Achieving PL/SQL Excellence

Oracle PL/SQL Advanced Techniques
Oracle7 thru Oracle8i
Steven Feuerstein
www.StevenFeuerstein.com www.Quest.com www.OReilly.com
and contributions most excellent from Bill Pribyl and Dick Bolz

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 1

Objective & Outline 

Objective
± Expand your knowledge and awareness of important and new features of the PL/SQL language. 

Outline
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± Building with Packages (Oracle7+) PL/SQL Collections (Oracle7 and Oracle8+) Cursor Variables (Oracle7 and Oracle8+) Dynamic SQL: DBMS_SQL and Native Dynamic SQL (8i) Calling Java from PL/SQL (Oracle8i) and C (Oracle8) Oracle Advanced Queuing with DBMS_AQ (Oracle8) Managing Large Objects with DBMS_LOB (Oracle8) Other Oracle8i New Features
» Autonomous Transactions (Oracle8i) » Invoker Rights Model (Oracle8i) » Row Level Security: DBMS_RLS

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Software Used in Training 

PL/Vision: a library of packages installed on top of PL/SQL.
± PL/Vision Lite - use it, copy, change it for free -- unless you build software to be sold commercially. ± Active PL/SQL Knowledge Base: contains PL/Vision Professional, the fully supported and enhanced version. 

Demonstration scripts executed in the training can be found on the RevealNet PL/SQL Pipeline:
± http://www.revealnet.com/Pipelines/PLSQL/index.htm ± Archives surfboard, Miscellaneous, PL/SQL Seminar Files ± See filedesc.doc for a listing of many of the files.
plsql_ides.txt 

The PL/SQL IDE (Integrated Development Environment).
± You no longer have to use SQL*Plus and a crude editor! Choose from among the many listed in plsql_ides.txt.

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Achieving PL/SQL Excellence

Building with PL/SQL Packages 
 

Overview Initialization section Overloading

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What is a Package? 

A collection of code elements, from procedures and functions to TYPE, variable and cursor declarations.
± Single-most important structure within PL/SQL, and almost certainly one of the most under-utilized. ± Conceptually very simple, it can take some time to fully grasp the implications and potential of the package. 

The method of choice by Oracle and other software developers for extending the PL/SQL language.
± You will find packages in the database, in Oracle Developer/2000, in Oracle Application Server. 

Let¶s review some of the benefits of packages.
tmr.pkg dbparm.pkg

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pkg  Improve transaction integrity by hiding data structures behind the package interface. te_employee. package-based "component". ± Instead of writing SQL directly in your programs. ± There's a big difference between a bunch of separate programs and a coherent. watch. ± Puts more structure and organization in your body of code.pks te_employee.When to Build a Package  Join physically logically-related code.page 6 .pkg insga. you call the packaged procedures and functions instead. ± Can lead to performance improvements.pkb  Construct very flexible and usable utilities for developers. custrules.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

the first time any package element is referenced. ± The PL/SQL runtime engine determines when and if this code should be run. no Complete request for packaged element. Does the package have an init section? yes Run initialization code.page 7 .Package Initialization  The initialization section is a block of code at the end of the package body that is executed once per session. Program references package element the first time in each session. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

± Setting up package data which does not change for the duration of a session. In fact. ± Is not required. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . most packages you build won't have one.  Useful for: ± Performing complex setting of default or initial values.Package Initialization Structure  The initialization section: ± Is defined after and outside of any programs in the package. FUNCTION func RETURN BEGIN END. BEGIN END pkg.page 8 . ± Can have its own exception handling section. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein BEGIN after/outside of any program defined in the pkg. PACKAGE BODY pkg IS PROCEDURE proc IS BEGIN END. ± Confirming that package is properly instantiated.

EXCEPTION WHEN NO_DATA_FOUND THEN /* No record for show_lov := show_toolbar := printer := PACKAGE sessinit IS show_lov CHAR(1). ± Body contains only initialization section. 'No profile for ' || USER). PACKAGE BODY sessinit IS /* No declared package elements at all! */ BEGIN /* Get user preferences for this user.pkg init. defprinter INTO show_lov. tb_flag.Configure Session with Init.. printer FROM user_config WHERE user_id = USER. */ 'Y'.. END sessinit. init.page 9 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . 'lpt1'. Section  An unusual package! ± Specification contains only variables. show_toolbar. show_toolbar CHAR(1).  Also a package with many design flaws. */ SELECT lov_flag. WHEN OTHERS THEN RAISE_APPLICATION_ERROR (-20000. 'Y'.tst this user. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END sessinit. printer VARCHAR2(60).

fmts(3) := 'DD-MON'. Initialization section populates a PL/SQL table. fmts(9) := 'MM/DD/YYYY'. fmts(11) := 'YYYYMMDD'. END dt. fmts(4) := 'MM/DD'. fmts(10) := 'MMDDYYYY'.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± The datemgr.page 10 . ± This increases the flexibility of the date conversion process. PLVdate.. fmts(12) := 'RRMMDD'.Populate Collections  The PL/Vision Date package.pkg file demonstrates the basic technique (and the reliance on an initialization section) used to achieve this flexibility. fmts(2) := 'DD-MON-YYYY'. BEGIN fmts(1) := 'DD-MON-RR'. . fmt_count := 12.pkg dates. employs several PL/SQL tables to convert strings and to perform date arithmetic. datemgr..

Program Overloading  When you overload programs. ± If you want others to use your code. myproc  Overloading is a critical feature when building comprehensive programmatic interfaces (APIs) or components using packages. you give two or more programs the same name. myproc myproc 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . you need to make that code as smart and as easy to use as possible. ± You can overload modules in any declaration section and in packages.page 11 . ± Overloading transfers the "need to know" from the user to the overloaded program.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . you would have to deal with something like this: date_string := TO_CHAR_FROM_DATE (SYSDATE. number_string := TO_CHAR (10000). and took functions like TO_CHAR and TO_DATE totally for granted.Overloading in PL/SQL Built-ins  PL/SQL uses overloading in many common functions. ± But Oracle couldn't offer that level of convenience without overloading. 'MMDDYY').page 12 . number_string := TO_CHAR_FROM_NUMBER (10000). ± You just probably never gave it a thought. date_string := TO_CHAR (SYSDATE. 'MMDDYY'). Without overloading.

VARCHAR2 is not different enough). order or datatype family (CHAR vs. the compiler must be able to distinguish between the two calls at compile-time. OUT.  Distinguishing characteristics: ± The formal parameters of overloaded modules must differ in number.  Undistinguishing characteristics: ± Functions differ only in their RETURN datatype.How Overloading Works  For two or more modules to be overloaded. IN OUT). ± Arguments differ only in their mode (IN.page 13 . ± Their formal parameters differ only in datatype and the datatypes are in the same family. There are two different "compile times": ± 1. When you compile programs that use the overloaded code. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . When you compile the package or block containing the overloaded code. ± 2. ± The programs are of different types: procedure and function.

Examples of Invalid Overloadings PACKAGE too_similar IS PROCEDURE calc (reg_in IN CHAR). END only_returns. Parameter data types cause conflict. END too_many_cals.func1 (v_value)). which one? too_similar. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . which one? param_modes.PUT_LINE (only_returns. Only difference is parameter mode. which one? DBMS_OUTPUT. PROCEDURE calc (reg_in IN VARCHAR2). PROCEDURE proc1 (val IN OUT VARCHAR2). PACKAGE param_modes IS PROCEDURE proc1 (val IN VARCHAR2). PACKAGE only_returns IS FUNCTION func1 (val IN VARCHAR2) RETURN DATE. Only difference is function RETURN type.calc ('123'). FUNCTION func1 (val IN VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2.proc1 (v_value). END param_modes.page 14 .

not Value ± A less common application of overloading. you may construct different versions of the ³same´ program which correspond to different patterns of use.Overload Wherever Possible  Supporting Many Data Combinations ± Apply the same action to different kinds or combinations of data. so much as providing different ways of requesting the same activity.PUT_LINE procedure illustrates this technique -and the PL/Vision p. In this case. You use the type of data and not its value to determine which of the overloaded programs should be executed.page 15 .  Fitting the Program to the User ± To make your code as useful as possible. the overloading does not provide a single name for different activities. ± The DBMS_OUTPUT.  Overloading by Type.l substitute does an even better job. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2. PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2. number_in IN NUMBER).page 16 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . allowing the user to pass data to the "display engine" without writing "pre-processing" code. mask_in IN VARCHAR2 := µMonth DD. YYYY . PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2). p.spb PROCEDURE l (boolean_in IN BOOLEAN).sps p. PROCEDURE l (number_in IN NUMBER). PACKAGE p IS PROCEDURE l (date_in IN DATE. YYYY .HH:MI:SS PM'). date_in IN DATE. END p.A "Classic" Overloaded Package  Many different datatype combinations. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2. boolean_in IN BOOLEAN).HH:MI:SS PM'). mask_in IN VARCHAR2 := 'Month DD.

PUT_LINE ('So what is different?'). DBMS_OUTPUT.l (print_report_fl).l (SYSDATE). DBMS_OUTPUT. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .l (SQLERRM. SQLCODE). p..Advantage of Extended Overloading ‡ Minimal overloading means lots of extra coding. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein ‡Extended overloadings are more likely to meet user needs. IF print_report_fl THEN DBMS_OUTPUT. END IF.PUT_LINE ('TRUE'). DBMS_OUTPUT.page 17 .PUT_LINE (TO_CHAR (SYSDATE. p.PUT_LINE ('FALSE').. ELSE DBMS_OUTPUT.l ('So what is different?').PUT_LINE (SQLERRM || ': ' || TO_CHAR (SQLCODE)). p. p. 'MM/DD/YY HH:MI:SS')).

appreciated. In my experience. few developers are considerate enough of their users to try to anticipate their needs.and taken completely for granted. If you take these different circumstances into account when you design your package specification. ± If you want to write software that is admired. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . can be applied or needed under very different circumstances. ± Your code is a a more natural "fit" under a variety of requirements. the user of your package can benefit from writing less code.page 18   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . such as "display data" or "create a file".. think about the way it will be used..Fitting the Program to the User Writing "unnecessary" code? Time to overload!  A single piece of functionality.

± She doesn't care what's in it. you have to declare the record to hold the file handle. sometimes you will want to create a file and then perform additional operations.page 19  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .FCLOSE (fid). even though you are simply going to close the file immediately after opening it. ± Here is the code required by UTL_FILE: DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.Creating a File for a Quick Touch  Suppose a developer needs to create a file to be used as a "flag" in the operating system.FILE_TYPE. 'exists.flg'. UTL_FILE. Of course. so this is just the way it has to be.PUT_LINE (fid. 'blah').FOPEN ('tmp/flags'.  In other words. 'W'). BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE. right? WRONG! PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . It just needs to be present. UTL_FILE. END.

line_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) RETURN UTL_FILE. Use as Procedure BEGIN PLVfile.page 20 .ini'. PLVfile.Procedure and Function Overloaded  Why not overload a "create file" program so that you can pick the one that most closely fits your situation? Consider the PLVfile package of PL/Vision. v_user).pkg PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . line_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL). custrules.  Overloading of FCreate PACKAGE PLVfile IS /* Procedure */ PROCEDURE fcreate (file_in IN VARCHAR2.FILE_TYPE. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Use as Function DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.fcreate ('exists. /* Function */ FUNCTION fcreate (file_in IN VARCHAR2. END.flg').FILE_TYPE.put_line (fid. TO_CHAR (SYSDATE)). END PLVfile.fcreate ('temp. BEGIN fid := PLVfile.

"By-Type" Overloading  In some situations.page 21 . the user does not need to pass data. but the type of data. when you use DBMS_SQL to set up a dynamic query. ± Pass a string ³name´ of the datatype. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± For example. Define a different program name for each datatype.  There are three ways to accomplish this: ± Don't overload. you must call the DEFINE_COLUMN procedure to define the datatype of the Nth column in the cursor. ± Pass a piece of data of the right type.

.NUMBER_TYPE). 1. BEGIN DBMS_SQL...DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.VARCHAR2_TYPE.  So many program names to remember! Pass a literal value. 2.page 22 ..func 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. 30). DBMS_SQL. 30). 1). 1. 2. DBMS_SQL. 30).DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.DEFINE_INTEGER_COLUMN (cur. 'NUMBER'). DBMS_SQL. lotsa names.. Lotsa typing.. DBMS_SQL..  Nasty hard-coding. Pass a named constant. DBMS_SQL.Options for Specifying Column Type  Don't even bother overloading. ± DBMS_SQL. 2..  Now let's look at two examples of overloading by datatype..DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. 'STRING'.DEFINE_VARCHAR2_COLUMN (cur. BEGIN DBMS_SQL..DEFINE_COLUMN ± PLVgen...

USER. v_empno).DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.GET_TIME).DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.DEFINE_COLUMN procedure defines the datatype of a column. ± To make it easier to accomplish this task. 30). v_ename.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. 30). BEGIN DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. ± The three code blocks below are equivalent. you only need to pass a value -. 1. from the perspective of DBMS_SQL. 1). 1. 2. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.Defining Dynamic SQL Columns  The DBMS_SQL. 2. 2.any value -. 1. DBMS_SQL. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . DBMS_SQL. 30). DBMS_UTILITY. DBMS_SQL.of the correct type.page 23 .DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. 'a'.

please! 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . please! A number function. PROCEDURE func (name_in IN VARCHAR2. any date. 1) A date function. any string. ± The particular value itself is of no importance. SQL> exec plvgen. type_in IN DATE). any Boolean will do.func ('last_date'. PROCEDURE func (name_in IN VARCHAR2.page 24 . the user indicates the type of function to be generated by providing a value. type_in IN NUMBER). SYSDATE) SQL> exec plvgen.Generating Functions by Value  In PLVgen. type_in IN VARCHAR2). Any number. PACKAGE PLVgen IS PROCEDURE func (name_in IN VARCHAR2.func ('total_salary'.

page 25 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . END.  In the above example. PL/SQL does not sense a conflict with above overloading even though comp_id is a numeric column. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .comp_id%TYPE).The Frustrations of Overloading  Watch out! An overloading can compile successfully. but you might later found out that you cannot actually call any of the overloaded programs. PACKAGE profits IS PROCEDURE calc (comp_id_IN IN NUMBER). I rely on an anchored type (%TYPE) to establish the datatype of the second calc¶s parameter. PROCEDURE calc (comp_id_IN IN company. ± When I compile profits.

pkg ? 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .calc_total ('ZONE2'). how would you do it? (Don't peek at the next page!) BEGIN sales.calc_total ('NORTHWEST'). why not? ± If so. PROCEDURE calc_total (reg_in IN VARCHAR2). END.page 26 . sales. sales. like calc_totals shown above? ± If not. END sales.  Can I overload two programs which have parameters that differ only by name.Quiz! Nuances of Overloading PACKAGE sales IS PROCEDURE calc_total (zone_in IN VARCHAR2).

That way you don't have to know and pass default values.sql  Advantages 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Using Named Notation <formal parameter name> => <expression>  Explicit association between the formal parameter (the "name") with the actual parameter (the "value").''TENK''' || '. namednot. interval => 'TRUNC(SYSDATE+1)'). next_date => TRUNC (SYSDATE + 1).'. what => 'DBMS_DDL.submit ( job => v_jobno. This is especially useful when working with infrequently used built-in programs. of named notation include: ± Code is more "self-documenting".ANALYZE_OBJECT ' || '(''TABLE''. ± You can skip over (not specify values for) any IN parameters that have default values. DBMS_JOB.''ESTIMATE''.''LOAD1''.null.estimate_percent=>50).page 27 .

page 28 . originally called PL/SQL tables) ± Nested tables (Oracle8 and above) ± Variable arrays (VARRAYs.Achieving PL/SQL Excellence PL/SQL Collections   Collections are single-dimensioned lists of information. Three types of collections: ± Index-by tables (Oracle7 only. Oracle8 and above) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Avoid mutating table errors in database triggers. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Emulate bi-directional cursors.When to Use Collections  Maintain any kind of list of related information for use in your programs. Build hash tables (custom indexing structures).page 29     1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . which are otherwise not supported in PL/SQL Cache data in session-level memory for faster access. Improve query performance by avoiding joins.

 Characteristics of an index-by table: ± Unbounded » Practically speaking.147. emp_copy inmem_emp_t.647 » You will not actually create tables this large.Index-By Tables TYPE <table_type> IS TABLE OF <datatype> INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. this broad range allows you to employ the row number as an intelligent key.483.483.647 to 2. ± Homogeneous » Data in each row has the same structure. ± Sparse » Data does not have to be stored in consecutive rows of information. DECLARE TYPE inmem_emp_t IS TABLE OF emp%ROWTYPE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER.147. Instead.page 30 . Valid row numbers range: -2. ± Available only in PL/SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

page 31 . Error: NO_DATA_FOUND 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . children (6904) := 'Lisa Nadezhka'.pkg children 6306 6412 6904 µBarbara Anne¶ µGary Richard¶ µLisa Marie¶ children (6810) := µAdam Russell. children 6306 6412 6810 6904 µBarbara Anne¶ µGary Richard¶ µAdam Russell¶ µLisa Nadezhka¶ datemgr.Index_by Tables TYPE declaration PACKAGE BODY family IS TYPE child_list_type IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2 (30) INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. Variable declaration children child_list_type. Component Selection kid := children (4).

