN rowind IS NULL; DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE (birthdays(rowind).best_present); rowind := birthdays.NEXT (rowind); -- birthdays.PRIOR END LOOP; END;

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 46

Using Collections Inside SQL 

Nested tables and VARRAYs can be defined as columns of a table and referenced directly within SQL. You can also apply SQL operations to the contents of nested tables and VARRAYs with these operators:
± THE - Maps a single column value in a single row to a virtual database table ± CAST - Maps a collection of one type to a collection of another type ± MULTISET - Maps a database table to a collection ± TABLE - Maps a collection to a database table  

Index-by tables are programmatic constructs only.
± You cannot make a direct reference to an index-by table in SQL. ± Instead, so do indirectly with a PL/SQL function.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 47

Using Collections inside SQL
SELECT column_value FROM TABLE (SELECT children FROM db_family WHERE surname = 'BOLZ'); db_family surname children BOLZ BOND Eric Thomas Max Richard UPDATE TABLE (SELECT children FROM db_family WHERE SURNAME = 'BOLZ) SET column_value = 'Lisa Nadezhka' WHERE column_value = 'Lisa Marie'); db_family surname children BOLZ ...
1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein
PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 48

Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Marie

column_value Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Marie

Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Nadezhka

Using the THE Operator 

Use THE to manipulate (retrieve, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE) contents of a nested table in a database table.
± Can only use with nested tables, not VARRAYs or index-by tables. ± Only accessible from within SQL statements in PL/SQL.
CREATE TYPE action_list_t IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2(100); / CREATE TABLE inflation_beater ( focus_area VARCHAR2(100), activities action_list_t) NESTED TABLE activities STORE AS activities_tab; SELECT VALUE (act) FROM THE (SELECT activities FROM inflation_beater WHERE focus_area = 'FORTUNE 100') act; UPDATE THE (SELECT activities FROM inflation_beater WHERE focus_area = 'FORTUNE 100') SET COLUMN_VALUE = 'DISBAND OSHA' WHERE COLUMN_VALUE = 'SIDESTEP OSHA';

the.sql

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 49

Using the TABLE and CAST Operators 

Use CAST to convert a collection from one type to another, TABLE to convert a TYPE into a database table.
± Cannot use with index-by tables. ± Useful when you would like to apply SQL operations against a PL/SQL collection (ie, one not stored in a database table).
DECLARE nyc_devolution cutbacks_for_taxcuts := cutbacks_for_taxcuts ('Stop rat extermination programs', 'Fire building inspectors', 'Close public hospitals'); BEGIN DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE ( 'How to Make the NYC Rich Much, Much Richer:'); FOR rec IN (SELECT COLUMN_VALUE ohmy FROM TABLE (CAST (nyc_devolution AS cutbacks_for_taxcuts))) LOOP DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE (rec.ohmy); END LOOP; cast.sql END;

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 50

b. Retrieves all detail bird_row bird_curs%ROWTYPE.species = b. OPEN bird_curs. CAST(MULTISET(SELECT bh. query) into a VARRAY or nested table.genus AND bh. FETCH bird_curs into bird_row.page 51 . view. converting a set of data (table.country FROM bird_habitats bh WHERE bh.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Using the MULTISET Operator  MULTISET is the inverse of TABLE. END. multiset. information for the BEGIN master in one trip.genus. ± Cannot use with index-by tables. with potential client-server performance impact.species.genus = b. DECLARE CURSOR bird_curs IS SELECT b. ± You can use MULTISET to emulate or transform relational joins into collections.species) AS country_tab_t) FROM birds b.

but hide the index-by table structure. hiredates date_tab. END. FUNCTION rowval (indx IN PLS_INTEGER) RETURN DATE IS BEGIN RETURN hiredates (indx). WNPS. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY ibtab IS TYPE date_tab IS TABLE OF DATE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER.Referencing IB Tables inside SQL  You can't directly reference an index-by table's contents inside SQL. Instead. WNDS). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein ibtab_in_sql.page 52 . Make accessible in SQL for Oracle8 and below.  CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE ibtab IS FUNCTION rowval (indx IN PLS_INTEGER) RETURN DATE. END. PRAGMA RESTRICT_REFERENCES (rowval. END.sql PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . call functions that retrieve the table's data.

 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 53 .Examples of Collections in Action  Emulation of bi-directional cursor operations Avoid mutating table problems in database triggers.

tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . PROCEDURE nextRow.pkg bidir. PROCEDURE prevRow. FUNCTION getRow RETURN employee_plus%ROWTYPE.nope.Bi-Directional Cursor Emulation  Oracle does not yet support the ability to move back and forth (and at random) through a cursor's result set. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE bidir IS /* Iterate through rows in the result set */ PROCEDURE setRow (nth IN PLS_INTEGER). ± A talked-about feature for Oracle9i -.  bidir. didn't make it!  Instead. END. This is particularly useful (read: efficient) when you need to perform multiple passes against the data.page 54 . Notice that the collection itself is hidden. deposit your data in a collection and then provide programs to access that data in the necessary fashion.

page 55 .The Mutating Table Problem  Database triggers can be attached to the SQL statement and/or the individual row operations on a table. Statement Level UPDATE emp SET sal = 1000 UPDATE row 1 Row Level  UPDATE row N Row level triggers cannot query from or change the contents of the table to which it is attached. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .sql  Note: in Oracle8i. So what are you supposed to do when a row-level operation needs to "touch" that table? mutating. you can use autonomous transactions to relax restrictions associated with queries. it is "mutating".

page 56 . 1st row trigger fires Nth row trigger fires Writes to list Writes to list Work List (PL/SQL Table)  Process data in the list.A Solution Based on Index-by Tables  Since you cannot perform the processing desired in the row-level trigger. If you are going to defer the work. Statement Trigger 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . you have to remember what you needed to do. you need to defer the action until you get to the statement level. ± an index-by table is an ideal repository for this reminder list.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .91 109000. we then know which departments to re-rank.25 65011. ± As the sales amount is updated in this table. the rankings must also change to show the new standings for that department only.An Example: Ranking Salespeople  A table holds the rankings based on the amount of annual sales of salespeople within a department.page 57 .88 144533.25 3 1 2 6 "Deferred work" is not only necessary. ± By storing the salesperson¶s department ids as they change. ± We might update more than one department within a statement so we must be able to retain multiple department numbers. Department ID Salesperson ID Sales Amount Rank 1055 1055 1055 1047  64333 65709 65706 70904 74055. but preferable.

sales_amt) BEGIN rank.sales_amt != NEW.add_dept (:new.rank_depts. Doesn't fire unless the sales_amt is actually changed.page 58 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END.dept_id).pkg All details of the ranking are hidden in the package body. Statement Level Trigger CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER Rank_Sales_Strg AFTER INSERT OR UPDATE OR DELETE ON rank_sales BEGIN rank. END. ranking.Trigger Logic Required Row Level Trigger CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER Rank_Sales_Rtrg AFTER insert OR update OF sales_amt ON rank_sales FOR EACH ROW WHEN (OLD.

PROCEDURE rank_depts. Table holds indicator that department needs re-ranking. PACKAGE BODY rank IS in_process BOOLEAN := FALSE.page 59 . END IF. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END rank. dept_tab dept_tabtype.The Ranking Package PACKAGE rank IS PROCEDURE add_dept (dept_id_in IN INTEGER). END add_dept 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Create row to indicate department to be ranked. TYPE dept_tabtype IS TABLE OF BOOLEAN INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. PROCEDURE add_dept (dept_id_in IN INTEGER) IS BEGIN IF NOT in_process THEN dept_tab (dept_id_in) := TRUE.

dept_tab. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . in_process := FALSE. END LOOP.The Ranking Package. perform_ranking (v_deptid).FIRST. Continued PROCEDURE rank_depts IS v_deptid PLS_INTEGER := dept_tab.DELETE. BEGIN IF NOT in_process THEN in_process := TRUE. v_deptid := dept_tab. END rank_dept. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Avoid recursive execution of logic Row number is department number. LOOP EXIT WHEN v_deptid IS NULL.page 60 . END IF.NEXT (v_deptid). END rank. Clean up for next time.

Set of data is relatively small (avoid row chaining). You want to use inside SQL. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . You don't want to have to worry about sparseness.page 61 .  Nested tables ± You want to store large amounts of persistent data in a column.Which Collection Type Should I Use?  Index-by tables ± Need to use in both Oracle7 and Oracle8 applications ± Want to take advantage of sparse nature for "intelligent keys".  VARRAYs ± ± ± ± You want to preserve the order in which elements are stored. ± You want to use inside SQL.

Tips for Using Collections 

Wrap access to your collections.
± In many cases, you will want to avoid direct access to (assigning and retrieving) rows in your collections. ± This will give you the flexibility to change your implementation. ± You can also hide complex rules for setting the row number. 

Get creative!
± Don't always fill and use the index-by table sequentially. ± If you can somehow translate your application data to an integer, it can be used as a row number, and therefore offers indexed access. ± Julian date formats and DBMS_UTILITY.GET_HASH_VALUE offer two different methods.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 62

Achieving PL/SQL Excellence

Cursor Variables

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 63

Architecture of Cursor Variables
With Hard-Coded Cursors
Hard-Coded Cursor

With Cursor Variables

PGA

Cursor Variable

Cursor Variable

Result Set

Shared Global Area

Cursor Object

Result Set 

A cursor variable points to an underlying cursor object in the database.
± The cursor object in turns points to (and keeps its place in) a result set. 

The cursor variable can be passed between programs (even between, say, a Java servlet and a PL/SQL stored procedure).
± Static SQL only -- until Oracle8i.
PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 64

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

Benefits of Cursor Variables 

Share cursor management between programs, even across the client-server divide.
± You don't have to pass the result sets of a cursor in order to allow the client-side program to have direct access to the data in the result set. ± Oracle Developer 2.1 utilizes cursor variables when you choose to construct a "base table block" around stored procedures instead of a database table. 

Share the same code across multiple, different queries.
± Since the cursor name is no longer hard-coded, you can use a single block of code (say, a reporting program) against different queries. ± We will try out this technique at the end of the section.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 65

Cursor Variable Example
DECLARE TYPE company_curtype IS REF CURSOR RETURN company%ROWTYPE;
Declare a variable cursor TYPE.

company_curvar company_curtype;

Declare cursor variable based on that type. Declare a record from cursor variable. OPEN cursor variable, specifying the query. FETCH from the cursor variable.

company_rec company_curvar%ROWTYPE; BEGIN OPEN company_curvar FOR SELECT * FROM company;

FETCH company_curvar INTO company_rec;
Close the cursor variable.

CLOSE company_curvar; END;
1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 66

Explicit Cursors and Cursor Variables 

Both hard-coded cursors and cursor variables work with static SQL.
± The SQL is fixed at compile-time. ± The difference is that with cursor variables, you get to decide which static query is opened. 

Many cursor operations are the same:
± Close a variable cursor with the same syntax as that for static cursors. ± Use cursor attributes (%ISOPEN, %FOUND, %NOTFOUND, %ROWCOUNT) with cursor variables (as of Release 2.3). ± Fetch data from the cursor result set through a cursor variable with the same syntax as that of static cursors. 

Let¶s focus on the new and different capabilities of cursor variables.
PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 67

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

Declaring Cursor Types and Variables 

Cursors are declared in two steps, just like programmerdefined records and PL/SQL tables.
± 1. Define a cursor TYPE -- either "weak" or "strong". ± 2. Define a cursor variable.
DECLARE TYPE weak_curtype IS REF CURSOR; TYPE comp_curtype IS REF CURSOR RETURN company%ROWTYPE; curcmp_new comp_curtype; cur_any weak_curtype; BEGIN
Declare cursor variables from the TYPEs. Declare a STRONG referenced cursor TYPE. Declare a WEAK referenced cursor TYPE.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 68

Strong vs. Weak Cursor Types 

A strong (or constrained) cursor type has a defined return data specification.
± Can only reference cursor objects which return the same data specification, which can be any single SQL datatype or any previously defined record structure. ± Datatype mismatches are identified at compile time.

TYPE cur_typ_name IS REF CURSOR [ RETURN return_type ]; TYPE cur_typ_name IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE; /* Strong */ 

The weak (or unconstrained) cursor type does not have a RETURN clause.
± It can reference any cursor object, be opened FOR any query. ± Datatype mismatches can only be identified at runtime.

TYPE cur_typ_name IS REF CURSOR; /* Weak */
1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein
PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 69

Opening with the Cursor Variable
OPEN cursor_name FOR select_statement; 

When you open a cursor variable (whether of the weak or strong variety), you must provide the SQL query that identifies the result set.
± If the variable has not yet been assigned to cursor object, the OPEN FOR statement implicitly creates an object for the variable. ± If the variable is already pointing to a cursor object, the OPEN FOR reuses the existing object and attaches the new query to that cursor object. 

Remember, the cursor object is nothing more than a memory location.
± It is maintained independently of the query itself.
PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 70

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

a cursor or a programmer-defined record.. Match Needed BEGIN OPEN emp_curvar FOR SELECT * from emp. .. emp_curvar emp_curtype.Opening with Strong Cursor Types DECLARE TYPE emp_curtype IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± You can establish the return type based on a database table. END.  STRONG cursor data specifications must match or be compatible with the structure of the SELECT statement.page 71 .