647 ± Initially dense. Valid row numbers range: 1 to 2.page 32 . but only with explicit EXTEND requests » Practically speaking. birthdays when_t.Nested Tables [CREATE OR REPLACE] TYPE <table_type> IS TABLE OF <datatype> [NOT NULL]. DECLARE TYPE when_t IS TABLE OF DATE. ± Unbounded. but can become sparse if you DELETE inner rows ± Available both in PL/SQL and SQL (as a column in a table) ± The order of elements is not preserved in the database 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .483.147.  Nested table characteristics ± Homogeneous » Each row contains the same structure of data.

sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . kids child_table_type) NESTED TABLE kids STORE AS kids_ntab. For ORACLE's use only db_family surname kids BOLZ BOND Eric Thomas Max Richard Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Marie ntdemo.Nested Tables CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE child_table_type IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2 (30). CREATE TABLE db_family (surname VARCHAR2 (30).page 33 .

salaries numbers_t.147.  Characteristics of variable arrays: ± Homogeneous » Each row contains the same structure of data. ± Available both in PL/SQL and SQL (as a column in a table) » And the order of elements are preserved in the database.483.Variable Arrays [CREATE OR REPLACE] TYPE <table_type> IS VARRAY (N) OF <datatype> [NOT NULL]. ± Bounded » Upper limit established when the TYPE is defined. Maximum value: 2. can be EXTENDed or TRIMmed. DECLARE TYPE numbers_t IS VARRAY (10) OF NUMBER.647 ± Dense » Never any gaps between defined rows. ± Variable arrays are actually stored in the DB table 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 34 .

CREATE TABLE db_family (surname VARCHAR2 (30).sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Variable Arrays CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE child_va_type IS VARRAY (8) OF VARCHAR2 (30).page 35 . db_family surname kids BOLZ BOND 1 Barbara Anne 2 Gary Richard 3 Lisa Marie 1 Eric Thomas 2 Max Richard vademo. kids child_va_type).

. Best option: package specification. from the TYPE. or in a PL/SQL declaration section. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE tabtypes IS TYPE integer_ibt IS TABLE OF INTEGER INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. ± For nested tables and VARRAYs. this can only occur in a PL/SQL declaration section. . you define the TYPE of the collection. you can define the TYPE in the database with a CREATE statement.  Then you declare an instance of that type. END tabtypes..page 36 . a collection. ± You can declare multiple collections from that TYPE.Defining Collections  First. TYPE integer_nt IS TABLE OF INTEGER. ± For index-by tables. TYPE integer_vat IS VARRAY(10) OF INTEGER.

attr_type_name Attributes all_coll_types T.owner = A.elem_type_name = A.attr_name || ' .owner T.Obtaining Collection Information SELECT FROM WHERE AND AND AND A.page 37 .' || A. ± The code used to define the collection TYPE  There is no information in the data dictionary available for index-by tables.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .owner = USER T.type_name. colldd. 'TMRS_VT') T.type_name IN ('NAMES_VT'.  ALL_COLL_TYPES ± The types you have created (or have access to) in the database  ALL_TYPE_ATTRS ± Attributes of the data type used in the TYPE definition. all_type_attrs A T.

empty when declared. BEGIN CREATE TYPE numbers_t IS VARRAY (10) OF NUMBER. TYPE defined in PL/SQL TYPE defined in the database Collection used in a table PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 300). / DECLARE -. DECLARE TYPE numbers_t IS VARRAY (10) OF NUMBER. 200. BEGIN CREATE TABLE employee_denorm ( employee_id INTEGER.page 38 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . it must be initialized. ± Nested tables and VARRAYs are atomically null.Initializing Collections  Before you can use a collection. ± Index-by tables are initialized automatically. salaries numbers_t := numbers_t (100. salary_history numbers_t). 200. salaries numbers_t := numbers_t (100. You must initialize them explicitly with a constructor. 300).Initialize the collection.

consider putting TYPEs in database or packages. comp_tab comp_tabtype. ± Can easily create an index-by table with the same structure as a database table by declaring a record with %ROWTYPE. Here we have a three step process.comp_id := 1005. the ³homogeneous´ contents of an index-by table's row can be a record .3. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .company_id%TYPE. Again. DECLARE TYPE comp_rectype IS RECORD (comp_id company.page 39 . ± But you cannot have nested composite datatypes. the datatype for any of the collection types can also be an object. TYPE comp_tabtype IS TABLE OF comp_rectype INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER.Collections of Composites  Starting with Oracle 7.  Starting with Oracle8. BEGIN comp_tab(1). total_rev NUMBER).

± Instead. it is very similar to a database table. consider using the row value as "smart data" for your application (primary key. unless the order in which items are selected is of importance. ± In almost every case.  Especially handy when caching data from relational tables in user memory. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . In this way.page 40 .  Rows do not have to be defined sequentially. ± In an index-by table. a row exists in the table only when a value is assigned to that row.). your collections will contain a row's worth of information. etc.Sparse is Nice  The sparse characteristic of index-by tables and nested tables can be put to good use. order by date. ± You should not fill sequentially.

page 41 . Initialization section of package 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein  This package moves the entire contents of the emp table into its corresponding collection. END LOOP. END. emp_tab emp_tabtype.Transferring DB Table to Collection CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE psemp IS TYPE emp_tabtype IS TABLE OF emp%ROWTYPE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY psemp IS BEGIN FOR rec IN (SELECT * FROM emp) LOOP emp_tab (rec. END.tst  PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .pkg psemp. Some questions: ± Why would I put this collection table in a package? ± When is the collection loaded with the data? ± What rows in that collection are utilized? psemp.empno) := rec.

once extended. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± For VARRAYs and nested tables. the row exists.  For index-by tables. ± Use the EXISTS method to determine if a row existed. Jordan'. ± Not necessary for index-by tables. / DECLARE greedy_ceos names_t := names_t ().Collection Gotchas CREATE TYPE names_t IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2(30). but you must do it for VARRAYs and nested tables. END. even if you haven't assigned a value explicitly.page 42 . BEGIN greedy_ceos(1) := 'Hamilton. / Error -6533! You've got to EXTEND first!  EXTEND before assigning a value to a row. you must reference existing rows or a NO_DATA_FOUND exception is raised.

Set the value of each new row to the contents of the first row. salaries. END IF.').tst  Include a handler for NO_DATA_FOUND or use the EXISTS method to avoid these exceptions. -. optional argument.page 43 .Extend by 10 since I know I will need that many. ± Assign a default value with a second.EXTEND (10. BEGIN IF salaries. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .EXISTS (v_employee_id) THEN -. salaries(salaries. preextend.  You can EXTEND one or more rows.Handling Collection Gotchas BEGIN -. ELSE DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE ('Data for employee not available. ± Pre-extending a large number of rows in advance can improve performance.We are OK.FIRST)).

FIRST/LAST return lowest/highest numbers of defined rows.Collection Methods  Obtain information about the collection COUNT returns number of rows currently defined in the table. NEXT/PRIOR return the closest defined row after/before the specified row. EXISTS returns TRUE if the specified row is defined.  The built-in package plitblm (PL/sql Index-TaBLe Methods) defines these methods. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± LIMIT tells you the max. ± EXTEND adds rows to a nested table or VARRAY. ± ± ± ±  Modify the contents of the collection ± DELETE deletes one or more rows from the index-by table.page 44 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . ± TRIM removes rows from a VARRAY. number of elements allowed in a VARRAY.

END. -.Delete a range of rows myCollection. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .DELETE (1400.Delete all rows myCollection.The DELETE Method  You can delete one or more rows from a collection using DELETE: BEGIN -. but you may also want to call DBMS_SESSION.page 45 . DELETE releases memory.Delete one (the last) row myCollection.FREE_UNUSED_USER_MEMORY. 17255).LAST). -.DELETE (myCollection.DELETE.

Navigating Through Collections 


Use FIRST and NEXT to move from beginning to end. Use LAST and PRIOR to move from end to beginning.
rowind PLS_INTEGER := birthdays.FIRST; -- birthdays.LAST BEGIN LOOP EXIT WHEN rowind IS NULL; DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE (birthdays(rowind).best_present); rowind := birthdays.NEXT (rowind); -- birthdays.PRIOR END LOOP; END;

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Using Collections Inside SQL 

Nested tables and VARRAYs can be defined as columns of a table and referenced directly within SQL. You can also apply SQL operations to the contents of nested tables and VARRAYs with these operators:
± THE - Maps a single column value in a single row to a virtual database table ± CAST - Maps a collection of one type to a collection of another type ± MULTISET - Maps a database table to a collection ± TABLE - Maps a collection to a database table  

Index-by tables are programmatic constructs only.
± You cannot make a direct reference to an index-by table in SQL. ± Instead, so do indirectly with a PL/SQL function.

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Using Collections inside SQL
SELECT column_value FROM TABLE (SELECT children FROM db_family WHERE surname = 'BOLZ'); db_family surname children BOLZ BOND Eric Thomas Max Richard UPDATE TABLE (SELECT children FROM db_family WHERE SURNAME = 'BOLZ) SET column_value = 'Lisa Nadezhka' WHERE column_value = 'Lisa Marie'); db_family surname children BOLZ ...
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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 48

Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Marie

column_value Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Marie

Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Nadezhka

Using the THE Operator 

Use THE to manipulate (retrieve, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE) contents of a nested table in a database table.
± Can only use with nested tables, not VARRAYs or index-by tables. ± Only accessible from within SQL statements in PL/SQL.
CREATE TYPE action_list_t IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2(100); / CREATE TABLE inflation_beater ( focus_area VARCHAR2(100), activities action_list_t) NESTED TABLE activities STORE AS activities_tab; SELECT VALUE (act) FROM THE (SELECT activities FROM inflation_beater WHERE focus_area = 'FORTUNE 100') act; UPDATE THE (SELECT activities FROM inflation_beater WHERE focus_area = 'FORTUNE 100') SET COLUMN_VALUE = 'DISBAND OSHA' WHERE COLUMN_VALUE = 'SIDESTEP OSHA';

the.sql

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Using the TABLE and CAST Operators 

Use CAST to convert a collection from one type to another, TABLE to convert a TYPE into a database table.
± Cannot use with index-by tables. ± Useful when you would like to apply SQL operations against a PL/SQL collection (ie, one not stored in a database table).
DECLARE nyc_devolution cutbacks_for_taxcuts := cutbacks_for_taxcuts ('Stop rat extermination programs', 'Fire building inspectors', 'Close public hospitals'); BEGIN DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE ( 'How to Make the NYC Rich Much, Much Richer:'); FOR rec IN (SELECT COLUMN_VALUE ohmy FROM TABLE (CAST (nyc_devolution AS cutbacks_for_taxcuts))) LOOP DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE (rec.ohmy); END LOOP; cast.sql END;

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query) into a VARRAY or nested table. Retrieves all detail bird_row bird_curs%ROWTYPE. CAST(MULTISET(SELECT bh.genus.species = b. converting a set of data (table.Using the MULTISET Operator  MULTISET is the inverse of TABLE.species) AS country_tab_t) FROM birds b.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . OPEN bird_curs. FETCH bird_curs into bird_row. b. information for the BEGIN master in one trip. ± You can use MULTISET to emulate or transform relational joins into collections. view.country FROM bird_habitats bh WHERE bh.species.page 51 .genus AND bh. DECLARE CURSOR bird_curs IS SELECT b. multiset. END. ± Cannot use with index-by tables. with potential client-server performance impact.genus = b.

END. FUNCTION rowval (indx IN PLS_INTEGER) RETURN DATE IS BEGIN RETURN hiredates (indx).sql PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE ibtab IS FUNCTION rowval (indx IN PLS_INTEGER) RETURN DATE. WNDS). END. Make accessible in SQL for Oracle8 and below. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY ibtab IS TYPE date_tab IS TABLE OF DATE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. but hide the index-by table structure.Referencing IB Tables inside SQL  You can't directly reference an index-by table's contents inside SQL. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein ibtab_in_sql. Instead. call functions that retrieve the table's data.page 52 . PRAGMA RESTRICT_REFERENCES (rowval. END. hiredates date_tab. WNPS.

Examples of Collections in Action  Emulation of bi-directional cursor operations Avoid mutating table problems in database triggers.  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 53 .

nope. END.Bi-Directional Cursor Emulation  Oracle does not yet support the ability to move back and forth (and at random) through a cursor's result set.  bidir. PROCEDURE nextRow. ± A talked-about feature for Oracle9i -.page 54 .tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . This is particularly useful (read: efficient) when you need to perform multiple passes against the data.pkg bidir. Notice that the collection itself is hidden. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE bidir IS /* Iterate through rows in the result set */ PROCEDURE setRow (nth IN PLS_INTEGER). deposit your data in a collection and then provide programs to access that data in the necessary fashion. FUNCTION getRow RETURN employee_plus%ROWTYPE. didn't make it!  Instead. PROCEDURE prevRow.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . it is "mutating".page 55 . Statement Level UPDATE emp SET sal = 1000 UPDATE row 1 Row Level  UPDATE row N Row level triggers cannot query from or change the contents of the table to which it is attached. So what are you supposed to do when a row-level operation needs to "touch" that table? mutating. you can use autonomous transactions to relax restrictions associated with queries.The Mutating Table Problem  Database triggers can be attached to the SQL statement and/or the individual row operations on a table.sql  Note: in Oracle8i.

1st row trigger fires Nth row trigger fires Writes to list Writes to list Work List (PL/SQL Table)  Process data in the list. you have to remember what you needed to do.page 56 . you need to defer the action until you get to the statement level. Statement Trigger 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .A Solution Based on Index-by Tables  Since you cannot perform the processing desired in the row-level trigger. If you are going to defer the work. ± an index-by table is an ideal repository for this reminder list.

Department ID Salesperson ID Sales Amount Rank 1055 1055 1055 1047  64333 65709 65706 70904 74055. ± As the sales amount is updated in this table. but preferable.25 3 1 2 6 "Deferred work" is not only necessary.88 144533. the rankings must also change to show the new standings for that department only.An Example: Ranking Salespeople  A table holds the rankings based on the amount of annual sales of salespeople within a department.91 109000. we then know which departments to re-rank.25 65011. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 57 . ± By storing the salesperson¶s department ids as they change. ± We might update more than one department within a statement so we must be able to retain multiple department numbers.

dept_id).Trigger Logic Required Row Level Trigger CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER Rank_Sales_Rtrg AFTER insert OR update OF sales_amt ON rank_sales FOR EACH ROW WHEN (OLD. ranking. Statement Level Trigger CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER Rank_Sales_Strg AFTER INSERT OR UPDATE OR DELETE ON rank_sales BEGIN rank.add_dept (:new. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .rank_depts. END.page 58 .sales_amt) BEGIN rank. Doesn't fire unless the sales_amt is actually changed.sales_amt != NEW. END.pkg All details of the ranking are hidden in the package body.

END IF. dept_tab dept_tabtype. END add_dept 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Create row to indicate department to be ranked.page 59 . END rank.The Ranking Package PACKAGE rank IS PROCEDURE add_dept (dept_id_in IN INTEGER). PROCEDURE add_dept (dept_id_in IN INTEGER) IS BEGIN IF NOT in_process THEN dept_tab (dept_id_in) := TRUE. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Table holds indicator that department needs re-ranking. PACKAGE BODY rank IS in_process BOOLEAN := FALSE. PROCEDURE rank_depts. TYPE dept_tabtype IS TABLE OF BOOLEAN INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER.

END LOOP. v_deptid := dept_tab.NEXT (v_deptid). END rank. dept_tab. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .FIRST.page 60 . END IF. END rank_dept.The Ranking Package. Continued PROCEDURE rank_depts IS v_deptid PLS_INTEGER := dept_tab. LOOP EXIT WHEN v_deptid IS NULL. BEGIN IF NOT in_process THEN in_process := TRUE.DELETE. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Avoid recursive execution of logic Row number is department number. in_process := FALSE. Clean up for next time. perform_ranking (v_deptid).

± You want to use inside SQL.page 61 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . You don't want to have to worry about sparseness. Set of data is relatively small (avoid row chaining).Which Collection Type Should I Use?  Index-by tables ± Need to use in both Oracle7 and Oracle8 applications ± Want to take advantage of sparse nature for "intelligent keys". You want to use inside SQL.  Nested tables ± You want to store large amounts of persistent data in a column.  VARRAYs ± ± ± ± You want to preserve the order in which elements are stored.

Tips for Using Collections 

Wrap access to your collections.
± In many cases, you will want to avoid direct access to (assigning and retrieving) rows in your collections. ± This will give you the flexibility to change your implementation. ± You can also hide complex rules for setting the row number. 

Get creative!
± Don't always fill and use the index-by table sequentially. ± If you can somehow translate your application data to an integer, it can be used as a row number, and therefore offers indexed access. ± Julian date formats and DBMS_UTILITY.GET_HASH_VALUE offer two different methods.

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Achieving PL/SQL Excellence

Cursor Variables

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Architecture of Cursor Variables
With Hard-Coded Cursors
Hard-Coded Cursor

With Cursor Variables

PGA

Cursor Variable

Cursor Variable

Result Set

Shared Global Area

Cursor Object

Result Set 

A cursor variable points to an underlying cursor object in the database.
± The cursor object in turns points to (and keeps its place in) a result set. 

The cursor variable can be passed between programs (even between, say, a Java servlet and a PL/SQL stored procedure).
± Static SQL only -- until Oracle8i.
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Benefits of Cursor Variables 

Share cursor management between programs, even across the client-server divide.
± You don't have to pass the result sets of a cursor in order to allow the client-side program to have direct access to the data in the result set. ± Oracle Developer 2.1 utilizes cursor variables when you choose to construct a "base table block" around stored procedures instead of a database table. 

Share the same code across multiple, different queries.
± Since the cursor name is no longer hard-coded, you can use a single block of code (say, a reporting program) against different queries. ± We will try out this technique at the end of the section.

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Cursor Variable Example
DECLARE TYPE company_curtype IS REF CURSOR RETURN company%ROWTYPE;
Declare a variable cursor TYPE.

company_curvar company_curtype;

Declare cursor variable based on that type. Declare a record from cursor variable. OPEN cursor variable, specifying the query. FETCH from the cursor variable.

company_rec company_curvar%ROWTYPE; BEGIN OPEN company_curvar FOR SELECT * FROM company;

FETCH company_curvar INTO company_rec;
Close the cursor variable.

CLOSE company_curvar; END;
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Explicit Cursors and Cursor Variables 

Both hard-coded cursors and cursor variables work with static SQL.
± The SQL is fixed at compile-time. ± The difference is that with cursor variables, you get to decide which static query is opened. 

Many cursor operations are the same:
± Close a variable cursor with the same syntax as that for static cursors. ± Use cursor attributes (%ISOPEN, %FOUND, %NOTFOUND, %ROWCOUNT) with cursor variables (as of Release 2.3). ± Fetch data from the cursor result set through a cursor variable with the same syntax as that of static cursors. 

Let¶s focus on the new and different capabilities of cursor variables.
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Declaring Cursor Types and Variables 

Cursors are declared in two steps, just like programmerdefined records and PL/SQL tables.
± 1. Define a cursor TYPE -- either "weak" or "strong". ± 2. Define a cursor variable.
DECLARE TYPE weak_curtype IS REF CURSOR; TYPE comp_curtype IS REF CURSOR RETURN company%ROWTYPE; curcmp_new comp_curtype; cur_any weak_curtype; BEGIN
Declare cursor variables from the TYPEs. Declare a STRONG referenced cursor TYPE. Declare a WEAK referenced cursor TYPE.

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Strong vs. Weak Cursor Types 

A strong (or constrained) cursor type has a defined return data specification.
± Can only reference cursor objects which return the same data specification, which can be any single SQL datatype or any previously defined record structure. ± Datatype mismatches are identified at compile time.

TYPE cur_typ_name IS REF CURSOR [ RETURN return_type ]; TYPE cur_typ_name IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE; /* Strong */ 

The weak (or unconstrained) cursor type does not have a RETURN clause.
± It can reference any cursor object, be opened FOR any query. ± Datatype mismatches can only be identified at runtime.

TYPE cur_typ_name IS REF CURSOR; /* Weak */
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Opening with the Cursor Variable
OPEN cursor_name FOR select_statement; 

When you open a cursor variable (whether of the weak or strong variety), you must provide the SQL query that identifies the result set.
± If the variable has not yet been assigned to cursor object, the OPEN FOR statement implicitly creates an object for the variable. ± If the variable is already pointing to a cursor object, the OPEN FOR reuses the existing object and attaches the new query to that cursor object. 

Remember, the cursor object is nothing more than a memory location.
± It is maintained independently of the query itself.
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± You can establish the return type based on a database table.Opening with Strong Cursor Types DECLARE TYPE emp_curtype IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE. Match Needed BEGIN OPEN emp_curvar FOR SELECT * from emp. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . emp_curvar emp_curtype. a cursor or a programmer-defined record.. . END.  STRONG cursor data specifications must match or be compatible with the structure of the SELECT statement..page 71 .

OPEN retval FOR SELECT * FROM emp.cv_type IS retval pkg. END. END. Verification will take ELSIF get_type_in = µDEPT¶ place at the FETCH.cv_type. FUNCTION open_emp_or_dept (get_type_in IN VARCHAR2) RETURN pkg. RETURN retval. BEGIN IF get_type_in = µEMP¶ THEN Either query will "do". THEN OPEN retval FOR SELECT * FROM dept. END IF.  A weak cursor TYPE doesn't define the RETURN structure. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . you can associate any SELECT statement with a weak cursor variable.Opening with Weak Cursor Types PACKAGE pkg IS TYPE cv_type IS REF CURSOR.page 72 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . REF TYPE placed in package so that it is "globally" available.

. ± Fetching can continue with a different INTO clause. The INTO structure must match in number and datatype to: ± FOR STRONG cursor types. FETCH cursor_var_name INTO var_name... it match the cursor type data specification.   Compatibility checks are performed prior to fetching row. mismatch. ± FOR WEAK cursor types.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..page 73 . ± The ROWTYPE_MISMATCH exception is raised on failure. it match the OPEN FOR statement structure.Fetching from the Cursor Variable FETCH cursor_var_name INTO record_name. var_name.  Fetching with cursor variables follows the same rules as those with static cursors.

± You could use dynamic SQL to achieve this effect. but static cursors are more efficient than dynamic SQL and cursor variables are less complicated than DBMS_SQL.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Use a single block of code to manipulate multiple queries.  hccursor. you have to repeat the code for each cursor.  Define a base table block in Forms Builder (formerly Oracle Forms) on stored procedures rather than a table directly. ± With explicit cursors. since cursor names are "hard coded".page 74 .When to Use Cursor Variables  Make it easier for calling programs (especially non-PL/SQL programs) to manipulate result sets. ± JDBC recognizes cursor variables.

bysal CONSTANT INTEGER := 2. END. FUNCTION open (type_in IN INTEGER) RETURN cv_t.pkg allcurs. / allcurrs.tst explcv.Consolidating Different Cursors  The following package specification hides the SQL behind a single open function. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE allcurs IS bydept CONSTANT INTEGER := 1. TYPE int_rt IS RECORD (key INTEGER). TYPE cv_t IS REF CURSOR RETURN int_rt.page 75 .sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± It also creates the data structures you will need to call the function.

BEGIN IF type_in = bydept THEN OPEN retval FOR SELECT empno FROM emp ORDER BY deptno.page 76 . END IF. RETURN retval. ELSIF type_in = bysal THEN OPEN retval FOR SELECT empno FROM emp ORDER BY SAL.Consolidating Different Cursors  The open function simply opens FOR a different SELECT based on the criteria passed to it. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY allcurs IS FUNCTION open (type_in IN INTEGER) RETURN cv_t IS retval cv_t. END. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END.

Hiding SQL Variations in Resulting Code  The following block demonstrates that you can alter which SQL statement to query -. END. CLOSE cv. END LOOP. EXIT WHEN cv%NOTFOUND. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .open (&1).empno%TYPE.cv_t. LOOP FETCH cv INTO v_empno. BEGIN cv := allcurs. p.l (v_empno).in this case.page 77 "Report processor" is independent of the particular SELECT . change the ORDER BY clause -without having to change the code you write. v_empno emp. DECLARE cv allcurs.

unconstrained type.Cursor Variables Let's summarize  Flexibility ± Choose which static SQL statement is executed at run-time. or a more general. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Hide Variations in Underlying SQL ± You no longer have to repeat the same code for different cursors.page 78 .  Improve Client-Side Access to Data ± At least in Oracle Developer 2.1. you can build screens that access data using a cursor variable-based procedural API.  Strong and Weak Types ± Create REF CURSORs for specific queries.

Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Dynamic SQL  Dynamic SQL and dynamic PL/SQL: ± The DBMS_SQL package ± Native dynamic SQL in Oracle8i 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 79 .

± One example: implement indirect referencing in PL/SQL. ± Available in PL/SQL since Release 2. ± Construct powerful DBA utilities.page 80 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . ± Also supported with "native dynamic SQL" in Oracle8i.  Execute dynamically-constructed PL/SQL programs. ± Very common requirement on the Web. What can you do with Dynamic SQL?  Build ad-hoc query and update applications. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . you no longer have to write SQL to generate SQL to get your job done.  Execute DDL inside PL/SQL programs.1 and DBMS_SQL.Dynamic SQL and PL/SQL Execution  "Dynamic SQL" mean that you construct the SQL statement or PL/SQL block at runtime and then execute it.

Method 4: queries with a variable number of items in the SELECT list and/or non-queries with a variable number of host variables. ± NDS does not support method 4.page 81 . execute one or more times. Method 3: queries with a fixed number of items in the SELECT list and a fixed number of host variables.    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Four Methods of Dynamic SQL   Method 1: non-queries without host variables. Method 2: non-queries with a fixed number of host variables. If you can recognize the types. executed a single time. These methods are in increasing order of complexity. ± Different methods require the use of different programs in DBMS_SQL. you can more quickly figure out how to code your solution.

 The new "native dynamic SQL" or NDS of Oracle8i offers two native statements in the PL/SQL language to implement most of your dynamic SQL requirements: ± EXECUTE IMMEDIATE <sql string>. and relatively slow (performance did improve significantly as of Oracle8). difficult to use. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± OPEN FOR <sql string>. used for DDL.Native Dynamic SQL  Prior to Oracle8i. used for multi-row queries. DML and single row fetches. ± But this package is very complex. you would use the DBMS_SQL built-in package to execute dynamic SQL.page 82 .

including objects.. The USING clause allows you to specify bind arguments or variables to be passed into the SQL string before execution. The INTO clause allows you to pass values from the select list of a single row query into local variables. {IN | OUT | IN OUT] bind argument]. collections and records.page 83   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . | record }] [USING {IN | OUT | IN OUT] bind argument [. define_variables]...  Use this statement to execute any dynamic SQL statement (including a PL/SQL block) except for multi-row queries.].EXECUTE IMMEDIATE EXECUTE IMMEDIATE sql-string [INTO {define_variable[. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..

USER) || '. sch IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) RETURN INTEGER IS Specify schema. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein tabcount81. table and retval INTEGER. 'insured = ''NO''') > 40. WHERE clause. whr IN VARCHAR2 := NULL.. IF tabCount ('citizens'.000..sf PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .' || tab || ' WHERE ' || NVL (whr. '1=1') INTO retval... END. BEGIN EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'SELECT COUNT(*) FROM ' || NVL (sch.sf compare with: tabcount. END IF. and not much of a democracy either!'). RETURN retval.COUNT(*) For Any Table  Here's a handy and simple utility based on NDS: CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION tabCount ( tab IN VARCHAR2.000 THEN DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE ( 'Not the best health care system in the world.page 84 .

 Execute a stored procedure. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . col_in IN VARCHAR2. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN pl ('Compile Error "' || SQLERRM || '" on: ' || v_str). Pass in bind variables with USING clause.. BEGIN v_str := 'BEGIN ' || pkg_in || '.Other Execute Immediate Examples  Perform an update. END. start_in. start_in IN DATE. name_in IN VARCHAR2) IS v_str VARCHAR2 (100). val_in IN NUMBER) IS BEGIN EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'UPDATE ' || tab_in || ' SET ' || col_in || ' = :val WHERE hiredate BETWEEN :lodate AND :hidate' USING val_in. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE updnumval ( tab_in IN VARCHAR2. end_in. EXECUTE IMMEDIATE v_str.' || name_in || '.'. END. END.. PROCEDURE runprog (pkg_in IN VARCHAR2..page 85 .. end_in IN DATE.

± No special syntax needed.Using Objects and Collections in NDS  One of the key advantages to NDS over DBMS_SQL is that it works with Oracle8 datatypes. including objects and collections.page 86 . ± In the following example. pers IN Person. cond IN preexisting_conditions) IS BEGIN EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'INSERT INTO ' || tabname (hosp_name) || ' VALUES (:revenue_generator...pkg PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END. PROCEDURE add_profit_source ( hosp_name IN VARCHAR2. :revenue_inhibitors)' USING pers. the USING clause allows me to pass an object and nested table to an INSERT statement with a variable table name. cond. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein health$.

Multiple Row Queries and NDS  Oracle extends the cursor variable feature of Oracle7 to support multi-row dynamic queries. '1 = 1'). number or string column in any table. ± Here is a simple utility the displays the values of any date.sp END. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE showcol ( tab IN VARCHAR2.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . BEGIN OPEN cv FOR 'SELECT ' || col || ' FROM ' || tab || ' WHERE ' || NVL (whr. cv cv_type. variable syntax! EXIT WHEN cv%NOTFOUND. val VARCHAR2(32767). CLOSE cv. DBMS_OUTPUT. whr IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) IS TYPE cv_type IS REF CURSOR. col IN VARCHAR2. LOOP Familiar cursor FETCH cv INTO val. END LOOP.PUT_LINE (val). showcol. ndsutil.page 87 .

Instead. The USING clause for a query can only have IN bind arguments.Some Fine Print for NDS  You cannot pass schema elements (table names. str2list.) through the USING clause.page 88 . ± If dynamic PL/SQL. column names.pkg    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . provide a value for each distinct placeholder (by name). ± If dynamic SQL. pass a variable with a NULL value. etc. You can have duplicate placeholders (for bind arguments). then you provide a value for each placeholder (by position). You cannot pass the NULL literal directly in the USING clause.

The overhead for using DBMS_SQL has decreased significantly in Oracle8 and again in Oracle8i. You should only use DBMS_SQL when you cannot use NDS. with many rules to follow and lots of code to write. in particular method 4.     1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Dynamic SQL using DBMS_SQL  Prior to Oracle8i.page 89 . DBMS_SQL is a very large and complex package. Supports all four methods of dynamic SQL. the only way to perform dynamic SQL was with the DBMS_SQL package.

page 90 .Learning Through Examples  DDL ± Create an index from within PL/SQL  DML ± Update rows in a table  DML with binding ± Update rows using bind variables  Queries ± Method 3 and a dynamic WHERE clause  PL/SQL Version of "SELECT *" ± Example of Method 4  PL/SQL ± Create a generic calculation program 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

EXECUTE (cur). tab_in IN VARCHAR2. ± Parse and execute that DDL statement. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . fdbk INTEGER. ± Construct the DDL statement as a string. DBMS_SQL.DDL with Dynamic SQL PROCEDURE create_index (index_in IN VARCHAR2.CLOSE_CURSOR (cur).sp Creates an index on any column(s) in any table in your schema. DBMS_SQL. ± Open a cursor. fdbk := DBMS_SQL. DDL_statement.NATIVE).page 91 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . BEGIN DBMS_SQL.PARSE (cur.OPEN_CURSOR. which will be used to execute the DDL statement. col_in IN VARCHAR2) IS cur INTEGER := DBMS_SQL.  creind. DDL_statement VARCHAR2(200) := 'CREATE INDEX ' || index_in || ' ON ' || tab_in || ' ( ' || col_in || ')'. END.

NATIVE).EXECUTE (cur). ename_in IN emp.OPEN_CURSOR.PARSE (cur.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Updates with Dynamic SQL  Update numeric column for specified employees. fdbk PLS_INTEGER. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.PUT_LINE ('Rows updated: ' || TO_CHAR (fdbk)). val_in IN NUMBER) IS cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL. END. updnval1.page 92 . DBMS_SQL. DBMS_OUTPUT.CLOSE_CURSOR (cur). fdbk := DBMS_SQL. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE updnumval ( col_in IN VARCHAR2. DBMS_SQL.ename%TYPE. 'UPDATE emp SET ' || col_in || ' = ' || val_in || ' WHERE ename LIKE UPPER (''' || ename_in || ''')'.

NATIVE).sp updnval3. end_in).sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . fdbk PLS_INTEGER. DBMS_OUTPUT. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE updnumval ( col_in IN VARCHAR2. start_in IN DATE. DBMS_SQL. 'lodate'.PUT_LINE ('Rows updated: ' || TO_CHAR (fdbk)).EXECUTE (cur). updnval2.BIND_VARIABLE (cur. END. DBMS_SQL. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. val_in IN NUMBER) IS cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL. start_in). 'UPDATE emp SET ' || col_in || ' = ' || val_in || ' WHERE hiredate BETWEEN :lodate AND :hidate'. fdbk := DBMS_SQL. end_in IN DATE.CLOSE_CURSOR (cur).page 93 . 'hidate'.Updates with Bind Variables  Update salaries for date range using binding.OPEN_CURSOR. DBMS_SQL.PARSE (cur. DBMS_SQL.BIND_VARIABLE (cur.

Processing Flow for a Dynamic Query Allocate cursor memory (OPEN_CURSOR) Fill cursor with data (EXECUTE) Make sure SELECT is well formed (PARSE) Fill buffer with data (FETCH_ROWS) (EXECUTE_AND_FETCH) Bind any variables (BIND_VARIABLE) (BIND_ARRAY) Retrieve the data (COLUMN_VALUE) Give cursor structure (DEFINE_COLUMN) (DEFINE_ARRAY) Release cursor memory (CLOSE_CURSOR) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 94 .