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . you can associate any SELECT statement with a weak cursor variable. RETURN retval. OPEN retval FOR SELECT * FROM emp. THEN OPEN retval FOR SELECT * FROM dept.cv_type IS retval pkg. REF TYPE placed in package so that it is "globally" available. END IF. END.  A weak cursor TYPE doesn't define the RETURN structure.page 72 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . END. Verification will take ELSIF get_type_in = µDEPT¶ place at the FETCH.Opening with Weak Cursor Types PACKAGE pkg IS TYPE cv_type IS REF CURSOR.cv_type. BEGIN IF get_type_in = µEMP¶ THEN Either query will "do". FUNCTION open_emp_or_dept (get_type_in IN VARCHAR2) RETURN pkg.

sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± The ROWTYPE_MISMATCH exception is raised on failure. ± FOR WEAK cursor types.page 73 . it match the cursor type data specification. FETCH cursor_var_name INTO var_name. ± Fetching can continue with a different INTO clause.. The INTO structure must match in number and datatype to: ± FOR STRONG cursor types.   Compatibility checks are performed prior to fetching row.Fetching from the Cursor Variable FETCH cursor_var_name INTO record_name...  Fetching with cursor variables follows the same rules as those with static cursors. . var_name. it match the OPEN FOR statement structure. mismatch.

but static cursors are more efficient than dynamic SQL and cursor variables are less complicated than DBMS_SQL. ± With explicit cursors. since cursor names are "hard coded". ± JDBC recognizes cursor variables.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .When to Use Cursor Variables  Make it easier for calling programs (especially non-PL/SQL programs) to manipulate result sets.  hccursor. you have to repeat the code for each cursor.page 74 .  Define a base table block in Forms Builder (formerly Oracle Forms) on stored procedures rather than a table directly. Use a single block of code to manipulate multiple queries. ± You could use dynamic SQL to achieve this effect.

/ allcurrs.page 75 . TYPE cv_t IS REF CURSOR RETURN int_rt.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .tst explcv. FUNCTION open (type_in IN INTEGER) RETURN cv_t. bysal CONSTANT INTEGER := 2.pkg allcurs. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE allcurs IS bydept CONSTANT INTEGER := 1. ± It also creates the data structures you will need to call the function. END. TYPE int_rt IS RECORD (key INTEGER).Consolidating Different Cursors  The following package specification hides the SQL behind a single open function.

ELSIF type_in = bysal THEN OPEN retval FOR SELECT empno FROM emp ORDER BY SAL. RETURN retval. END.Consolidating Different Cursors  The open function simply opens FOR a different SELECT based on the criteria passed to it. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY allcurs IS FUNCTION open (type_in IN INTEGER) RETURN cv_t IS retval cv_t. BEGIN IF type_in = bydept THEN OPEN retval FOR SELECT empno FROM emp ORDER BY deptno. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END IF. END.page 76 .

END LOOP. p. END. v_empno emp. change the ORDER BY clause -without having to change the code you write. DECLARE cv allcurs. EXIT WHEN cv%NOTFOUND. CLOSE cv.in this case.l (v_empno).open (&1). BEGIN cv := allcurs. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Hiding SQL Variations in Resulting Code  The following block demonstrates that you can alter which SQL statement to query -.page 77 "Report processor" is independent of the particular SELECT . LOOP FETCH cv INTO v_empno.empno%TYPE.cv_t.

 Hide Variations in Underlying SQL ± You no longer have to repeat the same code for different cursors.  Improve Client-Side Access to Data ± At least in Oracle Developer 2.  Strong and Weak Types ± Create REF CURSORs for specific queries. you can build screens that access data using a cursor variable-based procedural API. unconstrained type.page 78 .Cursor Variables Let's summarize  Flexibility ± Choose which static SQL statement is executed at run-time. or a more general.1. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

page 79 .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Dynamic SQL  Dynamic SQL and dynamic PL/SQL: ± The DBMS_SQL package ± Native dynamic SQL in Oracle8i 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

page 80 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .  Execute DDL inside PL/SQL programs. ± Available in PL/SQL since Release 2. ± Also supported with "native dynamic SQL" in Oracle8i.1 and DBMS_SQL. ± One example: implement indirect referencing in PL/SQL. ± Construct powerful DBA utilities. you no longer have to write SQL to generate SQL to get your job done.Dynamic SQL and PL/SQL Execution  "Dynamic SQL" mean that you construct the SQL statement or PL/SQL block at runtime and then execute it. What can you do with Dynamic SQL?  Build ad-hoc query and update applications. ± Very common requirement on the Web.  Execute dynamically-constructed PL/SQL programs. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

± Different methods require the use of different programs in DBMS_SQL. Method 2: non-queries with a fixed number of host variables. If you can recognize the types. Method 3: queries with a fixed number of items in the SELECT list and a fixed number of host variables. executed a single time.    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . execute one or more times.page 81 . you can more quickly figure out how to code your solution. Method 4: queries with a variable number of items in the SELECT list and/or non-queries with a variable number of host variables.Four Methods of Dynamic SQL   Method 1: non-queries without host variables. ± NDS does not support method 4. These methods are in increasing order of complexity.

Native Dynamic SQL  Prior to Oracle8i. DML and single row fetches. ± OPEN FOR <sql string>.  The new "native dynamic SQL" or NDS of Oracle8i offers two native statements in the PL/SQL language to implement most of your dynamic SQL requirements: ± EXECUTE IMMEDIATE <sql string>. used for DDL. you would use the DBMS_SQL built-in package to execute dynamic SQL. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . used for multi-row queries. ± But this package is very complex. difficult to use. and relatively slow (performance did improve significantly as of Oracle8).page 82 .

]. The USING clause allows you to specify bind arguments or variables to be passed into the SQL string before execution.page 83   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . collections and records.. including objects. {IN | OUT | IN OUT] bind argument]. | record }] [USING {IN | OUT | IN OUT] bind argument [.EXECUTE IMMEDIATE EXECUTE IMMEDIATE sql-string [INTO {define_variable[.. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . The INTO clause allows you to pass values from the select list of a single row query into local variables...  Use this statement to execute any dynamic SQL statement (including a PL/SQL block) except for multi-row queries. define_variables].

and not much of a democracy either!'). IF tabCount ('citizens'. END.PUT_LINE ( 'Not the best health care system in the world. END IF..000.' || tab || ' WHERE ' || NVL (whr. RETURN retval.page 84 . table and retval INTEGER.... 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein tabcount81. 'insured = ''NO''') > 40. whr IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. WHERE clause. '1=1') INTO retval.sf PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . sch IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) RETURN INTEGER IS Specify schema.000 THEN DBMS_OUTPUT. USER) || '.COUNT(*) For Any Table  Here's a handy and simple utility based on NDS: CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION tabCount ( tab IN VARCHAR2. BEGIN EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'SELECT COUNT(*) FROM ' || NVL (sch.sf compare with: tabcount.

 Execute a stored procedure. EXECUTE IMMEDIATE v_str. END.'.' || name_in || '.page 85 .. val_in IN NUMBER) IS BEGIN EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'UPDATE ' || tab_in || ' SET ' || col_in || ' = :val WHERE hiredate BETWEEN :lodate AND :hidate' USING val_in. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE updnumval ( tab_in IN VARCHAR2. END. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN pl ('Compile Error "' || SQLERRM || '" on: ' || v_str). end_in. end_in IN DATE... Pass in bind variables with USING clause. PROCEDURE runprog (pkg_in IN VARCHAR2. col_in IN VARCHAR2.Other Execute Immediate Examples  Perform an update.. start_in IN DATE. name_in IN VARCHAR2) IS v_str VARCHAR2 (100). BEGIN v_str := 'BEGIN ' || pkg_in || '. END. start_in.

:revenue_inhibitors)' USING pers. END.. ± No special syntax needed. PROCEDURE add_profit_source ( hosp_name IN VARCHAR2. pers IN Person. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein health$. cond. including objects and collections.pkg PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± In the following example. the USING clause allows me to pass an object and nested table to an INSERT statement with a variable table name.page 86 . cond IN preexisting_conditions) IS BEGIN EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'INSERT INTO ' || tabname (hosp_name) || ' VALUES (:revenue_generator..Using Objects and Collections in NDS  One of the key advantages to NDS over DBMS_SQL is that it works with Oracle8 datatypes.

DBMS_OUTPUT. whr IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) IS TYPE cv_type IS REF CURSOR. showcol. ndsutil. CLOSE cv. LOOP Familiar cursor FETCH cv INTO val. END LOOP. number or string column in any table. variable syntax! EXIT WHEN cv%NOTFOUND.Multiple Row Queries and NDS  Oracle extends the cursor variable feature of Oracle7 to support multi-row dynamic queries.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . '1 = 1'). cv cv_type.PUT_LINE (val).sp END. ± Here is a simple utility the displays the values of any date. col IN VARCHAR2. val VARCHAR2(32767). BEGIN OPEN cv FOR 'SELECT ' || col || ' FROM ' || tab || ' WHERE ' || NVL (whr. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE showcol ( tab IN VARCHAR2.page 87 .

Some Fine Print for NDS  You cannot pass schema elements (table names. Instead. You can have duplicate placeholders (for bind arguments).page 88 . ± If dynamic SQL. pass a variable with a NULL value. column names. provide a value for each distinct placeholder (by name). str2list. The USING clause for a query can only have IN bind arguments. ± If dynamic PL/SQL.pkg    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . then you provide a value for each placeholder (by position). etc. You cannot pass the NULL literal directly in the USING clause.) through the USING clause.

DBMS_SQL is a very large and complex package.page 89 . You should only use DBMS_SQL when you cannot use NDS. the only way to perform dynamic SQL was with the DBMS_SQL package.Dynamic SQL using DBMS_SQL  Prior to Oracle8i. with many rules to follow and lots of code to write. in particular method 4.     1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Supports all four methods of dynamic SQL. The overhead for using DBMS_SQL has decreased significantly in Oracle8 and again in Oracle8i.

Learning Through Examples  DDL ± Create an index from within PL/SQL  DML ± Update rows in a table  DML with binding ± Update rows using bind variables  Queries ± Method 3 and a dynamic WHERE clause  PL/SQL Version of "SELECT *" ± Example of Method 4  PL/SQL ± Create a generic calculation program 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 90 .

± Construct the DDL statement as a string. ± Parse and execute that DDL statement. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .EXECUTE (cur). DDL_statement. fdbk INTEGER.DDL with Dynamic SQL PROCEDURE create_index (index_in IN VARCHAR2. ± Open a cursor. DBMS_SQL. fdbk := DBMS_SQL.NATIVE). col_in IN VARCHAR2) IS cur INTEGER := DBMS_SQL.sp Creates an index on any column(s) in any table in your schema.PARSE (cur.CLOSE_CURSOR (cur). which will be used to execute the DDL statement. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.page 91 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . tab_in IN VARCHAR2. END.OPEN_CURSOR.  creind. DBMS_SQL. DDL_statement VARCHAR2(200) := 'CREATE INDEX ' || index_in || ' ON ' || tab_in || ' ( ' || col_in || ')'.

CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE updnumval ( col_in IN VARCHAR2. 'UPDATE emp SET ' || col_in || ' = ' || val_in || ' WHERE ename LIKE UPPER (''' || ename_in || ''')'.page 92 . fdbk PLS_INTEGER. DBMS_SQL.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . fdbk := DBMS_SQL.OPEN_CURSOR.EXECUTE (cur). BEGIN DBMS_SQL.PARSE (cur. END. updnval1.NATIVE).PUT_LINE ('Rows updated: ' || TO_CHAR (fdbk)). DBMS_SQL.Updates with Dynamic SQL  Update numeric column for specified employees. ename_in IN emp.ename%TYPE. val_in IN NUMBER) IS cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL.CLOSE_CURSOR (cur). DBMS_OUTPUT.

BIND_VARIABLE (cur. fdbk PLS_INTEGER.CLOSE_CURSOR (cur).EXECUTE (cur). val_in IN NUMBER) IS cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.BIND_VARIABLE (cur. start_in).Updates with Bind Variables  Update salaries for date range using binding. END.PUT_LINE ('Rows updated: ' || TO_CHAR (fdbk)). DBMS_OUTPUT. 'lodate'. end_in). 'UPDATE emp SET ' || col_in || ' = ' || val_in || ' WHERE hiredate BETWEEN :lodate AND :hidate'. fdbk := DBMS_SQL.OPEN_CURSOR. 'hidate'. DBMS_SQL. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE updnumval ( col_in IN VARCHAR2. DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL.PARSE (cur.sp updnval3. end_in IN DATE. DBMS_SQL.page 93 . updnval2.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .NATIVE). start_in IN DATE.

Processing Flow for a Dynamic Query Allocate cursor memory (OPEN_CURSOR) Fill cursor with data (EXECUTE) Make sure SELECT is well formed (PARSE) Fill buffer with data (FETCH_ROWS) (EXECUTE_AND_FETCH) Bind any variables (BIND_VARIABLE) (BIND_ARRAY) Retrieve the data (COLUMN_VALUE) Give cursor structure (DEFINE_COLUMN) (DEFINE_ARRAY) Release cursor memory (CLOSE_CURSOR) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 94 .

sp showemp2. rec.sp showemps. 1). DBMS_SQL. END. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein showemps. 'a'. 2..DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.ename).COLUMN_VALUE (cur.Queries with Dynamic SQL  Show employees using a dynamic WHERE clause. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. rec emp%ROWTYPE. ename FROM emp ' || ' WHERE ' || NVL (where_in.empno). 'SELECT empno. '1=1'). 2. 1. DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL. DBMS_OUTPUT. 60).OPEN_CURSOR.empno) || '=' || rec. DBMS_SQL.page 95 . CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE showemps (where_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) IS cur INTEGER := DBMS_SQL.NATIVE). fdbk INTEGER.FETCH_ROWS (cur) = 0.EXECUTE (cur). END LOOP.tst PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .. DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.COLUMN_VALUE (cur. fdbk := DBMS_SQL. LOOP EXIT WHEN DBMS_SQL.PARSE (cur. DBMS_SQL. 1.ename).PUT_LINE (TO_CHAR (rec.CLOSE_CURSOR (cur). rec.