COLUMN_VALUE (cur.ename). DBMS_SQL. 60). fdbk INTEGER. DBMS_SQL.. 1). 1. DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.ename).empno).FETCH_ROWS (cur) = 0. 2. DBMS_SQL. ename FROM emp ' || ' WHERE ' || NVL (where_in. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE showemps (where_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) IS cur INTEGER := DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. END. fdbk := DBMS_SQL. '1=1'). 'SELECT empno. END LOOP.sp showemps.CLOSE_CURSOR (cur).sp showemp2.COLUMN_VALUE (cur. DBMS_SQL. LOOP EXIT WHEN DBMS_SQL. 1.PARSE (cur.empno) || '=' || rec. DBMS_SQL. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.OPEN_CURSOR.EXECUTE (cur).page 95 .NATIVE).tst PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . rec. 'a'.Queries with Dynamic SQL  Show employees using a dynamic WHERE clause. rec emp%ROWTYPE.. DBMS_OUTPUT. 2. rec. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein showemps.PUT_LINE (TO_CHAR (rec.

LOOP fetch-a-row. END LOOP. DBMS_SQL. END LOOP. val). ± The resulting code is much more complicated. END LOOP. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. FOR each-column-in-table LOOP DBMS_SQL.PARSE (cur. END.Dynamic SELECT * FROM Any Table  Method 4 example: the number of columns queried changes with each table.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .page 96 Very simplified pseudo-code intab. nth_col. datatype).COLUMN_VALUE (cur. BEGIN FOR each-column-in-table LOOP add-column-to-select-list. nth_col.NATIVE). FOR each-column-in-table LOOP DBMS_SQL. select_string. END LOOP.

the first row will still be fetched and available. then EXECUTE_AND_FETCH will raise the TOO_MANY_ROWS exception if more than one row is fetched by the SELECT.EXECUTE_AND_FETCH (cur). which returns a single row. raises NO_DATA_FOUND or raises the TOO_MANY_ROWS exception. exact_match IN BOOLEAN DEFAULT FALSE) RETURN INTEGER. numrows := DBMS_SQL.EXECUTE_AND_FETCH (cur.Using EXECUTE_AND_FETCH FUNCTION execute_and_fetch (cursor_in IN INTEGER. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Even if the exception is raised. ± If exact_match is TRUE. numrows := DBMS_SQL.page 97 . ± Very similar to the implicit SELECT cursor in native PL/SQL.  Makes it easy to execute and fetch a single row from a query. TRUE).

arg2_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. arg4_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. arg6_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. ± With DBMS_SQL. NULL.page 98 . NULL.sf dyncalc. and enter the arguments. nargs_in IN INTEGER := arg1_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg3_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg5_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg7_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg9_in IN VARCHAR2 := ) RETURN VARCHAR2. NULL. 0. a single function will do the trick. I would have to modify my screen every time a new formula was added. arg8_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. NULL. FUNCTION dyncalc ( oper_in IN VARCHAR2. ± Using static PL/SQL.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . arg10_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL dyncalc.Dynamic Formula Execution  Suppose I am building a user interface that allows a user to select a formula for execution. NULL.

:salout).More on Dynamic PL/SQL BEGIN cur := open_and_parse ('BEGIN get_max_sal (:deptin. DBMS_SQL.VARIABLE_VALUE (cur.BIND_VARIABLE (cur. END. fdbk := DBMS_SQL. µdeptin¶. Use VARIABLE_VALUE to extract a value from any variable you have bound. DBMS_SQL. my_salary).'). v_deptin). DBMS_SQL. END. my_salary).page 99 .tst    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .sp dynplsql. µsalout¶. µsalout¶. Possibilities inherent in dynamic PL/SQL are mind-boggling! dynplsql.  Use BIND_VARIABLE to bind any placeholders in the string -.even OUT arguments which are not being bound to any values. You must have a BEGIN-END around the code.EXECUTE (cur).sql dynplsql.BIND_VARIABLE (cur.

Here is an example of a "PL/SQL NAME_IN": FUNCTION valbyname (nm IN VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2 IS v_cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL.dbmaxvc2.'. DBMS_SQL. fdbk PLS_INTEGER.PARSE (v_cur.Indirect Referencing with Dyn PL/SQL  Oracle Forms offers support for indirect referencing with the NAME_IN and COPY built-ins. 'a'. 'val'. PL/SQL does not support indirect referencing.page 100  dynvar. DBMS_SQL.BIND_VARIABLE (v_cur. END.NATIVE). RETURN retval. 'val'. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.VARIABLE_VALUE (v_cur. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . retval PLV.pkg dynvar.OPEN_CURSOR. DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL. 'BEGIN :val := ' || nm || '. but you can accomplish much of the same thing with dynamic PL/SQL execution.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .CLOSE_CURSOR (v_cur). 2000).EXECUTE (v_cur). fdbk := DBMS_SQL. END. retval).

DBMS_SQL Status Built-ins  The package offers a set of modules to return information about the lastoperated cursor in your session.  LAST_ROW_COUNT ± Returns the cumulative count of rows fetched from the cursor.  IS_OPEN ± Is the cursor already open?  LAST_ERROR_POSITION ± Returns relative column position in cursor of text causing error condition.  LAST_ROW_ID ± Returns the ROWID of last row processed. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 101 . ± Call these immediately after your usage to make sure they refer to your cursor.  LAST_SQL_FUNCTION_CODE ± Returns SQL function code of cursor.

COLUMN_VALUE_LONG   First.DEFINE_COLUMN_LONG ± DBMS_SQL.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . dumplong. ± Transfer the LONG contents into an index-by table so that you can transfer a value of more than 32K bytes into your PL/SQL program.page 102 .Working with LONG Values  DBMS_SQL provides special procedures so that you can extract values from a LONG column in a table.pkg dumplong. ± DBMS_SQL. Then you retrieve the column using the special COLUMN_VALUE_LONG variant. you define the column as a LONG.

New DBMS_SQL Features PL/SQL8 Extensions to DBMS_SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 103 .

New Features in DBMS_SQL  The functionality of DBMS_SQL has been extended in Oracle8 in several ways: ± Parse very long SQL strings ± Describe cursor columns ± Use "array processing" to perform bulk updates.page 104 . ± Support for RETURNING clause to avoid unnecessary queries. deletes and fetches. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . inserts.

DESCRIBE_COLUMNS. ± The record TYPE is also defined in DBMS_SQL.Describing Cursor Columns PROCEDURE DBMS_SQL. col_cnt OUT INTEGER.DESC_TAB).  Returns all of the column information in an index table of records.page 105 . it was not possible to determine the datatypes of the columns defined in a cursor. desc_t OUT DBMS_SQL.  Before PL/SQL8.DESCRIBE_COLUMNS (c IN INTEGER. ± Now you can call the DBMS_SQL. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

CLOSE_CURSOR (cur). ncols PLS_INTEGER. desccols.OPEN_CURSOR. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.DESC_TAB.tst showcols. FOR colind IN 1 . cols DBMS_SQL. ncols LOOP DBMS_OUTPUT.col_name).sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Basic Steps to Describe Columns  The following script shows the individual steps you will need to perform in order to use this feature. END LOOP. END.DESCRIBE_COLUMNS (cur.. 'SELECT hiredate.pkg desccols.NATIVE). ncols. cols). empno FROM emp'. DBMS_SQL.page 106 . CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE show_columns IS cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL.PUT_LINE (cols(colind).PARSE (cur.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . when you perform updates..page 107 .e."Array Processing" in DBMS_SQL  PL/SQL8 now allows you to specify the use of "arrays". i. Instead of providing a scalar value for an operation. deletes and fetches. DBMS_SQL then repeats your action for every row in the table. inserts. index tables.    This technique still. can offer a significant performance boost over Oracle7 dynamic SQL. It really isn't "array processing". ± In actuality. you specify an index table. however. where N is the number of rows in the table. DBMS_SQL is executing the specified SQL statement N times.

sql openprse.) through the USING clause. only possible for statements that do not need USING and INTO clauses. not the invoker of the code. and easier code to write. concatenate) whenever possible. column names. ± Otherwise that SQL will be executed under the authority of the owner of the code. ± Increased chance of reusing parsed SQL.Recommendations for Dynamic SQL  Bind (vs. ± But remember: you cannot pass schema elements (table names. etc.pkg whichsch.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Use the Oracle8i invoker rights model whenever you want to share your dynamic SQL programs among multiple schemas. ± With NDS.PARSE so that you include the trace in that program. effdsql. though you could write variations for those as well.  Encapsulate statements to improve error handling. ± Encapsulate DBMS_SQL.page 108 .

but DBMS_SQL is hard to use.NDS or DBMS_SQL: Which is Best?  Dynamic SQL and PL/SQL is very useful.page 109 . ± If. of course. you have upgraded to Oracle8i!  Major Advantages of NDS: ± Ease of use ± Performance ± Works with all SQL datatypes (including userdefined object and collection types) ± Fetch into records  When You'd Use DBMS_SQL: ± ± ± ± ± ± ± Method 4 Dynamic SQL DESCRIBE columns of cursor SQL statements larger than 32K RETURNING into an array Reuse of parsed SQL statements Bulk dynamic SQL Available from client-side PL/SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .. Both implementations will still come in handy..

Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Oracle Advanced Queuing  The high performance.page 110 . asynchronous. persistent messaging subsytem of Oracle 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Who Needs Messaging? Everyone!  In the distributed world of the Internet. Distribution Center Coffee Beans Producer Shipping Service Retailer Consumer 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . consistent manner.page 111 . systems are now heavily reliant on the ability of components to communicate with each other in a dependable.

page 112 .Applications Relying on Messaging     Stock trading system Airline reservation system Auction portals Any e-commerce application 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

scalability and reliability all carry over to queues ± Strong history and retention ± Backup and recovery ± Comprehensive journaliing  Rich message content increases usefulness of queueing ± Use object types to define highly structured payloads  New to Oracle8i. the listen feature and notification capabilities. message propagation.Key Features of Oracle AQ  Leverage full power of SQL ± Messages are stored in database tables  Database high availability. AQ now offers a publish/subscribe style of messaging between applications.page 113 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Rule-based subscribers.

AQ architectural overview Queue Monitor process Queue table Queue ³Producers´ Enqueued messages Message 4 Message 3 Message 2 Message1 ³Consumers´ Dequeued messages Messages include both control information and ³payload´ (content) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 114 .

0. AQ supports: ± ± ± ± ± Multiple queues Resetting order and priority of queued items Queue management using only SQL & PL/SQL Multiple message recipients Propagation of queue to remote servers  Oracle8i adds: ± ± ± ± Rules-based publish & subscribe Listening on multiple queues Easier monitoring Native Java interface PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Oracle AQ Highlights  In 8.page 115 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .

Underlying database tables and views The queue monitor (background process) ± Set # of processes with the AQ_TM_PROCESSES initialization parameter.    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 116 .AQ Components  The DBMS_AQ package offers enqueue and dequeue capabilities The DBMS_AQADM package provides administrative functionality to manage queues and queue tables.

whether multiple consumers Drops table if all queues in the table have been stopped Associates queue table with queue.page 117 . sort column.DBMS_AQADM Highlights CREATE_QUEUE_TABLE DROP_QUEUE_TABLE CREATE_QUEUE DROP_QUEUE START_QUEUE STOP_QUEUE ADD_SUBSCRIBER Assigns name. optionally waiting for outstanding transactions Adds an ³agent´ as a subscriber 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . payload type. assigns retry and retention properties to queue Drops a stopped queue Can also turn on/off enqueue and dequeue operations Stops queue. storage clause.

END. Define a queue in the queue table DBMS_AQADM. Define the "payload" Create the queue table DBMS_AQADM. / BEGIN DBMS_AQADM.page 118 .Creating Queue Tables and Queues CREATE TYPE message_type AS OBJECT (title VARCHAR2(30). queue_payload_type => 'message_type'). queue_table => 'msg').START_QUEUE (queue_name => 'msgqueue').CREATE_QUEUE_TABLE (queue_table => 'msg'. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein aq.pkg Start the queue PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . text VARCHAR2(2000)).CREATE_QUEUE (queue_name => 'msgqueue'.

± Only two procedures.The "operational package": DBMS_AQ  DBMS_AQ is deceptively simple.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . but lots of complexity buried inside the parameters of these procedures.page 119   aq. and returns a RAW message handle DEQUEUE extracts a message from a specified queue Parameters control message properties such as: ± Visibility (ON_COMMIT or IMMEDIATE) ± ± ± ± Priority Delay Expiration Locking behavior PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  ENQUEUE puts a message into a specified queue.

'May there be many more. Set up the payload with an object constructor.ENQUEUE_OPTIONS_T. END.ENQUEUE ( 'msgqueue'. msgid). aqenq*. msgprops.Simple Enqueue Example DECLARE queueopts DBMS_AQ. queueopts. msgprops DBMS_AQ. BEGIN my_msg := message_type ( 'First Enqueue'..MESSAGE_PROPERTIES_T. my_msg. msgid aq. my_msg message_type.. Declare records to hold various enqueue and msg properties. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .* Place the message on the specified queue and get a msg ID in return.msgid_type.page 120 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . DBMS_AQ.').

queueopts. my_msg..delay := 3 * 60 * 60 * 24. BEGIN my_msg := message_type ( 'First Enqueue'. msgprops. DBMS_AQ. 'And this one goes first.. msgid1). msgid2).ENQUEUE ('msgqueue'. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END..BEFORE.More Interesting Enqueue Example DECLARE . msgprops..').. 'May there be many more..sequence_deviation := DBMS_AQ.relative_msgid := msgid1. msgprops..ENQUEUE ( 'msgqueue'. Modify the dequeue sequence by changing the deviation field and relative msg ID. DBMS_AQ. my_msg := message_type ( 'Second Enqueue'. my_msg.'). queueopts. queueopts.page 121 .. queueopts. Same setup as previous page . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Specify a delay before the payload is available.

/* defined in aq. PROCEDURE getmsg (mode_in IN INTEGER) IS BEGIN queueopts. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . msgprops.Dequeue Example DECLARE queueopts DBMS_AQ. getmsg (DBMS_AQ.MESSAGE_PROPERTIES_T.page 122 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .* Declare records to hold various dequeue and msg properties. BEGIN getmsg (DBMS_AQ. my_msg.REMOVE). msgid). msgid aq.dequeue_mode := mode_in. queueopts.BROWSE). aqdeq*. msgprops DBMS_AQ. END. Dequeue operation isolated in local module.REMOVE). getmsg (DBMS_AQ.DEQUEUE ( 'msgqueue'.msgid_type. DBMS_AQ.pkg */ my_msg message_type. Demonstrates destructive and non-destructive dequeuing.DEQUEUE_OPTIONS_T. END.

ENQUEUE ( c_queue.pkg aqstk2. item_obj aqstk_objtype. msgprops DBMS_AQ. ± The lower the numeric priority value. BEGIN item_obj := aqstk_objtype (item). item_obj. the higher the priority. END.  A stack implementation using AQ demonstrates this well. g_priority := g_priority . msgprops. aqstk.MESSAGE_PROPERTIES_T.page 123 . msgprops.Prioritized Payloads  You can assign priorities to individual payloads and then dequeue according to those priorities.msgid_type.1.priority := g_priority. DBMS_AQ.visibility := DBMS_AQ. msgid aq. queueopts.* 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .IMMEDIATE. PROCEDURE push (item IN VARCHAR2) IS queueopts DBMS_AQ.ENQUEUE_OPTIONS_T.pkg priority. msgid). queueopts.

multiple_consumers => TRUE). The queue table must be defined to support multiple subscribers or consumers. NULL)). ± 2. SYS.Defining Message Subscribers  You can specify that a message is to be enqueued for a list of subscribers. ± The message is then not removed from the queue until all subscribers have dequeued the message. Add subscribers for the queue. DBMS_AQADM.ADD_SUBSCRIBER ( c_queue.page 124 . BEGIN DBMS_AQADM.  Steps to working with a subscriber list: ± 1. NULL.CREATE_QUEUE_TABLE ( queue_table => 'major_qtable'. queue_payload_type => 'student_major_t'. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein aqmult*.* PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .AQ$_AGENT (name_in.

Summary  Very powerful and flexible architecture. improved security.  Considered by Oracle to be a core component of its overall solution. ± Much more robust that DBMS_PIPE. LISTEN capability. ± Should be strongly supported "down the road". supporting a publish-subscribe model. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Significant enhancements in Oracle8i. ± Crucial for Oracle to have a message-oriented middleware in order to offer an all-Oracle solution.Oracle AQ .page 125 .

page 126 .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Managing Large Objects with DBMS_LOB 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

page 127 . though they will probably not be actually desupported.LOB Terms  LOB = Large OBject: a category of datatype allowing storage of ³unstructured´ data up to 4 gigabytes LOB datatype can be: ± Column in table ± Attribute in object type ± Element in nested table   Possible applications include office documents. ± Oracle has announced deprecation of LONGs.  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . sounds. LOB datatypes are the successor to LONGs. Images. they should no longer be used. video. etc.

page 128 . external do not ± External LOBs are read-only from within Oracle 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Key programming differences: ± Internal LOBs participate in transactions.Types of Large Objects  ³Internal´ LOBs ± BLOB: unstructured binary data ± CLOB: single-byte fixedwidth character data ± NCLOB: multi-byte fixedwidth character data (or varying width in )  ³External´ LOBs ± BFILE: pointer to an operating system file  Temporary LOBs ± Internal LOBs that do not participate in transactions. improving performance.