FOR each-column-in-table LOOP DBMS_SQL.NATIVE). END LOOP. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . BEGIN FOR each-column-in-table LOOP add-column-to-select-list. END LOOP. ± The resulting code is much more complicated.PARSE (cur. val). END.COLUMN_VALUE (cur. DBMS_SQL.Dynamic SELECT * FROM Any Table  Method 4 example: the number of columns queried changes with each table. datatype). FOR each-column-in-table LOOP DBMS_SQL. END LOOP. select_string.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.page 96 Very simplified pseudo-code intab. LOOP fetch-a-row. END LOOP. DBMS_SQL. nth_col.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . nth_col.

exact_match IN BOOLEAN DEFAULT FALSE) RETURN INTEGER.page 97 . ± If exact_match is TRUE. the first row will still be fetched and available. raises NO_DATA_FOUND or raises the TOO_MANY_ROWS exception. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . which returns a single row.EXECUTE_AND_FETCH (cur.EXECUTE_AND_FETCH (cur). TRUE). numrows := DBMS_SQL. then EXECUTE_AND_FETCH will raise the TOO_MANY_ROWS exception if more than one row is fetched by the SELECT. ± Even if the exception is raised.  Makes it easy to execute and fetch a single row from a query. ± Very similar to the implicit SELECT cursor in native PL/SQL. numrows := DBMS_SQL.Using EXECUTE_AND_FETCH FUNCTION execute_and_fetch (cursor_in IN INTEGER.

pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . FUNCTION dyncalc ( oper_in IN VARCHAR2. 0. arg2_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. NULL. and enter the arguments. I would have to modify my screen every time a new formula was added. arg10_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL dyncalc. NULL.page 98 . ± Using static PL/SQL. a single function will do the trick. NULL. arg4_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. arg8_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. NULL.sf dyncalc. nargs_in IN INTEGER := arg1_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg3_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg5_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg7_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg9_in IN VARCHAR2 := ) RETURN VARCHAR2.Dynamic Formula Execution  Suppose I am building a user interface that allows a user to select a formula for execution. arg6_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. ± With DBMS_SQL. NULL.

:salout).BIND_VARIABLE (cur. µsalout¶.VARIABLE_VALUE (cur. DBMS_SQL. Possibilities inherent in dynamic PL/SQL are mind-boggling! dynplsql.tst    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END. DBMS_SQL. You must have a BEGIN-END around the code. my_salary).EXECUTE (cur).  Use BIND_VARIABLE to bind any placeholders in the string -. fdbk := DBMS_SQL. my_salary).sql dynplsql.page 99 . DBMS_SQL.even OUT arguments which are not being bound to any values.More on Dynamic PL/SQL BEGIN cur := open_and_parse ('BEGIN get_max_sal (:deptin. v_deptin).'). µsalout¶. Use VARIABLE_VALUE to extract a value from any variable you have bound. END.BIND_VARIABLE (cur. µdeptin¶.sp dynplsql.

PL/SQL does not support indirect referencing. 'BEGIN :val := ' || nm || '.Indirect Referencing with Dyn PL/SQL  Oracle Forms offers support for indirect referencing with the NAME_IN and COPY built-ins. Here is an example of a "PL/SQL NAME_IN": FUNCTION valbyname (nm IN VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2 IS v_cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL.'.NATIVE).VARIABLE_VALUE (v_cur. 'val'. END. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. retval). 'val'.pkg dynvar. DBMS_SQL. 2000). DBMS_SQL.page 100  dynvar. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . fdbk := DBMS_SQL.CLOSE_CURSOR (v_cur).tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .EXECUTE (v_cur).BIND_VARIABLE (v_cur. fdbk PLS_INTEGER. 'a'.dbmaxvc2. END.PARSE (v_cur. retval PLV. RETURN retval.OPEN_CURSOR. DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL. but you can accomplish much of the same thing with dynamic PL/SQL execution.

 LAST_ROW_ID ± Returns the ROWID of last row processed.  IS_OPEN ± Is the cursor already open?  LAST_ERROR_POSITION ± Returns relative column position in cursor of text causing error condition. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Call these immediately after your usage to make sure they refer to your cursor.DBMS_SQL Status Built-ins  The package offers a set of modules to return information about the lastoperated cursor in your session.  LAST_SQL_FUNCTION_CODE ± Returns SQL function code of cursor.page 101 .  LAST_ROW_COUNT ± Returns the cumulative count of rows fetched from the cursor.

Then you retrieve the column using the special COLUMN_VALUE_LONG variant.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . you define the column as a LONG.COLUMN_VALUE_LONG   First.DEFINE_COLUMN_LONG ± DBMS_SQL. ± Transfer the LONG contents into an index-by table so that you can transfer a value of more than 32K bytes into your PL/SQL program.page 102 . ± DBMS_SQL.pkg dumplong.Working with LONG Values  DBMS_SQL provides special procedures so that you can extract values from a LONG column in a table. dumplong.

page 103 .New DBMS_SQL Features PL/SQL8 Extensions to DBMS_SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

deletes and fetches. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .New Features in DBMS_SQL  The functionality of DBMS_SQL has been extended in Oracle8 in several ways: ± Parse very long SQL strings ± Describe cursor columns ± Use "array processing" to perform bulk updates.page 104 . ± Support for RETURNING clause to avoid unnecessary queries. inserts.

± Now you can call the DBMS_SQL.  Returns all of the column information in an index table of records.  Before PL/SQL8.Describing Cursor Columns PROCEDURE DBMS_SQL.DESC_TAB).page 105 . col_cnt OUT INTEGER. it was not possible to determine the datatypes of the columns defined in a cursor. desc_t OUT DBMS_SQL. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± The record TYPE is also defined in DBMS_SQL.DESCRIBE_COLUMNS.DESCRIBE_COLUMNS (c IN INTEGER.

ncols PLS_INTEGER. ncols LOOP DBMS_OUTPUT.Basic Steps to Describe Columns  The following script shows the individual steps you will need to perform in order to use this feature.PARSE (cur. cols).PUT_LINE (cols(colind). END. empno FROM emp'.NATIVE). desccols..CLOSE_CURSOR (cur). END LOOP. DBMS_SQL. FOR colind IN 1 . DBMS_SQL.tst showcols. 'SELECT hiredate. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE show_columns IS cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL.col_name).page 106 .DESCRIBE_COLUMNS (cur.OPEN_CURSOR.DESC_TAB. ncols.pkg desccols. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . cols DBMS_SQL.

e. when you perform updates. DBMS_SQL then repeats your action for every row in the table. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . It really isn't "array processing". index tables. Instead of providing a scalar value for an operation. however. ± In actuality."Array Processing" in DBMS_SQL  PL/SQL8 now allows you to specify the use of "arrays". deletes and fetches. can offer a significant performance boost over Oracle7 dynamic SQL. where N is the number of rows in the table.page 107 . DBMS_SQL is executing the specified SQL statement N times. i. you specify an index table. inserts.    This technique still..

sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . etc.Recommendations for Dynamic SQL  Bind (vs. ± Increased chance of reusing parsed SQL. concatenate) whenever possible. effdsql.page 108 . not the invoker of the code.sql openprse.PARSE so that you include the trace in that program.  Encapsulate statements to improve error handling. ± With NDS. though you could write variations for those as well.) through the USING clause.pkg whichsch. ± Encapsulate DBMS_SQL. and easier code to write. column names. ± But remember: you cannot pass schema elements (table names. ± Otherwise that SQL will be executed under the authority of the owner of the code. only possible for statements that do not need USING and INTO clauses.  Use the Oracle8i invoker rights model whenever you want to share your dynamic SQL programs among multiple schemas.

but DBMS_SQL is hard to use. you have upgraded to Oracle8i!  Major Advantages of NDS: ± Ease of use ± Performance ± Works with all SQL datatypes (including userdefined object and collection types) ± Fetch into records  When You'd Use DBMS_SQL: ± ± ± ± ± ± ± Method 4 Dynamic SQL DESCRIBE columns of cursor SQL statements larger than 32K RETURNING into an array Reuse of parsed SQL statements Bulk dynamic SQL Available from client-side PL/SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . of course. ± If... Both implementations will still come in handy.NDS or DBMS_SQL: Which is Best?  Dynamic SQL and PL/SQL is very useful.page 109 .

persistent messaging subsytem of Oracle 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 110 . asynchronous.Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Oracle Advanced Queuing  The high performance.

page 111 . consistent manner. systems are now heavily reliant on the ability of components to communicate with each other in a dependable.Who Needs Messaging? Everyone!  In the distributed world of the Internet. Distribution Center Coffee Beans Producer Shipping Service Retailer Consumer 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

page 112 .Applications Relying on Messaging     Stock trading system Airline reservation system Auction portals Any e-commerce application 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

± Rule-based subscribers. message propagation.page 113 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Key Features of Oracle AQ  Leverage full power of SQL ± Messages are stored in database tables  Database high availability. the listen feature and notification capabilities. scalability and reliability all carry over to queues ± Strong history and retention ± Backup and recovery ± Comprehensive journaliing  Rich message content increases usefulness of queueing ± Use object types to define highly structured payloads  New to Oracle8i. AQ now offers a publish/subscribe style of messaging between applications.

page 114 .AQ architectural overview Queue Monitor process Queue table Queue ³Producers´ Enqueued messages Message 4 Message 3 Message 2 Message1 ³Consumers´ Dequeued messages Messages include both control information and ³payload´ (content) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

0. AQ supports: ± ± ± ± ± Multiple queues Resetting order and priority of queued items Queue management using only SQL & PL/SQL Multiple message recipients Propagation of queue to remote servers  Oracle8i adds: ± ± ± ± Rules-based publish & subscribe Listening on multiple queues Easier monitoring Native Java interface PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 115 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .Oracle AQ Highlights  In 8.

page 116 .AQ Components  The DBMS_AQ package offers enqueue and dequeue capabilities The DBMS_AQADM package provides administrative functionality to manage queues and queue tables. Underlying database tables and views The queue monitor (background process) ± Set # of processes with the AQ_TM_PROCESSES initialization parameter.    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

whether multiple consumers Drops table if all queues in the table have been stopped Associates queue table with queue. payload type. assigns retry and retention properties to queue Drops a stopped queue Can also turn on/off enqueue and dequeue operations Stops queue.DBMS_AQADM Highlights CREATE_QUEUE_TABLE DROP_QUEUE_TABLE CREATE_QUEUE DROP_QUEUE START_QUEUE STOP_QUEUE ADD_SUBSCRIBER Assigns name.page 117 . sort column. storage clause. optionally waiting for outstanding transactions Adds an ³agent´ as a subscriber 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

/ BEGIN DBMS_AQADM. Define the "payload" Create the queue table DBMS_AQADM.page 118 .START_QUEUE (queue_name => 'msgqueue').CREATE_QUEUE (queue_name => 'msgqueue'.pkg Start the queue PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . queue_table => 'msg'). text VARCHAR2(2000)). queue_payload_type => 'message_type').CREATE_QUEUE_TABLE (queue_table => 'msg'. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein aq.Creating Queue Tables and Queues CREATE TYPE message_type AS OBJECT (title VARCHAR2(30). Define a queue in the queue table DBMS_AQADM. END.

± Only two procedures.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . but lots of complexity buried inside the parameters of these procedures.page 119   aq.  ENQUEUE puts a message into a specified queue.The "operational package": DBMS_AQ  DBMS_AQ is deceptively simple. and returns a RAW message handle DEQUEUE extracts a message from a specified queue Parameters control message properties such as: ± Visibility (ON_COMMIT or IMMEDIATE) ± ± ± ± Priority Delay Expiration Locking behavior PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

my_msg message_type..Simple Enqueue Example DECLARE queueopts DBMS_AQ. msgid). my_msg.page 120 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . BEGIN my_msg := message_type ( 'First Enqueue'. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Declare records to hold various enqueue and msg properties.msgid_type.MESSAGE_PROPERTIES_T. Set up the payload with an object constructor..ENQUEUE ( 'msgqueue'.'). msgid aq.ENQUEUE_OPTIONS_T. 'May there be many more. msgprops. END. queueopts. aqenq*. msgprops DBMS_AQ.* Place the message on the specified queue and get a msg ID in return. DBMS_AQ.

DBMS_AQ.. queueopts... msgid2).sequence_deviation := DBMS_AQ.. queueopts. msgprops.'). BEGIN my_msg := message_type ( 'First Enqueue'.. queueopts. 'May there be many more.').relative_msgid := msgid1.. queueopts.delay := 3 * 60 * 60 * 24. END.page 121 .. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..BEFORE. Modify the dequeue sequence by changing the deviation field and relative msg ID. msgprops. DBMS_AQ. Same setup as previous page . 'And this one goes first. my_msg := message_type ( 'Second Enqueue'.ENQUEUE ('msgqueue'. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Specify a delay before the payload is available. msgid1).ENQUEUE ( 'msgqueue'. msgprops.More Interesting Enqueue Example DECLARE . my_msg. my_msg.

getmsg (DBMS_AQ.* Declare records to hold various dequeue and msg properties. my_msg. msgid aq.BROWSE).msgid_type.pkg */ my_msg message_type.DEQUEUE_OPTIONS_T.DEQUEUE ( 'msgqueue'.REMOVE). PROCEDURE getmsg (mode_in IN INTEGER) IS BEGIN queueopts. DBMS_AQ.REMOVE). aqdeq*. msgid). Dequeue operation isolated in local module. msgprops DBMS_AQ.page 122 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . queueopts. msgprops. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Demonstrates destructive and non-destructive dequeuing. getmsg (DBMS_AQ.dequeue_mode := mode_in. END. BEGIN getmsg (DBMS_AQ. /* defined in aq.Dequeue Example DECLARE queueopts DBMS_AQ.MESSAGE_PROPERTIES_T. END.

IMMEDIATE. msgid aq. aqstk.  A stack implementation using AQ demonstrates this well. PROCEDURE push (item IN VARCHAR2) IS queueopts DBMS_AQ. queueopts. g_priority := g_priority . BEGIN item_obj := aqstk_objtype (item).priority := g_priority. END.* 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .msgid_type.page 123 .pkg aqstk2.ENQUEUE_OPTIONS_T.MESSAGE_PROPERTIES_T.pkg priority.1. DBMS_AQ. item_obj aqstk_objtype.Prioritized Payloads  You can assign priorities to individual payloads and then dequeue according to those priorities. item_obj. ± The lower the numeric priority value. the higher the priority. queueopts.ENQUEUE ( c_queue. msgid).visibility := DBMS_AQ. msgprops. msgprops DBMS_AQ. msgprops.

* PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . DBMS_AQADM.AQ$_AGENT (name_in. SYS. ± 2. NULL. The queue table must be defined to support multiple subscribers or consumers.  Steps to working with a subscriber list: ± 1.CREATE_QUEUE_TABLE ( queue_table => 'major_qtable'.ADD_SUBSCRIBER ( c_queue. multiple_consumers => TRUE). Add subscribers for the queue.Defining Message Subscribers  You can specify that a message is to be enqueued for a list of subscribers. BEGIN DBMS_AQADM.page 124 . ± The message is then not removed from the queue until all subscribers have dequeued the message. queue_payload_type => 'student_major_t'. NULL)). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein aqmult*.

± Should be strongly supported "down the road". 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . supporting a publish-subscribe model.Summary  Very powerful and flexible architecture. LISTEN capability.  Considered by Oracle to be a core component of its overall solution.Oracle AQ .page 125 . ± Significant enhancements in Oracle8i. improved security. ± Crucial for Oracle to have a message-oriented middleware in order to offer an all-Oracle solution. ± Much more robust that DBMS_PIPE.

page 126 .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Managing Large Objects with DBMS_LOB 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

etc. Images. though they will probably not be actually desupported.  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . they should no longer be used. ± Oracle has announced deprecation of LONGs. sounds.LOB Terms  LOB = Large OBject: a category of datatype allowing storage of ³unstructured´ data up to 4 gigabytes LOB datatype can be: ± Column in table ± Attribute in object type ± Element in nested table   Possible applications include office documents. video.page 127 . LOB datatypes are the successor to LONGs.

page 128 .  Key programming differences: ± Internal LOBs participate in transactions.Types of Large Objects  ³Internal´ LOBs ± BLOB: unstructured binary data ± CLOB: single-byte fixedwidth character data ± NCLOB: multi-byte fixedwidth character data (or varying width in )  ³External´ LOBs ± BFILE: pointer to an operating system file  Temporary LOBs ± Internal LOBs that do not participate in transactions. improving performance. external do not ± External LOBs are read-only from within Oracle 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

trim ± For external LOBs: File existence test. close  Other built-in functions ± LOADFROMFILE (load an external BFILE into a BLOB) ± EMPTY_LOB(). erase. substring and instring searches.PL/SQL built-ins for LOBs  Package DBMS_LOB ± Supports for all LOBs: Reading. append. open. comparison and length checking ± For internal LOBs: Write. EMPTY_CLOB() ± BFILENAME 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 129 . copy.

CLOSE fax_cur. Question: What¶s in the_fax? 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Deceptively simple example  BLOB-typed column in a table CREATE TABLE incoming_faxes (fax_id INTEGER. BEGIN OPEN fax_cur. END.  Retrieve record with BLOB into PL/SQL variable DECLARE CURSOR fax_cur IS SELECT fax FROM incoming_faxes. the_fax BLOB.page 130 . FETCH fax_cur INTO the_fax. fax BLOB). received DATE.

page 131 .The ³LOB locator´ LOB t l sel es [ ll ] t i i t r . tt LOBs <lob segment> fax_id 281937 received 12-JAN-98 fax <lob locator> Updati  t e LOB anges t e pointer is ompli ates se of LOBs ± LOB locators cannot span transactions ± Programs must lock records containing LOBs efore updating ± Programs performing L must accommodate dynamic LOB locator alues 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

htmlloc CLOB). BEGIN INSERT INTO web_pages VALUES (the_url. EMPTY_CLOB()) RETURNING htmlloc INTO the_loc. . 1 of 2  Must get a new LOB locator before writing into the LOB: DECLARE the_url web_pages.page 132 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .url%TYPE := 'http://www..oodb.com'. the_loc CLOB.Example: Piecewise CLOB programmatic insert  Create a table CREATE TABLE web_pages ( url VARCHAR2(512) PRIMARY KEY..

piece_length PLS_INTEGER.WRITE(lob_loc => the_loc.oodb.. Note: We are ignoring amount => piece_length.COUNT LOOP piece_length := LENGTH(html_tab(the_piece_no)).html_tab. DBMS_LOB. FOR the_piece_no IN 1. This block retrieves INSERT INTO web_pages VALUES (the_url. END LOOP.REQUEST_PIECES(url => the_url).page 133 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein BEGIN .url%TYPE := 'http://www. several likely exceptions offset => running_total.Example: Piecewise CLOB programmatic insert DECLARE the_url web_pages. running_total := running_total + piece_length. the_loc CLOB. EMPTY_CLOB()) and loads a web page RETURNING htmlloc INTO the_loc. END. running_total PLS_INTEGER := 1.HTML_PIECES. into a CLOB column html_tab := UTL_HTTP. html_tab UTL_HTTP. buffer => html_tab(the_piece_no)).com'. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

offset => str_offset. IF str_offset != 0 THEN DBMS_LOB. the_loc CLOB. buffer => 'cool'). FETCH hcur INTO the_loc. CLOSE hcur.INSTR(lob_loc => the_loc.com' FOR UPDATE. END IF. str_offset INTEGER. BEGIN OPEN hcur.oodb. END. str_offset := DBMS_LOB. pattern => 'oodb').Example: Piecewise CLOB programmatic update DECLARE Program must lock the record explicitly CURSOR hcur IS SELECT htmlloc FROM web_pages WHERE url = 'http://www.WRITE(lob_loc => the_loc. amount => 4. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 134 .

ut IRECTORY namespace is global  Syntax: CREATE OR REPLACE DIRECTORY <directory name> AS '<full path to directory>'.  Example: CREATE DIRECTORY web_pix AS 'D:\bill\training\pix'.page 135 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Preparing to use BFILEs  You must first create an Oracle I ORY´ ± Creates logical alias for full directory pat ± imilar to LIBRARY (used for C "external procedures").

Using BFILE datatype in DDL  In a table. CREATE TYPE Business_card_t AS OBJECT ( name Name_t....page 136 .  In an object type. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . phones Phone_tab_t. scanned_card_image BFILE ).. image BFILE). CREATE TABLE web_graphics ( image_id INTEGER. addresses Address_tab_t.

'prodicon. picture). Spec: FUNCTION BFILENAME(directory_exprn. /  Notes: ± No automatic file checking or synchronization ± No participation in transactions 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . BEGIN INSERT INTO web_graphics VALUES (100015.gif').  Example: DECLARE picture BFILE := BFILENAME('WEB_PIX'. END. file_exprn) RETURN BFILE.The built-in BFILENAME function  Returns value of datatype BFILE.page 137 .

DBMS_LOB.Loading File into Database BLOB CREATE TABLE web_graphic_blobs ( image_id INTEGER. pic_blob_loc) RETURNING image INTO pic_blob_loc.FILECLOSE(pic_file).page 138 . END. 'prodicon.GETLENGTH(pic_file)). pic_blob_loc BLOB := EMPTY_BLOB().FILEOPEN(pic_file. DECLARE pic_file BFILE := BFILENAME('WEB_PIX'. src_lob => pic_file. BEGIN INSERT INTO web_graphic_blobs VALUES (1.gif'). DBMS_LOB.FILE_READONLY). DBMS_LOB. image BLOB).LOADFROMFILE(dest_lob => pic_blob_loc. amount => DBMS_LOB. / loadblob. DBMS_LOB.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

call.New DBMS_LOB APIs in 8i  Support for temporary LOBs ± No logging or rollback faster! ± Lifespan: session. or transaction  Ability to retrieve LOB ³chunk size´ ± Allows programmer to tune READs and WRITEs  For all internal LOBs ± OPEN & CLOSE allow control over timing.page 139 . that can mean less I/O » Trigger will not fire until CLOSE » Indexes will not update until CLOSE ± ISOPEN 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Summary  LOB support in Oracle is now significantly improved. ± Complete support in PL/SQL (and other APIs) ± Much better performance and control than with LONGs ± Usable in object types HOT  Some weaknesses.Large Object .. ± LOB locator behavior slightly abstruse ± Inability to modify BFILEs directly from within PL/SQL. COLD 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 140 ..

page 141 .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Leveraging Java Inside PL/SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

. functions. triggers in Java Distinct Java & PL/SQL namespaces  But first...page 142 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .a BRIEF introduction to Java. or server Not covered in this seminar  PL/SQL can call Java inside 8i server ± ± ± ± Command-line tools load Java classes DDL extensions publish Java classes Writing stored procedures. mid-tier.. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Overview of Java interoperability  Java inside or outside 8i server can call PL/SQL ± Standard JDBC and SQLJ calls with Oracle extensions ± Same Java on client.

Question 1: What is Java?  Could it be.page 143 .. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . slickest piece of software ever designed by human beings? ± Just the latest in a series of "silver bullets" promoted by software vendors in order to prop up quarterly sales? ± The first and only successful O-O language? ± None of the above?  We don't really need to take a vote. ± The end of programming history as we know it? ± The easiest. fastest. ± We just need to keep a firm grip on common sense and stay focused on delivering solutions..

± Supported and improved by Oracle -.page 144 .  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . it is very unlikely and totally unthinkable for years to come. ± A language in which hundreds of thousands of developers are trained. to boot.and very aggressively.Question 2: Will Java Replace PL/SQL?  While that scenario is certainly possible. ± Ubiquitous in thousands of production applications and millions of lines of code. PL/SQL will still be: ± Faster and more productive than Java for database operations.

± Well.. everything exception the primitive datatypes.  You don't have to know how to do everything with Java to get lots of value out of it. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ... you have to instantiate an object from that class.  Everything is a class (or an object instantiated from a class). ± string is definitely not the same as String. ± Before you can call a (non-static) class method.Some Important Things to Remember  Java is a case sensitive language...page 145 .. ± Don't get overwhelmed by all the classes and all the strange quirks.

by the way: the PL/SQL version 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..out.. } }  No members.println ("Hello world!"). Oh. ± Used to test or run stand-alone a class. except the "special" main method. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE hello IS BEGIN DBMS_OUTPUT. public class Hello { public static void main (String[] args) { System.Building a Java Class  Let's start from the very beginning.page 146 . END. no methods.PUT_LINE ('Hello world!').

class file.1.java file to a .page 147 . ± This will convert the . SET CLASSPATH = d:\Oracle\Ora81\jdbc\lib\classes111. ± You must also either have set the CLASSPATH or include it in your javac call.Compiling Classes  Before you can use a class.zip.java -classpath d:\java 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± It will also automatically recompile any classes used by your class that has not been compiled since last change. you must compile it with the javac command.d:\java D:> javac Hello.zip.7b\lib\classes. e:\jdk1.

java 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 148 .Running a Class  Run a class? What does that mean? It means that if your class contains a method with this header: public static void main (String[] args)  then you can "run" the main method with the java command: d:\java> java Hello  You can also pass one or more arguments on the command line: d:\java> java Hello mom Hello2.

page 149 . you will use a class by instantiating objects from the class and then invoking class methods on the object. however.   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Using a Class  The main method is handy for providing a built-in test mechanism of your class. Let's build a performance analyzer class to explore these ideas. Usually.

} public void showElapsed (String context) { p. System. class Tmr { private long Gstart = 0.currentTimeMillis to calculate elapsed time to nearest thousandth of a second.Gstart).Compare Performance of Methods  Use System.java Tmr.currentTimeMillis() . elapsed()).l ("Elapsed time for " + context.page 150 .currentTimeMillis() .java InFile.Gstart).currentTimeMillis(). } public long elapsed () { return (System. } public void showElapsed () { p.l ("Elapsed time ". public void capture () { Gstart = System. } } p.java 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Types of Classes  There are several different kinds of classes in Java.  Inner class ± Classes that are defined inside other classes. but at least one method remains unimplemented.page 151 ...  Interface class ± The class only contains unimplemented methods.  Abstract class ± The class can contain members and methods. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . besides the "regular" kind we just saw.

either as its own class or as any superclass. ± Dynamic polymorphism: form is determined at run-time.  Polymorphism ± An object of a class can have "multiple" forms.java A Class Hierarchy Management NonManagement Corporation 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . supertype/"wider" Citizen Person Employee Hourly Worker Salaried Worker subtype/"narrower" War Criminal Person.page 152 . ± Static polymorphism: form is chosen at compile-time (PL/SQL overloading).And Now for Some Scary Buzzwords!  Inheritance ± Subclasses inherit methods and variables from extended superclasses.

page 153 .equals(YourName)) foundFamily(). if (myName. you are actually allocating a new object. ± Can't do a direct == comparison. myName = "Feuerstein". if you assign a new value to it. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . myName = "Steven". boolean char byte short int long float double  Strings ± A String object is a read-only. String myName.Language Basics  Comments // Single line comment /* Block comment */ /** Documentation comment */  Primitive datatypes ± So I lied. these are not objects instantiated from classes.

nextElement()) } } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . expression.println (args[indx]).out. indx < args.NextElement()). for (initialize. System.out. indx++) System.page 154 .println ( (String)enum. do-while and for ± Note: you need squiggly brackets only if there is more than one statement in the loop body. Examples: for (indx indx=0.Writing Loops in Java  Three kinds of loops: while. step) { lotsaStuff } while (expression) { lostsaStuff } do { lostsaStuff } while (expression).hasMoreElements ()) { processIt (enum. static void processAll (Enumeration enum) { while (enum.length.

} } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± No default values for arguments..name()).Passing Parameters  Some important differences from PL/SQL..println (Java.page 155 . } } class LotsALingos { public static void main (String args[]) { PuterLingo Java = new PuterLingo("Java"). System. you still include the open and close parentheses. you must supply a value for each parameter. public PuterLingo (String name) { mname = name. class PuterLingo { private String mname.out. } public String name () { return mname. ± If a method has no arguments. ± Only positional notation is supported.

} catch (Exception e) { System.println (e. Put inside try clause File myFile = new File (filename).toString()). return myFile. } File-related catch (SecurityException e) { exceptions return -1. "WHEN OTHERS" } in Java } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . rather than raise and handle.length(). you "throw" and "catch" exceptions.Exception Handling in Java  Very similar to PL/SQL.equals("")) throw new Exception ("Filename is NULL").out. Throwing my own public static int numBytes (String filename) { exception try { if (filename.page 156 .

NoSuchFile { ..  You must inform users of your method of which exceptions may be thrown. as in: public static int numBytes (String filename) throws SecurityException.page 157 . ± Use the throws clause in your specification. } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± So you can pass them as arguments and do anything and everything else you can do with objects.Differences Between Java & PL/SQL  Exceptions are objects derived directly or indirectly from the Exception class..

Java's Not So Tough!  You can learn enough Java in less than a week to: ± Build simple classes ± Leverage Java inside PL/SQL  Moving to the next level of expertise will be more of a challenge. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Now let's explore how you can put Java to work for you inside PL/SQL programs. ± Object oriented development (Java) is very different from procedural coding (PL/SQL).page 158 .