EMPTY_CLOB() ± BFILENAME 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . trim ± For external LOBs: File existence test. comparison and length checking ± For internal LOBs: Write. erase. close  Other built-in functions ± LOADFROMFILE (load an external BFILE into a BLOB) ± EMPTY_LOB(). substring and instring searches.PL/SQL built-ins for LOBs  Package DBMS_LOB ± Supports for all LOBs: Reading. copy. open.page 129 . append.

Question: What¶s in the_fax? 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . FETCH fax_cur INTO the_fax.  Retrieve record with BLOB into PL/SQL variable DECLARE CURSOR fax_cur IS SELECT fax FROM incoming_faxes. the_fax BLOB. CLOSE fax_cur. END. BEGIN OPEN fax_cur.Deceptively simple example  BLOB-typed column in a table CREATE TABLE incoming_faxes (fax_id INTEGER.page 130 . received DATE. fax BLOB).

The ³LOB locator´ LOB t l sel es [ ll ] t i i t r .page 131 . tt LOBs <lob segment> fax_id 281937 received 12-JAN-98 fax <lob locator> Updati  t e LOB anges t e pointer is ompli ates se of LOBs ± LOB locators cannot span transactions ± Programs must lock records containing LOBs efore updating ± Programs performing L must accommodate dynamic LOB locator alues 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

page 132 . EMPTY_CLOB()) RETURNING htmlloc INTO the_loc. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . the_loc CLOB..oodb. BEGIN INSERT INTO web_pages VALUES (the_url..url%TYPE := 'http://www. htmlloc CLOB).com'.Example: Piecewise CLOB programmatic insert  Create a table CREATE TABLE web_pages ( url VARCHAR2(512) PRIMARY KEY. 1 of 2  Must get a new LOB locator before writing into the LOB: DECLARE the_url web_pages. .

into a CLOB column html_tab := UTL_HTTP. html_tab UTL_HTTP. running_total PLS_INTEGER := 1. EMPTY_CLOB()) and loads a web page RETURNING htmlloc INTO the_loc. buffer => html_tab(the_piece_no)). This block retrieves INSERT INTO web_pages VALUES (the_url.HTML_PIECES.. FOR the_piece_no IN 1. running_total := running_total + piece_length. DBMS_LOB. END LOOP.page 133 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein BEGIN .oodb.url%TYPE := 'http://www.com'. several likely exceptions offset => running_total. the_loc CLOB.COUNT LOOP piece_length := LENGTH(html_tab(the_piece_no)). piece_length PLS_INTEGER.Example: Piecewise CLOB programmatic insert DECLARE the_url web_pages. END.WRITE(lob_loc => the_loc.REQUEST_PIECES(url => the_url). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .html_tab. Note: We are ignoring amount => piece_length.

pattern => 'oodb'). str_offset := DBMS_LOB.WRITE(lob_loc => the_loc. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END IF. BEGIN OPEN hcur.Example: Piecewise CLOB programmatic update DECLARE Program must lock the record explicitly CURSOR hcur IS SELECT htmlloc FROM web_pages WHERE url = 'http://www. END. IF str_offset != 0 THEN DBMS_LOB. str_offset INTEGER. FETCH hcur INTO the_loc. the_loc CLOB. amount => 4. buffer => 'cool'). CLOSE hcur.com' FOR UPDATE. offset => str_offset.page 134 .oodb.INSTR(lob_loc => the_loc.

Preparing to use BFILEs  You must first create an Oracle I ORY´ ± Creates logical alias for full directory pat ± imilar to LIBRARY (used for C "external procedures").  Example: CREATE DIRECTORY web_pix AS 'D:\bill\training\pix'.page 135 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ut IRECTORY namespace is global  Syntax: CREATE OR REPLACE DIRECTORY <directory name> AS '<full path to directory>'.

.Using BFILE datatype in DDL  In a table.. phones Phone_tab_t.page 136 . / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . image BFILE).. scanned_card_image BFILE ).. CREATE TABLE web_graphics ( image_id INTEGER. addresses Address_tab_t.  In an object type. CREATE TYPE Business_card_t AS OBJECT ( name Name_t.

file_exprn) RETURN BFILE. 'prodicon.The built-in BFILENAME function  Returns value of datatype BFILE. BEGIN INSERT INTO web_graphics VALUES (100015.gif').  Example: DECLARE picture BFILE := BFILENAME('WEB_PIX'. Spec: FUNCTION BFILENAME(directory_exprn.page 137 . /  Notes: ± No automatic file checking or synchronization ± No participation in transactions 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END. picture).

src_lob => pic_file. pic_blob_loc) RETURNING image INTO pic_blob_loc.FILE_READONLY).FILEOPEN(pic_file. DBMS_LOB.gif'). DBMS_LOB. / loadblob.GETLENGTH(pic_file)). DECLARE pic_file BFILE := BFILENAME('WEB_PIX'. DBMS_LOB. amount => DBMS_LOB. 'prodicon. image BLOB).LOADFROMFILE(dest_lob => pic_blob_loc.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . DBMS_LOB. END.FILECLOSE(pic_file). pic_blob_loc BLOB := EMPTY_BLOB(). BEGIN INSERT INTO web_graphic_blobs VALUES (1.Loading File into Database BLOB CREATE TABLE web_graphic_blobs ( image_id INTEGER.page 138 .

or transaction  Ability to retrieve LOB ³chunk size´ ± Allows programmer to tune READs and WRITEs  For all internal LOBs ± OPEN & CLOSE allow control over timing. call. that can mean less I/O » Trigger will not fire until CLOSE » Indexes will not update until CLOSE ± ISOPEN 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .New DBMS_LOB APIs in 8i  Support for temporary LOBs ± No logging or rollback faster! ± Lifespan: session.page 139 .

COLD 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..page 140 .Large Object .. ± Complete support in PL/SQL (and other APIs) ± Much better performance and control than with LONGs ± Usable in object types HOT  Some weaknesses. ± LOB locator behavior slightly abstruse ± Inability to modify BFILEs directly from within PL/SQL.Summary  LOB support in Oracle is now significantly improved.

page 141 .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Leveraging Java Inside PL/SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

. functions.a BRIEF introduction to Java. triggers in Java Distinct Java & PL/SQL namespaces  But first.Overview of Java interoperability  Java inside or outside 8i server can call PL/SQL ± Standard JDBC and SQLJ calls with Oracle extensions ± Same Java on client. mid-tier.. or server Not covered in this seminar  PL/SQL can call Java inside 8i server ± ± ± ± Command-line tools load Java classes DDL extensions publish Java classes Writing stored procedures... PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 142 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .

slickest piece of software ever designed by human beings? ± Just the latest in a series of "silver bullets" promoted by software vendors in order to prop up quarterly sales? ± The first and only successful O-O language? ± None of the above?  We don't really need to take a vote. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .. fastest. ± The end of programming history as we know it? ± The easiest.. ± We just need to keep a firm grip on common sense and stay focused on delivering solutions.Question 1: What is Java?  Could it be.page 143 .

± A language in which hundreds of thousands of developers are trained. ± Supported and improved by Oracle -.  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . it is very unlikely and totally unthinkable for years to come. to boot.and very aggressively.Question 2: Will Java Replace PL/SQL?  While that scenario is certainly possible. ± Ubiquitous in thousands of production applications and millions of lines of code.page 144 . PL/SQL will still be: ± Faster and more productive than Java for database operations.

.. ± string is definitely not the same as String. ± Before you can call a (non-static) class method. everything exception the primitive datatypes.  You don't have to know how to do everything with Java to get lots of value out of it. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..Some Important Things to Remember  Java is a case sensitive language. ± Well... ± Don't get overwhelmed by all the classes and all the strange quirks.page 145 . you have to instantiate an object from that class.  Everything is a class (or an object instantiated from a class)..

.println ("Hello world!"). Oh..PUT_LINE ('Hello world!'). END.page 146 . ± Used to test or run stand-alone a class. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE hello IS BEGIN DBMS_OUTPUT. by the way: the PL/SQL version 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .out. } }  No members. no methods.Building a Java Class  Let's start from the very beginning. public class Hello { public static void main (String[] args) { System. except the "special" main method.

page 147 .zip.Compiling Classes  Before you can use a class.7b\lib\classes.1.zip. ± This will convert the .d:\java D:> javac Hello. ± You must also either have set the CLASSPATH or include it in your javac call. ± It will also automatically recompile any classes used by your class that has not been compiled since last change.class file.java file to a . you must compile it with the javac command. e:\jdk1. SET CLASSPATH = d:\Oracle\Ora81\jdbc\lib\classes111.java -classpath d:\java 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Running a Class  Run a class? What does that mean? It means that if your class contains a method with this header: public static void main (String[] args)  then you can "run" the main method with the java command: d:\java> java Hello  You can also pass one or more arguments on the command line: d:\java> java Hello mom Hello2.java 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 148 .

Let's build a performance analyzer class to explore these ideas. Usually. you will use a class by instantiating objects from the class and then invoking class methods on the object.Using a Class  The main method is handy for providing a built-in test mechanism of your class.page 149 . however.   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Gstart). } public long elapsed () { return (System. } } p. } public void showElapsed () { p.currentTimeMillis() . } public void showElapsed (String context) { p.page 150 . elapsed()).Gstart).java Tmr. System.java InFile.l ("Elapsed time for " + context.currentTimeMillis to calculate elapsed time to nearest thousandth of a second.Compare Performance of Methods  Use System.currentTimeMillis(). public void capture () { Gstart = System. class Tmr { private long Gstart = 0.currentTimeMillis() .java 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .l ("Elapsed time ".

but at least one method remains unimplemented.  Abstract class ± The class can contain members and methods.  Interface class ± The class only contains unimplemented methods.Types of Classes  There are several different kinds of classes in Java. besides the "regular" kind we just saw.. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..page 151 .  Inner class ± Classes that are defined inside other classes.

supertype/"wider" Citizen Person Employee Hourly Worker Salaried Worker subtype/"narrower" War Criminal Person.  Polymorphism ± An object of a class can have "multiple" forms.And Now for Some Scary Buzzwords!  Inheritance ± Subclasses inherit methods and variables from extended superclasses. either as its own class or as any superclass. ± Dynamic polymorphism: form is determined at run-time.page 152 .java A Class Hierarchy Management NonManagement Corporation 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Static polymorphism: form is chosen at compile-time (PL/SQL overloading).

if (myName.page 153 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . boolean char byte short int long float double  Strings ± A String object is a read-only. if you assign a new value to it. String myName. myName = "Steven". you are actually allocating a new object. myName = "Feuerstein". these are not objects instantiated from classes.Language Basics  Comments // Single line comment /* Block comment */ /** Documentation comment */  Primitive datatypes ± So I lied. ± Can't do a direct == comparison.equals(YourName)) foundFamily().

step) { lotsaStuff } while (expression) { lostsaStuff } do { lostsaStuff } while (expression).length.nextElement()) } } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 154 .println (args[indx]). System.out. expression.hasMoreElements ()) { processIt (enum. indx < args. static void processAll (Enumeration enum) { while (enum. do-while and for ± Note: you need squiggly brackets only if there is more than one statement in the loop body.println ( (String)enum.Writing Loops in Java  Three kinds of loops: while. Examples: for (indx indx=0. for (initialize.NextElement()).out. indx++) System.

class PuterLingo { private String mname. public PuterLingo (String name) { mname = name.out.Passing Parameters  Some important differences from PL/SQL.. System.println (Java.name()). } } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . you still include the open and close parentheses. } } class LotsALingos { public static void main (String args[]) { PuterLingo Java = new PuterLingo("Java"). you must supply a value for each parameter. ± Only positional notation is supported.. ± If a method has no arguments. ± No default values for arguments. } public String name () { return mname.page 155 .

Exception Handling in Java  Very similar to PL/SQL. Throwing my own public static int numBytes (String filename) { exception try { if (filename. rather than raise and handle. "WHEN OTHERS" } in Java } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .println (e. } catch (Exception e) { System. you "throw" and "catch" exceptions.toString()). Put inside try clause File myFile = new File (filename). return myFile. } File-related catch (SecurityException e) { exceptions return -1.out.page 156 .equals("")) throw new Exception ("Filename is NULL").length().

 You must inform users of your method of which exceptions may be thrown.. ± Use the throws clause in your specification.page 157 . } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . as in: public static int numBytes (String filename) throws SecurityException. NoSuchFile { .Differences Between Java & PL/SQL  Exceptions are objects derived directly or indirectly from the Exception class. ± So you can pass them as arguments and do anything and everything else you can do with objects..

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 158 . ± Object oriented development (Java) is very different from procedural coding (PL/SQL).Java's Not So Tough!  You can learn enough Java in less than a week to: ± Build simple classes ± Leverage Java inside PL/SQL  Moving to the next level of expertise will be more of a challenge.  Now let's explore how you can put Java to work for you inside PL/SQL programs.

page 159 . using JDBC or SQLJ Oracle 8i server PL/SQL cover for Java method Java virtual machine running Java method Oracle Developer client (PL/SQL) Net8 OCI or Pro*C client VB or C++ via OO4O or ODBC 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Java Stored Procedures (JSPs) Java applet or app.

network communication in/out PL/SQL replacement ± More standard language ± Good performer for numeric processing tasks ± Beware database I/O & string manipulation performance Scaleable deployment of third party code ± Vertical application ± Web server ± XML parser/generator 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 160 .JSPs: Some sample uses PL/SQL extender ± For example. better file I/O ± RMI callouts.

Load into server using ³loadjava´ command-line tool 3. Publish PL/SQL cover using AS LANGUAGE JAVA.. Call from PL/SQL (or SQL) as if calling PL/SQL    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Create Java classes in your favorite IDE 2.Creating JSP to call from PL/SQL   1.. Grant privileges as desired 5..END 4.page 161 .. rather than BEGIN.

}} 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Notes on Java classes  toString method automatically used by System. 5000000. public Corporation ( String Pname. long PceoComp) { name = Pname. CEOCompensation = PceoComp.println main method is used to test the class. long Playoffs. layoffs = Playoffs. 50000000).out. long CEOCompensation.out.println (TheGlobalMonster). } public String toString () { return name + " is a transnational entity with " + layoffs + " laid-off employees.page 162 PL/SQL . } public static void main (String[] args) { // A very scary company Corporation TheGlobalMonster = new Corporation ( "Northrup-Ford-Mattel-Yahoo-ATT".java Advanced Techniques .Create Java class(es) class Corporation extends Person { long layoffs. paying its" + " Chief Executive Officer " + CEOCompensation. System. Entry points must be public static in most cases Classes may call other classes Avoid GUI calls     person.

Upload using ³loadjava´ utility .class file .page 163 .jar file Oracle 8i server Java class Java source Java resource loadjava Example: loadjava loadjava -user scott/tiger -oci8 -resolve datacraft/bill/Hello.java file Java resource file .class options (abbreviated) -oci8 -resolve loadjava will connect using OCI driver Resolves external class references at compile time -resolver (shown later) Search path like CLASSPATH 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

.lang.page 164 .String'..bill.Emp(int) return java.. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .) [ return <Ja a t pe fullname> ]'.Hello. /  Syntax (simplified) CREATE [ OR REPLACE PROCE URE FUNCTION <name> <sqlt pe> ] [ [ <ar s> ) ] [ AUTHID { DEFINER | CURRENT_USER } ] AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME '<met fullname> (<Ja a t pe fullname>.Publish  Example (top-level call spec) CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION hello_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2 AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.

from SQL*Plus: VARIABLE thename VARCHAR2(12) CALL hello_emp(7499) INTO :thename.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Method 2: Use 8i SQL CALL statement.Call the wrapped method  Method 1: Call as if PL/SQL module BEGIN DBMS_OUTPUT. for example. END. PRINT :thename ± CALL avoids overhead of SELECT fn FROM DUAL jsp.page 165 .PUT_LINE(hello_emp(7499)).

more concepts Shape mapping ± Java methods declared ³void´ become PL/SQL procedures ± Signature mismatches detected only at runtime Type mapping (typical) VARCHAR2 DATE NUMBER user-defined object type user-defined object type object REFerence user-defined collection type java.REF oracle.math.lang.page 166 .sql.Publishing -.sql.STRUCT <named type> oracle.Timestamp java.sql.ARRAY 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .String java.sql.BigDecimal oracle.

CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE hello_pkg AS FUNCTION hi_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2 AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.Emp(int) return java.. END.String'.Hello..lang.Publish in PL/SQL Package Spec  Designate Java module in PL/SQL package spec.util.page 167 . / (No package body required in this case) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Emp(int) return java.or in package body CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE hello_pkg2 AS FUNCTION hi_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END.. / CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY hello_pkg2 AS FUNCTION hi_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2 IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft. END..page 168 .Publish as module in package body  .Hello.String'.lang.util.

/ 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .String'). END.page 169 .Emp(int) return java.Publish as object type method  Either in spec: CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE foo_t AS OBJECT ( bar VARCHAR2(30).Emp(int) return java.lang.util.Hello.util. MEMBER FUNCTION hello_emp RETURN VARCHAR2 IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.lang.String'.Hello. / CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE BODY foo_t AS MEMBER FUNCTION hello_emp RETURN VARCHAR2 IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft. / or in the body: CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE foo_t AS OBJECT ( bar VARCHAR2(30). MEMBER FUNCTION hello_emp RETURN VARCHAR2).