Java Stored Procedures (JSPs) Java applet or app. using JDBC or SQLJ Oracle 8i server PL/SQL cover for Java method Java virtual machine running Java method Oracle Developer client (PL/SQL) Net8 OCI or Pro*C client VB or C++ via OO4O or ODBC 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 159 .

JSPs: Some sample uses PL/SQL extender ± For example.page 160 . better file I/O ± RMI callouts. network communication in/out PL/SQL replacement ± More standard language ± Good performer for numeric processing tasks ± Beware database I/O & string manipulation performance Scaleable deployment of third party code ± Vertical application ± Web server ± XML parser/generator 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Load into server using ³loadjava´ command-line tool 3. Call from PL/SQL (or SQL) as if calling PL/SQL    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Grant privileges as desired 5. Publish PL/SQL cover using AS LANGUAGE JAVA. rather than BEGIN... Create Java classes in your favorite IDE 2.END 4.Creating JSP to call from PL/SQL   1.page 161 ...

System. }} 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Notes on Java classes  toString method automatically used by System. long Playoffs. } public String toString () { return name + " is a transnational entity with " + layoffs + " laid-off employees.Create Java class(es) class Corporation extends Person { long layoffs. long PceoComp) { name = Pname. CEOCompensation = PceoComp. long CEOCompensation.println main method is used to test the class. public Corporation ( String Pname. } public static void main (String[] args) { // A very scary company Corporation TheGlobalMonster = new Corporation ( "Northrup-Ford-Mattel-Yahoo-ATT".page 162 PL/SQL . 50000000). 5000000.out.out.println (TheGlobalMonster).java Advanced Techniques . Entry points must be public static in most cases Classes may call other classes Avoid GUI calls     person. paying its" + " Chief Executive Officer " + CEOCompensation. layoffs = Playoffs.

Upload using ³loadjava´ utility .jar file Oracle 8i server Java class Java source Java resource loadjava Example: loadjava loadjava -user scott/tiger -oci8 -resolve datacraft/bill/Hello.class file .java file Java resource file .class options (abbreviated) -oci8 -resolve loadjava will connect using OCI driver Resolves external class references at compile time -resolver (shown later) Search path like CLASSPATH 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 163 .

) [ return <Ja a t pe fullname> ]'. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..Publish  Example (top-level call spec) CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION hello_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2 AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.lang.bill.. .Hello.page 164 .String'.Emp(int) return java. /  Syntax (simplified) CREATE [ OR REPLACE PROCE URE FUNCTION <name> <sqlt pe> ] [ [ <ar s> ) ] [ AUTHID { DEFINER | CURRENT_USER } ] AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME '<met fullname> (<Ja a t pe fullname>.

 Method 2: Use 8i SQL CALL statement.PUT_LINE(hello_emp(7499)). from SQL*Plus: VARIABLE thename VARCHAR2(12) CALL hello_emp(7499) INTO :thename. END. for example.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 165 .Call the wrapped method  Method 1: Call as if PL/SQL module BEGIN DBMS_OUTPUT. PRINT :thename ± CALL avoids overhead of SELECT fn FROM DUAL jsp.

STRUCT <named type> oracle.REF oracle.more concepts Shape mapping ± Java methods declared ³void´ become PL/SQL procedures ± Signature mismatches detected only at runtime Type mapping (typical) VARCHAR2 DATE NUMBER user-defined object type user-defined object type object REFerence user-defined collection type java.String java.BigDecimal oracle.ARRAY 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .sql.sql.page 166 .Timestamp java.math.Publishing -.sql.sql.lang.

Hello.util..lang. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE hello_pkg AS FUNCTION hi_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2 AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.page 167 .String'. END.Emp(int) return java.Publish in PL/SQL Package Spec  Designate Java module in PL/SQL package spec.. / (No package body required in this case) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

or in package body CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE hello_pkg2 AS FUNCTION hi_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2.page 168 .lang.String'.util. END.. END.Publish as module in package body  .Hello. / CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY hello_pkg2 AS FUNCTION hi_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2 IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Emp(int) return java.

util.String'. / or in the body: CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE foo_t AS OBJECT ( bar VARCHAR2(30).Hello. END.Emp(int) return java. MEMBER FUNCTION hello_emp RETURN VARCHAR2).page 169 .Publish as object type method  Either in spec: CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE foo_t AS OBJECT ( bar VARCHAR2(30).Emp(int) return java.lang.util.String'). / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Hello. MEMBER FUNCTION hello_emp RETURN VARCHAR2 IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft. / CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE BODY foo_t AS MEMBER FUNCTION hello_emp RETURN VARCHAR2 IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.lang.

or resource ± Can read file designated with BFILE() function  ALTER JAVA: compiles Java source. resolves Java class references. DROP JAVA: drops a named Java library unit Several roles available for Java operations: ± JAVAUSERPRIV. JAVADEBUGPRIV ± You can also grant specific privileges. class. JAVASYSPRIV (needed for file IO operations). JAVA_ADMIN.page 170 .   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .New DDL Statements and Roles  CREATE JAVA ± Alternative to ³loadjava´ utility ± Creates or replaces an Oracle ³library unit´ from Java source. JAVAIDPRIV.

sql.page 171 .STRUCT ± oracle.Passing Oracle8 objects Oracle8i server Object in O-R table Java application Java object   Harder than you¶d think Three different interfacing techniques ± oracle.sql.jdbc2.CustomDatum ± oracle.SQLData 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

JPublisher utility Database server Definition of type or REF in data dictionary User-supplied JPublisher input file What does it do? ± Generates Java that encapsulates type and REF types of mapping supported for methods JPublisher ± ³Oracle mapping´ ± ³JDBC mapping´ ± ³Object JDBC mapping´ Three Generated Java file(s) for use in Java programs 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 172 .

bill.page 173 .sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Passing object using JPub-generated Java  After generating and uploading classes with JPub. they become available to use in mapping Example of passing an Account_t object: CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE account_save (new_acct IN Account_t) IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.Account_t)'.bill. /  jspobj.save (datacraft.AccountRuntime.

but that package is very limited. Let's see how we can make that great Java stuff available from within PL/SQL. Java offers many file-related classes with much greater capabilities.   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Example: Improving File I/O  You can read/write files in PL/SQL with UTL_FILE.page 174 .

Encapsulate Java Classes  You won't generally access native Java methods in your PL/SQL wrapper.  Let's start with something simple.page 175 .. ± This is not available through UTL_FILE (though you can get it through DBMS_LOB). ± The File class offers a length method that returns the number of bytes in a file.. ± Instead build a static method that instantiates a Java object from the class and then invokes the relevant method against that object. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

± Instantiate a File object for the specified name. } } JFile2. return myFile.length(). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Call the method of choice against that object and return the value.java  Take each of these steps: ± Import the File class to resolve reference.page 176 . public class JFile2 { public static long length (String fileName) { File myFile = new File (fileName).My Own Java Class for File Manipulation  Accept the name of a file and return its length.io. import java.File.

pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Build a Package over Java Method  Let's put it in a package. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE xfile IS FUNCTION length (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN NUMBER. END.page 177 . END.length (java. / CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY xfile IS FUNCTION length (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN NUMBER AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'JFile. we will certainly want to add more functionality over time. ± I translate the Java long to a PL/SQL NUMBER.lang.String) return long'. / xfile2.

Write a "hidden" PL/SQL wrapper function that returns the string or number. ± 3. you will need to take these steps: ± 1.page 178 .  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . so you'd expect smooth sailing. Not so! To pass a Boolean back from Java to PL/SQL. ± 2.Mapping the Boolean Datatype  Both Java and PL/SQL support a native Boolean datatype. Write a "public" PL/SQL wrapper function to convert that number to a true PL/SQL Boolean. Convert the Java boolean to a String or number and return that value.

if (retval) return 1.Translate Boolean to Number  Accept the name of a file and return its length. } } JFile3. else return 0.io. public class JFile3 { public static int canRead (String fileName) { File myFile = new File (fileName).File.java  Translate TRUE to 1 and FALSE to 0. ± And don't forget: this is a boolean primitive.canRead(). boolean retval = myFile. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 179 . import java. not a Boolean class.

String) return int'.. / CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY xfile IS FUNCTION IcanRead (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN NUMBER AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'JFile3. xfile4. ± Avoid the hard-codings with named constants. FUNCTION canRead (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN BOOLEAN AS BEGIN xfile3.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .. END.lang.java / xfile.Wrapper for Pseudo-Boolean function  Simple translation back to PL/SQL Boolean.pkg RETURN IcanRead (file) = 1. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE xfile IS FUNCTION canRead (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN BOOLEAN. JFile.pkg END.page 180 . JFile4.java END.canRead (java.

out.SQLException { // Get the attributes of the labor_source object.tst PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein UnionBuster. public class UnionBuster { Obtain attributes of public static void wageStrategy (STRUCT e) the Oracle object. Object[] attribs = e.java passobj. BigDecimal hourly_rate = (BigDecimal)(attribs[1]).getAttributes(). // starting with 0 String laborType = (String)(attribs[0]). // Access individual attributes by array index.page 181 .sql. } } Extract individual attribute values from the array. throws java.println ( "Pay " + laborType + " $" + hourly_rate + " per hour"). System.Passing Objects to Java with STRUCT  You can pass Oracle object information to Java without relying on JPub by using the STRUCT class.

wageStrategy (oracle.Wrapping a STRUCT-based Method  You can pass Oracle object information to Java without relying on JPub by using the STRUCT class. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Fully specify the STRUCT class in parameter list. END. / BEGIN bust_em_with ( labor_source ('Workfare'. The Oracle object type definition CREATE TYPE labor_source_t AS OBJECT ( labor_type VARCHAR2(30). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .STRUCT)'. bust_em_with ( labor_source ('Prisoners'.page 182 . '5')). 0)). / CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE bust_em_with ( labor_source_in IN labor_source_t) AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'UnionBuster.sql. hourly_rate NUMBER).

i++) { System.println ( "Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello All!").SET_OUTPUT (1000000). ± Call it within methods and output will display in your Java environment.java HelloAll.Viewing Output from Java Methods  Java provides a "print line" method similar to DBMS_OUTPUT.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 183 .println. i < count. you can redirect the output to the DBMS_OUTPUT buffer.PUT_LINE: System. ± Here is a good nucleus for a login. }}}  When called within a PL/SQL wrapper. public class HelloAll { public static void lotsaText ( int count) { for (int i = 0. HelloAll.out.out.sql file: SET SERVEROUTPUT ON SIZE 1000000 CALL DBMS_JAVA.

± Exceptions are objects instantiated from the Exception class or a subclass of it. such as java. you "throw" and "catch".page 184 . ± Use two methods. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± And also spew out the entire Java error stack! (at least through 8.SQLException. but more robust error handling mechanism than PL/SQL.5).  Any error not caught by the JVM (Java virtual machine) will be thrown back to the PL/SQL block or SQL statement. getErrorCode() and getMessage() to obtain information about the error thrown. ± Instead of raising and handling.sql.Error Handling with Java-PL/SQL  Java offers a very similar.1.

check_error(KprbDBAccess.driver.driver.OracleStatement.jdbc.executeUpdate(OracleStatement.SQLException: ORA-00942: table or view does not exist at oracle. the entire Java stack is displayed on your screen.doExecuteWithTimeout(OracleStatement.object(DropAny. and you have to do some digging to extract the Oracle error information.KprbDBAccess.java) at oracle.java) at oracle. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN DBMS_OUTPUT. 'blip').driver.java:14) DropAny.PUT_LINE (SQLCODE).OracleStatement. DBMS_OUTPUT.jdbc.kprb.driver.sql.java -29532 dropany.tst ORA-29532: Java call terminated by uncaught Java exception: java.jdbc.Trapping and Identifying Errors  Currently.jdbc. END.java) at oracle.KprbDBAccess.doExecuteWithBatch(OracleStatement.tst ORA-00942: table or view does not exist 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .driver.jdbc.sql.OracleStatement.sp dropany2.doExecute(OracleStatement.kprb.PUT_LINE (SQLERRM).java) at oracle. BEGIN dropany ('TABLE'.parseExecuteFetch(KprbDBAccess.doExecuteOther(OracleStatement.jdbc.java) at DropAny. / SQL> 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 java.OracleStatement.java) at oracle.java) at oracle.page 185 .OracleStatement.jdbc.SQLException: getErrInfo.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Must be a shared object library on Unix or a dynamically linked library (DLL) on Windows.  An Oracle8 feature that allowed relatively "native" callouts to C from PL/SQL for the first time. or method.Achieving PL/SQL Excellence External Procedures  An external procedure is a 3GL routine that can serve as the ³body´ of a PL/SQL function.page 186 . procedure.

DLL or .Process & data flow Application Makes request Net8 External Procedure Listener spawns External Shared Library Calls PL/SQL Runtime Engine PL/SQL body Client or server-side application returns results calls routine from Routine in .page 187 .so file extproc returns results returns results 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

sql diskspace.page 188 .sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .External procedures: Sample uses      Send email Invoke operating system command Invoke custom or legacy application Call C runtime library function Perform admin tasks email.

this function returns: » » » » » sectors per cluster bytes per sector number of free clusters total number of clusters ³return code´ indicating success or failure  First.dll'.page 189 . / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .dll ± For given drive letter. create an Oracle8 ³library´: CREATE OR REPLACE LIBRARY nt_kernel AS 'c:\winnt\system32\kernel32.Determine free disk space on NT (1/4)  Use pre-existing routine: ± GetDiskFreeSpaceA in kernel32.

/ 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . sectors_per_cluster OUT PLS_INTEGER. bytes_per_sector OUT PLS_INTEGER.Package spec (2/4)  Nothing unexpected here: CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE disk_util AS FUNCTION get_disk_free_space (root_path IN VARCHAR2.page 190 . number_of_free_clusters OUT PLS_INTEGER. total_number_of_clusters OUT PLS_INTEGER) RETURN PLS_INTEGER. END disk_util.

number_of_free_clusters BY REFERENCE LONG. number_of_free_clusters OUT pls_integer.0 (3/4) CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY disk_util AS FUNCTION get_disk_free_space (root_path IN VARCHAR2. total_number_of_clusters BY REFERENCE LONG. END disk_util.Package body in Oracle 8. total_number_of_clusters OUT PLS_INTEGER) RETURN PLS_INTEGER IS EXTERNAL LIBRARY nt_kernel NAME "GetDiskFreeSpaceA" LANGUAGE C CALLING STANDARD PASCAL PARAMETERS (root_path STRING. bytes_per_sector BY REFERENCE LONG. bytes_per_sector OUT PLS_INTEGER.page 191  All the magic is in the EXTERNAL section 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . sectors_per_cluster OUT PLS_INTEGER. RETURN LONG). sectors_per_cluster BY REFERENCE LONG. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Usage (4/4)
DECLARE lroot_path VARCHAR2(3) := 'C:\'; lsectors_per_cluster PLS_INTEGER; lbytes_per_sector PLS_INTEGER; lnumber_of_free_clusters PLS_INTEGER; ltotal_number_of_clusters PLS_INTEGER; return_code PLS_INTEGER; free_meg REAL; BEGIN return_code := disk_util.get_disk_free_space (lroot_path, lsectors_per_cluster, lbytes_per_sector, lnumber_of_free_clusters, ltotal_number_of_clusters); free_meg := lsectors_per_cluster * lbytes_per_sector * lnumber_of_free_clusters / 1024 / 1024; DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('free disk space, Mb = ' || free_meg); diskspace.sql END;
1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein
PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 192

Creating your own external procedure 

1. Identify or create shared library 2. Identify or CREATE LIBRARY within Oracle 3. Map the parameters using:
± EXTERNAL clause (Oracle8) or ± LANGUAGE clause (Oracle8i)  

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 193

1. Identify/create external routine 


Prerequisite: O/S must support shared libraries Some useful routines are pre-built in C runtime library
± On Unix: /lib/libc.so ± On NT: <systemroot>\system32\crtdll.dll 

Building a shared library of your own requires knowledge of:
± Appropriate language (typically C) ± Compiler & linker

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 194

2. Create the Oracle library 

Syntax:
CREATE OR REPLACE LIBRARY <library name> AS '<full path to file>'; 

Assigns a programmer-defined alias to a specific shared library file Notes
± Requires CREATE LIBRARY pri ilege ± Does not alidate directory ± Can¶t use symbolic link 

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 195

3. Map the parameters
This can get complicated, because«
± Must pass extra parameters to designate:
» NULL/NOT NULL state » String length » Maximum allocated length

± Six choices of parameter mode
» » » » » » IN RETURN IN BY REFERENCE RETURN BY REFERENCE OUT IN OUT

These details are better suited for close reading«
PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 196

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Oracle8i New Features Autonomous Transactions Invoker Rights Model Row Level Security 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 197 .

page 198 .Oracle8i New Features  Oracle8i offers a number of PL/SQL-specific features that give you tremendous additional flexibility and capability.    Autonomous Transactions The Invoker Rights Model Row level security 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± And the learning curve to take advantage of these features is generally not too steep.

msg IN VARCHAR2) AS PRAGMA AUTONOMOUS_TRANSACTION. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± There was only one transaction allowed per connection.page 199 .Autonomous Transactions  Prior to Oracle8i. a COMMIT or ROLLBACK in any program in your session committed or rolled back all changes in your session. ± Any changes made within that block can be saved or reversed without affecting the outer or main transaction.  With Oracle8i. you can now define a PL/SQL block to execute as an "autonomous transaction". CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE loginfo ( code IN PLS_INTEGER.

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Now you can avoid the complexities (need for ROLLBACK TO savepoints and so on). ± One component should not have any impact (esp.  Tracing Code Usage ± Build retry mechanisms. something like a COMMIT) on other components.When to Use Autonomous Transactions  Reusable Application Components ± ATs are more or less required in the new distributed application architecture of the Internet. software usage meter.  Logging Mechanism ± Commonly developers lot to database tables. etc.  Call functions within SQL that change the database.page 200 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . which can cause all sorts of complications: your log entry becomes a part of your transaction.

pkg log81*.sp log81. While we're at it. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Avoid interdependencies with the main transaction. USER.page 201 .pkg retry. USER. END. COMMIT. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN ROLLBACK.program ).Logging with ATs  Don't forget that ROLLBACK in the exception section! CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY log IS PROCEDURE putline ( code_in IN INTEGER. END.tst PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . SYSDATE. text_in IN VARCHAR2 ) IS PRAGMA AUTONOMOUS_TRANSACTION. SYSDATE.tst retry. text_in.machine. rec. BEGIN INSERT INTO logtab VALUES (code_in. rec. logger. let's add some session information.

page 202 . ± Place the SET TRANSACTION statement in the outer transaction.sql autontrigger*.Tips and Gotchas with ATs  An AT program must COMMIT or ROLLBACK before terminating. autonserial. or an error is raised.sql auton_in_sql. ± You cannot define an entire package as an AT. ± You cannot define a nested anonymous block to be an AT. ± You cannot tell by looking at the package spec if you are calling ATs or not -and this info is not available in the data dictionary.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Any changes committed in an AT are visible in the outer transaction. The AT PRAGMA can be used only with individual programs and toplevel anonymous blocks.   The AT PRAGMA goes in the body of packages. ± You can use the SET TRANSACTION ISOLATION LEVEL SERIALIZABLE to indicate that you do not want the changes visible until the outer transaction commits.

page 203 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . ± This is called the « Invoker Rights Model PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± This is called the « Definer Rights Model  With Oracle8i. whenever you executed a stored program.The Invoker Rights Model  Prior to Oracle8i. you can now decide at compilation time whether your program or package will execute in the definer's schema (the default) or the schema of the invoker of the code. it ran under the privileges of the account in which the program was defined.

But it can be a source of confusion and architectural problems.page 204 . Note: Oracle built-in packages have long had the capability of running under the invoker's authority. OE Code Order_Mgt Place Cancel Sam_Sales Close Old Orders  OE Data X  Orders Cannot alter table directly.About Definer Rights  Allows you to centralize access to and control of underlying data structures. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Ignores roles and relies on directly-granted privileges.

it's all or nothing. unless you write code in the package to essentially recreate roles programmatically. ± Can bypass 8i¶s ³fine-grained´ access features (see the DBMS_RLS package) ± Difficult to audit privileges  Sure would be nice to have a choice.Problems with Definer Rights  Deployment & maintenance ± Must install module in all remote databases where needed ± In some databases..and now you do! 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .. each user has own copy of table(s). requiring copy of stored module  Security ± No declarative way to restrict privileges on certain modules in a package -.page 205 .

 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± In other words.page 206 . do what it takes to get the code to compile. ± At run-time.Oracle8i Invoker Rights Syntax  For top level modules: CREATE [ OR REPLACE ] <module type> [ AUTHID { DEFINER | CURRENT_USER } ] AS . AUTHID goes only in spec. Synonyms may be necessary if modules use object names not qualified by schema...  For modules with separate spec and body. You could also create local. and must be at the package level. "dummy" objects. the objects referenced may well be different from those against which it compiled.

page 207 .acct_mgr.FROM accounts WHERE."Reflection" Capability of Invoker Rights  With invoker rights... accounts table 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .destroy(. Central Code schema PACKAGE acct_mgr make AUTHID CURRENT_USER User/Data schema PROCEDURE mng_account IS BEGIN ..). modify destroy .. code... END... you can execute code owned by another schema. yet have all references to data structures "reflect back" into your own schema.

 Once a definer rights program is called.sql handy.Tips and Gotchas for Invoker Rights  Does not apply to code objects. only data ± When your stored code references another stored code element.page 208 . the definer rights model is always applied to resolve the reference.sql  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± AUTHID CURRENT_USER is ignored. all other calls in stack are resolved according to definer rights. Note: cannot use with wrapped code. oneversion. ± Both static and dynamic SQL is supported. taking advantage of the invoker rights model whenever possible? ± A creative use of SQL*Plus substitution variables comes in very invdefinv.  Information about the rights model is not available in the data dictionary What if you want to maintain a single version of your code for both pre-Oracle8i and Oracle8i installations.

When to Invoke Invoker Rights  You want to reuse the same code among many users.sql whichsch*.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . authid. ± Share a program that uses dynamic SQL (whether DBMS_SQL or the new native implementation) and you end up taking the most unexpected DDL and DML detours. National HQ Check City Statistics New York Schema stolenlives Chicago Schema stolenlives  Especially handy with dynamic SQL. but you want their own directly-granted privileges to determine access.page 209 .

Rely on definer rights to access centralized data from any schema.page 210 . HQ Chicago Check City Statistics  New York stolenlives Analyze Pattern stolenlives perpetrators perp.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Combining Invoker & Definer Rights  Rely on invoker rights to allow centralized code to work with schema-specific data.

Row Level Security DBMS_RLS Row-Level Security 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 211 .

Row-Level Security with DBMS_RLS  Oracle8i offers a new package. DBMS_RLS.page 212   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . The DBMS_RLS package (along with "system contexts") now allow you to do so in a foolproof manner. you could achieve this only partially through the use of views. Prior to Oracle8i. with which to implement automated row-level security (also referred to as "fine grained access control"). Row Level Security  The establishment of security policies on (restricted access to) individual rows of a table.

the system context is a named set of attributevalue pairs global to your session.  Security Policy Packages ± You will need to write a package containing functions that establish the security policies to be applied to a particular table.Components Needed for RLS  System Contexts ± A new feature in Oracle8i. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 213 . their context information is set properly.  Database Logon Triggers ± I want to make sure that when a person logs in.  DBMS_RLS ± Use programs in DBMS_RLS to associate your security policies with tables.  Let's step through a simple example to see how all these pieces tie together.

all children are vaccinated. No more for-profit hospitals pulling billions of dollars out of the system.sql  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . highly secure database for NHCS. doctor.page 214 . all pregnant women receive excellent prenatal care. fgac. no more private insurance companies soaking up 30 cents on the dollar. The main tables are patient.  We need a top-notch. popular uprising in the United States has forced the establishment of a national healthcare system. Here are some rules: ± Doctors can only see patients who are assigned to their clinic. ± A massive. clinic and regulator. ± Regulators can only see patients who reside in the same state.A National Health Care System  The year is 2010. ± Patients can only see information about themselves.

sql for logic that identifies SELECT doctor_id FROM doctor different types of people and WHERE schema_name = USER. c_person_id_attr. sets the context accordingly. PROCEDURE set_context IS This is a simplification. 'DOCTOR').doctor_id). DBMS_SESSION. END. BEGIN OPEN doc_cur.page 215 . c_person_type_attr.SET_CONTEXT ( 'patient_restriction'. doc_rec.Set the Context  Define a context in the database. DBMS_SESSION. CREATE CONTEXT patient_restriction USING nhc_pkg. doc_rec doc_cur%ROWTYPE. FETCH doc_cur INTO doc_rec. and create a procedure that will set the context attributes (type and ID) upon login. See CURSOR doc_cur IS fgac.SET_CONTEXT ( 'patient_restriction'. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

information for this retval VARCHAR2(2000).page 216 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . c_person_type_attr). name_in VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2 IS l_context VARCHAR2(100) := Extract the context SYS_CONTEXT (c_context. FUNCTION person_predicate ( schema_in VARCHAR2. connection. person.Define the Predicate  A predicate is a string that will be appended to the WHERE clause of the table to which this security policy is associated (see next page). ''' || clause for each type of c_person_id_attr || '''))'. BEGIN IF l_context = 'DOCTOR' THEN retval := 'home_clinic_id IN (SELECT home_clinic_id FROM doctor We need a different string WHERE doctor_id = SYS_CONTEXT (''' || to modify the WHERE c_context || '''.

UPDATE. 'SELECT. update or delete against the SCOTT. BEGIN DBMS_RLS. ± The following procedure call specifies that the WHERE clause of any query.Create the Security Policy  Use the DBMS_RLS.person_predicate'.ADD_POLICY OBJECT_SCHEMA OBJECT_NAME POLICY_NAME FUNCTION_SCHEMA POLICY_FUNCTION STATEMENT_TYPES END. 'SCOTT'. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .nhc_pkg package.PATIENT table will be modified by the string returned by the person_predicate function of the SCOTT.page 217 .DELETE').ADD_POLICY procedure. 'nhc_pkg. ( => => => => => => 'SCOTT'. 'patient_privacy'. 'patient'.

we guarantee that the context is set (and the predicate applied) no matter which product is the entry point to Oracle.sql Exception handling in trigger is critical! If you allow an exception to go unhandled. CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER set_id_on_logon AFTER LOGON ON DATABASE BEGIN nhc_pkg.page 218 . Setting Context  By setting the context in the logon trigger. END.PUT_LINE ( 'Error ' || SQLCODE || ' setting context for ' || USER').Create Logon Trigger. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . logon is disabled. fgac.set_context. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN DBMS_OUTPUT.

Queries Transparently Filtered  What you see is determined automatically by who you are. Context Information for "SWALLACE": Type: DOCTOR Doctor sees only her ID: 1060 patients. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .IL VSILVA . 'person_id')) Patients Visible to "SWALLACE": CSILVA .Chris Silva .Veva Silva .IL Context Information for "CSILVA": Type: PATIENT ID: Predicate: schema_name = 'CSILVA' Patients Visible to "CSILVA": CSILVA .Chris Silva .IL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Patient sees only himself. Predicate: home_clinic_id IN (SELECT home_clinic_id FROM doctor WHERE doctor_id = SYS_CONTEXT ('patient_restriction'.page 219 .

May..Take Full Advantage of PL/SQL! January..and play a new tune with PL/SQL! 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  ± You learn what you need to get the job done.. Jump out of your rut ...page 220 . March.. It's so easy to fall into a rut with a programming language.. and you use only what you know.. April... February.

.Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Appendices (a.page 221 .k.a. If time permits«)     UTL_FILE ± file IO DBMS_JOB ± Job scheduling DBMS_PIPE ± Pipe-based communication DBMS_UTILITY ± the kitchen sink package 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

page 222 . Physical Files 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Built-in Packages: UTL_FILE UTL_FILE Server-side File I/O Application FOPEN GET_LINE PUT_LINE ...