DROP JAVA: drops a named Java library unit Several roles available for Java operations: ± JAVAUSERPRIV.New DDL Statements and Roles  CREATE JAVA ± Alternative to ³loadjava´ utility ± Creates or replaces an Oracle ³library unit´ from Java source.   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . resolves Java class references.page 170 . JAVASYSPRIV (needed for file IO operations). JAVA_ADMIN. JAVAIDPRIV. JAVADEBUGPRIV ± You can also grant specific privileges. class. or resource ± Can read file designated with BFILE() function  ALTER JAVA: compiles Java source.

STRUCT ± oracle.Passing Oracle8 objects Oracle8i server Object in O-R table Java application Java object   Harder than you¶d think Three different interfacing techniques ± oracle.CustomDatum ± oracle.sql.sql.SQLData 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .jdbc2.page 171 .

JPublisher utility Database server Definition of type or REF in data dictionary User-supplied JPublisher input file What does it do? ± Generates Java that encapsulates type and REF types of mapping supported for methods JPublisher ± ³Oracle mapping´ ± ³JDBC mapping´ ± ³Object JDBC mapping´ Three Generated Java file(s) for use in Java programs 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 172 .

bill.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Passing object using JPub-generated Java  After generating and uploading classes with JPub. /  jspobj.save (datacraft.bill.page 173 .AccountRuntime.Account_t)'. they become available to use in mapping Example of passing an Account_t object: CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE account_save (new_acct IN Account_t) IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.

Example: Improving File I/O  You can read/write files in PL/SQL with UTL_FILE.page 174 . Java offers many file-related classes with much greater capabilities. but that package is very limited. Let's see how we can make that great Java stuff available from within PL/SQL.   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

± Instead build a static method that instantiates a Java object from the class and then invokes the relevant method against that object. ± This is not available through UTL_FILE (though you can get it through DBMS_LOB).page 175 .  Let's start with something simple..Encapsulate Java Classes  You won't generally access native Java methods in your PL/SQL wrapper. ± The File class offers a length method that returns the number of bytes in a file. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . public class JFile2 { public static long length (String fileName) { File myFile = new File (fileName). } } JFile2.io. ± Call the method of choice against that object and return the value.java  Take each of these steps: ± Import the File class to resolve reference.page 176 .File. import java. return myFile.My Own Java Class for File Manipulation  Accept the name of a file and return its length.length(). ± Instantiate a File object for the specified name.

pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE xfile IS FUNCTION length (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN NUMBER. END.lang. ± I translate the Java long to a PL/SQL NUMBER. / xfile2.Build a Package over Java Method  Let's put it in a package. / CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY xfile IS FUNCTION length (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN NUMBER AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'JFile. END.String) return long'.length (java.page 177 . we will certainly want to add more functionality over time.

± 3.page 178 . Convert the Java boolean to a String or number and return that value.Mapping the Boolean Datatype  Both Java and PL/SQL support a native Boolean datatype.  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Write a "hidden" PL/SQL wrapper function that returns the string or number. Write a "public" PL/SQL wrapper function to convert that number to a true PL/SQL Boolean. ± 2. so you'd expect smooth sailing. Not so! To pass a Boolean back from Java to PL/SQL. you will need to take these steps: ± 1.

if (retval) return 1.java  Translate TRUE to 1 and FALSE to 0. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . boolean retval = myFile. import java.page 179 .io. } } JFile3. public class JFile3 { public static int canRead (String fileName) { File myFile = new File (fileName).canRead().File. not a Boolean class. else return 0. ± And don't forget: this is a boolean primitive.Translate Boolean to Number  Accept the name of a file and return its length.

page 180 .java END. xfile4.pkg RETURN IcanRead (file) = 1.String) return int'..pkg END. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE xfile IS FUNCTION canRead (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN BOOLEAN.Wrapper for Pseudo-Boolean function  Simple translation back to PL/SQL Boolean.canRead (java.java / xfile. FUNCTION canRead (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN BOOLEAN AS BEGIN xfile3. JFile.. JFile4. ± Avoid the hard-codings with named constants.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .lang. / CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY xfile IS FUNCTION IcanRead (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN NUMBER AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'JFile3. END.

// starting with 0 String laborType = (String)(attribs[0]).Passing Objects to Java with STRUCT  You can pass Oracle object information to Java without relying on JPub by using the STRUCT class.java passobj.tst PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .getAttributes().out. BigDecimal hourly_rate = (BigDecimal)(attribs[1]). throws java.page 181 . public class UnionBuster { Obtain attributes of public static void wageStrategy (STRUCT e) the Oracle object. } } Extract individual attribute values from the array. Object[] attribs = e.sql.println ( "Pay " + laborType + " $" + hourly_rate + " per hour").SQLException { // Get the attributes of the labor_source object. // Access individual attributes by array index. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein UnionBuster. System.

'5')). 0)).sql.wageStrategy (oracle. / CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE bust_em_with ( labor_source_in IN labor_source_t) AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'UnionBuster. bust_em_with ( labor_source ('Prisoners'. / BEGIN bust_em_with ( labor_source ('Workfare'. END. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Fully specify the STRUCT class in parameter list.page 182 .STRUCT)'. The Oracle object type definition CREATE TYPE labor_source_t AS OBJECT ( labor_type VARCHAR2(30).Wrapping a STRUCT-based Method  You can pass Oracle object information to Java without relying on JPub by using the STRUCT class. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . hourly_rate NUMBER).

java HelloAll.SET_OUTPUT (1000000). }}}  When called within a PL/SQL wrapper.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Viewing Output from Java Methods  Java provides a "print line" method similar to DBMS_OUTPUT. ± Call it within methods and output will display in your Java environment. you can redirect the output to the DBMS_OUTPUT buffer.PUT_LINE: System.out.sql file: SET SERVEROUTPUT ON SIZE 1000000 CALL DBMS_JAVA. i < count.out. HelloAll. i++) { System. ± Here is a good nucleus for a login. public class HelloAll { public static void lotsaText ( int count) { for (int i = 0.println ( "Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello All!").page 183 .println.

sql. getErrorCode() and getMessage() to obtain information about the error thrown.page 184 . you "throw" and "catch". but more robust error handling mechanism than PL/SQL.Error Handling with Java-PL/SQL  Java offers a very similar.5).1.  Any error not caught by the JVM (Java virtual machine) will be thrown back to the PL/SQL block or SQL statement. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .SQLException. ± And also spew out the entire Java error stack! (at least through 8. ± Instead of raising and handling. such as java. ± Use two methods. ± Exceptions are objects instantiated from the Exception class or a subclass of it.

executeUpdate(OracleStatement.OracleStatement.java) at oracle.driver.doExecuteOther(OracleStatement. and you have to do some digging to extract the Oracle error information.java) at DropAny.java -29532 dropany.java) at oracle.jdbc.tst ORA-00942: table or view does not exist 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .OracleStatement.driver. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN DBMS_OUTPUT.kprb.check_error(KprbDBAccess.driver.doExecuteWithBatch(OracleStatement.jdbc.Trapping and Identifying Errors  Currently.OracleStatement.KprbDBAccess.PUT_LINE (SQLCODE).sql.jdbc.OracleStatement.doExecute(OracleStatement. DBMS_OUTPUT.kprb. / SQL> 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 java.parseExecuteFetch(KprbDBAccess.PUT_LINE (SQLERRM).jdbc.tst ORA-29532: Java call terminated by uncaught Java exception: java.java) at oracle. 'blip').SQLException: ORA-00942: table or view does not exist at oracle.OracleStatement.java) at oracle. END.jdbc.java) at oracle.sp dropany2.sql.SQLException: getErrInfo. the entire Java stack is displayed on your screen. BEGIN dropany ('TABLE'.driver.object(DropAny.doExecuteWithTimeout(OracleStatement.jdbc.driver.jdbc.java:14) DropAny.page 185 .KprbDBAccess.java) at oracle.

 An Oracle8 feature that allowed relatively "native" callouts to C from PL/SQL for the first time. ± Must be a shared object library on Unix or a dynamically linked library (DLL) on Windows.page 186 .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence External Procedures  An external procedure is a 3GL routine that can serve as the ³body´ of a PL/SQL function. procedure. or method. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

page 187 .so file extproc returns results returns results 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Process & data flow Application Makes request Net8 External Procedure Listener spawns External Shared Library Calls PL/SQL Runtime Engine PL/SQL body Client or server-side application returns results calls routine from Routine in .DLL or .

sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .sql diskspace.External procedures: Sample uses      Send email Invoke operating system command Invoke custom or legacy application Call C runtime library function Perform admin tasks email.page 188 .

dll'. create an Oracle8 ³library´: CREATE OR REPLACE LIBRARY nt_kernel AS 'c:\winnt\system32\kernel32.page 189 . this function returns: » » » » » sectors per cluster bytes per sector number of free clusters total number of clusters ³return code´ indicating success or failure  First.Determine free disk space on NT (1/4)  Use pre-existing routine: ± GetDiskFreeSpaceA in kernel32.dll ± For given drive letter. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

page 190 . / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Package spec (2/4)  Nothing unexpected here: CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE disk_util AS FUNCTION get_disk_free_space (root_path IN VARCHAR2. number_of_free_clusters OUT PLS_INTEGER. END disk_util. sectors_per_cluster OUT PLS_INTEGER. total_number_of_clusters OUT PLS_INTEGER) RETURN PLS_INTEGER. bytes_per_sector OUT PLS_INTEGER.

total_number_of_clusters BY REFERENCE LONG.Package body in Oracle 8. sectors_per_cluster OUT PLS_INTEGER.page 191  All the magic is in the EXTERNAL section 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . END disk_util. bytes_per_sector OUT PLS_INTEGER.0 (3/4) CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY disk_util AS FUNCTION get_disk_free_space (root_path IN VARCHAR2. sectors_per_cluster BY REFERENCE LONG. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . bytes_per_sector BY REFERENCE LONG. RETURN LONG). total_number_of_clusters OUT PLS_INTEGER) RETURN PLS_INTEGER IS EXTERNAL LIBRARY nt_kernel NAME "GetDiskFreeSpaceA" LANGUAGE C CALLING STANDARD PASCAL PARAMETERS (root_path STRING. number_of_free_clusters BY REFERENCE LONG. number_of_free_clusters OUT pls_integer.

Usage (4/4)
DECLARE lroot_path VARCHAR2(3) := 'C:\'; lsectors_per_cluster PLS_INTEGER; lbytes_per_sector PLS_INTEGER; lnumber_of_free_clusters PLS_INTEGER; ltotal_number_of_clusters PLS_INTEGER; return_code PLS_INTEGER; free_meg REAL; BEGIN return_code := disk_util.get_disk_free_space (lroot_path, lsectors_per_cluster, lbytes_per_sector, lnumber_of_free_clusters, ltotal_number_of_clusters); free_meg := lsectors_per_cluster * lbytes_per_sector * lnumber_of_free_clusters / 1024 / 1024; DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('free disk space, Mb = ' || free_meg); diskspace.sql END;
1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein
PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 192

Creating your own external procedure 

1. Identify or create shared library 2. Identify or CREATE LIBRARY within Oracle 3. Map the parameters using:
± EXTERNAL clause (Oracle8) or ± LANGUAGE clause (Oracle8i)  

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 193

1. Identify/create external routine 


Prerequisite: O/S must support shared libraries Some useful routines are pre-built in C runtime library
± On Unix: /lib/libc.so ± On NT: <systemroot>\system32\crtdll.dll 

Building a shared library of your own requires knowledge of:
± Appropriate language (typically C) ± Compiler & linker

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 194

2. Create the Oracle library 

Syntax:
CREATE OR REPLACE LIBRARY <library name> AS '<full path to file>'; 

Assigns a programmer-defined alias to a specific shared library file Notes
± Requires CREATE LIBRARY pri ilege ± Does not alidate directory ± Can¶t use symbolic link 

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 195

3. Map the parameters
This can get complicated, because«
± Must pass extra parameters to designate:
» NULL/NOT NULL state » String length » Maximum allocated length

± Six choices of parameter mode
» » » » » » IN RETURN IN BY REFERENCE RETURN BY REFERENCE OUT IN OUT

These details are better suited for close reading«
PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 196

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

page 197 .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Oracle8i New Features Autonomous Transactions Invoker Rights Model Row Level Security 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

   Autonomous Transactions The Invoker Rights Model Row level security 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± And the learning curve to take advantage of these features is generally not too steep.page 198 .Oracle8i New Features  Oracle8i offers a number of PL/SQL-specific features that give you tremendous additional flexibility and capability.

msg IN VARCHAR2) AS PRAGMA AUTONOMOUS_TRANSACTION.page 199 . a COMMIT or ROLLBACK in any program in your session committed or rolled back all changes in your session. ± There was only one transaction allowed per connection. ± Any changes made within that block can be saved or reversed without affecting the outer or main transaction. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE loginfo ( code IN PLS_INTEGER.  With Oracle8i. you can now define a PL/SQL block to execute as an "autonomous transaction".Autonomous Transactions  Prior to Oracle8i. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

± Now you can avoid the complexities (need for ROLLBACK TO savepoints and so on).  Tracing Code Usage ± Build retry mechanisms. software usage meter. something like a COMMIT) on other components.  Logging Mechanism ± Commonly developers lot to database tables.  Call functions within SQL that change the database.page 200 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . which can cause all sorts of complications: your log entry becomes a part of your transaction. ± One component should not have any impact (esp.When to Use Autonomous Transactions  Reusable Application Components ± ATs are more or less required in the new distributed application architecture of the Internet. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . etc.

Logging with ATs  Don't forget that ROLLBACK in the exception section! CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY log IS PROCEDURE putline ( code_in IN INTEGER. rec. let's add some session information. BEGIN INSERT INTO logtab VALUES (code_in. END. SYSDATE. logger. USER. COMMIT.machine.page 201 . SYSDATE. END. While we're at it. rec.program ). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Avoid interdependencies with the main transaction.pkg log81*.tst retry.tst PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . USER. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN ROLLBACK. text_in.pkg retry. text_in IN VARCHAR2 ) IS PRAGMA AUTONOMOUS_TRANSACTION.sp log81.

± Place the SET TRANSACTION statement in the outer transaction.sql auton_in_sql. ± You can use the SET TRANSACTION ISOLATION LEVEL SERIALIZABLE to indicate that you do not want the changes visible until the outer transaction commits.   The AT PRAGMA goes in the body of packages. The AT PRAGMA can be used only with individual programs and toplevel anonymous blocks.page 202 . ± You cannot tell by looking at the package spec if you are calling ATs or not -and this info is not available in the data dictionary. ± You cannot define a nested anonymous block to be an AT. autonserial.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± You cannot define an entire package as an AT.  Any changes committed in an AT are visible in the outer transaction.sql autontrigger*.Tips and Gotchas with ATs  An AT program must COMMIT or ROLLBACK before terminating. or an error is raised.

whenever you executed a stored program.The Invoker Rights Model  Prior to Oracle8i. ± This is called the « Definer Rights Model  With Oracle8i. it ran under the privileges of the account in which the program was defined.page 203 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . you can now decide at compilation time whether your program or package will execute in the definer's schema (the default) or the schema of the invoker of the code. ± This is called the « Invoker Rights Model PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

But it can be a source of confusion and architectural problems.About Definer Rights  Allows you to centralize access to and control of underlying data structures. Ignores roles and relies on directly-granted privileges. OE Code Order_Mgt Place Cancel Sam_Sales Close Old Orders  OE Data X  Orders Cannot alter table directly. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 204 . Note: Oracle built-in packages have long had the capability of running under the invoker's authority.

page 205 . ± Can bypass 8i¶s ³fine-grained´ access features (see the DBMS_RLS package) ± Difficult to audit privileges  Sure would be nice to have a choice. requiring copy of stored module  Security ± No declarative way to restrict privileges on certain modules in a package -.Problems with Definer Rights  Deployment & maintenance ± Must install module in all remote databases where needed ± In some databases. unless you write code in the package to essentially recreate roles programmatically.it's all or nothing..and now you do! 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . each user has own copy of table(s)..

"dummy" objects. the objects referenced may well be different from those against which it compiled. Synonyms may be necessary if modules use object names not qualified by schema.. ± At run-time. do what it takes to get the code to compile.  For modules with separate spec and body.page 206 .. You could also create local. and must be at the package level. AUTHID goes only in spec.  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± In other words.Oracle8i Invoker Rights Syntax  For top level modules: CREATE [ OR REPLACE ] <module type> [ AUTHID { DEFINER | CURRENT_USER } ] AS .

"Reflection" Capability of Invoker Rights  With invoker rights. you can execute code owned by another schema.acct_mgr.. modify destroy .. yet have all references to data structures "reflect back" into your own schema. Central Code schema PACKAGE acct_mgr make AUTHID CURRENT_USER User/Data schema PROCEDURE mng_account IS BEGIN ..). code.destroy(. accounts table 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .FROM accounts WHERE. END..page 207 .....