± Maximum of 1023 bytes per line (read or write) until Oracle 8.UTL_FILE: Server-side I/O  Allows you to read from and write to operating system files on the database server.. random access to contents). no use of environmental variables). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . delete.5.0.   But you can read lines from a file and write lines to a file. copy. A "version 1" (fairly primitive) utility. ± Limitations on files you can access (no mapped files. ± No higher-level file operations supported (change privileges.page 223 .. when it jumps to 32K.

page 224 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .UTL_FILE Module Outline FCLOSE FCLOSE_ALL FFLUSH FOPEN GET_LINE IS_OPEN NEW_LINE PUT PUT_LINE PUTF Close the specified file Close all open files in your session Flush all data from the UTL_FILE buffer to your file Open a file Get the next line from a file Returns TRUE if the file is open (sort of) Insert a new line character in file at the end of current line Puts text into the UTL_FILE buffer Puts text and new line character into UTL_FILE buffer. Puts formatted text into the buffer PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

± No single or double quotes around directory.Authorizing Directory Access  Oracle requires you to list explicitly those directories you wish to be able to read/write with UTL_FILE. ± You do this by adding lines to the instance parameter file. ± Use a separate entry for each directory (and subdirectory. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 225 Allows read & write for current directory. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .  Follow these rules to avoid many headaches. there is no subdirectory recursion). utl_file_dir = * Allows read & write for any directory. no trailing delimiter. utl_file_dir = /tmp utl_file_dir = /accounts/newdev  And don't do either of the following: utl_file_dir = .

FCLOSE (fid). UTL_FILE. END.FOPEN ('c:\temp'. 'W'). 'test. BEGIN /* Change the directory name to one to which you at least || THINK you have read/write access. modify your initialization file. So before you write anything fancy. restart your database.tst  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . */ fid := UTL_FILE.page 226 .txt'.PUT_LINE (fid.Test UTL_FILE Access  About the hardest part to working with UTL_FILE is simply getting started. and then run the following test script (it can't get much simpler than this): DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.FILE_TYPE. / utlfile. 'hello'). UTL_FILE.

 The FOPEN function returns a record ("file handle") based on the UTL_FILE. 'test. 'W').FILE_TYPE. END. BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Types are 'R' for Read.FOPEN ('c:\temp'.FILE_TYPE..Opening a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.txt'. ± In actuality.. name and operation type.  Specify file location. Test to see if file is open with the IS_OPEN function. Not much of a test. ± Currently contains a single ID field.page 227 .   Maximum of 10 files may be opened in each user session. 'W' for Write and 'A' for Append. this function simply returns TRUE if the file handle's id field is NOT NULL.

0. BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE. myline). ± In Oracle8 Release 8.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 'R').FOPEN ('c:\temp'. END.page 228 .   Can only read from a file opened with the "R" mode. UTL_FILE.txt'.Reading from a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.  The NO_DATA_FOUND exception is raised if you read past the end of the file. the ceiling is raised to 32K. 'test. getnext. ± You might want to build your own GET_LINE which handles the exception and returns an EOF Boolean status flag. Lines in the file cannot be longer than 1023 bytes in length.GET_LINE (fid. UTL_FILE.5 and above.FCLOSE (fid).FILE_TYPE.

PUT_LINE or PUTF. UTL_FILE. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .txt'. ± The file buffers are automatically flushed when you close a file or exit your session. 'test. ' that I never\nwant to %s'.PUT (fid. END.PUT_LINE (fid.  Call FFLUSH to make sure that everything you have written to the buffer is flushed out to the file. '&1'). ± PUTF is like the C printf program.page 229 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . UTL_FILE.PUTF (fid. 'UTL_FILE').FILE_TYPE. UTL_FILE.FOPEN ('c:\temp'. 'is so much fun'). UTL_FILE is so much fun that I never want to stop Resulting Text  You can use PUT. 'W'). UTL_FILE.Writing to a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE. BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE. allowing for some formatting.FCLOSE (fid).

Closing a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.page 230   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .GET_LINE (fid. you will not see the data you have (supposedly) written to that file.FILE_TYPE.txt'. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END. 'test.  If you do not close the file.READ_ERROR THEN UTL_FILE. UTL_FILE. BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE. UTL_FILE. You can close a single file with FCLOSE or all open files with FCLOSE_ALL.FCLOSE (fid). 'R'). You should close files in exception handlers to make sure that files are not left "hanging" open.FCLOSE (fid). myline).FOPEN ('c:\temp'. EXCEPTION WHEN UTL_FILE.

EXCEPTION. ± NO_DATA_FOUND when you try to read past the end of the file. EXCEPTION.  You have to take special care to trap and handle the named exceptions. EXCEPTION. EXCEPTION. EXCEPTION. EXCEPTION. ± UTL_FILE-named exceptions in other cases.Error Handling in UTL_FILE PACKAGE UTL_FILE IS invalid_path invalid_mode invalid_filehandle invalid_operation read_error write_error internal_error END. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . EXCEPTION.page 231 . ± They all share a common SQLCODE of 1.  UTL_FILE relies on a combination of user-defined exceptions and STANDARD exceptions to communicate errors.

Re-raise exception if you want it to propagate from that block.INVALID_FILEHANDLE THEN recNgo (PLVfile.c_write_error). WHEN UTL_FILE.c_invalid_filehandle). RAISE. WHEN UTL_FILE. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .sql  Trap locally by name. RAISE.c_invalid_operation).Recommended Exception Section EXCEPTION WHEN UTL_FILE.READ_ERROR THEN recNgo (PLVfile. translating the generic user-defined exception into an understandable message.c_read_error).c_internal_error). RAISE. WHEN UTL_FILE. record the error. END. WHEN UTL_FILE.INTERNAL_ERROR THEN recNgo (PLVfile.WRITE_ERROR THEN recNgo (PLVfile. RAISE. utlflexc.page 232  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .INVALID_PATH THEN recNgo (PLVfile. WHEN UTL_FILE.INVALID_OPERATION THEN recNgo (PLVfile. RAISE. WHEN UTL_FILE.c_invalid_mode). RAISE. RAISE.INVALID_MODE THEN recNgo (PLVfile.c_invalid_path).

Background Process DBA_JOBS Oracle Job Queue Subsystem 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 233 ..Built-in Packages: DBMS_JOB DBMS_JOB Scheduled Execution of Stored Procedures Application SUBMIT RUN REMOVE ..

1. ± Spawn background processes to avoid blocking client process.page 234 . Schedule regular maintenance on instances.Overview of DBMS_JOB  DBMS_JOB provides an API to the Oracle job queues. Schedule large batch jobs to run on "off hours". which in turn offers job scheduling capabilities within the Oracle Server. but only ³publicly available´ and supported in PL/SQL Release 2. ± ± ± ±    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Built by Oracle to support snapshots and replication.2. Create a listener program to poll the contents of a pipe and take action. Made its debut in PL/SQL Release 2. You can use DBMS_JOB to: Replicate data between different database instances.

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Removes the job from the queue. Submits a job to the queue returning a unique job number.page 235 CHANGE INTERVAL ISUBMIT NEXT_DATE REMOVE RUN SUBMIT USER_EXPORT WHAT 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . Broken jobs will not run as scheduled. Changes the interval between executions of a job.DBMS_JOB Module Outline BROKEN Marks the job as either FIXED or BROKEN. Changes one or all attributes of a job. Forces immediate execution of the specified job number. Submits a job to the queue using a predefined job number. Changes when a queued job will run. Changes the job string of a job. Returns the job string for a job number.

 A job is a call to a stored procedure or an anonymous block ± It must end with a semi-colon and can contain ³hard-coded´ arguments. you specify the date on which it should next execute. ± In the above example.SUBMIT (job#. I run calculate_totals immediately and then on a daily basis thereafter.Submitting a Job DECLARE job# BINARY_INTEGER. instead of having DBMS_JOB generate one for you. SYSDATE. and then the job¶s execution interval (frequency of execution). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 236 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . 'calculate_totals.  When you submit a job.'. while the interval is a string (this is dynamic PL/SQL!)  You can also call DBMS_JOB. BEGIN DBMS_JOB.ISUBMIT and supply the job number. Notice that the start time is a DATE expression. END. 'SYSDATE + 1').

what => 'DBMS_DDL. next_date => TRUNC (SYSDATE + 1).l (v_jobno).''LOAD1''. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .submit ( job => v_jobno.estimate_percent=>50). to analyze a specific table every evening at midnight.null.page 237 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .ANALYZE_OBJECT.Submit Job Example DECLARE v_jobno INTEGER. /  This block submits a job that uses a built-in procedure. interval => 'TRUNC(SYSDATE+1)' ). DBMS_DDL. END.''ESTIMATE''.'.ANALYZE_OBJECT ' || '(''TABLE''. BEGIN DBMS_JOB.''TENK''' || '. p.

ISUBMIT (job => 1 . DBMS_JOB. and will be removed from the queue automatically. runs it in one hour and executes every day thereafter. ± Job 1 passes a string and number into procedure MY_JOB1.' . 'my_job2(date_IN=>SYSDATE).'. DBMS_JOB.SYSDATE+1.ISUBMIT (2. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .next_date => SYSDATE + 1/24 . END. /  This block submits three jobs to the job queue. executes for the first time tomorrow and every 10 minutes thereafter.page 238 .null).ISubmit Job Example BEGIN DBMS_JOB.what => 'my_job1(''string_parm_value''.ISUBMIT(3.interval => 'SYSDATE +1'). and 3.' . ± Job 3 is a PL/SQL block which does nothing.'BEGIN null.'SYSDATE+10/1440').DBMS_JOB.2. executes immediately. numbered 1. ± Job 2 passes a date into procedure MY_JOB2. END.120).SYSDATE.

± Use date arithmetic to request intervals smaller than a day. ± Since it's a string. NEXT_DAY (SYSDATE.Specifying Job Times & Frequencies  Probably the most complicated part of using DBMS_JOB is to get the string expression of the job interval right. NEXT_DAY (SYSDATE. ''FRIDAY''))) + 18/24' PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . at 9 AM Every Monday. ''MONDAY''). ''MONDAY'') + 9/24' 'TRUNC (LEAST ( NEXT_DAY (SYSDATE.page 239 + 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . you must use 2 single quotes to embed strings. Every hour Every Sunday at 2 AM First Monday of each quarter. ''SATURDAY'') 2/24' 'NEXT_DAY ( ADD_MONTHS (TRUNC (SYSDATE. ''WEDNESDAY''). Wednesday and Friday at 6 PM 'SYSDATE + 1/24' 'NEXT_DAY (TRUNC (SYSDATE). 3). ''Q'').

retaining current job number.  Export jobs from the queue.Other Job Queue Operations  Remove a job from the queue. ± Performs an implicit COMMIT in current session. expjob.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Remove all jobs for current schema. ± Produces a string that can be used to recreate an existing job in the job queue. ± Only if the job was submitted from same schema BEGIN FOR rec IN (SELECT * FROM USER_JOBS) LOOP DBMS_JOB.ISUBMIT.RUN (my_job#). DBMS_JOB. END LOOP.  Run a job immediately. ± Uses DBMS_JOB.REMOVE (rec.job).page 240 .

sid = jr.username . ± The following query blends job information with session information to display currently-executing jobs. DBA_JOBS and USER_JOBS views.DBA_JOBS .job ORDER BY jr. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .sid AND jr.V$SESSION WHERE s.jr.page 241 .Job Queue Views  You can also view the job queue by looking at the DBA_JOBS_RUNNING.job = j.this_date . who owns them and when they began.sql FROM DBA_JOBS_RUNNING . SELECT jr.job .what job_id username start_date job_definition jr j s showjobs.this_date.

The valid range is 0 through 36.  You will need to set three parameters in the init. You will have to take special DBA action if you want to restrict who can run jobs. therefore. The valid range is 1 to 3600 (a maximum.ora (initialization) file for your database instance: ± job_queue_processes=N where n is the number of concurrent background processes permitted. ± The default is PUBLIC access. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Setting up the Job Facility  Make sure that the correct access is set up for the DBMS_JOB package. ± job_queue_interval=N where N is the interval in seconds to check the job queue.page 242 . of one hour).

 To avoid unexpected and unhandled failures of scheduled jobs: ± Always use the RUN built-in to execute your job in a ³test´ mode. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Always include a WHEN OTHERS exception handler in your job program which traps any and all problems and automatically sets the job status to broken. it may cause the background processes to fail and no longer run any jobs at all.Error Handling with DBMS_JOB  What if your stored procedure fails? ± After 16 attempts. the job facility will mark your job as broken. ± Do you want it to try 16 times? ± In addition. Then you can go ahead and submit it. if your failure raises an unhandled exception.page 243 .

± Uses a call to BROKEN to set the status of the job to ³broken´.page 244 . spacelog.. ± Calls log program of package to record that failure took place.BROKEN (job#.log (µcalc_totals¶.sql  The WHEN OTHERS exception handler of the calc_totals procedure traps any kind of failure.Stopping the Job When It Fails PROCEDURE calc_totals IS BEGIN . TRUE).job (µcalc_totals¶) DBMS_JOB.sql showspc. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . You can go in and fix the problem. ± Now the job facility will not try to run this program again. µFAIL¶). END. ± Obtains the job number from a packaged function by passing the name of the procedure. job_pkg. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN job# := job_pkg..

"Good to Knows" for DBMS_JOB  You may find it useful to always wrap your stored procedure call (the what) inside a BEGIN-END block. ± We've noticed some aberrant. it picks up the current execution environment for the user.  You will need to fully-qualify all database links (with user name and password) to get them to work properly. difficult to reproduce behavior at times with "straight" procedure calls. You can use the DBMS_IJOB to manage the jobs of other users. When a job runs. If you find that you submit a job to run immediately and it does not start.page 245 .    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± DBMS_JOB only allows you to modify characteristics and behavior of jobs submitted by the current schema. perform a COMMIT after your submit.

page 246 .Built-in Packages: DBMS_PIPE DBMS_PIPE Inter-session Communication 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

± Perform and commit DML in a separate transaction space from your main transaction. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Oracle uses database pipes to parallelize database operations. ± Interface PL/SQL-database activities with operating system functions and programs written in other languages. ± More sophisticated debugging inside PL/SQL programs (work around fundamental limitations of DBMS_OUTPUT). You can parallelize your own code.  Uses for DBMS_PIPE include: ± Parallelization of program execution. ± Operates outside of database transaction limitations.DBMS_PIPE Overview  Allows communication between different Oracle sessions through a pipe in the RDBMS Shared Global Area.page 247 .