± Both static and dynamic SQL is supported.sql handy. oneversion.  Information about the rights model is not available in the data dictionary What if you want to maintain a single version of your code for both pre-Oracle8i and Oracle8i installations. taking advantage of the invoker rights model whenever possible? ± A creative use of SQL*Plus substitution variables comes in very invdefinv.  Once a definer rights program is called. all other calls in stack are resolved according to definer rights. only data ± When your stored code references another stored code element.Tips and Gotchas for Invoker Rights  Does not apply to code objects. the definer rights model is always applied to resolve the reference.sql  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± AUTHID CURRENT_USER is ignored. Note: cannot use with wrapped code.page 208 .

sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Share a program that uses dynamic SQL (whether DBMS_SQL or the new native implementation) and you end up taking the most unexpected DDL and DML detours. National HQ Check City Statistics New York Schema stolenlives Chicago Schema stolenlives  Especially handy with dynamic SQL.sql whichsch*. authid.page 209 .When to Invoke Invoker Rights  You want to reuse the same code among many users. but you want their own directly-granted privileges to determine access.

HQ Chicago Check City Statistics  New York stolenlives Analyze Pattern stolenlives perpetrators perp. Rely on definer rights to access centralized data from any schema.page 210 .Combining Invoker & Definer Rights  Rely on invoker rights to allow centralized code to work with schema-specific data.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Row Level Security DBMS_RLS Row-Level Security 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 211 .

The DBMS_RLS package (along with "system contexts") now allow you to do so in a foolproof manner. DBMS_RLS.page 212   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Row-Level Security with DBMS_RLS  Oracle8i offers a new package. Prior to Oracle8i. you could achieve this only partially through the use of views. Row Level Security  The establishment of security policies on (restricted access to) individual rows of a table. with which to implement automated row-level security (also referred to as "fine grained access control").

the system context is a named set of attributevalue pairs global to your session. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . their context information is set properly.  Security Policy Packages ± You will need to write a package containing functions that establish the security policies to be applied to a particular table.page 213 .  DBMS_RLS ± Use programs in DBMS_RLS to associate your security policies with tables.  Database Logon Triggers ± I want to make sure that when a person logs in.Components Needed for RLS  System Contexts ± A new feature in Oracle8i.  Let's step through a simple example to see how all these pieces tie together.

clinic and regulator. ± Patients can only see information about themselves.page 214 .A National Health Care System  The year is 2010. No more for-profit hospitals pulling billions of dollars out of the system.  We need a top-notch. popular uprising in the United States has forced the establishment of a national healthcare system. doctor. The main tables are patient. highly secure database for NHCS. Here are some rules: ± Doctors can only see patients who are assigned to their clinic. ± A massive. fgac. all pregnant women receive excellent prenatal care. no more private insurance companies soaking up 30 cents on the dollar. ± Regulators can only see patients who reside in the same state.sql  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . all children are vaccinated.

doc_rec. PROCEDURE set_context IS This is a simplification. sets the context accordingly. DBMS_SESSION.sql for logic that identifies SELECT doctor_id FROM doctor different types of people and WHERE schema_name = USER. CREATE CONTEXT patient_restriction USING nhc_pkg.Set the Context  Define a context in the database. BEGIN OPEN doc_cur. doc_rec doc_cur%ROWTYPE.page 215 .SET_CONTEXT ( 'patient_restriction'. and create a procedure that will set the context attributes (type and ID) upon login. 'DOCTOR'). END.SET_CONTEXT ( 'patient_restriction'. See CURSOR doc_cur IS fgac. c_person_id_attr. DBMS_SESSION. c_person_type_attr. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . FETCH doc_cur INTO doc_rec.doctor_id).

page 216 . connection. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . c_person_type_attr). FUNCTION person_predicate ( schema_in VARCHAR2. ''' || clause for each type of c_person_id_attr || '''))'. person. BEGIN IF l_context = 'DOCTOR' THEN retval := 'home_clinic_id IN (SELECT home_clinic_id FROM doctor We need a different string WHERE doctor_id = SYS_CONTEXT (''' || to modify the WHERE c_context || '''.Define the Predicate  A predicate is a string that will be appended to the WHERE clause of the table to which this security policy is associated (see next page). information for this retval VARCHAR2(2000). name_in VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2 IS l_context VARCHAR2(100) := Extract the context SYS_CONTEXT (c_context.

Create the Security Policy  Use the DBMS_RLS. ± The following procedure call specifies that the WHERE clause of any query. 'nhc_pkg.person_predicate'.UPDATE. 'SCOTT'.page 217 .PATIENT table will be modified by the string returned by the person_predicate function of the SCOTT. BEGIN DBMS_RLS. 'patient_privacy'. ( => => => => => => 'SCOTT'.ADD_POLICY procedure. 'SELECT.nhc_pkg package.DELETE').ADD_POLICY OBJECT_SCHEMA OBJECT_NAME POLICY_NAME FUNCTION_SCHEMA POLICY_FUNCTION STATEMENT_TYPES END. update or delete against the SCOTT. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 'patient'.

EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN DBMS_OUTPUT.sql Exception handling in trigger is critical! If you allow an exception to go unhandled. END. Setting Context  By setting the context in the logon trigger. logon is disabled. CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER set_id_on_logon AFTER LOGON ON DATABASE BEGIN nhc_pkg.Create Logon Trigger.PUT_LINE ( 'Error ' || SQLCODE || ' setting context for ' || USER'). we guarantee that the context is set (and the predicate applied) no matter which product is the entry point to Oracle. fgac.page 218 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .set_context.

page 219 .Queries Transparently Filtered  What you see is determined automatically by who you are.Chris Silva . 'person_id')) Patients Visible to "SWALLACE": CSILVA .IL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Patient sees only himself. Predicate: home_clinic_id IN (SELECT home_clinic_id FROM doctor WHERE doctor_id = SYS_CONTEXT ('patient_restriction'.IL VSILVA .Veva Silva .Chris Silva . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Context Information for "SWALLACE": Type: DOCTOR Doctor sees only her ID: 1060 patients.IL Context Information for "CSILVA": Type: PATIENT ID: Predicate: schema_name = 'CSILVA' Patients Visible to "CSILVA": CSILVA .

. March..page 220 .Take Full Advantage of PL/SQL! January..... and you use only what you know.and play a new tune with PL/SQL! 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . April.. Jump out of your rut . February.  ± You learn what you need to get the job done... May.. It's so easy to fall into a rut with a programming language.

.a. If time permits«)     UTL_FILE ± file IO DBMS_JOB ± Job scheduling DBMS_PIPE ± Pipe-based communication DBMS_UTILITY ± the kitchen sink package 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 221 .k.Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Appendices (a.

.Built-in Packages: UTL_FILE UTL_FILE Server-side File I/O Application FOPEN GET_LINE PUT_LINE .. Physical Files 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 222 .

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . delete. when it jumps to 32K.. copy. random access to contents). ± Limitations on files you can access (no mapped files..UTL_FILE: Server-side I/O  Allows you to read from and write to operating system files on the database server.0. ± Maximum of 1023 bytes per line (read or write) until Oracle 8. no use of environmental variables).5. ± No higher-level file operations supported (change privileges. A "version 1" (fairly primitive) utility.page 223 .   But you can read lines from a file and write lines to a file.

page 224 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . Puts formatted text into the buffer PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .UTL_FILE Module Outline FCLOSE FCLOSE_ALL FFLUSH FOPEN GET_LINE IS_OPEN NEW_LINE PUT PUT_LINE PUTF Close the specified file Close all open files in your session Flush all data from the UTL_FILE buffer to your file Open a file Get the next line from a file Returns TRUE if the file is open (sort of) Insert a new line character in file at the end of current line Puts text into the UTL_FILE buffer Puts text and new line character into UTL_FILE buffer.

Authorizing Directory Access  Oracle requires you to list explicitly those directories you wish to be able to read/write with UTL_FILE.  Follow these rules to avoid many headaches.page 225 Allows read & write for current directory. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . utl_file_dir = * Allows read & write for any directory. utl_file_dir = /tmp utl_file_dir = /accounts/newdev  And don't do either of the following: utl_file_dir = . there is no subdirectory recursion). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . ± Use a separate entry for each directory (and subdirectory. ± No single or double quotes around directory. no trailing delimiter. ± You do this by adding lines to the instance parameter file.

modify your initialization file. END. So before you write anything fancy. and then run the following test script (it can't get much simpler than this): DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.FILE_TYPE. UTL_FILE. */ fid := UTL_FILE.PUT_LINE (fid. 'test. restart your database. 'hello').page 226 .Test UTL_FILE Access  About the hardest part to working with UTL_FILE is simply getting started.tst  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .FCLOSE (fid). 'W'). / utlfile.txt'. UTL_FILE. BEGIN /* Change the directory name to one to which you at least || THINK you have read/write access.FOPEN ('c:\temp'.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 'W' for Write and 'A' for Append. 'test. ± Types are 'R' for Read.page 227 .  The FOPEN function returns a record ("file handle") based on the UTL_FILE. Test to see if file is open with the IS_OPEN function.  Specify file location.   Maximum of 10 files may be opened in each user session.. ± In actuality. this function simply returns TRUE if the file handle's id field is NOT NULL.FILE_TYPE. END. 'W').txt'. Not much of a test. BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE. name and operation type.Opening a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE. ± Currently contains a single ID field.FILE_TYPE..FOPEN ('c:\temp'.

'R'). BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE.FOPEN ('c:\temp'. Lines in the file cannot be longer than 1023 bytes in length.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .0. END. myline). UTL_FILE.FCLOSE (fid). the ceiling is raised to 32K. getnext.txt'.  The NO_DATA_FOUND exception is raised if you read past the end of the file. UTL_FILE.5 and above. ± In Oracle8 Release 8.GET_LINE (fid. ± You might want to build your own GET_LINE which handles the exception and returns an EOF Boolean status flag.Reading from a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE. 'test.page 228 .   Can only read from a file opened with the "R" mode.FILE_TYPE.

BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE. ± The file buffers are automatically flushed when you close a file or exit your session. '&1'). 'test. UTL_FILE is so much fun that I never want to stop Resulting Text  You can use PUT. END.page 229 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . 'W'). ± PUTF is like the C printf program.FOPEN ('c:\temp'. allowing for some formatting. PUT_LINE or PUTF. ' that I never\nwant to %s'. 'is so much fun').PUT_LINE (fid.  Call FFLUSH to make sure that everything you have written to the buffer is flushed out to the file.FCLOSE (fid).PUT (fid. UTL_FILE. UTL_FILE.Writing to a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.FILE_TYPE. UTL_FILE. UTL_FILE. 'UTL_FILE').PUTF (fid. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .txt'.

FILE_TYPE.txt'.GET_LINE (fid. UTL_FILE. 'R'). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Closing a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.page 230   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . UTL_FILE. You should close files in exception handlers to make sure that files are not left "hanging" open. myline). EXCEPTION WHEN UTL_FILE.READ_ERROR THEN UTL_FILE.FCLOSE (fid). 'test. BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE. END. you will not see the data you have (supposedly) written to that file.FCLOSE (fid).FOPEN ('c:\temp'. You can close a single file with FCLOSE or all open files with FCLOSE_ALL.  If you do not close the file.

± NO_DATA_FOUND when you try to read past the end of the file. ± They all share a common SQLCODE of 1. ± UTL_FILE-named exceptions in other cases. EXCEPTION.page 231 . EXCEPTION. EXCEPTION.Error Handling in UTL_FILE PACKAGE UTL_FILE IS invalid_path invalid_mode invalid_filehandle invalid_operation read_error write_error internal_error END. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . EXCEPTION.  UTL_FILE relies on a combination of user-defined exceptions and STANDARD exceptions to communicate errors. EXCEPTION.  You have to take special care to trap and handle the named exceptions. EXCEPTION. EXCEPTION.

c_invalid_filehandle).c_invalid_operation). record the error. translating the generic user-defined exception into an understandable message.INTERNAL_ERROR THEN recNgo (PLVfile. RAISE. Re-raise exception if you want it to propagate from that block. WHEN UTL_FILE. RAISE.c_invalid_path). WHEN UTL_FILE. WHEN UTL_FILE.sql  Trap locally by name.INVALID_FILEHANDLE THEN recNgo (PLVfile.INVALID_OPERATION THEN recNgo (PLVfile. WHEN UTL_FILE.page 232  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .c_internal_error). END. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . RAISE. utlflexc. RAISE.c_write_error).WRITE_ERROR THEN recNgo (PLVfile.INVALID_PATH THEN recNgo (PLVfile.Recommended Exception Section EXCEPTION WHEN UTL_FILE.c_invalid_mode). RAISE.c_read_error). RAISE.INVALID_MODE THEN recNgo (PLVfile. RAISE. WHEN UTL_FILE. WHEN UTL_FILE.READ_ERROR THEN recNgo (PLVfile.

. Background Process DBA_JOBS Oracle Job Queue Subsystem 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Built-in Packages: DBMS_JOB DBMS_JOB Scheduled Execution of Stored Procedures Application SUBMIT RUN REMOVE ..page 233 .

You can use DBMS_JOB to: Replicate data between different database instances. ± Spawn background processes to avoid blocking client process. but only ³publicly available´ and supported in PL/SQL Release 2. ± ± ± ±    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Overview of DBMS_JOB  DBMS_JOB provides an API to the Oracle job queues. Built by Oracle to support snapshots and replication.page 234 .2. Create a listener program to poll the contents of a pipe and take action. Made its debut in PL/SQL Release 2. Schedule large batch jobs to run on "off hours".1. Schedule regular maintenance on instances. which in turn offers job scheduling capabilities within the Oracle Server.

Submits a job to the queue using a predefined job number. Submits a job to the queue returning a unique job number. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Forces immediate execution of the specified job number. Changes one or all attributes of a job. Changes the job string of a job.page 235 CHANGE INTERVAL ISUBMIT NEXT_DATE REMOVE RUN SUBMIT USER_EXPORT WHAT 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .DBMS_JOB Module Outline BROKEN Marks the job as either FIXED or BROKEN. Broken jobs will not run as scheduled. Changes the interval between executions of a job. Returns the job string for a job number. Changes when a queued job will run. Removes the job from the queue.

'calculate_totals. you specify the date on which it should next execute. I run calculate_totals immediately and then on a daily basis thereafter. and then the job¶s execution interval (frequency of execution).SUBMIT (job#.'. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .ISUBMIT and supply the job number. Notice that the start time is a DATE expression.page 236 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . BEGIN DBMS_JOB.  A job is a call to a stored procedure or an anonymous block ± It must end with a semi-colon and can contain ³hard-coded´ arguments. while the interval is a string (this is dynamic PL/SQL!)  You can also call DBMS_JOB.Submitting a Job DECLARE job# BINARY_INTEGER. ± In the above example.  When you submit a job. END. SYSDATE. 'SYSDATE + 1'). instead of having DBMS_JOB generate one for you.

null. what => 'DBMS_DDL.l (v_jobno).''TENK''' || '.ANALYZE_OBJECT. BEGIN DBMS_JOB.estimate_percent=>50).submit ( job => v_jobno. interval => 'TRUNC(SYSDATE+1)' ).'. DBMS_DDL. to analyze a specific table every evening at midnight.''ESTIMATE''.ANALYZE_OBJECT ' || '(''TABLE''. p. /  This block submits a job that uses a built-in procedure.Submit Job Example DECLARE v_jobno INTEGER.page 237 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .''LOAD1''. END. next_date => TRUNC (SYSDATE + 1). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

2.' . executes for the first time tomorrow and every 10 minutes thereafter.next_date => SYSDATE + 1/24 .SYSDATE+1.' . 'my_job2(date_IN=>SYSDATE).what => 'my_job1(''string_parm_value''. ± Job 2 passes a date into procedure MY_JOB2. and 3.'. DBMS_JOB.ISUBMIT (2. ± Job 3 is a PL/SQL block which does nothing. executes immediately.DBMS_JOB. DBMS_JOB. /  This block submits three jobs to the job queue.page 238 . END. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . and will be removed from the queue automatically.null).ISUBMIT (job => 1 . END.'SYSDATE+10/1440').120). runs it in one hour and executes every day thereafter. numbered 1.SYSDATE.ISubmit Job Example BEGIN DBMS_JOB. ± Job 1 passes a string and number into procedure MY_JOB1.interval => 'SYSDATE +1').'BEGIN null.ISUBMIT(3.

you must use 2 single quotes to embed strings. at 9 AM Every Monday. 3). ''MONDAY''). ± Since it's a string. ''Q''). ± Use date arithmetic to request intervals smaller than a day. ''SATURDAY'') 2/24' 'NEXT_DAY ( ADD_MONTHS (TRUNC (SYSDATE. Every hour Every Sunday at 2 AM First Monday of each quarter. Wednesday and Friday at 6 PM 'SYSDATE + 1/24' 'NEXT_DAY (TRUNC (SYSDATE). ''MONDAY'') + 9/24' 'TRUNC (LEAST ( NEXT_DAY (SYSDATE. NEXT_DAY (SYSDATE.Specifying Job Times & Frequencies  Probably the most complicated part of using DBMS_JOB is to get the string expression of the job interval right.page 239 + 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . ''WEDNESDAY''). ''FRIDAY''))) + 18/24' PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . NEXT_DAY (SYSDATE.

± Produces a string that can be used to recreate an existing job in the job queue.ISUBMIT. Remove all jobs for current schema.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Performs an implicit COMMIT in current session.  Export jobs from the queue. DBMS_JOB.REMOVE (rec. expjob. ± Uses DBMS_JOB. END LOOP.job). retaining current job number. ± Only if the job was submitted from same schema BEGIN FOR rec IN (SELECT * FROM USER_JOBS) LOOP DBMS_JOB.RUN (my_job#).page 240 .  Run a job immediately.Other Job Queue Operations  Remove a job from the queue.

page 241 .sid AND jr.this_date .V$SESSION WHERE s.Job Queue Views  You can also view the job queue by looking at the DBA_JOBS_RUNNING.jr.job . DBA_JOBS and USER_JOBS views. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . SELECT jr.job ORDER BY jr.sql FROM DBA_JOBS_RUNNING . who owns them and when they began. ± The following query blends job information with session information to display currently-executing jobs.DBA_JOBS .sid = jr.username .what job_id username start_date job_definition jr j s showjobs.job = j.this_date.

± The default is PUBLIC access. The valid range is 0 through 36. ± job_queue_interval=N where N is the interval in seconds to check the job queue.page 242 . therefore. You will have to take special DBA action if you want to restrict who can run jobs.ora (initialization) file for your database instance: ± job_queue_processes=N where n is the number of concurrent background processes permitted. The valid range is 1 to 3600 (a maximum. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Setting up the Job Facility  Make sure that the correct access is set up for the DBMS_JOB package. of one hour).  You will need to set three parameters in the init.

Error Handling with DBMS_JOB  What if your stored procedure fails? ± After 16 attempts. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Then you can go ahead and submit it. ± Always include a WHEN OTHERS exception handler in your job program which traps any and all problems and automatically sets the job status to broken.page 243 . ± Do you want it to try 16 times? ± In addition. if your failure raises an unhandled exception. it may cause the background processes to fail and no longer run any jobs at all.  To avoid unexpected and unhandled failures of scheduled jobs: ± Always use the RUN built-in to execute your job in a ³test´ mode. the job facility will mark your job as broken.

± Obtains the job number from a packaged function by passing the name of the procedure. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN job# := job_pkg. job_pkg.page 244 . µFAIL¶).. END. You can go in and fix the problem. ± Uses a call to BROKEN to set the status of the job to ³broken´.job (µcalc_totals¶) DBMS_JOB..Stopping the Job When It Fails PROCEDURE calc_totals IS BEGIN .sql showspc.BROKEN (job#. TRUE).log (µcalc_totals¶. spacelog. ± Calls log program of package to record that failure took place.sql  The WHEN OTHERS exception handler of the calc_totals procedure traps any kind of failure. ± Now the job facility will not try to run this program again.

You can use the DBMS_IJOB to manage the jobs of other users."Good to Knows" for DBMS_JOB  You may find it useful to always wrap your stored procedure call (the what) inside a BEGIN-END block. ± DBMS_JOB only allows you to modify characteristics and behavior of jobs submitted by the current schema. perform a COMMIT after your submit. If you find that you submit a job to run immediately and it does not start.  You will need to fully-qualify all database links (with user name and password) to get them to work properly.    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . When a job runs. difficult to reproduce behavior at times with "straight" procedure calls. ± We've noticed some aberrant.page 245 . it picks up the current execution environment for the user.

page 246 .Built-in Packages: DBMS_PIPE DBMS_PIPE Inter-session Communication 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

± More sophisticated debugging inside PL/SQL programs (work around fundamental limitations of DBMS_OUTPUT). ± Perform and commit DML in a separate transaction space from your main transaction. ± Interface PL/SQL-database activities with operating system functions and programs written in other languages. ± Operates outside of database transaction limitations.  Uses for DBMS_PIPE include: ± Parallelization of program execution. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . You can parallelize your own code.page 247 . Oracle uses database pipes to parallelize database operations.DBMS_PIPE Overview  Allows communication between different Oracle sessions through a pipe in the RDBMS Shared Global Area.

which can be composed of one or more separate packets. ± The pipe sends/receives a message. ± Names can be up to 128 chars long (do not use names beginning with ³ORA$´.page 248 .Architecture of DBMS_PIPE Shared Global Area ³Sue´ ³Bob´ Message Buffer Message Buffer Session A  Session B A pipe is a named object that uses the System Global Area to provide a non-transaction based conduit of information. using a maximum of 4096 bytes. They are reserved for Oracle use). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

number. ± Separate out the individual packets in the message (again: string.sql PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Each packet can be a string. date. ± There is just one message buffer per session.page 249 . ROWID or RAW. date or number). you can wait for up to 1000 days (or 86400000 seconds) for the pipe to be cleared. ± You can wait for up to 1000 days for a message.sql pipex2.Processing Flow of DBMS_PIPE  Construct a message from packets of information. ± This is the default.  Unpack the message packets and take action.  Receive a message from that pipe. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein pipex1.  Send the message to a named pipe. ± If there isn¶t currently room in the pipe. so you should always specify a timeout period.

UNIQUE_SESSION_NAME Returns name that is unique among all sessions in the database.page 250 . REMOVE_PIPE RESET_BUFFER Removes a pipe explicitly created via CREATE_PIPE. SEND_MESSAGE Sends contents of message buffer to the specified pipe. Clears your buffer so that PACK_MESSAGE and UNPACK_MESSAGE can work from the first item. NEXT_ITEM_TYPE Returns the datatype of the next item in the piped message. PACK_MESSAGE Packs an item into the message buffer for your session.DBMS_PIPE Module Outline Module Name CREATE_PIPE Description Creates a PUBLIC or PRIVATE pipe. making it a candidate for removal with a LRU algorithm. UNPACK_MESSAGE Unpacks the next item from the local message buffer and deposits it into the specified local variable. RECEIVE_MESSAGE Receives a message from pipe and copies to local buffer. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . PURGE Empties the contents of a pipe into your local buffer freeing it for removal.

PROCEDURE newpipe IS stat INTEGER. maxpipesize => 20000.CREATE_PIPE ( pipename => 'bbs'.  An explicit pipe can be private (accessible only to sessions with matching userID or SYSDBA privileges).page 251 . private => TRUE). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . BEGIN stat := DBMS_PIPE. ± Use CREATE_PIPE to create a pipe explicitly. ± Implicitly-created pipes are always public.Creating Public and Private Pipes  There are two ways to create pipes: implicitly and explicitly. ± Send messages to non-existent pipe implicitly create it.  A public pipe is accessible as long as you know its name. ± Specify TRUE for private argument of CREATE_PIPE.

Sending a Message Provide pipe name. FUNCTION send_message (pipename IN VARCHAR2. and new max pipe size (you can make it bigger. Status of 0 means message was sent.page 252 .. maxpipesize IN INTEGER DEFAULT 8192) RETURN INTEGER. END LOOP. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Fill your message buffer with packets of data. Send to "monthly" pipe. 10 * 4096). expanding pipe size to 40 Kbytes. IF pipe_stat != 0 THEN RAISE could_not_send. FOR month_num IN 1 . but not smaller).PACK_MESSAGE ( total_sales (month_num)). seconds you will wait. waiting up to 1 minute.SEND_MESSAGE ( µmonthly¶. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . timeout IN INTEGER DEFAULT maxwait. 12 LOOP DBMS_PIPE. 60. pipe_stat := DBMS_PIPE.

Receiving and Unpack a Message FUNCTION receive_message (pipename IN VARCHAR2. ± Specify pipe and number of seconds you will wait before you time out. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . PROCEDURE unpack_message (item OUT VARCHAR2).  Then you call UNPACK_MESSAGE to extract individual packets from the message. PROCEDURE unpack_message (item OUT NUMBER).page 253 . timeout IN INTEGER DEFAULT maxwait) RETURN INTEGER. ± Pipe status of 0 means the message was read successfully. ± You need to know the datatype of packet or check it using NEXT_ITEM_TYPE.  First you pull the message from the pipe and place it in buffer with RECEIVE_MESSAGE. PROCEDURE unpack_message (item OUT DATE).

page 254 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . analyze_production (SYSDATE. pass it on to the IF pipe_status = 0 computation THEN program. PROCEDURE analyze_assembly_data (every_n_secs IN INTEGER) IS pipe_status INTEGER. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 'Production data unavailable. If I got something. data not received.UNPACK_MESSAGE (prod_total). END.A Pipe-based Listener Program  Program wakes up every N seconds to read the data from the pipe and analyze results from assembly line (an intentional "infinite loop"!). every_n_secs).'). END LOOP. LOOP pipe_status := DBMS_PIPE. Wait up to N prod_total NUMBER. seconds for the BEGIN next report. prod_total). END IF. ELSE RAISE_APPLICATION_ERROR ( Stop process if -20000. DBMS_PIPE.RECEIVE_MESSAGE ( 'production'.

± Or you use the built-in NEXT_ITEM_TYPE to tell you in advance the datatype of the next packet in the message and take appropriate action.tst  Since a message can be composed of packets of different datatypes.Unpacking the Message FUNCTION next_item_type RETURN INTEGER. you have to make sure that you unpack a packet into the right kind of variable.sql dbpipe. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Either: ± You know the datatype and therefore can ³hard-code´ the correct variable into the call to UNPACK_MESSAGE.page 255 . Returns one of the following values: Value 0 6 9 11 12 23 Description or Data type No more items in buffer NUMBER VARCHAR2 ROWID DATE RAW dbpipe.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± You have processes which can run in parallel. In order to do so I must first compute total sales. I must execute them sequentially and incur an elapsed time of 45 minutes before I calculate the profits. you can do the same for your application if: ± You have multiple CPUs available. ± These programs each take 15 minutes.  Suppose I want to calculate my net profit. but are not dependent on each other. total office expenses and total compensation.Parallelizing Your Code with Pipes  Oracle uses DBMS_PIPE to improve RDBMS performance. ± The CEO is decidedly unhappy about the delay.  Without pipes.page 256 .

Sequential vs.page 257 . Parallel Execution Sequential Execution: Maximum Elapsed Time S t a r t E n d Process A Process B Process C Parallel Execution: Minimum Elapsed Time Start Process A Process B Process C End 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

wait_for_confirmation.page 258 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .in a muchdecreased elapsed time.  The ³wait´ program waits till it receives a message from each program. Then net profits can be computed -.  The ³kick off´ programs pass their messages to separate pipes. calculate_net_profits. ± Other programs running in the background grab the messages and start their corresponding calculation program. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± When each program is complete.Parallelizing PL/SQL Execution BEGIN kick_off_sales_calc. kick_off_totcomp_calc. END. it puts a message (perhaps even a value) into the pipe. kick_off_exp_calc.

stat := DBMS_PIPE. END. PROCEDURE calculate_sales IS stat INTEGER.PACK_MESSAGE (sales$). END.SEND_MESSAGE (µsales¶). Receive the year.SEND_MESSAGE (µsales¶). DBMS_PIPE. and send back the results. IF stat = 0 THEN lots_of_number_crunching.PACK_MESSAGE (1995).page 259 . stat := DBMS_PIPE. calculate sales. stat := DBMS_PIPE. ELSE DBMS_PIPE. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Send message to start calculations.PACK_MESSAGE (NULL).RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µsales¶). END IF. BEGIN stat := DBMS_PIPE.Code to Kick Off and Calculate PROCEDURE kick_off_sales_calc IS stat INTEGER.SEND_MESSAGE (µsales¶). BEGIN DBMS_PIPE. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

END. DBMS_PIPE. DBMS_PIPE.RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µsales¶). BEGIN stat := DBMS_PIPE. END.offexp$ . PROCEDURE calculate_net_profits IS BEGIN net_profits := sales$ .Waiting for Confirmation PROCEDURE wait_for_confirmation IS stat INTEGER. The order in which you wait is insignificant. DBMS_PIPE.RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µcomp¶).UNPACK_MESSAGE (comp$).RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µoffexp¶).page 260 .UNPACK_MESSAGE (offexp$). Perform final calculation.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . stat := DBMS_PIPE.UNPACK_MESSAGE (sales$). parallel. stat := DBMS_PIPE. Wait for all calculations to finish.comp$.

pkg syscache.Other DBMS_PIPE Examples  Simple trace package that sends it output either to screen or to pipe. syscache. watch. and sends it to the pipe. in-memory cache.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± A listener program grabs the request (including the return pipe name). ± Demonstrates the use of toggles and switches in packages. obtains the data. ± The requester reads the information from the pipe.page 261 .pkg  Implementation of a system-wide. ± A request for data is passed to a "central" pipe.pkg p_and_l.

.page 262 .Built-in Packages: DBMS_UTILITY DBMS_UTILITY Application GET_TIME GET_HASH_VALUE FORMAT_CALL_STACK . A µgrab-bag¶ of miscellaneous operations SCHEMA 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..

Returns database version (Oracle8) Executes DDL statement (Oracle8). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Returns execution call stack. Returns hash value for string.DBMS_UTILITY Module Outline ANALYZE_DATABASE ANALYZE_PART_OBJECT Analyze objects in database Runs ANALYZE TABLE or ANALYZE INDEX for each partition of the object (Oracle8). Parses comma-delimited list to index-by table.page 263 dbver.pkg COMMA_TO_TABLE COMPILE_SCHEMA DATA_BLOCK_ADDRESS_BLOCK DATA_BLOCK_ADDRESS_FILE DB_VERSION EXEC_DDL_STATEMENT FORMAT_CALL_STACK FORMAT_ERROR_STACK GET_HASH_VALUE 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . Recompile INVALID objects in specified schema. Returns error stack. Gets file number part of data block address.pkg dbparm. Gets block number part of data block address.

GET_PARAMETER_VALUE GET_TIME IS_PARALLEL_SERVER MAKE_DATA_BLOCK_ADDRESS NAME_RESOLVE NAME_TOKENIZE PORT_STRING TABLE_TO_COMMA Retrieves value of database parameter (Oracle8). Returns platform and version of database. Parses string object designator into components. Returns "current time" down to hundredth of second.page 264 .DBMS_UTILITY Module Outline. Returns TRUE if in parallel server mode. Creates data block address from block & file numbers. Converts list (in index-by-table) of elements into a comma-delimited list (string). cont. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Resolves name of object into component parts.

v_start). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .GET_TIME.page 265 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . END. ± Useful when analyzing individual PL/SQL programs.  Compare results from consecutive calls to GET_TIME to determine the elapsed time of PL/SQL code execution.Sub-Second Timings with GET_TIME  GET_TIME returns the number of 100ths of seconds that have elapsed since an arbitrary point in time. Basic steps necessary to convert GET_TIME into a performance analysis tool.GET_TIME . BEGIN v_start := DBMS_UTILITY. especially those that run in sub-second time. DBMS_OUTPUT. DECLARE v_start BINARY_INTEGER. calc_totals. so GET_TIME offers significant additional granularity. ± SYSDATE only reflects times down to the nearest second.PUT_LINE (DBMS_UTILITY.

Clean and lean timing code ovrhead.capture.Building a Layer Over GET_TIME Partial package specification PACKAGE PLVtmr IS PROCEDURE turn_on. BEGIN PLVtmr.page 266 . adjust_in IN NUMBER := 0.sql plvtmr. reset_in IN BOOLEAN := TRUE). END.show_elapsed. PROCEDURE set_factor (factor_in IN NUMBER). END PLVtmr. calc_totals. PROCEDURE capture ( context_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) PROCEDURE show_elapsed (prefix_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. PLVtmr. PROCEDURE turn_off.sps plvtmr.spb 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

COMPANY_TYPE procedure STEVEN. ± Most recent program at beginning of "report". ----.CALC_NET_WORTH anonymous block  "Little known facts" about FORMAT_CALL_STACK: ± Contains embedded new-line characters. ± Does not show package elements. only the package name.Accessing the Execution Call Stack Use in the exception section to show context of error. END.FORMAT_CALL_STACK).PL/SQL Call Stack ----object line object handle number name 88ce3f74 88e49fc4 88e49390 88e2bd20 8 2 1 1 package STEVEN. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN DBMS_OUTPUT. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .VALIDATE_REQUEST function STEVEN.page 267 . equivalent to CHR(10).PUT_LINE ( DBMS_UTILITY.

Instead. startpos INTEGER := 1. dispcs. END LOOP. next_line := SUBSTR ( stk. CHR(10).Accessing Call Stack Contents  The call stack length can easily exceed 255 bytes.PUT_LINE (next_line).sp dispcs.pkg plvcs. LOOP next_newline := INSTR (stk. which means you cannot pass it to DBMS_OUTPUT directly. use a loop to read through the stack. next_line VARCHAR2(255). next_newline .startpos + 1).page 268 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .FORMAT_CALL_STACK || CHR(10).tst callstack. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .sps DBMS_OUTPUT. startpos := next_newline + 1. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE dispcs IS stk VARCHAR2(10000). 1). next_newline INTEGER. END. EXIT WHEN next_newline = 0. startpos. BEGIN stk := DBMS_UTILITY. startpos.

.. part2 OUT VARCHAR2.  Possible "Part 1" Types 5 7 8 9 Synonym Procedure Function Package What a chore! All those arguments.for encapsulation! showcomp. object_number OUT NUMBER). PROCEDURE DBMS_UTILITY.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . part1_type OUT NUMBER. the way they are attached also follows a complicated syntax. context IN NUMBER.sp snc. part1 OUT VARCHAR2. schema OUT VARCHAR2.NAME_RESOLVE (name IN VARCHAR2.Resolving Names of Stored Code  Code names have many components. see it as an opportunity.page 269 . dblink OUT VARCHAR2... ± Use NAME_RESOLVE to break down an identifier string into its components easily.but don't see it as a problem.

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