± The pipe sends/receives a message. which can be composed of one or more separate packets.page 248 .Architecture of DBMS_PIPE Shared Global Area ³Sue´ ³Bob´ Message Buffer Message Buffer Session A  Session B A pipe is a named object that uses the System Global Area to provide a non-transaction based conduit of information. using a maximum of 4096 bytes. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Names can be up to 128 chars long (do not use names beginning with ³ORA$´. They are reserved for Oracle use).

number. ± You can wait for up to 1000 days for a message. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein pipex1.  Unpack the message packets and take action. you can wait for up to 1000 days (or 86400000 seconds) for the pipe to be cleared. ± Separate out the individual packets in the message (again: string. so you should always specify a timeout period.page 249 .sql PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . date or number). ± Each packet can be a string.sql pipex2.  Receive a message from that pipe. ± There is just one message buffer per session.Processing Flow of DBMS_PIPE  Construct a message from packets of information.  Send the message to a named pipe. date. ROWID or RAW. ± If there isn¶t currently room in the pipe. ± This is the default.

PURGE Empties the contents of a pipe into your local buffer freeing it for removal. REMOVE_PIPE RESET_BUFFER Removes a pipe explicitly created via CREATE_PIPE. NEXT_ITEM_TYPE Returns the datatype of the next item in the piped message. Clears your buffer so that PACK_MESSAGE and UNPACK_MESSAGE can work from the first item. SEND_MESSAGE Sends contents of message buffer to the specified pipe. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . RECEIVE_MESSAGE Receives a message from pipe and copies to local buffer.DBMS_PIPE Module Outline Module Name CREATE_PIPE Description Creates a PUBLIC or PRIVATE pipe. UNIQUE_SESSION_NAME Returns name that is unique among all sessions in the database. making it a candidate for removal with a LRU algorithm. PACK_MESSAGE Packs an item into the message buffer for your session. UNPACK_MESSAGE Unpacks the next item from the local message buffer and deposits it into the specified local variable.page 250 .

BEGIN stat := DBMS_PIPE. private => TRUE).  An explicit pipe can be private (accessible only to sessions with matching userID or SYSDBA privileges).CREATE_PIPE ( pipename => 'bbs'.page 251 . ± Implicitly-created pipes are always public. PROCEDURE newpipe IS stat INTEGER. ± Send messages to non-existent pipe implicitly create it. maxpipesize => 20000. ± Use CREATE_PIPE to create a pipe explicitly. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Specify TRUE for private argument of CREATE_PIPE.Creating Public and Private Pipes  There are two ways to create pipes: implicitly and explicitly.  A public pipe is accessible as long as you know its name.

FOR month_num IN 1 .Sending a Message Provide pipe name. IF pipe_stat != 0 THEN RAISE could_not_send. maxpipesize IN INTEGER DEFAULT 8192) RETURN INTEGER. 10 * 4096). 12 LOOP DBMS_PIPE. FUNCTION send_message (pipename IN VARCHAR2. expanding pipe size to 40 Kbytes.PACK_MESSAGE ( total_sales (month_num)). Status of 0 means message was sent. timeout IN INTEGER DEFAULT maxwait. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Fill your message buffer with packets of data. 60. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . pipe_stat := DBMS_PIPE.SEND_MESSAGE ( µmonthly¶. waiting up to 1 minute.page 252 . and new max pipe size (you can make it bigger. Send to "monthly" pipe. END LOOP.. seconds you will wait. but not smaller).

Receiving and Unpack a Message FUNCTION receive_message (pipename IN VARCHAR2. timeout IN INTEGER DEFAULT maxwait) RETURN INTEGER. PROCEDURE unpack_message (item OUT DATE). ± You need to know the datatype of packet or check it using NEXT_ITEM_TYPE. PROCEDURE unpack_message (item OUT NUMBER).  First you pull the message from the pipe and place it in buffer with RECEIVE_MESSAGE.  Then you call UNPACK_MESSAGE to extract individual packets from the message. PROCEDURE unpack_message (item OUT VARCHAR2). ± Pipe status of 0 means the message was read successfully.page 253 . ± Specify pipe and number of seconds you will wait before you time out. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

LOOP pipe_status := DBMS_PIPE. every_n_secs). seconds for the BEGIN next report. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .RECEIVE_MESSAGE ( 'production'. ELSE RAISE_APPLICATION_ERROR ( Stop process if -20000. END IF. PROCEDURE analyze_assembly_data (every_n_secs IN INTEGER) IS pipe_status INTEGER. pass it on to the IF pipe_status = 0 computation THEN program. If I got something. END. END LOOP. data not received. prod_total). Wait up to N prod_total NUMBER.page 254 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . analyze_production (SYSDATE.').A Pipe-based Listener Program  Program wakes up every N seconds to read the data from the pipe and analyze results from assembly line (an intentional "infinite loop"!).UNPACK_MESSAGE (prod_total). DBMS_PIPE. 'Production data unavailable.

Returns one of the following values: Value 0 6 9 11 12 23 Description or Data type No more items in buffer NUMBER VARCHAR2 ROWID DATE RAW dbpipe. you have to make sure that you unpack a packet into the right kind of variable.page 255 . ± Or you use the built-in NEXT_ITEM_TYPE to tell you in advance the datatype of the next packet in the message and take appropriate action.sql dbpipe.Unpacking the Message FUNCTION next_item_type RETURN INTEGER. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Either: ± You know the datatype and therefore can ³hard-code´ the correct variable into the call to UNPACK_MESSAGE.tst  Since a message can be composed of packets of different datatypes.

but are not dependent on each other. I must execute them sequentially and incur an elapsed time of 45 minutes before I calculate the profits. ± The CEO is decidedly unhappy about the delay. ± These programs each take 15 minutes. total office expenses and total compensation.  Suppose I want to calculate my net profit. In order to do so I must first compute total sales.  Without pipes. ± You have processes which can run in parallel.page 256 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . you can do the same for your application if: ± You have multiple CPUs available.Parallelizing Your Code with Pipes  Oracle uses DBMS_PIPE to improve RDBMS performance.

Sequential vs.page 257 . Parallel Execution Sequential Execution: Maximum Elapsed Time S t a r t E n d Process A Process B Process C Parallel Execution: Minimum Elapsed Time Start Process A Process B Process C End 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

± When each program is complete. kick_off_exp_calc.Parallelizing PL/SQL Execution BEGIN kick_off_sales_calc. wait_for_confirmation. Then net profits can be computed -.page 258 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . calculate_net_profits.  The ³kick off´ programs pass their messages to separate pipes.  The ³wait´ program waits till it receives a message from each program. END.in a muchdecreased elapsed time. kick_off_totcomp_calc. it puts a message (perhaps even a value) into the pipe. ± Other programs running in the background grab the messages and start their corresponding calculation program.

IF stat = 0 THEN lots_of_number_crunching.SEND_MESSAGE (µsales¶).PACK_MESSAGE (NULL).RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µsales¶). BEGIN stat := DBMS_PIPE. and send back the results. stat := DBMS_PIPE. DBMS_PIPE. PROCEDURE calculate_sales IS stat INTEGER. stat := DBMS_PIPE.PACK_MESSAGE (sales$). BEGIN DBMS_PIPE. END.Code to Kick Off and Calculate PROCEDURE kick_off_sales_calc IS stat INTEGER.SEND_MESSAGE (µsales¶). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Send message to start calculations. END IF. END.page 259 . ELSE DBMS_PIPE.PACK_MESSAGE (1995). calculate sales. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .SEND_MESSAGE (µsales¶). Receive the year. stat := DBMS_PIPE.

Waiting for Confirmation PROCEDURE wait_for_confirmation IS stat INTEGER.page 260 . The order in which you wait is insignificant.UNPACK_MESSAGE (comp$).comp$. DBMS_PIPE. Perform final calculation.UNPACK_MESSAGE (offexp$). parallel. END.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µoffexp¶). Wait for all calculations to finish.RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µcomp¶). stat := DBMS_PIPE. DBMS_PIPE. PROCEDURE calculate_net_profits IS BEGIN net_profits := sales$ . BEGIN stat := DBMS_PIPE.RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µsales¶).offexp$ . END. stat := DBMS_PIPE. DBMS_PIPE.UNPACK_MESSAGE (sales$).

in-memory cache.pkg p_and_l.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± A request for data is passed to a "central" pipe. ± Demonstrates the use of toggles and switches in packages. ± A listener program grabs the request (including the return pipe name). obtains the data. ± The requester reads the information from the pipe.page 261 . and sends it to the pipe.pkg syscache. watch. syscache.Other DBMS_PIPE Examples  Simple trace package that sends it output either to screen or to pipe.pkg  Implementation of a system-wide.

A µgrab-bag¶ of miscellaneous operations SCHEMA 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..page 262 ..Built-in Packages: DBMS_UTILITY DBMS_UTILITY Application GET_TIME GET_HASH_VALUE FORMAT_CALL_STACK .

Returns hash value for string.page 263 dbver. Returns error stack. Returns database version (Oracle8) Executes DDL statement (Oracle8). Returns execution call stack. Parses comma-delimited list to index-by table.DBMS_UTILITY Module Outline ANALYZE_DATABASE ANALYZE_PART_OBJECT Analyze objects in database Runs ANALYZE TABLE or ANALYZE INDEX for each partition of the object (Oracle8). Gets block number part of data block address. Gets file number part of data block address.pkg dbparm. Recompile INVALID objects in specified schema.pkg COMMA_TO_TABLE COMPILE_SCHEMA DATA_BLOCK_ADDRESS_BLOCK DATA_BLOCK_ADDRESS_FILE DB_VERSION EXEC_DDL_STATEMENT FORMAT_CALL_STACK FORMAT_ERROR_STACK GET_HASH_VALUE 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Returns "current time" down to hundredth of second.DBMS_UTILITY Module Outline. Creates data block address from block & file numbers. GET_PARAMETER_VALUE GET_TIME IS_PARALLEL_SERVER MAKE_DATA_BLOCK_ADDRESS NAME_RESOLVE NAME_TOKENIZE PORT_STRING TABLE_TO_COMMA Retrieves value of database parameter (Oracle8). Resolves name of object into component parts. cont.page 264 . Converts list (in index-by-table) of elements into a comma-delimited list (string). Parses string object designator into components. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Returns platform and version of database. Returns TRUE if in parallel server mode.

END.Sub-Second Timings with GET_TIME  GET_TIME returns the number of 100ths of seconds that have elapsed since an arbitrary point in time. ± SYSDATE only reflects times down to the nearest second.PUT_LINE (DBMS_UTILITY. DBMS_OUTPUT. Basic steps necessary to convert GET_TIME into a performance analysis tool. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . especially those that run in sub-second time.page 265 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .GET_TIME .v_start). BEGIN v_start := DBMS_UTILITY.GET_TIME. calc_totals.  Compare results from consecutive calls to GET_TIME to determine the elapsed time of PL/SQL code execution. ± Useful when analyzing individual PL/SQL programs. DECLARE v_start BINARY_INTEGER. so GET_TIME offers significant additional granularity.

END PLVtmr.Building a Layer Over GET_TIME Partial package specification PACKAGE PLVtmr IS PROCEDURE turn_on. END. PLVtmr. reset_in IN BOOLEAN := TRUE). adjust_in IN NUMBER := 0.capture. BEGIN PLVtmr. calc_totals. PROCEDURE turn_off.page 266 . Clean and lean timing code ovrhead.sql plvtmr.spb 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . PROCEDURE capture ( context_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) PROCEDURE show_elapsed (prefix_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL.sps plvtmr.show_elapsed. PROCEDURE set_factor (factor_in IN NUMBER).

page 267 .PL/SQL Call Stack ----object line object handle number name 88ce3f74 88e49fc4 88e49390 88e2bd20 8 2 1 1 package STEVEN.FORMAT_CALL_STACK).VALIDATE_REQUEST function STEVEN. END. ± Most recent program at beginning of "report". equivalent to CHR(10). ± Does not show package elements. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .COMPANY_TYPE procedure STEVEN.CALC_NET_WORTH anonymous block  "Little known facts" about FORMAT_CALL_STACK: ± Contains embedded new-line characters. ----. only the package name.PUT_LINE ( DBMS_UTILITY.Accessing the Execution Call Stack Use in the exception section to show context of error. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN DBMS_OUTPUT.

pkg plvcs. Instead. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE dispcs IS stk VARCHAR2(10000). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . CHR(10).tst callstack. next_line VARCHAR2(255). EXIT WHEN next_newline = 0. BEGIN stk := DBMS_UTILITY. startpos INTEGER := 1. next_line := SUBSTR ( stk. END LOOP.sp dispcs. LOOP next_newline := INSTR (stk. which means you cannot pass it to DBMS_OUTPUT directly.sps DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE (next_line). 1). startpos := next_newline + 1.Accessing Call Stack Contents  The call stack length can easily exceed 255 bytes. startpos.FORMAT_CALL_STACK || CHR(10).page 268 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . next_newline . next_newline INTEGER. END. dispcs.startpos + 1). use a loop to read through the stack. startpos.

.  Possible "Part 1" Types 5 7 8 9 Synonym Procedure Function Package What a chore! All those arguments. ± Use NAME_RESOLVE to break down an identifier string into its components easily. PROCEDURE DBMS_UTILITY.. schema OUT VARCHAR2. part2 OUT VARCHAR2. part1_type OUT NUMBER.. object_number OUT NUMBER).for encapsulation! showcomp.page 269 . dblink OUT VARCHAR2.sp snc.Resolving Names of Stored Code  Code names have many components.NAME_RESOLVE (name IN VARCHAR2. context IN NUMBER. the way they are attached also follows a complicated syntax.. see it as an opportunity.but don't see it as a problem. part1 OUT VARCHAR2.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful