Achieving PL/SQL Excellence

Oracle PL/SQL Advanced Techniques
Oracle7 thru Oracle8i
Steven Feuerstein
www.StevenFeuerstein.com www.Quest.com www.OReilly.com
and contributions most excellent from Bill Pribyl and Dick Bolz

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

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Objective & Outline 

Objective
± Expand your knowledge and awareness of important and new features of the PL/SQL language. 

Outline
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± Building with Packages (Oracle7+) PL/SQL Collections (Oracle7 and Oracle8+) Cursor Variables (Oracle7 and Oracle8+) Dynamic SQL: DBMS_SQL and Native Dynamic SQL (8i) Calling Java from PL/SQL (Oracle8i) and C (Oracle8) Oracle Advanced Queuing with DBMS_AQ (Oracle8) Managing Large Objects with DBMS_LOB (Oracle8) Other Oracle8i New Features
» Autonomous Transactions (Oracle8i) » Invoker Rights Model (Oracle8i) » Row Level Security: DBMS_RLS

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Software Used in Training 

PL/Vision: a library of packages installed on top of PL/SQL.
± PL/Vision Lite - use it, copy, change it for free -- unless you build software to be sold commercially. ± Active PL/SQL Knowledge Base: contains PL/Vision Professional, the fully supported and enhanced version. 

Demonstration scripts executed in the training can be found on the RevealNet PL/SQL Pipeline:
± http://www.revealnet.com/Pipelines/PLSQL/index.htm ± Archives surfboard, Miscellaneous, PL/SQL Seminar Files ± See filedesc.doc for a listing of many of the files.
plsql_ides.txt 

The PL/SQL IDE (Integrated Development Environment).
± You no longer have to use SQL*Plus and a crude editor! Choose from among the many listed in plsql_ides.txt.

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Achieving PL/SQL Excellence

Building with PL/SQL Packages 
 

Overview Initialization section Overloading

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What is a Package? 

A collection of code elements, from procedures and functions to TYPE, variable and cursor declarations.
± Single-most important structure within PL/SQL, and almost certainly one of the most under-utilized. ± Conceptually very simple, it can take some time to fully grasp the implications and potential of the package. 

The method of choice by Oracle and other software developers for extending the PL/SQL language.
± You will find packages in the database, in Oracle Developer/2000, in Oracle Application Server. 

Let¶s review some of the benefits of packages.
tmr.pkg dbparm.pkg

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pks te_employee. ± Puts more structure and organization in your body of code.page 6 .pkg  Improve transaction integrity by hiding data structures behind the package interface. watch. te_employee. package-based "component". ± There's a big difference between a bunch of separate programs and a coherent.When to Build a Package  Join physically logically-related code.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . you call the packaged procedures and functions instead.pkg insga. custrules. ± Can lead to performance improvements. ± Instead of writing SQL directly in your programs.pkb  Construct very flexible and usable utilities for developers.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . no Complete request for packaged element. Does the package have an init section? yes Run initialization code. the first time any package element is referenced. Program references package element the first time in each session.page 7 . ± The PL/SQL runtime engine determines when and if this code should be run.Package Initialization  The initialization section is a block of code at the end of the package body that is executed once per session.

In fact. BEGIN END pkg.Package Initialization Structure  The initialization section: ± Is defined after and outside of any programs in the package.  Useful for: ± Performing complex setting of default or initial values. most packages you build won't have one.page 8 . ± Can have its own exception handling section. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . FUNCTION func RETURN BEGIN END. ± Setting up package data which does not change for the duration of a session. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein BEGIN after/outside of any program defined in the pkg. ± Is not required. PACKAGE BODY pkg IS PROCEDURE proc IS BEGIN END. ± Confirming that package is properly instantiated.

init. 'No profile for ' || USER). printer FROM user_config WHERE user_id = USER. ± Body contains only initialization section. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . */ 'Y'. PACKAGE BODY sessinit IS /* No declared package elements at all! */ BEGIN /* Get user preferences for this user.. END sessinit.tst this user.Configure Session with Init. EXCEPTION WHEN NO_DATA_FOUND THEN /* No record for show_lov := show_toolbar := printer := PACKAGE sessinit IS show_lov CHAR(1). show_toolbar.. 'lpt1'.pkg init. printer VARCHAR2(60).page 9 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . WHEN OTHERS THEN RAISE_APPLICATION_ERROR (-20000. Section  An unusual package! ± Specification contains only variables. show_toolbar CHAR(1).  Also a package with many design flaws. 'Y'. tb_flag. defprinter INTO show_lov. END sessinit. */ SELECT lov_flag.

Initialization section populates a PL/SQL table.. fmts(3) := 'DD-MON'. ± This increases the flexibility of the date conversion process. fmts(9) := 'MM/DD/YYYY'..sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . PLVdate. fmts(12) := 'RRMMDD'. END dt.page 10 . BEGIN fmts(1) := 'DD-MON-RR'. ± The datemgr. datemgr. .pkg dates. fmts(4) := 'MM/DD'. employs several PL/SQL tables to convert strings and to perform date arithmetic. fmts(11) := 'YYYYMMDD'.pkg file demonstrates the basic technique (and the reliance on an initialization section) used to achieve this flexibility. fmts(10) := 'MMDDYYYY'. fmt_count := 12. fmts(2) := 'DD-MON-YYYY'.Populate Collections  The PL/Vision Date package.

Program Overloading  When you overload programs.page 11 . you need to make that code as smart and as easy to use as possible. ± You can overload modules in any declaration section and in packages. ± Overloading transfers the "need to know" from the user to the overloaded program. myproc myproc 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . myproc  Overloading is a critical feature when building comprehensive programmatic interfaces (APIs) or components using packages. you give two or more programs the same name. ± If you want others to use your code.

number_string := TO_CHAR (10000). number_string := TO_CHAR_FROM_NUMBER (10000). 'MMDDYY'). ± But Oracle couldn't offer that level of convenience without overloading.Overloading in PL/SQL Built-ins  PL/SQL uses overloading in many common functions.page 12 . and took functions like TO_CHAR and TO_DATE totally for granted. 'MMDDYY'). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Without overloading. you would have to deal with something like this: date_string := TO_CHAR_FROM_DATE (SYSDATE. date_string := TO_CHAR (SYSDATE. ± You just probably never gave it a thought.

IN OUT).How Overloading Works  For two or more modules to be overloaded. order or datatype family (CHAR vs. ± Arguments differ only in their mode (IN.  Undistinguishing characteristics: ± Functions differ only in their RETURN datatype. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 13 . the compiler must be able to distinguish between the two calls at compile-time. ± The programs are of different types: procedure and function. When you compile the package or block containing the overloaded code. VARCHAR2 is not different enough). ± 2. ± Their formal parameters differ only in datatype and the datatypes are in the same family.  Distinguishing characteristics: ± The formal parameters of overloaded modules must differ in number. When you compile programs that use the overloaded code. There are two different "compile times": ± 1. OUT.

FUNCTION func1 (val IN VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . PACKAGE only_returns IS FUNCTION func1 (val IN VARCHAR2) RETURN DATE. which one? DBMS_OUTPUT.proc1 (v_value). Parameter data types cause conflict.PUT_LINE (only_returns. Only difference is parameter mode.func1 (v_value)). Only difference is function RETURN type. which one? too_similar.calc ('123'). END param_modes.page 14 . PROCEDURE calc (reg_in IN VARCHAR2). END too_many_cals. PACKAGE param_modes IS PROCEDURE proc1 (val IN VARCHAR2).Examples of Invalid Overloadings PACKAGE too_similar IS PROCEDURE calc (reg_in IN CHAR). which one? param_modes. PROCEDURE proc1 (val IN OUT VARCHAR2). END only_returns.

not Value ± A less common application of overloading. In this case. You use the type of data and not its value to determine which of the overloaded programs should be executed. so much as providing different ways of requesting the same activity.l substitute does an even better job.  Fitting the Program to the User ± To make your code as useful as possible. ± The DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE procedure illustrates this technique -and the PL/Vision p. the overloading does not provide a single name for different activities. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 15 .Overload Wherever Possible  Supporting Many Data Combinations ± Apply the same action to different kinds or combinations of data.  Overloading by Type. you may construct different versions of the ³same´ program which correspond to different patterns of use.

HH:MI:SS PM').sps p. PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2).spb PROCEDURE l (boolean_in IN BOOLEAN). PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2. PROCEDURE l (number_in IN NUMBER). PACKAGE p IS PROCEDURE l (date_in IN DATE.A "Classic" Overloaded Package  Many different datatype combinations. date_in IN DATE. boolean_in IN BOOLEAN). YYYY . YYYY . number_in IN NUMBER). p. PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2. mask_in IN VARCHAR2 := µMonth DD. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . mask_in IN VARCHAR2 := 'Month DD. PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2.HH:MI:SS PM'). allowing the user to pass data to the "display engine" without writing "pre-processing" code. END p.page 16 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .

'MM/DD/YY HH:MI:SS')). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 17 .PUT_LINE ('FALSE').PUT_LINE ('TRUE')..l (SQLERRM. p.PUT_LINE (SQLERRM || ': ' || TO_CHAR (SQLCODE)). DBMS_OUTPUT. SQLCODE). p.l (print_report_fl).Advantage of Extended Overloading ‡ Minimal overloading means lots of extra coding. IF print_report_fl THEN DBMS_OUTPUT. ELSE DBMS_OUTPUT. DBMS_OUTPUT.l (SYSDATE). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein ‡Extended overloadings are more likely to meet user needs.l ('So what is different?'). p.PUT_LINE ('So what is different?').. DBMS_OUTPUT. p. END IF.PUT_LINE (TO_CHAR (SYSDATE.

few developers are considerate enough of their users to try to anticipate their needs.. If you take these different circumstances into account when you design your package specification. can be applied or needed under very different circumstances. In my experience. think about the way it will be used. appreciated. the user of your package can benefit from writing less code.. ± If you want to write software that is admired. such as "display data" or "create a file". PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Your code is a a more natural "fit" under a variety of requirements.Fitting the Program to the User Writing "unnecessary" code? Time to overload!  A single piece of functionality.and taken completely for granted.page 18   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .

FOPEN ('tmp/flags'.page 19  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . END. 'W'). 'blah'). BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE. sometimes you will want to create a file and then perform additional operations. so this is just the way it has to be.FILE_TYPE. It just needs to be present. you have to declare the record to hold the file handle. even though you are simply going to close the file immediately after opening it.FCLOSE (fid).  In other words. 'exists.PUT_LINE (fid.flg'. ± She doesn't care what's in it. Of course. right? WRONG! PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Here is the code required by UTL_FILE: DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.Creating a File for a Quick Touch  Suppose a developer needs to create a file to be used as a "flag" in the operating system. UTL_FILE. UTL_FILE.

PLVfile.ini'. TO_CHAR (SYSDATE)).Procedure and Function Overloaded  Why not overload a "create file" program so that you can pick the one that most closely fits your situation? Consider the PLVfile package of PL/Vision. END PLVfile.pkg PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .FILE_TYPE. /* Function */ FUNCTION fcreate (file_in IN VARCHAR2. custrules. line_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) RETURN UTL_FILE.page 20 .fcreate ('exists. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Use as Function DECLARE fid UTL_FILE. line_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL).FILE_TYPE. v_user).put_line (fid.flg').fcreate ('temp. BEGIN fid := PLVfile.  Overloading of FCreate PACKAGE PLVfile IS /* Procedure */ PROCEDURE fcreate (file_in IN VARCHAR2. END. Use as Procedure BEGIN PLVfile.

Define a different program name for each datatype. when you use DBMS_SQL to set up a dynamic query.  There are three ways to accomplish this: ± Don't overload. but the type of data. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± For example."By-Type" Overloading  In some situations. the user does not need to pass data. ± Pass a piece of data of the right type. you must call the DEFINE_COLUMN procedure to define the datatype of the Nth column in the cursor.page 21 . ± Pass a string ³name´ of the datatype.

.page 22 . 1). DBMS_SQL.Options for Specifying Column Type  Don't even bother overloading. ± DBMS_SQL. 2.. DBMS_SQL.  So many program names to remember! Pass a literal value.  Nasty hard-coding. 30).DEFINE_COLUMN (cur..DEFINE_COLUMN ± PLVgen. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. 30). Pass a named constant.. DBMS_SQL.. Lotsa typing.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. 2.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.  Now let's look at two examples of overloading by datatype. 2. 30).DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. 1.. DBMS_SQL. 1.. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_INTEGER_COLUMN (cur.. 'STRING'. lotsa names.VARCHAR2_TYPE. 'NUMBER'). DBMS_SQL. BEGIN DBMS_SQL..DEFINE_VARCHAR2_COLUMN (cur....NUMBER_TYPE).func 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

you only need to pass a value -. ± The three code blocks below are equivalent. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. ± To make it easier to accomplish this task.Defining Dynamic SQL Columns  The DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL. v_ename. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.page 23 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .DEFINE_COLUMN. 1. 1.any value -. 2. DBMS_UTILITY. DBMS_SQL.of the correct type. USER.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. 30). 1). from the perspective of DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN procedure defines the datatype of a column.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. 30). DBMS_SQL. v_empno). 'a'.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.GET_TIME). 2. 2.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. 30). 1.

SQL> exec plvgen. PROCEDURE func (name_in IN VARCHAR2. PROCEDURE func (name_in IN VARCHAR2. SYSDATE) SQL> exec plvgen. type_in IN VARCHAR2). please! 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . any Boolean will do. PACKAGE PLVgen IS PROCEDURE func (name_in IN VARCHAR2. 1) A date function. please! A number function. type_in IN NUMBER). the user indicates the type of function to be generated by providing a value. any string. Any number. type_in IN DATE).func ('total_salary'.Generating Functions by Value  In PLVgen. ± The particular value itself is of no importance. any date.func ('last_date'.page 24 .

END. PACKAGE profits IS PROCEDURE calc (comp_id_IN IN NUMBER). PL/SQL does not sense a conflict with above overloading even though comp_id is a numeric column. ± When I compile profits.page 25 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . but you might later found out that you cannot actually call any of the overloaded programs.comp_id%TYPE).The Frustrations of Overloading  Watch out! An overloading can compile successfully. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  In the above example. PROCEDURE calc (comp_id_IN IN company. I rely on an anchored type (%TYPE) to establish the datatype of the second calc¶s parameter.

 Can I overload two programs which have parameters that differ only by name.page 26 . PROCEDURE calc_total (reg_in IN VARCHAR2). END sales. how would you do it? (Don't peek at the next page!) BEGIN sales.calc_total ('ZONE2'). END. why not? ± If so. sales.calc_total ('NORTHWEST').Quiz! Nuances of Overloading PACKAGE sales IS PROCEDURE calc_total (zone_in IN VARCHAR2). sales. like calc_totals shown above? ± If not.pkg ? 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

next_date => TRUNC (SYSDATE + 1). what => 'DBMS_DDL. interval => 'TRUNC(SYSDATE+1)').''TENK''' || '. DBMS_JOB.sql  Advantages 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .'.ANALYZE_OBJECT ' || '(''TABLE''. This is especially useful when working with infrequently used built-in programs.''LOAD1''.''ESTIMATE''. namednot. of named notation include: ± Code is more "self-documenting".submit ( job => v_jobno. That way you don't have to know and pass default values.Using Named Notation <formal parameter name> => <expression>  Explicit association between the formal parameter (the "name") with the actual parameter (the "value").estimate_percent=>50).null. ± You can skip over (not specify values for) any IN parameters that have default values.page 27 .

Three types of collections: ± Index-by tables (Oracle7 only.Achieving PL/SQL Excellence PL/SQL Collections   Collections are single-dimensioned lists of information. Oracle8 and above) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 28 . originally called PL/SQL tables) ± Nested tables (Oracle8 and above) ± Variable arrays (VARRAYs.

 Emulate bi-directional cursors. Improve query performance by avoiding joins. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Avoid mutating table errors in database triggers. Build hash tables (custom indexing structures).page 29     1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .When to Use Collections  Maintain any kind of list of related information for use in your programs. which are otherwise not supported in PL/SQL Cache data in session-level memory for faster access.

± Homogeneous » Data in each row has the same structure. Valid row numbers range: -2. Instead.647 to 2.  Characteristics of an index-by table: ± Unbounded » Practically speaking. this broad range allows you to employ the row number as an intelligent key.647 » You will not actually create tables this large.page 30 .Index-By Tables TYPE <table_type> IS TABLE OF <datatype> INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER.483. ± Sparse » Data does not have to be stored in consecutive rows of information. emp_copy inmem_emp_t. DECLARE TYPE inmem_emp_t IS TABLE OF emp%ROWTYPE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER.147. ± Available only in PL/SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .483.147.

children 6306 6412 6810 6904 µBarbara Anne¶ µGary Richard¶ µAdam Russell¶ µLisa Nadezhka¶ datemgr. Variable declaration children child_list_type.page 31 . Component Selection kid := children (4). Error: NO_DATA_FOUND 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . children (6904) := 'Lisa Nadezhka'.Index_by Tables TYPE declaration PACKAGE BODY family IS TYPE child_list_type IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2 (30) INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER.pkg children 6306 6412 6904 µBarbara Anne¶ µGary Richard¶ µLisa Marie¶ children (6810) := µAdam Russell.

birthdays when_t.147. ± Unbounded.Nested Tables [CREATE OR REPLACE] TYPE <table_type> IS TABLE OF <datatype> [NOT NULL].  Nested table characteristics ± Homogeneous » Each row contains the same structure of data. DECLARE TYPE when_t IS TABLE OF DATE.483. but only with explicit EXTEND requests » Practically speaking. but can become sparse if you DELETE inner rows ± Available both in PL/SQL and SQL (as a column in a table) ± The order of elements is not preserved in the database 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .647 ± Initially dense.page 32 . Valid row numbers range: 1 to 2.

Nested Tables CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE child_table_type IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2 (30). CREATE TABLE db_family (surname VARCHAR2 (30). For ORACLE's use only db_family surname kids BOLZ BOND Eric Thomas Max Richard Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Marie ntdemo. kids child_table_type) NESTED TABLE kids STORE AS kids_ntab.page 33 .sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

483. DECLARE TYPE numbers_t IS VARRAY (10) OF NUMBER.647 ± Dense » Never any gaps between defined rows. ± Available both in PL/SQL and SQL (as a column in a table) » And the order of elements are preserved in the database. can be EXTENDed or TRIMmed.Variable Arrays [CREATE OR REPLACE] TYPE <table_type> IS VARRAY (N) OF <datatype> [NOT NULL]. ± Bounded » Upper limit established when the TYPE is defined. salaries numbers_t. ± Variable arrays are actually stored in the DB table 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Characteristics of variable arrays: ± Homogeneous » Each row contains the same structure of data. Maximum value: 2.147.page 34 .

db_family surname kids BOLZ BOND 1 Barbara Anne 2 Gary Richard 3 Lisa Marie 1 Eric Thomas 2 Max Richard vademo.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 35 .Variable Arrays CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE child_va_type IS VARRAY (8) OF VARCHAR2 (30). CREATE TABLE db_family (surname VARCHAR2 (30). kids child_va_type).

this can only occur in a PL/SQL declaration section. from the TYPE. ± You can declare multiple collections from that TYPE. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Then you declare an instance of that type. or in a PL/SQL declaration section. TYPE integer_vat IS VARRAY(10) OF INTEGER. you define the TYPE of the collection. ± For nested tables and VARRAYs. END tabtypes. Best option: package specification. a collection. ± For index-by tables. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE tabtypes IS TYPE integer_ibt IS TABLE OF INTEGER INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER..page 36 .. . TYPE integer_nt IS TABLE OF INTEGER. you can define the TYPE in the database with a CREATE statement.Defining Collections  First.

elem_type_name = A.' || A.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 'TMRS_VT') T.attr_type_name Attributes all_coll_types T.owner T.  ALL_COLL_TYPES ± The types you have created (or have access to) in the database  ALL_TYPE_ATTRS ± Attributes of the data type used in the TYPE definition. ± The code used to define the collection TYPE  There is no information in the data dictionary available for index-by tables.type_name.Obtaining Collection Information SELECT FROM WHERE AND AND AND A. colldd. all_type_attrs A T.page 37 .attr_name || ' .type_name IN ('NAMES_VT'.owner = A.owner = USER T.

Initialize the collection. ± Index-by tables are initialized automatically. 200. DECLARE TYPE numbers_t IS VARRAY (10) OF NUMBER. it must be initialized. 300). You must initialize them explicitly with a constructor. BEGIN CREATE TABLE employee_denorm ( employee_id INTEGER. empty when declared. ± Nested tables and VARRAYs are atomically null. / DECLARE -. salary_history numbers_t). 200.page 38 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .Initializing Collections  Before you can use a collection. TYPE defined in PL/SQL TYPE defined in the database Collection used in a table PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . BEGIN CREATE TYPE numbers_t IS VARRAY (10) OF NUMBER. salaries numbers_t := numbers_t (100. 300). salaries numbers_t := numbers_t (100.

comp_tab comp_tabtype.  Starting with Oracle8. Again. BEGIN comp_tab(1). consider putting TYPEs in database or packages.3.Collections of Composites  Starting with Oracle 7. ± Can easily create an index-by table with the same structure as a database table by declaring a record with %ROWTYPE.comp_id := 1005. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Here we have a three step process. ± But you cannot have nested composite datatypes.company_id%TYPE. total_rev NUMBER). the datatype for any of the collection types can also be an object. TYPE comp_tabtype IS TABLE OF comp_rectype INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. DECLARE TYPE comp_rectype IS RECORD (comp_id company. the ³homogeneous´ contents of an index-by table's row can be a record .page 39 .

). ± In almost every case. unless the order in which items are selected is of importance.  Especially handy when caching data from relational tables in user memory.  Rows do not have to be defined sequentially. ± In an index-by table. etc. a row exists in the table only when a value is assigned to that row. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . it is very similar to a database table.Sparse is Nice  The sparse characteristic of index-by tables and nested tables can be put to good use. ± Instead. In this way.page 40 . ± You should not fill sequentially. your collections will contain a row's worth of information. consider using the row value as "smart data" for your application (primary key. order by date.

END LOOP. Some questions: ± Why would I put this collection table in a package? ± When is the collection loaded with the data? ± What rows in that collection are utilized? psemp.Transferring DB Table to Collection CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE psemp IS TYPE emp_tabtype IS TABLE OF emp%ROWTYPE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. END. END.pkg psemp.page 41 . Initialization section of package 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein  This package moves the entire contents of the emp table into its corresponding collection.empno) := rec. emp_tab emp_tabtype. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY psemp IS BEGIN FOR rec IN (SELECT * FROM emp) LOOP emp_tab (rec.tst  PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

 For index-by tables. you must reference existing rows or a NO_DATA_FOUND exception is raised. ± Not necessary for index-by tables. once extended.Collection Gotchas CREATE TYPE names_t IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2(30). BEGIN greedy_ceos(1) := 'Hamilton. even if you haven't assigned a value explicitly. / DECLARE greedy_ceos names_t := names_t (). Jordan'. / Error -6533! You've got to EXTEND first!  EXTEND before assigning a value to a row.page 42 . the row exists. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Use the EXISTS method to determine if a row existed. ± For VARRAYs and nested tables. but you must do it for VARRAYs and nested tables. END.

BEGIN IF salaries. END IF. -. optional argument.EXISTS (v_employee_id) THEN -. preextend.We are OK.Extend by 10 since I know I will need that many. ± Pre-extending a large number of rows in advance can improve performance.page 43 . salaries. salaries(salaries.Set the value of each new row to the contents of the first row.Handling Collection Gotchas BEGIN -.FIRST)).PUT_LINE ('Data for employee not available.  You can EXTEND one or more rows.').tst  Include a handler for NO_DATA_FOUND or use the EXISTS method to avoid these exceptions. ± Assign a default value with a second. ELSE DBMS_OUTPUT.EXTEND (10. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

number of elements allowed in a VARRAY. ± LIMIT tells you the max. ± TRIM removes rows from a VARRAY. EXISTS returns TRUE if the specified row is defined.Collection Methods  Obtain information about the collection COUNT returns number of rows currently defined in the table. NEXT/PRIOR return the closest defined row after/before the specified row. ± ± ± ±  Modify the contents of the collection ± DELETE deletes one or more rows from the index-by table. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 44 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .  The built-in package plitblm (PL/sql Index-TaBLe Methods) defines these methods. ± EXTEND adds rows to a nested table or VARRAY. FIRST/LAST return lowest/highest numbers of defined rows.

END. -.DELETE (myCollection. -.Delete a range of rows myCollection. 17255).page 45 .Delete all rows myCollection. DELETE releases memory.FREE_UNUSED_USER_MEMORY.The DELETE Method  You can delete one or more rows from a collection using DELETE: BEGIN -.DELETE.Delete one (the last) row myCollection. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . but you may also want to call DBMS_SESSION.DELETE (1400.LAST).

Navigating Through Collections 


Use FIRST and NEXT to move from beginning to end. Use LAST and PRIOR to move from end to beginning.
rowind PLS_INTEGER := birthdays.FIRST; -- birthdays.LAST BEGIN LOOP EXIT WHEN rowind IS NULL; DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE (birthdays(rowind).best_present); rowind := birthdays.NEXT (rowind); -- birthdays.PRIOR END LOOP; END;

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Using Collections Inside SQL 

Nested tables and VARRAYs can be defined as columns of a table and referenced directly within SQL. You can also apply SQL operations to the contents of nested tables and VARRAYs with these operators:
± THE - Maps a single column value in a single row to a virtual database table ± CAST - Maps a collection of one type to a collection of another type ± MULTISET - Maps a database table to a collection ± TABLE - Maps a collection to a database table  

Index-by tables are programmatic constructs only.
± You cannot make a direct reference to an index-by table in SQL. ± Instead, so do indirectly with a PL/SQL function.

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Using Collections inside SQL
SELECT column_value FROM TABLE (SELECT children FROM db_family WHERE surname = 'BOLZ'); db_family surname children BOLZ BOND Eric Thomas Max Richard UPDATE TABLE (SELECT children FROM db_family WHERE SURNAME = 'BOLZ) SET column_value = 'Lisa Nadezhka' WHERE column_value = 'Lisa Marie'); db_family surname children BOLZ ...
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Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Marie

column_value Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Marie

Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Nadezhka

Using the THE Operator 

Use THE to manipulate (retrieve, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE) contents of a nested table in a database table.
± Can only use with nested tables, not VARRAYs or index-by tables. ± Only accessible from within SQL statements in PL/SQL.
CREATE TYPE action_list_t IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2(100); / CREATE TABLE inflation_beater ( focus_area VARCHAR2(100), activities action_list_t) NESTED TABLE activities STORE AS activities_tab; SELECT VALUE (act) FROM THE (SELECT activities FROM inflation_beater WHERE focus_area = 'FORTUNE 100') act; UPDATE THE (SELECT activities FROM inflation_beater WHERE focus_area = 'FORTUNE 100') SET COLUMN_VALUE = 'DISBAND OSHA' WHERE COLUMN_VALUE = 'SIDESTEP OSHA';

the.sql

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 49

Using the TABLE and CAST Operators 

Use CAST to convert a collection from one type to another, TABLE to convert a TYPE into a database table.
± Cannot use with index-by tables. ± Useful when you would like to apply SQL operations against a PL/SQL collection (ie, one not stored in a database table).
DECLARE nyc_devolution cutbacks_for_taxcuts := cutbacks_for_taxcuts ('Stop rat extermination programs', 'Fire building inspectors', 'Close public hospitals'); BEGIN DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE ( 'How to Make the NYC Rich Much, Much Richer:'); FOR rec IN (SELECT COLUMN_VALUE ohmy FROM TABLE (CAST (nyc_devolution AS cutbacks_for_taxcuts))) LOOP DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE (rec.ohmy); END LOOP; cast.sql END;

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 50

multiset.genus AND bh.species = b. DECLARE CURSOR bird_curs IS SELECT b.genus.species) AS country_tab_t) FROM birds b. information for the BEGIN master in one trip. converting a set of data (table. with potential client-server performance impact. ± Cannot use with index-by tables.species. Retrieves all detail bird_row bird_curs%ROWTYPE.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . b.country FROM bird_habitats bh WHERE bh. END.page 51 . view. query) into a VARRAY or nested table.genus = b. FETCH bird_curs into bird_row. CAST(MULTISET(SELECT bh. OPEN bird_curs.Using the MULTISET Operator  MULTISET is the inverse of TABLE. ± You can use MULTISET to emulate or transform relational joins into collections.

Referencing IB Tables inside SQL  You can't directly reference an index-by table's contents inside SQL. END. Instead. hiredates date_tab. END.  CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE ibtab IS FUNCTION rowval (indx IN PLS_INTEGER) RETURN DATE. Make accessible in SQL for Oracle8 and below. END.page 52 . FUNCTION rowval (indx IN PLS_INTEGER) RETURN DATE IS BEGIN RETURN hiredates (indx). call functions that retrieve the table's data. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY ibtab IS TYPE date_tab IS TABLE OF DATE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. WNDS).sql PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . WNPS. PRAGMA RESTRICT_REFERENCES (rowval. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein ibtab_in_sql. but hide the index-by table structure.

Examples of Collections in Action  Emulation of bi-directional cursor operations Avoid mutating table problems in database triggers.page 53 .  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

didn't make it!  Instead.pkg bidir.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Bi-Directional Cursor Emulation  Oracle does not yet support the ability to move back and forth (and at random) through a cursor's result set. Notice that the collection itself is hidden.page 54 . PROCEDURE nextRow. This is particularly useful (read: efficient) when you need to perform multiple passes against the data.  bidir. END. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE bidir IS /* Iterate through rows in the result set */ PROCEDURE setRow (nth IN PLS_INTEGER).nope. deposit your data in a collection and then provide programs to access that data in the necessary fashion. ± A talked-about feature for Oracle9i -. PROCEDURE prevRow. FUNCTION getRow RETURN employee_plus%ROWTYPE.

Statement Level UPDATE emp SET sal = 1000 UPDATE row 1 Row Level  UPDATE row N Row level triggers cannot query from or change the contents of the table to which it is attached. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . it is "mutating".The Mutating Table Problem  Database triggers can be attached to the SQL statement and/or the individual row operations on a table.sql  Note: in Oracle8i.page 55 . you can use autonomous transactions to relax restrictions associated with queries. So what are you supposed to do when a row-level operation needs to "touch" that table? mutating.

Statement Trigger 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . you have to remember what you needed to do. you need to defer the action until you get to the statement level.A Solution Based on Index-by Tables  Since you cannot perform the processing desired in the row-level trigger. ± an index-by table is an ideal repository for this reminder list.page 56 . 1st row trigger fires Nth row trigger fires Writes to list Writes to list Work List (PL/SQL Table)  Process data in the list. If you are going to defer the work.

An Example: Ranking Salespeople  A table holds the rankings based on the amount of annual sales of salespeople within a department.25 65011. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .25 3 1 2 6 "Deferred work" is not only necessary.page 57 . ± We might update more than one department within a statement so we must be able to retain multiple department numbers. ± By storing the salesperson¶s department ids as they change.88 144533. the rankings must also change to show the new standings for that department only. ± As the sales amount is updated in this table.91 109000. Department ID Salesperson ID Sales Amount Rank 1055 1055 1055 1047  64333 65709 65706 70904 74055. but preferable. we then know which departments to re-rank.

Trigger Logic Required Row Level Trigger CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER Rank_Sales_Rtrg AFTER insert OR update OF sales_amt ON rank_sales FOR EACH ROW WHEN (OLD.add_dept (:new. Statement Level Trigger CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER Rank_Sales_Strg AFTER INSERT OR UPDATE OR DELETE ON rank_sales BEGIN rank. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END.rank_depts.sales_amt) BEGIN rank. Doesn't fire unless the sales_amt is actually changed.page 58 . END.sales_amt != NEW. ranking.pkg All details of the ranking are hidden in the package body.dept_id).

TYPE dept_tabtype IS TABLE OF BOOLEAN INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. PROCEDURE rank_depts. PACKAGE BODY rank IS in_process BOOLEAN := FALSE. Table holds indicator that department needs re-ranking. dept_tab dept_tabtype. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 59 .The Ranking Package PACKAGE rank IS PROCEDURE add_dept (dept_id_in IN INTEGER). END IF. END add_dept 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Create row to indicate department to be ranked. END rank. PROCEDURE add_dept (dept_id_in IN INTEGER) IS BEGIN IF NOT in_process THEN dept_tab (dept_id_in) := TRUE.

DELETE. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END LOOP.page 60 . dept_tab.The Ranking Package. Continued PROCEDURE rank_depts IS v_deptid PLS_INTEGER := dept_tab. v_deptid := dept_tab. LOOP EXIT WHEN v_deptid IS NULL. END rank_dept. in_process := FALSE. perform_ranking (v_deptid).NEXT (v_deptid). END IF. BEGIN IF NOT in_process THEN in_process := TRUE. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Avoid recursive execution of logic Row number is department number. END rank.FIRST. Clean up for next time.

Set of data is relatively small (avoid row chaining).  VARRAYs ± ± ± ± You want to preserve the order in which elements are stored.page 61 . ± You want to use inside SQL. You want to use inside SQL. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Which Collection Type Should I Use?  Index-by tables ± Need to use in both Oracle7 and Oracle8 applications ± Want to take advantage of sparse nature for "intelligent keys". You don't want to have to worry about sparseness.  Nested tables ± You want to store large amounts of persistent data in a column.

Tips for Using Collections 

Wrap access to your collections.
± In many cases, you will want to avoid direct access to (assigning and retrieving) rows in your collections. ± This will give you the flexibility to change your implementation. ± You can also hide complex rules for setting the row number. 

Get creative!
± Don't always fill and use the index-by table sequentially. ± If you can somehow translate your application data to an integer, it can be used as a row number, and therefore offers indexed access. ± Julian date formats and DBMS_UTILITY.GET_HASH_VALUE offer two different methods.

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Achieving PL/SQL Excellence

Cursor Variables

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 63

Architecture of Cursor Variables
With Hard-Coded Cursors
Hard-Coded Cursor

With Cursor Variables

PGA

Cursor Variable

Cursor Variable

Result Set

Shared Global Area

Cursor Object

Result Set 

A cursor variable points to an underlying cursor object in the database.
± The cursor object in turns points to (and keeps its place in) a result set. 

The cursor variable can be passed between programs (even between, say, a Java servlet and a PL/SQL stored procedure).
± Static SQL only -- until Oracle8i.
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1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

Benefits of Cursor Variables 

Share cursor management between programs, even across the client-server divide.
± You don't have to pass the result sets of a cursor in order to allow the client-side program to have direct access to the data in the result set. ± Oracle Developer 2.1 utilizes cursor variables when you choose to construct a "base table block" around stored procedures instead of a database table. 

Share the same code across multiple, different queries.
± Since the cursor name is no longer hard-coded, you can use a single block of code (say, a reporting program) against different queries. ± We will try out this technique at the end of the section.

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Cursor Variable Example
DECLARE TYPE company_curtype IS REF CURSOR RETURN company%ROWTYPE;
Declare a variable cursor TYPE.

company_curvar company_curtype;

Declare cursor variable based on that type. Declare a record from cursor variable. OPEN cursor variable, specifying the query. FETCH from the cursor variable.

company_rec company_curvar%ROWTYPE; BEGIN OPEN company_curvar FOR SELECT * FROM company;

FETCH company_curvar INTO company_rec;
Close the cursor variable.

CLOSE company_curvar; END;
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Explicit Cursors and Cursor Variables 

Both hard-coded cursors and cursor variables work with static SQL.
± The SQL is fixed at compile-time. ± The difference is that with cursor variables, you get to decide which static query is opened. 

Many cursor operations are the same:
± Close a variable cursor with the same syntax as that for static cursors. ± Use cursor attributes (%ISOPEN, %FOUND, %NOTFOUND, %ROWCOUNT) with cursor variables (as of Release 2.3). ± Fetch data from the cursor result set through a cursor variable with the same syntax as that of static cursors. 

Let¶s focus on the new and different capabilities of cursor variables.
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1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

Declaring Cursor Types and Variables 

Cursors are declared in two steps, just like programmerdefined records and PL/SQL tables.
± 1. Define a cursor TYPE -- either "weak" or "strong". ± 2. Define a cursor variable.
DECLARE TYPE weak_curtype IS REF CURSOR; TYPE comp_curtype IS REF CURSOR RETURN company%ROWTYPE; curcmp_new comp_curtype; cur_any weak_curtype; BEGIN
Declare cursor variables from the TYPEs. Declare a STRONG referenced cursor TYPE. Declare a WEAK referenced cursor TYPE.

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Strong vs. Weak Cursor Types 

A strong (or constrained) cursor type has a defined return data specification.
± Can only reference cursor objects which return the same data specification, which can be any single SQL datatype or any previously defined record structure. ± Datatype mismatches are identified at compile time.

TYPE cur_typ_name IS REF CURSOR [ RETURN return_type ]; TYPE cur_typ_name IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE; /* Strong */ 

The weak (or unconstrained) cursor type does not have a RETURN clause.
± It can reference any cursor object, be opened FOR any query. ± Datatype mismatches can only be identified at runtime.

TYPE cur_typ_name IS REF CURSOR; /* Weak */
1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein
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Opening with the Cursor Variable
OPEN cursor_name FOR select_statement; 

When you open a cursor variable (whether of the weak or strong variety), you must provide the SQL query that identifies the result set.
± If the variable has not yet been assigned to cursor object, the OPEN FOR statement implicitly creates an object for the variable. ± If the variable is already pointing to a cursor object, the OPEN FOR reuses the existing object and attaches the new query to that cursor object. 

Remember, the cursor object is nothing more than a memory location.
± It is maintained independently of the query itself.
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a cursor or a programmer-defined record.Opening with Strong Cursor Types DECLARE TYPE emp_curtype IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE. . END. Match Needed BEGIN OPEN emp_curvar FOR SELECT * from emp. emp_curvar emp_curtype..  STRONG cursor data specifications must match or be compatible with the structure of the SELECT statement.page 71 . ± You can establish the return type based on a database table. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..

END.Opening with Weak Cursor Types PACKAGE pkg IS TYPE cv_type IS REF CURSOR. Verification will take ELSIF get_type_in = µDEPT¶ place at the FETCH. THEN OPEN retval FOR SELECT * FROM dept. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . you can associate any SELECT statement with a weak cursor variable. BEGIN IF get_type_in = µEMP¶ THEN Either query will "do".page 72 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . END IF.cv_type. REF TYPE placed in package so that it is "globally" available. RETURN retval. END.  A weak cursor TYPE doesn't define the RETURN structure. OPEN retval FOR SELECT * FROM emp.cv_type IS retval pkg. FUNCTION open_emp_or_dept (get_type_in IN VARCHAR2) RETURN pkg.

Fetching from the Cursor Variable FETCH cursor_var_name INTO record_name. ± Fetching can continue with a different INTO clause. ± The ROWTYPE_MISMATCH exception is raised on failure.page 73 . it match the cursor type data specification. it match the OPEN FOR statement structure. FETCH cursor_var_name INTO var_name.   Compatibility checks are performed prior to fetching row. The INTO structure must match in number and datatype to: ± FOR STRONG cursor types..sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Fetching with cursor variables follows the same rules as those with static cursors. . var_name.. mismatch.. ± FOR WEAK cursor types.

 hccursor. you have to repeat the code for each cursor. ± JDBC recognizes cursor variables. ± With explicit cursors.When to Use Cursor Variables  Make it easier for calling programs (especially non-PL/SQL programs) to manipulate result sets. ± You could use dynamic SQL to achieve this effect. Use a single block of code to manipulate multiple queries. since cursor names are "hard coded".page 74 .  Define a base table block in Forms Builder (formerly Oracle Forms) on stored procedures rather than a table directly.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . but static cursors are more efficient than dynamic SQL and cursor variables are less complicated than DBMS_SQL.

± It also creates the data structures you will need to call the function. TYPE int_rt IS RECORD (key INTEGER).Consolidating Different Cursors  The following package specification hides the SQL behind a single open function. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE allcurs IS bydept CONSTANT INTEGER := 1.page 75 . / allcurrs.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . FUNCTION open (type_in IN INTEGER) RETURN cv_t.pkg allcurs. TYPE cv_t IS REF CURSOR RETURN int_rt.tst explcv. END. bysal CONSTANT INTEGER := 2.

END IF. END. RETURN retval. ELSIF type_in = bysal THEN OPEN retval FOR SELECT empno FROM emp ORDER BY SAL.Consolidating Different Cursors  The open function simply opens FOR a different SELECT based on the criteria passed to it.page 76 . CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY allcurs IS FUNCTION open (type_in IN INTEGER) RETURN cv_t IS retval cv_t. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . BEGIN IF type_in = bydept THEN OPEN retval FOR SELECT empno FROM emp ORDER BY deptno. END.

LOOP FETCH cv INTO v_empno. DECLARE cv allcurs. END LOOP. change the ORDER BY clause -without having to change the code you write. p.Hiding SQL Variations in Resulting Code  The following block demonstrates that you can alter which SQL statement to query -.in this case. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END. EXIT WHEN cv%NOTFOUND. v_empno emp. BEGIN cv := allcurs.l (v_empno). CLOSE cv.open (&1).page 77 "Report processor" is independent of the particular SELECT .empno%TYPE.cv_t.

page 78 . unconstrained type.Cursor Variables Let's summarize  Flexibility ± Choose which static SQL statement is executed at run-time. you can build screens that access data using a cursor variable-based procedural API.1. or a more general.  Hide Variations in Underlying SQL ± You no longer have to repeat the same code for different cursors. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Strong and Weak Types ± Create REF CURSORs for specific queries.  Improve Client-Side Access to Data ± At least in Oracle Developer 2.

page 79 .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Dynamic SQL  Dynamic SQL and dynamic PL/SQL: ± The DBMS_SQL package ± Native dynamic SQL in Oracle8i 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

± Also supported with "native dynamic SQL" in Oracle8i. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Very common requirement on the Web.Dynamic SQL and PL/SQL Execution  "Dynamic SQL" mean that you construct the SQL statement or PL/SQL block at runtime and then execute it. ± Construct powerful DBA utilities. ± One example: implement indirect referencing in PL/SQL.page 80 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . you no longer have to write SQL to generate SQL to get your job done.  Execute dynamically-constructed PL/SQL programs. ± Available in PL/SQL since Release 2.1 and DBMS_SQL. What can you do with Dynamic SQL?  Build ad-hoc query and update applications.  Execute DDL inside PL/SQL programs.

± NDS does not support method 4. execute one or more times. ± Different methods require the use of different programs in DBMS_SQL. Method 3: queries with a fixed number of items in the SELECT list and a fixed number of host variables. If you can recognize the types.page 81 .Four Methods of Dynamic SQL   Method 1: non-queries without host variables. Method 4: queries with a variable number of items in the SELECT list and/or non-queries with a variable number of host variables. These methods are in increasing order of complexity. executed a single time. Method 2: non-queries with a fixed number of host variables. you can more quickly figure out how to code your solution.    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

and relatively slow (performance did improve significantly as of Oracle8). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Native Dynamic SQL  Prior to Oracle8i. DML and single row fetches.  The new "native dynamic SQL" or NDS of Oracle8i offers two native statements in the PL/SQL language to implement most of your dynamic SQL requirements: ± EXECUTE IMMEDIATE <sql string>. ± But this package is very complex. ± OPEN FOR <sql string>. difficult to use. used for DDL. you would use the DBMS_SQL built-in package to execute dynamic SQL.page 82 . used for multi-row queries.

. The INTO clause allows you to pass values from the select list of a single row query into local variables.EXECUTE IMMEDIATE EXECUTE IMMEDIATE sql-string [INTO {define_variable[. {IN | OUT | IN OUT] bind argument]..]. | record }] [USING {IN | OUT | IN OUT] bind argument [. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..page 83   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . The USING clause allows you to specify bind arguments or variables to be passed into the SQL string before execution.. collections and records. define_variables]. including objects.  Use this statement to execute any dynamic SQL statement (including a PL/SQL block) except for multi-row queries.

USER) || '. IF tabCount ('citizens'. WHERE clause. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein tabcount81. table and retval INTEGER. 'insured = ''NO''') > 40.sf PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . '1=1') INTO retval. RETURN retval. and not much of a democracy either!')..000 THEN DBMS_OUTPUT.COUNT(*) For Any Table  Here's a handy and simple utility based on NDS: CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION tabCount ( tab IN VARCHAR2.' || tab || ' WHERE ' || NVL (whr.page 84 . BEGIN EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'SELECT COUNT(*) FROM ' || NVL (sch.. END IF. END. whr IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. sch IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) RETURN INTEGER IS Specify schema.000...PUT_LINE ( 'Not the best health care system in the world.sf compare with: tabcount.

end_in IN DATE. END.' || name_in || '. start_in IN DATE. end_in. END.Other Execute Immediate Examples  Perform an update. BEGIN v_str := 'BEGIN ' || pkg_in || '.page 85 . PROCEDURE runprog (pkg_in IN VARCHAR2. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN pl ('Compile Error "' || SQLERRM || '" on: ' || v_str). col_in IN VARCHAR2.  Execute a stored procedure... name_in IN VARCHAR2) IS v_str VARCHAR2 (100).. EXECUTE IMMEDIATE v_str. val_in IN NUMBER) IS BEGIN EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'UPDATE ' || tab_in || ' SET ' || col_in || ' = :val WHERE hiredate BETWEEN :lodate AND :hidate' USING val_in. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE updnumval ( tab_in IN VARCHAR2. start_in.. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .'. Pass in bind variables with USING clause. END.

± No special syntax needed. :revenue_inhibitors)' USING pers.. PROCEDURE add_profit_source ( hosp_name IN VARCHAR2. ± In the following example. the USING clause allows me to pass an object and nested table to an INSERT statement with a variable table name.. cond.page 86 .Using Objects and Collections in NDS  One of the key advantages to NDS over DBMS_SQL is that it works with Oracle8 datatypes. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein health$. cond IN preexisting_conditions) IS BEGIN EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'INSERT INTO ' || tabname (hosp_name) || ' VALUES (:revenue_generator. including objects and collections. pers IN Person.pkg PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END.

Multiple Row Queries and NDS  Oracle extends the cursor variable feature of Oracle7 to support multi-row dynamic queries. cv cv_type.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . BEGIN OPEN cv FOR 'SELECT ' || col || ' FROM ' || tab || ' WHERE ' || NVL (whr. variable syntax! EXIT WHEN cv%NOTFOUND. CLOSE cv. col IN VARCHAR2.page 87 .PUT_LINE (val). '1 = 1'). DBMS_OUTPUT. number or string column in any table. END LOOP. whr IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) IS TYPE cv_type IS REF CURSOR. ndsutil. showcol. ± Here is a simple utility the displays the values of any date. val VARCHAR2(32767).sp END. LOOP Familiar cursor FETCH cv INTO val. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE showcol ( tab IN VARCHAR2.

str2list. The USING clause for a query can only have IN bind arguments. then you provide a value for each placeholder (by position).page 88 . pass a variable with a NULL value. You can have duplicate placeholders (for bind arguments).pkg    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Some Fine Print for NDS  You cannot pass schema elements (table names. ± If dynamic SQL. column names. You cannot pass the NULL literal directly in the USING clause. provide a value for each distinct placeholder (by name). Instead. etc. ± If dynamic PL/SQL.) through the USING clause.

DBMS_SQL is a very large and complex package. the only way to perform dynamic SQL was with the DBMS_SQL package.     1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . You should only use DBMS_SQL when you cannot use NDS. in particular method 4. The overhead for using DBMS_SQL has decreased significantly in Oracle8 and again in Oracle8i.Dynamic SQL using DBMS_SQL  Prior to Oracle8i. with many rules to follow and lots of code to write. Supports all four methods of dynamic SQL.page 89 .

page 90 .Learning Through Examples  DDL ± Create an index from within PL/SQL  DML ± Update rows in a table  DML with binding ± Update rows using bind variables  Queries ± Method 3 and a dynamic WHERE clause  PL/SQL Version of "SELECT *" ± Example of Method 4  PL/SQL ± Create a generic calculation program 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

CLOSE_CURSOR (cur). DDL_statement. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.PARSE (cur.DDL with Dynamic SQL PROCEDURE create_index (index_in IN VARCHAR2.EXECUTE (cur). ± Open a cursor.  creind. ± Parse and execute that DDL statement. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .NATIVE). fdbk := DBMS_SQL. fdbk INTEGER. tab_in IN VARCHAR2. DBMS_SQL. which will be used to execute the DDL statement.OPEN_CURSOR. DBMS_SQL.page 91 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . END. DDL_statement VARCHAR2(200) := 'CREATE INDEX ' || index_in || ' ON ' || tab_in || ' ( ' || col_in || ')'.sp Creates an index on any column(s) in any table in your schema. col_in IN VARCHAR2) IS cur INTEGER := DBMS_SQL. ± Construct the DDL statement as a string.

'UPDATE emp SET ' || col_in || ' = ' || val_in || ' WHERE ename LIKE UPPER (''' || ename_in || ''')'. DBMS_SQL. fdbk := DBMS_SQL.EXECUTE (cur).sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ename_in IN emp. DBMS_OUTPUT. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE updnumval ( col_in IN VARCHAR2.page 92 . BEGIN DBMS_SQL.ename%TYPE. val_in IN NUMBER) IS cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL.OPEN_CURSOR. fdbk PLS_INTEGER. END.Updates with Dynamic SQL  Update numeric column for specified employees. updnval1.PARSE (cur.NATIVE).PUT_LINE ('Rows updated: ' || TO_CHAR (fdbk)).CLOSE_CURSOR (cur). DBMS_SQL.

DBMS_SQL. fdbk := DBMS_SQL. start_in IN DATE. end_in IN DATE. DBMS_SQL. val_in IN NUMBER) IS cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL. 'hidate'. end_in). END.PARSE (cur.Updates with Bind Variables  Update salaries for date range using binding. updnval2.EXECUTE (cur).sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 93 . fdbk PLS_INTEGER.BIND_VARIABLE (cur.OPEN_CURSOR.sp updnval3.BIND_VARIABLE (cur.NATIVE). start_in). DBMS_SQL. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE updnumval ( col_in IN VARCHAR2. DBMS_OUTPUT. 'UPDATE emp SET ' || col_in || ' = ' || val_in || ' WHERE hiredate BETWEEN :lodate AND :hidate'.PUT_LINE ('Rows updated: ' || TO_CHAR (fdbk)).CLOSE_CURSOR (cur). 'lodate'. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.

Processing Flow for a Dynamic Query Allocate cursor memory (OPEN_CURSOR) Fill cursor with data (EXECUTE) Make sure SELECT is well formed (PARSE) Fill buffer with data (FETCH_ROWS) (EXECUTE_AND_FETCH) Bind any variables (BIND_VARIABLE) (BIND_ARRAY) Retrieve the data (COLUMN_VALUE) Give cursor structure (DEFINE_COLUMN) (DEFINE_ARRAY) Release cursor memory (CLOSE_CURSOR) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 94 .

CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE showemps (where_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) IS cur INTEGER := DBMS_SQL. 1. DBMS_SQL. '1=1').FETCH_ROWS (cur) = 0. DBMS_SQL.Queries with Dynamic SQL  Show employees using a dynamic WHERE clause.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. rec. DBMS_SQL.. 1).empno) || '=' || rec. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein showemps.tst PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . rec emp%ROWTYPE.ename).sp showemp2.NATIVE).COLUMN_VALUE (cur. 60). 2.page 95 . ename FROM emp ' || ' WHERE ' || NVL (where_in.empno). DBMS_OUTPUT. LOOP EXIT WHEN DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL. END LOOP.EXECUTE (cur).CLOSE_CURSOR (cur). fdbk := DBMS_SQL..PARSE (cur. DBMS_SQL.COLUMN_VALUE (cur.sp showemps. END.PUT_LINE (TO_CHAR (rec.OPEN_CURSOR. 2.ename). rec. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL. 'a'. fdbk INTEGER. 1. 'SELECT empno.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.

val).DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. DBMS_SQL. END LOOP.page 96 Very simplified pseudo-code intab. ± The resulting code is much more complicated. nth_col. END LOOP.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . datatype). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .NATIVE). select_string.COLUMN_VALUE (cur.PARSE (cur.Dynamic SELECT * FROM Any Table  Method 4 example: the number of columns queried changes with each table. FOR each-column-in-table LOOP DBMS_SQL. nth_col. END. DBMS_SQL. LOOP fetch-a-row. FOR each-column-in-table LOOP DBMS_SQL. BEGIN FOR each-column-in-table LOOP add-column-to-select-list. END LOOP. END LOOP.

± If exact_match is TRUE. exact_match IN BOOLEAN DEFAULT FALSE) RETURN INTEGER. numrows := DBMS_SQL. numrows := DBMS_SQL.  Makes it easy to execute and fetch a single row from a query.Using EXECUTE_AND_FETCH FUNCTION execute_and_fetch (cursor_in IN INTEGER.EXECUTE_AND_FETCH (cur. the first row will still be fetched and available. TRUE).page 97 . raises NO_DATA_FOUND or raises the TOO_MANY_ROWS exception.EXECUTE_AND_FETCH (cur). which returns a single row. then EXECUTE_AND_FETCH will raise the TOO_MANY_ROWS exception if more than one row is fetched by the SELECT. ± Even if the exception is raised. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Very similar to the implicit SELECT cursor in native PL/SQL.

and enter the arguments. arg4_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. ± With DBMS_SQL. NULL.Dynamic Formula Execution  Suppose I am building a user interface that allows a user to select a formula for execution.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . arg2_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. FUNCTION dyncalc ( oper_in IN VARCHAR2. NULL. arg6_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL.sf dyncalc. arg10_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL dyncalc.page 98 . NULL. NULL. a single function will do the trick. 0. NULL. ± Using static PL/SQL. arg8_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. I would have to modify my screen every time a new formula was added. nargs_in IN INTEGER := arg1_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg3_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg5_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg7_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg9_in IN VARCHAR2 := ) RETURN VARCHAR2.

You must have a BEGIN-END around the code.even OUT arguments which are not being bound to any values. END.EXECUTE (cur). my_salary). my_salary). µsalout¶.BIND_VARIABLE (cur.VARIABLE_VALUE (cur.page 99 . Use VARIABLE_VALUE to extract a value from any variable you have bound.BIND_VARIABLE (cur.tst    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . fdbk := DBMS_SQL.More on Dynamic PL/SQL BEGIN cur := open_and_parse ('BEGIN get_max_sal (:deptin. DBMS_SQL.sql dynplsql. µsalout¶.sp dynplsql. DBMS_SQL. END. :salout). DBMS_SQL. Possibilities inherent in dynamic PL/SQL are mind-boggling! dynplsql.  Use BIND_VARIABLE to bind any placeholders in the string -. µdeptin¶. v_deptin).').

END. END. fdbk PLS_INTEGER. DBMS_SQL. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.pkg dynvar. DBMS_SQL.'.OPEN_CURSOR.VARIABLE_VALUE (v_cur. fdbk := DBMS_SQL. RETURN retval.NATIVE). 'a'. PL/SQL does not support indirect referencing. Here is an example of a "PL/SQL NAME_IN": FUNCTION valbyname (nm IN VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2 IS v_cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL. 2000).CLOSE_CURSOR (v_cur).PARSE (v_cur.page 100  dynvar.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . 'BEGIN :val := ' || nm || '. 'val'.BIND_VARIABLE (v_cur. DBMS_SQL.EXECUTE (v_cur). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . but you can accomplish much of the same thing with dynamic PL/SQL execution.Indirect Referencing with Dyn PL/SQL  Oracle Forms offers support for indirect referencing with the NAME_IN and COPY built-ins.dbmaxvc2. 'val'. retval). retval PLV.

± Call these immediately after your usage to make sure they refer to your cursor. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  IS_OPEN ± Is the cursor already open?  LAST_ERROR_POSITION ± Returns relative column position in cursor of text causing error condition.  LAST_SQL_FUNCTION_CODE ± Returns SQL function code of cursor.  LAST_ROW_COUNT ± Returns the cumulative count of rows fetched from the cursor.  LAST_ROW_ID ± Returns the ROWID of last row processed.DBMS_SQL Status Built-ins  The package offers a set of modules to return information about the lastoperated cursor in your session.page 101 .

dumplong. ± Transfer the LONG contents into an index-by table so that you can transfer a value of more than 32K bytes into your PL/SQL program.Working with LONG Values  DBMS_SQL provides special procedures so that you can extract values from a LONG column in a table.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Then you retrieve the column using the special COLUMN_VALUE_LONG variant.DEFINE_COLUMN_LONG ± DBMS_SQL. ± DBMS_SQL.COLUMN_VALUE_LONG   First.pkg dumplong. you define the column as a LONG.page 102 .

page 103 .New DBMS_SQL Features PL/SQL8 Extensions to DBMS_SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Support for RETURNING clause to avoid unnecessary queries.New Features in DBMS_SQL  The functionality of DBMS_SQL has been extended in Oracle8 in several ways: ± Parse very long SQL strings ± Describe cursor columns ± Use "array processing" to perform bulk updates. inserts.page 104 . deletes and fetches.

it was not possible to determine the datatypes of the columns defined in a cursor. ± Now you can call the DBMS_SQL.  Before PL/SQL8. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .DESCRIBE_COLUMNS. ± The record TYPE is also defined in DBMS_SQL. desc_t OUT DBMS_SQL.DESC_TAB).  Returns all of the column information in an index table of records. col_cnt OUT INTEGER.DESCRIBE_COLUMNS (c IN INTEGER.Describing Cursor Columns PROCEDURE DBMS_SQL.page 105 .

FOR colind IN 1 . END LOOP. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE show_columns IS cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL. ncols PLS_INTEGER. ncols. cols DBMS_SQL. END. DBMS_SQL.PUT_LINE (cols(colind). cols).PARSE (cur. 'SELECT hiredate. desccols. ncols LOOP DBMS_OUTPUT. empno FROM emp'.col_name)..pkg desccols.DESCRIBE_COLUMNS (cur.page 106 .NATIVE). DBMS_SQL.tst showcols.Basic Steps to Describe Columns  The following script shows the individual steps you will need to perform in order to use this feature.OPEN_CURSOR.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .DESC_TAB. DBMS_SQL. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.CLOSE_CURSOR (cur).

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . DBMS_SQL is executing the specified SQL statement N times. i. ± In actuality. you specify an index table.e. can offer a significant performance boost over Oracle7 dynamic SQL. where N is the number of rows in the table. Instead of providing a scalar value for an operation.. inserts. however."Array Processing" in DBMS_SQL  PL/SQL8 now allows you to specify the use of "arrays". deletes and fetches. DBMS_SQL then repeats your action for every row in the table.page 107 . It really isn't "array processing". when you perform updates. index tables.    This technique still.

page 108 . ± But remember: you cannot pass schema elements (table names. ± Otherwise that SQL will be executed under the authority of the owner of the code.sql openprse. not the invoker of the code. ± Encapsulate DBMS_SQL.PARSE so that you include the trace in that program. concatenate) whenever possible. ± With NDS. only possible for statements that do not need USING and INTO clauses.) through the USING clause. column names. though you could write variations for those as well.  Use the Oracle8i invoker rights model whenever you want to share your dynamic SQL programs among multiple schemas.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Increased chance of reusing parsed SQL.Recommendations for Dynamic SQL  Bind (vs. and easier code to write.pkg whichsch. etc.  Encapsulate statements to improve error handling. effdsql.

you have upgraded to Oracle8i!  Major Advantages of NDS: ± Ease of use ± Performance ± Works with all SQL datatypes (including userdefined object and collection types) ± Fetch into records  When You'd Use DBMS_SQL: ± ± ± ± ± ± ± Method 4 Dynamic SQL DESCRIBE columns of cursor SQL statements larger than 32K RETURNING into an array Reuse of parsed SQL statements Bulk dynamic SQL Available from client-side PL/SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . but DBMS_SQL is hard to use.page 109 . Both implementations will still come in handy.NDS or DBMS_SQL: Which is Best?  Dynamic SQL and PL/SQL is very useful. of course. ± If...

asynchronous.Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Oracle Advanced Queuing  The high performance.page 110 . persistent messaging subsytem of Oracle 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

consistent manner. systems are now heavily reliant on the ability of components to communicate with each other in a dependable.Who Needs Messaging? Everyone!  In the distributed world of the Internet. Distribution Center Coffee Beans Producer Shipping Service Retailer Consumer 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 111 .

page 112 .Applications Relying on Messaging     Stock trading system Airline reservation system Auction portals Any e-commerce application 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

message propagation. the listen feature and notification capabilities. scalability and reliability all carry over to queues ± Strong history and retention ± Backup and recovery ± Comprehensive journaliing  Rich message content increases usefulness of queueing ± Use object types to define highly structured payloads  New to Oracle8i. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Rule-based subscribers.page 113 . AQ now offers a publish/subscribe style of messaging between applications.Key Features of Oracle AQ  Leverage full power of SQL ± Messages are stored in database tables  Database high availability.

AQ architectural overview Queue Monitor process Queue table Queue ³Producers´ Enqueued messages Message 4 Message 3 Message 2 Message1 ³Consumers´ Dequeued messages Messages include both control information and ³payload´ (content) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 114 .

Oracle AQ Highlights  In 8.page 115 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .0. AQ supports: ± ± ± ± ± Multiple queues Resetting order and priority of queued items Queue management using only SQL & PL/SQL Multiple message recipients Propagation of queue to remote servers  Oracle8i adds: ± ± ± ± Rules-based publish & subscribe Listening on multiple queues Easier monitoring Native Java interface PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Underlying database tables and views The queue monitor (background process) ± Set # of processes with the AQ_TM_PROCESSES initialization parameter.    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 116 .AQ Components  The DBMS_AQ package offers enqueue and dequeue capabilities The DBMS_AQADM package provides administrative functionality to manage queues and queue tables.

assigns retry and retention properties to queue Drops a stopped queue Can also turn on/off enqueue and dequeue operations Stops queue. whether multiple consumers Drops table if all queues in the table have been stopped Associates queue table with queue.page 117 .DBMS_AQADM Highlights CREATE_QUEUE_TABLE DROP_QUEUE_TABLE CREATE_QUEUE DROP_QUEUE START_QUEUE STOP_QUEUE ADD_SUBSCRIBER Assigns name. storage clause. optionally waiting for outstanding transactions Adds an ³agent´ as a subscriber 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . payload type. sort column.

Define the "payload" Create the queue table DBMS_AQADM. text VARCHAR2(2000)).CREATE_QUEUE (queue_name => 'msgqueue'.START_QUEUE (queue_name => 'msgqueue').page 118 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein aq. queue_table => 'msg'). queue_payload_type => 'message_type').CREATE_QUEUE_TABLE (queue_table => 'msg'. / BEGIN DBMS_AQADM.pkg Start the queue PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Creating Queue Tables and Queues CREATE TYPE message_type AS OBJECT (title VARCHAR2(30). END. Define a queue in the queue table DBMS_AQADM.

sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .  ENQUEUE puts a message into a specified queue. but lots of complexity buried inside the parameters of these procedures. ± Only two procedures.The "operational package": DBMS_AQ  DBMS_AQ is deceptively simple.page 119   aq. and returns a RAW message handle DEQUEUE extracts a message from a specified queue Parameters control message properties such as: ± Visibility (ON_COMMIT or IMMEDIATE) ± ± ± ± Priority Delay Expiration Locking behavior PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

'May there be many more.').ENQUEUE ( 'msgqueue'. BEGIN my_msg := message_type ( 'First Enqueue'. aqenq*. msgprops. my_msg message_type. DBMS_AQ.MESSAGE_PROPERTIES_T.. Set up the payload with an object constructor. queueopts. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .msgid_type.page 120 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . msgid aq. msgprops DBMS_AQ. END.Simple Enqueue Example DECLARE queueopts DBMS_AQ. Declare records to hold various enqueue and msg properties. msgid).ENQUEUE_OPTIONS_T.* Place the message on the specified queue and get a msg ID in return.. my_msg.

More Interesting Enqueue Example DECLARE .. my_msg := message_type ( 'Second Enqueue'. msgid1). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .').. msgprops. my_msg. queueopts.. queueopts. msgprops. 'And this one goes first.delay := 3 * 60 * 60 * 24..ENQUEUE ('msgqueue'.ENQUEUE ( 'msgqueue'.BEFORE.. DBMS_AQ. DBMS_AQ.'). queueopts..sequence_deviation := DBMS_AQ. Same setup as previous page . Modify the dequeue sequence by changing the deviation field and relative msg ID. msgid2). 'May there be many more. queueopts. my_msg.page 121 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Specify a delay before the payload is available... BEGIN my_msg := message_type ( 'First Enqueue'. END. msgprops.relative_msgid := msgid1.

msgid_type. BEGIN getmsg (DBMS_AQ. aqdeq*. getmsg (DBMS_AQ. queueopts.REMOVE). DBMS_AQ.* Declare records to hold various dequeue and msg properties.page 122 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . getmsg (DBMS_AQ.REMOVE). msgid). msgprops DBMS_AQ. Dequeue operation isolated in local module.DEQUEUE_OPTIONS_T. msgid aq.DEQUEUE ( 'msgqueue'. END.MESSAGE_PROPERTIES_T. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . my_msg. END. /* defined in aq.dequeue_mode := mode_in. PROCEDURE getmsg (mode_in IN INTEGER) IS BEGIN queueopts.Dequeue Example DECLARE queueopts DBMS_AQ. Demonstrates destructive and non-destructive dequeuing. msgprops.pkg */ my_msg message_type.BROWSE).

msgprops.msgid_type.1.ENQUEUE ( c_queue.  A stack implementation using AQ demonstrates this well. END.Prioritized Payloads  You can assign priorities to individual payloads and then dequeue according to those priorities.ENQUEUE_OPTIONS_T. msgid aq. msgid).priority := g_priority. PROCEDURE push (item IN VARCHAR2) IS queueopts DBMS_AQ. ± The lower the numeric priority value.pkg priority. queueopts. queueopts. BEGIN item_obj := aqstk_objtype (item). item_obj aqstk_objtype. msgprops DBMS_AQ.pkg aqstk2.visibility := DBMS_AQ. item_obj. msgprops. aqstk.IMMEDIATE.MESSAGE_PROPERTIES_T. the higher the priority.page 123 . DBMS_AQ.* 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . g_priority := g_priority .

± 2.Defining Message Subscribers  You can specify that a message is to be enqueued for a list of subscribers.AQ$_AGENT (name_in.  Steps to working with a subscriber list: ± 1.ADD_SUBSCRIBER ( c_queue. SYS. multiple_consumers => TRUE).CREATE_QUEUE_TABLE ( queue_table => 'major_qtable'. queue_payload_type => 'student_major_t'. ± The message is then not removed from the queue until all subscribers have dequeued the message. The queue table must be defined to support multiple subscribers or consumers.* PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein aqmult*. NULL)). NULL. BEGIN DBMS_AQADM.page 124 . Add subscribers for the queue. DBMS_AQADM.

± Crucial for Oracle to have a message-oriented middleware in order to offer an all-Oracle solution.  Considered by Oracle to be a core component of its overall solution. improved security.Summary  Very powerful and flexible architecture.Oracle AQ . ± Much more robust that DBMS_PIPE. supporting a publish-subscribe model.page 125 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Significant enhancements in Oracle8i. ± Should be strongly supported "down the road". LISTEN capability.

page 126 .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Managing Large Objects with DBMS_LOB 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

± Oracle has announced deprecation of LONGs. video. sounds. though they will probably not be actually desupported. LOB datatypes are the successor to LONGs. Images.LOB Terms  LOB = Large OBject: a category of datatype allowing storage of ³unstructured´ data up to 4 gigabytes LOB datatype can be: ± Column in table ± Attribute in object type ± Element in nested table   Possible applications include office documents. they should no longer be used.  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 127 . etc.

 Key programming differences: ± Internal LOBs participate in transactions.Types of Large Objects  ³Internal´ LOBs ± BLOB: unstructured binary data ± CLOB: single-byte fixedwidth character data ± NCLOB: multi-byte fixedwidth character data (or varying width in )  ³External´ LOBs ± BFILE: pointer to an operating system file  Temporary LOBs ± Internal LOBs that do not participate in transactions. improving performance. external do not ± External LOBs are read-only from within Oracle 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 128 .

PL/SQL built-ins for LOBs  Package DBMS_LOB ± Supports for all LOBs: Reading. open. erase. EMPTY_CLOB() ± BFILENAME 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 129 . substring and instring searches. copy. comparison and length checking ± For internal LOBs: Write. close  Other built-in functions ± LOADFROMFILE (load an external BFILE into a BLOB) ± EMPTY_LOB(). append. trim ± For external LOBs: File existence test.

page 130 .Deceptively simple example  BLOB-typed column in a table CREATE TABLE incoming_faxes (fax_id INTEGER. the_fax BLOB. Question: What¶s in the_fax? 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . FETCH fax_cur INTO the_fax.  Retrieve record with BLOB into PL/SQL variable DECLARE CURSOR fax_cur IS SELECT fax FROM incoming_faxes. CLOSE fax_cur. fax BLOB). received DATE. END. BEGIN OPEN fax_cur.

tt LOBs <lob segment> fax_id 281937 received 12-JAN-98 fax <lob locator> Updati  t e LOB anges t e pointer is ompli ates se of LOBs ± LOB locators cannot span transactions ± Programs must lock records containing LOBs efore updating ± Programs performing L must accommodate dynamic LOB locator alues 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .The ³LOB locator´ LOB t l sel es [ ll ] t i i t r .page 131 .

BEGIN INSERT INTO web_pages VALUES (the_url. . htmlloc CLOB).. the_loc CLOB. 1 of 2  Must get a new LOB locator before writing into the LOB: DECLARE the_url web_pages.com'.page 132 .Example: Piecewise CLOB programmatic insert  Create a table CREATE TABLE web_pages ( url VARCHAR2(512) PRIMARY KEY. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . EMPTY_CLOB()) RETURNING htmlloc INTO the_loc.url%TYPE := 'http://www.oodb..

. EMPTY_CLOB()) and loads a web page RETURNING htmlloc INTO the_loc.com'. This block retrieves INSERT INTO web_pages VALUES (the_url.oodb.page 133 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein BEGIN . END LOOP.url%TYPE := 'http://www. running_total := running_total + piece_length. buffer => html_tab(the_piece_no)). html_tab UTL_HTTP.WRITE(lob_loc => the_loc. Note: We are ignoring amount => piece_length.Example: Piecewise CLOB programmatic insert DECLARE the_url web_pages. piece_length PLS_INTEGER.html_tab.COUNT LOOP piece_length := LENGTH(html_tab(the_piece_no)). into a CLOB column html_tab := UTL_HTTP. running_total PLS_INTEGER := 1. DBMS_LOB. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . several likely exceptions offset => running_total. the_loc CLOB. END.REQUEST_PIECES(url => the_url). FOR the_piece_no IN 1.HTML_PIECES.

str_offset INTEGER. pattern => 'oodb').com' FOR UPDATE.oodb. IF str_offset != 0 THEN DBMS_LOB. END IF.page 134 .WRITE(lob_loc => the_loc. CLOSE hcur. str_offset := DBMS_LOB. amount => 4. BEGIN OPEN hcur.INSTR(lob_loc => the_loc. buffer => 'cool'). END.Example: Piecewise CLOB programmatic update DECLARE Program must lock the record explicitly CURSOR hcur IS SELECT htmlloc FROM web_pages WHERE url = 'http://www. the_loc CLOB. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . FETCH hcur INTO the_loc. offset => str_offset.

page 135 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Preparing to use BFILEs  You must first create an Oracle I ORY´ ± Creates logical alias for full directory pat ± imilar to LIBRARY (used for C "external procedures").  Example: CREATE DIRECTORY web_pix AS 'D:\bill\training\pix'. ut IRECTORY namespace is global  Syntax: CREATE OR REPLACE DIRECTORY <directory name> AS '<full path to directory>'.

Using BFILE datatype in DDL  In a table. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . scanned_card_image BFILE ).page 136 ... CREATE TYPE Business_card_t AS OBJECT ( name Name_t. CREATE TABLE web_graphics ( image_id INTEGER. image BFILE).. phones Phone_tab_t.  In an object type.. addresses Address_tab_t.

The built-in BFILENAME function  Returns value of datatype BFILE. END.page 137 . Spec: FUNCTION BFILENAME(directory_exprn.gif'). /  Notes: ± No automatic file checking or synchronization ± No participation in transactions 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Example: DECLARE picture BFILE := BFILENAME('WEB_PIX'. BEGIN INSERT INTO web_graphics VALUES (100015. picture). file_exprn) RETURN BFILE. 'prodicon.

amount => DBMS_LOB. src_lob => pic_file. DBMS_LOB.GETLENGTH(pic_file)).page 138 .LOADFROMFILE(dest_lob => pic_blob_loc. END. DECLARE pic_file BFILE := BFILENAME('WEB_PIX'. / loadblob. DBMS_LOB.FILE_READONLY).gif').FILEOPEN(pic_file. image BLOB).Loading File into Database BLOB CREATE TABLE web_graphic_blobs ( image_id INTEGER. 'prodicon. DBMS_LOB. BEGIN INSERT INTO web_graphic_blobs VALUES (1.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . pic_blob_loc BLOB := EMPTY_BLOB(). pic_blob_loc) RETURNING image INTO pic_blob_loc. DBMS_LOB.FILECLOSE(pic_file).

New DBMS_LOB APIs in 8i  Support for temporary LOBs ± No logging or rollback faster! ± Lifespan: session.page 139 . or transaction  Ability to retrieve LOB ³chunk size´ ± Allows programmer to tune READs and WRITEs  For all internal LOBs ± OPEN & CLOSE allow control over timing. call. that can mean less I/O » Trigger will not fire until CLOSE » Indexes will not update until CLOSE ± ISOPEN 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

± LOB locator behavior slightly abstruse ± Inability to modify BFILEs directly from within PL/SQL.Large Object . COLD 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Complete support in PL/SQL (and other APIs) ± Much better performance and control than with LONGs ± Usable in object types HOT  Some weaknesses.page 140 ..Summary  LOB support in Oracle is now significantly improved..

page 141 .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Leveraging Java Inside PL/SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

or server Not covered in this seminar  PL/SQL can call Java inside 8i server ± ± ± ± Command-line tools load Java classes DDL extensions publish Java classes Writing stored procedures.Overview of Java interoperability  Java inside or outside 8i server can call PL/SQL ± Standard JDBC and SQLJ calls with Oracle extensions ± Same Java on client. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .. triggers in Java Distinct Java & PL/SQL namespaces  But first..page 142 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .. mid-tier..a BRIEF introduction to Java. functions.

page 143 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± The end of programming history as we know it? ± The easiest. slickest piece of software ever designed by human beings? ± Just the latest in a series of "silver bullets" promoted by software vendors in order to prop up quarterly sales? ± The first and only successful O-O language? ± None of the above?  We don't really need to take a vote. ± We just need to keep a firm grip on common sense and stay focused on delivering solutions. fastest...Question 1: What is Java?  Could it be.

and very aggressively.page 144 . ± Ubiquitous in thousands of production applications and millions of lines of code. it is very unlikely and totally unthinkable for years to come. to boot. ± A language in which hundreds of thousands of developers are trained.  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Question 2: Will Java Replace PL/SQL?  While that scenario is certainly possible. PL/SQL will still be: ± Faster and more productive than Java for database operations. ± Supported and improved by Oracle -.

Some Important Things to Remember  Java is a case sensitive language. you have to instantiate an object from that class. ± Don't get overwhelmed by all the classes and all the strange quirks...  Everything is a class (or an object instantiated from a class). everything exception the primitive datatypes. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .. ± Before you can call a (non-static) class method.. ± Well... ± string is definitely not the same as String.  You don't have to know how to do everything with Java to get lots of value out of it.page 145 .

page 146 . CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE hello IS BEGIN DBMS_OUTPUT. Oh. except the "special" main method.Building a Java Class  Let's start from the very beginning. END. ± Used to test or run stand-alone a class.PUT_LINE ('Hello world!').out. public class Hello { public static void main (String[] args) { System. by the way: the PL/SQL version 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .println ("Hello world!")... } }  No members. no methods.

zip.java -classpath d:\java 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .d:\java D:> javac Hello.page 147 . e:\jdk1. ± It will also automatically recompile any classes used by your class that has not been compiled since last change.zip.1.java file to a . SET CLASSPATH = d:\Oracle\Ora81\jdbc\lib\classes111.7b\lib\classes. ± This will convert the . ± You must also either have set the CLASSPATH or include it in your javac call.class file. you must compile it with the javac command.Compiling Classes  Before you can use a class.

java 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Running a Class  Run a class? What does that mean? It means that if your class contains a method with this header: public static void main (String[] args)  then you can "run" the main method with the java command: d:\java> java Hello  You can also pass one or more arguments on the command line: d:\java> java Hello mom Hello2.page 148 .

Let's build a performance analyzer class to explore these ideas. however.   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . you will use a class by instantiating objects from the class and then invoking class methods on the object.page 149 . Usually.Using a Class  The main method is handy for providing a built-in test mechanism of your class.

class Tmr { private long Gstart = 0.Gstart).java InFile. } public long elapsed () { return (System. System.currentTimeMillis() .page 150 . } public void showElapsed () { p.currentTimeMillis().java Tmr.l ("Elapsed time ".java 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .l ("Elapsed time for " + context.currentTimeMillis to calculate elapsed time to nearest thousandth of a second. public void capture () { Gstart = System.Compare Performance of Methods  Use System. elapsed()).currentTimeMillis() .Gstart). } public void showElapsed (String context) { p. } } p.

besides the "regular" kind we just saw.  Inner class ± Classes that are defined inside other classes.  Abstract class ± The class can contain members and methods..Types of Classes  There are several different kinds of classes in Java. but at least one method remains unimplemented.  Interface class ± The class only contains unimplemented methods.. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 151 .

And Now for Some Scary Buzzwords!  Inheritance ± Subclasses inherit methods and variables from extended superclasses. supertype/"wider" Citizen Person Employee Hourly Worker Salaried Worker subtype/"narrower" War Criminal Person. ± Dynamic polymorphism: form is determined at run-time. either as its own class or as any superclass.  Polymorphism ± An object of a class can have "multiple" forms.page 152 . ± Static polymorphism: form is chosen at compile-time (PL/SQL overloading).java A Class Hierarchy Management NonManagement Corporation 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Language Basics  Comments // Single line comment /* Block comment */ /** Documentation comment */  Primitive datatypes ± So I lied. myName = "Steven". if (myName. these are not objects instantiated from classes. ± Can't do a direct == comparison. boolean char byte short int long float double  Strings ± A String object is a read-only. you are actually allocating a new object.equals(YourName)) foundFamily(). myName = "Feuerstein". if you assign a new value to it. String myName.page 153 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

System. Examples: for (indx indx=0. expression. for (initialize.length.println ( (String)enum. indx < args. step) { lotsaStuff } while (expression) { lostsaStuff } do { lostsaStuff } while (expression).NextElement()). static void processAll (Enumeration enum) { while (enum. indx++) System.out.page 154 .nextElement()) } } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .out.hasMoreElements ()) { processIt (enum.println (args[indx]).Writing Loops in Java  Three kinds of loops: while. do-while and for ± Note: you need squiggly brackets only if there is more than one statement in the loop body.

System. ± If a method has no arguments. you still include the open and close parentheses. class PuterLingo { private String mname.. ± No default values for arguments. } } class LotsALingos { public static void main (String args[]) { PuterLingo Java = new PuterLingo("Java").name()). ± Only positional notation is supported. } } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 155 .out.. public PuterLingo (String name) { mname = name.Passing Parameters  Some important differences from PL/SQL. } public String name () { return mname. you must supply a value for each parameter.println (Java.

Put inside try clause File myFile = new File (filename). you "throw" and "catch" exceptions. Throwing my own public static int numBytes (String filename) { exception try { if (filename. } catch (Exception e) { System.println (e. return myFile. } File-related catch (SecurityException e) { exceptions return -1. "WHEN OTHERS" } in Java } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Exception Handling in Java  Very similar to PL/SQL. rather than raise and handle.toString()).equals("")) throw new Exception ("Filename is NULL").out.length().page 156 .

as in: public static int numBytes (String filename) throws SecurityException.  You must inform users of your method of which exceptions may be thrown..Differences Between Java & PL/SQL  Exceptions are objects derived directly or indirectly from the Exception class. ± So you can pass them as arguments and do anything and everything else you can do with objects. } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . NoSuchFile { ..page 157 . ± Use the throws clause in your specification.

page 158 .Java's Not So Tough!  You can learn enough Java in less than a week to: ± Build simple classes ± Leverage Java inside PL/SQL  Moving to the next level of expertise will be more of a challenge.  Now let's explore how you can put Java to work for you inside PL/SQL programs. ± Object oriented development (Java) is very different from procedural coding (PL/SQL). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

using JDBC or SQLJ Oracle 8i server PL/SQL cover for Java method Java virtual machine running Java method Oracle Developer client (PL/SQL) Net8 OCI or Pro*C client VB or C++ via OO4O or ODBC 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Java Stored Procedures (JSPs) Java applet or app.page 159 .

better file I/O ± RMI callouts. network communication in/out PL/SQL replacement ± More standard language ± Good performer for numeric processing tasks ± Beware database I/O & string manipulation performance Scaleable deployment of third party code ± Vertical application ± Web server ± XML parser/generator 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .JSPs: Some sample uses PL/SQL extender ± For example.page 160 .

Call from PL/SQL (or SQL) as if calling PL/SQL    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ...END 4.. Create Java classes in your favorite IDE 2. Publish PL/SQL cover using AS LANGUAGE JAVA. Load into server using ³loadjava´ command-line tool 3..Creating JSP to call from PL/SQL   1.page 161 . Grant privileges as desired 5. rather than BEGIN.

paying its" + " Chief Executive Officer " + CEOCompensation. }} 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Notes on Java classes  toString method automatically used by System. System. Entry points must be public static in most cases Classes may call other classes Avoid GUI calls     person. layoffs = Playoffs. long CEOCompensation. } public String toString () { return name + " is a transnational entity with " + layoffs + " laid-off employees.out. 50000000).java Advanced Techniques . public Corporation ( String Pname.println (TheGlobalMonster).println main method is used to test the class. long Playoffs. } public static void main (String[] args) { // A very scary company Corporation TheGlobalMonster = new Corporation ( "Northrup-Ford-Mattel-Yahoo-ATT".page 162 PL/SQL . long PceoComp) { name = Pname.Create Java class(es) class Corporation extends Person { long layoffs.out. 5000000. CEOCompensation = PceoComp.

java file Java resource file .class file .page 163 .class options (abbreviated) -oci8 -resolve loadjava will connect using OCI driver Resolves external class references at compile time -resolver (shown later) Search path like CLASSPATH 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Upload using ³loadjava´ utility .jar file Oracle 8i server Java class Java source Java resource loadjava Example: loadjava loadjava -user scott/tiger -oci8 -resolve datacraft/bill/Hello.

/  Syntax (simplified) CREATE [ OR REPLACE PROCE URE FUNCTION <name> <sqlt pe> ] [ [ <ar s> ) ] [ AUTHID { DEFINER | CURRENT_USER } ] AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME '<met fullname> (<Ja a t pe fullname>. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . .String'..page 164 .bill.) [ return <Ja a t pe fullname> ]'.Hello.lang..Emp(int) return java.Publish  Example (top-level call spec) CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION hello_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2 AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.

page 165 .  Method 2: Use 8i SQL CALL statement. END. from SQL*Plus: VARIABLE thename VARCHAR2(12) CALL hello_emp(7499) INTO :thename. PRINT :thename ± CALL avoids overhead of SELECT fn FROM DUAL jsp.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .PUT_LINE(hello_emp(7499)).Call the wrapped method  Method 1: Call as if PL/SQL module BEGIN DBMS_OUTPUT. for example.

sql.ARRAY 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .STRUCT <named type> oracle.Timestamp java.more concepts Shape mapping ± Java methods declared ³void´ become PL/SQL procedures ± Signature mismatches detected only at runtime Type mapping (typical) VARCHAR2 DATE NUMBER user-defined object type user-defined object type object REFerence user-defined collection type java.sql.String java.sql.page 166 .REF oracle.BigDecimal oracle.sql.lang.math.Publishing -.

/ (No package body required in this case) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .util..page 167 .lang.Publish in PL/SQL Package Spec  Designate Java module in PL/SQL package spec.String'. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE hello_pkg AS FUNCTION hi_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2 AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.Hello.Emp(int) return java. END..

util.or in package body CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE hello_pkg2 AS FUNCTION hi_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2.page 168 . / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Publish as module in package body  ..Hello. END. END.lang..String'.Emp(int) return java. / CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY hello_pkg2 AS FUNCTION hi_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2 IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.

page 169 .Publish as object type method  Either in spec: CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE foo_t AS OBJECT ( bar VARCHAR2(30).Emp(int) return java.lang.Hello.String'.Hello. / CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE BODY foo_t AS MEMBER FUNCTION hello_emp RETURN VARCHAR2 IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft. END. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .String'). MEMBER FUNCTION hello_emp RETURN VARCHAR2 IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft. MEMBER FUNCTION hello_emp RETURN VARCHAR2). / or in the body: CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE foo_t AS OBJECT ( bar VARCHAR2(30).Emp(int) return java.lang.util.util.

class. JAVA_ADMIN. JAVADEBUGPRIV ± You can also grant specific privileges. JAVAIDPRIV. JAVASYSPRIV (needed for file IO operations). DROP JAVA: drops a named Java library unit Several roles available for Java operations: ± JAVAUSERPRIV. or resource ± Can read file designated with BFILE() function  ALTER JAVA: compiles Java source.page 170 . resolves Java class references.   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .New DDL Statements and Roles  CREATE JAVA ± Alternative to ³loadjava´ utility ± Creates or replaces an Oracle ³library unit´ from Java source.

STRUCT ± oracle.Passing Oracle8 objects Oracle8i server Object in O-R table Java application Java object   Harder than you¶d think Three different interfacing techniques ± oracle.sql.jdbc2.SQLData 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .sql.page 171 .CustomDatum ± oracle.

page 172 .JPublisher utility Database server Definition of type or REF in data dictionary User-supplied JPublisher input file What does it do? ± Generates Java that encapsulates type and REF types of mapping supported for methods JPublisher ± ³Oracle mapping´ ± ³JDBC mapping´ ± ³Object JDBC mapping´ Three Generated Java file(s) for use in Java programs 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

bill.save (datacraft.bill.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .AccountRuntime.page 173 . they become available to use in mapping Example of passing an Account_t object: CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE account_save (new_acct IN Account_t) IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft. /  jspobj.Account_t)'.Passing object using JPub-generated Java  After generating and uploading classes with JPub.

Let's see how we can make that great Java stuff available from within PL/SQL.   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Java offers many file-related classes with much greater capabilities. but that package is very limited.Example: Improving File I/O  You can read/write files in PL/SQL with UTL_FILE.page 174 .

± The File class offers a length method that returns the number of bytes in a file..page 175 .  Let's start with something simple. ± Instead build a static method that instantiates a Java object from the class and then invokes the relevant method against that object.. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Encapsulate Java Classes  You won't generally access native Java methods in your PL/SQL wrapper. ± This is not available through UTL_FILE (though you can get it through DBMS_LOB).

My Own Java Class for File Manipulation  Accept the name of a file and return its length. return myFile.File. public class JFile2 { public static long length (String fileName) { File myFile = new File (fileName). } } JFile2.length().io.page 176 . ± Call the method of choice against that object and return the value.java  Take each of these steps: ± Import the File class to resolve reference. ± Instantiate a File object for the specified name. import java. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

/ xfile2.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END. / CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY xfile IS FUNCTION length (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN NUMBER AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'JFile. END.length (java. ± I translate the Java long to a PL/SQL NUMBER.page 177 .String) return long'. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE xfile IS FUNCTION length (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN NUMBER. we will certainly want to add more functionality over time.lang.Build a Package over Java Method  Let's put it in a package.

Write a "public" PL/SQL wrapper function to convert that number to a true PL/SQL Boolean.page 178 . you will need to take these steps: ± 1. ± 2. Not so! To pass a Boolean back from Java to PL/SQL. Convert the Java boolean to a String or number and return that value. Write a "hidden" PL/SQL wrapper function that returns the string or number. ± 3.Mapping the Boolean Datatype  Both Java and PL/SQL support a native Boolean datatype.  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . so you'd expect smooth sailing.

Translate Boolean to Number  Accept the name of a file and return its length. boolean retval = myFile. } } JFile3. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . if (retval) return 1.canRead().page 179 .java  Translate TRUE to 1 and FALSE to 0. import java.io. ± And don't forget: this is a boolean primitive. not a Boolean class. public class JFile3 { public static int canRead (String fileName) { File myFile = new File (fileName).File. else return 0.

JFile4.java END.pkg RETURN IcanRead (file) = 1.java / xfile.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . xfile4.pkg END. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE xfile IS FUNCTION canRead (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN BOOLEAN.Wrapper for Pseudo-Boolean function  Simple translation back to PL/SQL Boolean. END.page 180 .lang. ± Avoid the hard-codings with named constants. FUNCTION canRead (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN BOOLEAN AS BEGIN xfile3. JFile...String) return int'.canRead (java. / CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY xfile IS FUNCTION IcanRead (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN NUMBER AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'JFile3.

SQLException { // Get the attributes of the labor_source object. Object[] attribs = e.println ( "Pay " + laborType + " $" + hourly_rate + " per hour").getAttributes(). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein UnionBuster.sql.out.tst PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 181 . throws java. } } Extract individual attribute values from the array.Passing Objects to Java with STRUCT  You can pass Oracle object information to Java without relying on JPub by using the STRUCT class. System. public class UnionBuster { Obtain attributes of public static void wageStrategy (STRUCT e) the Oracle object. // Access individual attributes by array index. // starting with 0 String laborType = (String)(attribs[0]). BigDecimal hourly_rate = (BigDecimal)(attribs[1]).java passobj.

/ CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE bust_em_with ( labor_source_in IN labor_source_t) AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'UnionBuster. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .STRUCT)'. 0)). '5')).page 182 .wageStrategy (oracle. The Oracle object type definition CREATE TYPE labor_source_t AS OBJECT ( labor_type VARCHAR2(30). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Fully specify the STRUCT class in parameter list.sql. END. bust_em_with ( labor_source ('Prisoners'.Wrapping a STRUCT-based Method  You can pass Oracle object information to Java without relying on JPub by using the STRUCT class. / BEGIN bust_em_with ( labor_source ('Workfare'. hourly_rate NUMBER).

println ( "Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello All!").out. i++) { System. public class HelloAll { public static void lotsaText ( int count) { for (int i = 0.Viewing Output from Java Methods  Java provides a "print line" method similar to DBMS_OUTPUT. HelloAll.sql file: SET SERVEROUTPUT ON SIZE 1000000 CALL DBMS_JAVA.java HelloAll. }}}  When called within a PL/SQL wrapper.out.page 183 . you can redirect the output to the DBMS_OUTPUT buffer.println.SET_OUTPUT (1000000).PUT_LINE: System. ± Call it within methods and output will display in your Java environment.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Here is a good nucleus for a login. i < count.

± Exceptions are objects instantiated from the Exception class or a subclass of it.page 184 . such as java. you "throw" and "catch".SQLException. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Any error not caught by the JVM (Java virtual machine) will be thrown back to the PL/SQL block or SQL statement.Error Handling with Java-PL/SQL  Java offers a very similar. ± Use two methods.1.5). ± And also spew out the entire Java error stack! (at least through 8. ± Instead of raising and handling.sql. getErrorCode() and getMessage() to obtain information about the error thrown. but more robust error handling mechanism than PL/SQL.

KprbDBAccess.object(DropAny.doExecuteWithBatch(OracleStatement. DBMS_OUTPUT.jdbc. / SQL> 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 java.java) at oracle.driver.parseExecuteFetch(KprbDBAccess.sp dropany2.java) at oracle.OracleStatement.SQLException: getErrInfo.KprbDBAccess.executeUpdate(OracleStatement.sql.OracleStatement. and you have to do some digging to extract the Oracle error information.SQLException: ORA-00942: table or view does not exist at oracle.driver.check_error(KprbDBAccess.driver. 'blip').tst ORA-00942: table or view does not exist 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .OracleStatement.java) at oracle.java) at oracle.PUT_LINE (SQLERRM).OracleStatement.driver.Trapping and Identifying Errors  Currently.jdbc.jdbc. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN DBMS_OUTPUT.doExecuteOther(OracleStatement.java) at oracle.jdbc.kprb.jdbc. BEGIN dropany ('TABLE'.doExecute(OracleStatement.java -29532 dropany.OracleStatement. END.java:14) DropAny.sql.java) at oracle.driver.jdbc.PUT_LINE (SQLCODE).java) at DropAny.jdbc.tst ORA-29532: Java call terminated by uncaught Java exception: java.doExecuteWithTimeout(OracleStatement. the entire Java stack is displayed on your screen.page 185 .kprb.

 An Oracle8 feature that allowed relatively "native" callouts to C from PL/SQL for the first time.page 186 . procedure.Achieving PL/SQL Excellence External Procedures  An external procedure is a 3GL routine that can serve as the ³body´ of a PL/SQL function. or method. ± Must be a shared object library on Unix or a dynamically linked library (DLL) on Windows. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

so file extproc returns results returns results 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .DLL or .page 187 .Process & data flow Application Makes request Net8 External Procedure Listener spawns External Shared Library Calls PL/SQL Runtime Engine PL/SQL body Client or server-side application returns results calls routine from Routine in .

sql diskspace.External procedures: Sample uses      Send email Invoke operating system command Invoke custom or legacy application Call C runtime library function Perform admin tasks email.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 188 .

Determine free disk space on NT (1/4)  Use pre-existing routine: ± GetDiskFreeSpaceA in kernel32.page 189 .dll'. create an Oracle8 ³library´: CREATE OR REPLACE LIBRARY nt_kernel AS 'c:\winnt\system32\kernel32.dll ± For given drive letter. this function returns: » » » » » sectors per cluster bytes per sector number of free clusters total number of clusters ³return code´ indicating success or failure  First. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

sectors_per_cluster OUT PLS_INTEGER. END disk_util. number_of_free_clusters OUT PLS_INTEGER.Package spec (2/4)  Nothing unexpected here: CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE disk_util AS FUNCTION get_disk_free_space (root_path IN VARCHAR2. total_number_of_clusters OUT PLS_INTEGER) RETURN PLS_INTEGER. bytes_per_sector OUT PLS_INTEGER.page 190 . / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

page 191  All the magic is in the EXTERNAL section 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . sectors_per_cluster BY REFERENCE LONG. bytes_per_sector OUT PLS_INTEGER.Package body in Oracle 8. RETURN LONG). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . total_number_of_clusters OUT PLS_INTEGER) RETURN PLS_INTEGER IS EXTERNAL LIBRARY nt_kernel NAME "GetDiskFreeSpaceA" LANGUAGE C CALLING STANDARD PASCAL PARAMETERS (root_path STRING. sectors_per_cluster OUT PLS_INTEGER. total_number_of_clusters BY REFERENCE LONG. bytes_per_sector BY REFERENCE LONG. number_of_free_clusters OUT pls_integer. END disk_util.0 (3/4) CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY disk_util AS FUNCTION get_disk_free_space (root_path IN VARCHAR2. number_of_free_clusters BY REFERENCE LONG.

Usage (4/4)
DECLARE lroot_path VARCHAR2(3) := 'C:\'; lsectors_per_cluster PLS_INTEGER; lbytes_per_sector PLS_INTEGER; lnumber_of_free_clusters PLS_INTEGER; ltotal_number_of_clusters PLS_INTEGER; return_code PLS_INTEGER; free_meg REAL; BEGIN return_code := disk_util.get_disk_free_space (lroot_path, lsectors_per_cluster, lbytes_per_sector, lnumber_of_free_clusters, ltotal_number_of_clusters); free_meg := lsectors_per_cluster * lbytes_per_sector * lnumber_of_free_clusters / 1024 / 1024; DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('free disk space, Mb = ' || free_meg); diskspace.sql END;
1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein
PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 192

Creating your own external procedure 

1. Identify or create shared library 2. Identify or CREATE LIBRARY within Oracle 3. Map the parameters using:
± EXTERNAL clause (Oracle8) or ± LANGUAGE clause (Oracle8i)  

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 193

1. Identify/create external routine 


Prerequisite: O/S must support shared libraries Some useful routines are pre-built in C runtime library
± On Unix: /lib/libc.so ± On NT: <systemroot>\system32\crtdll.dll 

Building a shared library of your own requires knowledge of:
± Appropriate language (typically C) ± Compiler & linker

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 194

2. Create the Oracle library 

Syntax:
CREATE OR REPLACE LIBRARY <library name> AS '<full path to file>'; 

Assigns a programmer-defined alias to a specific shared library file Notes
± Requires CREATE LIBRARY pri ilege ± Does not alidate directory ± Can¶t use symbolic link 

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 195

3. Map the parameters
This can get complicated, because«
± Must pass extra parameters to designate:
» NULL/NOT NULL state » String length » Maximum allocated length

± Six choices of parameter mode
» » » » » » IN RETURN IN BY REFERENCE RETURN BY REFERENCE OUT IN OUT

These details are better suited for close reading«
PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 196

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

page 197 .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Oracle8i New Features Autonomous Transactions Invoker Rights Model Row Level Security 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

page 198 .    Autonomous Transactions The Invoker Rights Model Row level security 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± And the learning curve to take advantage of these features is generally not too steep.Oracle8i New Features  Oracle8i offers a number of PL/SQL-specific features that give you tremendous additional flexibility and capability.

CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE loginfo ( code IN PLS_INTEGER. msg IN VARCHAR2) AS PRAGMA AUTONOMOUS_TRANSACTION. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Any changes made within that block can be saved or reversed without affecting the outer or main transaction. ± There was only one transaction allowed per connection.page 199 .  With Oracle8i. a COMMIT or ROLLBACK in any program in your session committed or rolled back all changes in your session.Autonomous Transactions  Prior to Oracle8i. you can now define a PL/SQL block to execute as an "autonomous transaction".

 Tracing Code Usage ± Build retry mechanisms. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± One component should not have any impact (esp. etc. which can cause all sorts of complications: your log entry becomes a part of your transaction.page 200 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . something like a COMMIT) on other components. ± Now you can avoid the complexities (need for ROLLBACK TO savepoints and so on).  Logging Mechanism ± Commonly developers lot to database tables.When to Use Autonomous Transactions  Reusable Application Components ± ATs are more or less required in the new distributed application architecture of the Internet.  Call functions within SQL that change the database. software usage meter.

BEGIN INSERT INTO logtab VALUES (code_in.Logging with ATs  Don't forget that ROLLBACK in the exception section! CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY log IS PROCEDURE putline ( code_in IN INTEGER.pkg log81*. text_in.tst PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END.machine. COMMIT. USER. rec. let's add some session information. END. While we're at it. text_in IN VARCHAR2 ) IS PRAGMA AUTONOMOUS_TRANSACTION. USER.sp log81.tst retry.page 201 . SYSDATE.pkg retry. rec. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Avoid interdependencies with the main transaction. SYSDATE. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN ROLLBACK.program ). logger.

sql autontrigger*.sql auton_in_sql.page 202 . ± You cannot define a nested anonymous block to be an AT. ± Place the SET TRANSACTION statement in the outer transaction.   The AT PRAGMA goes in the body of packages.  Any changes committed in an AT are visible in the outer transaction. autonserial. The AT PRAGMA can be used only with individual programs and toplevel anonymous blocks.Tips and Gotchas with ATs  An AT program must COMMIT or ROLLBACK before terminating. ± You cannot tell by looking at the package spec if you are calling ATs or not -and this info is not available in the data dictionary. or an error is raised. ± You can use the SET TRANSACTION ISOLATION LEVEL SERIALIZABLE to indicate that you do not want the changes visible until the outer transaction commits. ± You cannot define an entire package as an AT.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

whenever you executed a stored program. it ran under the privileges of the account in which the program was defined. ± This is called the « Invoker Rights Model PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . you can now decide at compilation time whether your program or package will execute in the definer's schema (the default) or the schema of the invoker of the code.The Invoker Rights Model  Prior to Oracle8i. ± This is called the « Definer Rights Model  With Oracle8i.page 203 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .

About Definer Rights  Allows you to centralize access to and control of underlying data structures. Ignores roles and relies on directly-granted privileges. But it can be a source of confusion and architectural problems. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Note: Oracle built-in packages have long had the capability of running under the invoker's authority.page 204 . OE Code Order_Mgt Place Cancel Sam_Sales Close Old Orders  OE Data X  Orders Cannot alter table directly.

Problems with Definer Rights  Deployment & maintenance ± Must install module in all remote databases where needed ± In some databases.and now you do! 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . unless you write code in the package to essentially recreate roles programmatically. requiring copy of stored module  Security ± No declarative way to restrict privileges on certain modules in a package -.it's all or nothing.page 205 . each user has own copy of table(s). ± Can bypass 8i¶s ³fine-grained´ access features (see the DBMS_RLS package) ± Difficult to audit privileges  Sure would be nice to have a choice...

± In other words. You could also create local. AUTHID goes only in spec. do what it takes to get the code to compile...  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± At run-time.Oracle8i Invoker Rights Syntax  For top level modules: CREATE [ OR REPLACE ] <module type> [ AUTHID { DEFINER | CURRENT_USER } ] AS . the objects referenced may well be different from those against which it compiled. "dummy" objects. Synonyms may be necessary if modules use object names not qualified by schema.page 206 . and must be at the package level.  For modules with separate spec and body.

END..). Central Code schema PACKAGE acct_mgr make AUTHID CURRENT_USER User/Data schema PROCEDURE mng_account IS BEGIN .. yet have all references to data structures "reflect back" into your own schema. modify destroy .page 207 . accounts table 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ... you can execute code owned by another schema..FROM accounts WHERE.destroy(. code...acct_mgr.."Reflection" Capability of Invoker Rights  With invoker rights.

sql  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . only data ± When your stored code references another stored code element.Tips and Gotchas for Invoker Rights  Does not apply to code objects. oneversion. ± AUTHID CURRENT_USER is ignored. the definer rights model is always applied to resolve the reference.  Information about the rights model is not available in the data dictionary What if you want to maintain a single version of your code for both pre-Oracle8i and Oracle8i installations.sql handy. taking advantage of the invoker rights model whenever possible? ± A creative use of SQL*Plus substitution variables comes in very invdefinv.  Once a definer rights program is called. ± Both static and dynamic SQL is supported.page 208 . Note: cannot use with wrapped code. all other calls in stack are resolved according to definer rights.

sql whichsch*. but you want their own directly-granted privileges to determine access. ± Share a program that uses dynamic SQL (whether DBMS_SQL or the new native implementation) and you end up taking the most unexpected DDL and DML detours.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . National HQ Check City Statistics New York Schema stolenlives Chicago Schema stolenlives  Especially handy with dynamic SQL.page 209 .When to Invoke Invoker Rights  You want to reuse the same code among many users. authid.

Combining Invoker & Definer Rights  Rely on invoker rights to allow centralized code to work with schema-specific data.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . HQ Chicago Check City Statistics  New York stolenlives Analyze Pattern stolenlives perpetrators perp. Rely on definer rights to access centralized data from any schema.page 210 .

page 211 .Row Level Security DBMS_RLS Row-Level Security 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Row-Level Security with DBMS_RLS  Oracle8i offers a new package. The DBMS_RLS package (along with "system contexts") now allow you to do so in a foolproof manner. you could achieve this only partially through the use of views. with which to implement automated row-level security (also referred to as "fine grained access control"). DBMS_RLS. Row Level Security  The establishment of security policies on (restricted access to) individual rows of a table.page 212   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . Prior to Oracle8i.

 Security Policy Packages ± You will need to write a package containing functions that establish the security policies to be applied to a particular table. the system context is a named set of attributevalue pairs global to your session.Components Needed for RLS  System Contexts ± A new feature in Oracle8i. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Let's step through a simple example to see how all these pieces tie together.  DBMS_RLS ± Use programs in DBMS_RLS to associate your security policies with tables.page 213 . their context information is set properly.  Database Logon Triggers ± I want to make sure that when a person logs in.

no more private insurance companies soaking up 30 cents on the dollar. popular uprising in the United States has forced the establishment of a national healthcare system.  We need a top-notch. ± A massive. The main tables are patient. Here are some rules: ± Doctors can only see patients who are assigned to their clinic. fgac. doctor.page 214 . ± Regulators can only see patients who reside in the same state.sql  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . all children are vaccinated. all pregnant women receive excellent prenatal care. ± Patients can only see information about themselves.A National Health Care System  The year is 2010. clinic and regulator. No more for-profit hospitals pulling billions of dollars out of the system. highly secure database for NHCS.

See CURSOR doc_cur IS fgac.Set the Context  Define a context in the database. c_person_id_attr. DBMS_SESSION. PROCEDURE set_context IS This is a simplification.page 215 . END. 'DOCTOR').SET_CONTEXT ( 'patient_restriction'. sets the context accordingly.SET_CONTEXT ( 'patient_restriction'. DBMS_SESSION.sql for logic that identifies SELECT doctor_id FROM doctor different types of people and WHERE schema_name = USER. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . BEGIN OPEN doc_cur. FETCH doc_cur INTO doc_rec.doctor_id). c_person_type_attr. doc_rec. and create a procedure that will set the context attributes (type and ID) upon login. CREATE CONTEXT patient_restriction USING nhc_pkg. doc_rec doc_cur%ROWTYPE.

page 216 . FUNCTION person_predicate ( schema_in VARCHAR2. c_person_type_attr). person. ''' || clause for each type of c_person_id_attr || '''))'. information for this retval VARCHAR2(2000). name_in VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2 IS l_context VARCHAR2(100) := Extract the context SYS_CONTEXT (c_context. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Define the Predicate  A predicate is a string that will be appended to the WHERE clause of the table to which this security policy is associated (see next page). connection. BEGIN IF l_context = 'DOCTOR' THEN retval := 'home_clinic_id IN (SELECT home_clinic_id FROM doctor We need a different string WHERE doctor_id = SYS_CONTEXT (''' || to modify the WHERE c_context || '''.

ADD_POLICY procedure. ( => => => => => => 'SCOTT'.Create the Security Policy  Use the DBMS_RLS. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . update or delete against the SCOTT.person_predicate'. 'nhc_pkg. 'patient'.UPDATE.ADD_POLICY OBJECT_SCHEMA OBJECT_NAME POLICY_NAME FUNCTION_SCHEMA POLICY_FUNCTION STATEMENT_TYPES END. BEGIN DBMS_RLS. 'SCOTT'.PATIENT table will be modified by the string returned by the person_predicate function of the SCOTT.page 217 .nhc_pkg package.DELETE'). ± The following procedure call specifies that the WHERE clause of any query. 'patient_privacy'. 'SELECT.

PUT_LINE ( 'Error ' || SQLCODE || ' setting context for ' || USER'). we guarantee that the context is set (and the predicate applied) no matter which product is the entry point to Oracle. fgac.page 218 . END. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .sql Exception handling in trigger is critical! If you allow an exception to go unhandled.set_context. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN DBMS_OUTPUT. Setting Context  By setting the context in the logon trigger. CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER set_id_on_logon AFTER LOGON ON DATABASE BEGIN nhc_pkg. logon is disabled.Create Logon Trigger.

IL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Patient sees only himself.IL Context Information for "CSILVA": Type: PATIENT ID: Predicate: schema_name = 'CSILVA' Patients Visible to "CSILVA": CSILVA .Queries Transparently Filtered  What you see is determined automatically by who you are.page 219 . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Chris Silva .Chris Silva .Veva Silva . Context Information for "SWALLACE": Type: DOCTOR Doctor sees only her ID: 1060 patients.IL VSILVA . Predicate: home_clinic_id IN (SELECT home_clinic_id FROM doctor WHERE doctor_id = SYS_CONTEXT ('patient_restriction'. 'person_id')) Patients Visible to "SWALLACE": CSILVA .

..Take Full Advantage of PL/SQL! January. February. and you use only what you know.  ± You learn what you need to get the job done. It's so easy to fall into a rut with a programming language.and play a new tune with PL/SQL! 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ....page 220 ... May. Jump out of your rut ... April. March..

page 221 .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Appendices (a.k.. If time permits«)     UTL_FILE ± file IO DBMS_JOB ± Job scheduling DBMS_PIPE ± Pipe-based communication DBMS_UTILITY ± the kitchen sink package 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .a.

page 222 .Built-in Packages: UTL_FILE UTL_FILE Server-side File I/O Application FOPEN GET_LINE PUT_LINE .. Physical Files 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..

page 223 . copy. ± No higher-level file operations supported (change privileges. delete. A "version 1" (fairly primitive) utility. ± Maximum of 1023 bytes per line (read or write) until Oracle 8. no use of environmental variables)..   But you can read lines from a file and write lines to a file. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .. when it jumps to 32K. random access to contents). ± Limitations on files you can access (no mapped files.5.0.UTL_FILE: Server-side I/O  Allows you to read from and write to operating system files on the database server.

page 224 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . Puts formatted text into the buffer PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .UTL_FILE Module Outline FCLOSE FCLOSE_ALL FFLUSH FOPEN GET_LINE IS_OPEN NEW_LINE PUT PUT_LINE PUTF Close the specified file Close all open files in your session Flush all data from the UTL_FILE buffer to your file Open a file Get the next line from a file Returns TRUE if the file is open (sort of) Insert a new line character in file at the end of current line Puts text into the UTL_FILE buffer Puts text and new line character into UTL_FILE buffer.

Authorizing Directory Access  Oracle requires you to list explicitly those directories you wish to be able to read/write with UTL_FILE.page 225 Allows read & write for current directory.  Follow these rules to avoid many headaches. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . ± Use a separate entry for each directory (and subdirectory. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± No single or double quotes around directory. there is no subdirectory recursion). no trailing delimiter. ± You do this by adding lines to the instance parameter file. utl_file_dir = /tmp utl_file_dir = /accounts/newdev  And don't do either of the following: utl_file_dir = . utl_file_dir = * Allows read & write for any directory.

So before you write anything fancy. 'test.tst  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . restart your database.FCLOSE (fid). BEGIN /* Change the directory name to one to which you at least || THINK you have read/write access.FILE_TYPE. and then run the following test script (it can't get much simpler than this): DECLARE fid UTL_FILE. END. / utlfile. UTL_FILE.txt'. modify your initialization file. */ fid := UTL_FILE.PUT_LINE (fid.FOPEN ('c:\temp'. 'hello').Test UTL_FILE Access  About the hardest part to working with UTL_FILE is simply getting started.page 226 . UTL_FILE. 'W').

  Maximum of 10 files may be opened in each user session. END. Test to see if file is open with the IS_OPEN function. Not much of a test.FILE_TYPE.. ± Types are 'R' for Read.page 227 .FILE_TYPE. 'W' for Write and 'A' for Append.  The FOPEN function returns a record ("file handle") based on the UTL_FILE.  Specify file location. BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE.FOPEN ('c:\temp'. name and operation type. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± In actuality. this function simply returns TRUE if the file handle's id field is NOT NULL.Opening a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.. 'W').txt'. 'test. ± Currently contains a single ID field.

UTL_FILE.  The NO_DATA_FOUND exception is raised if you read past the end of the file. myline).GET_LINE (fid. 'R'). END.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .FCLOSE (fid).   Can only read from a file opened with the "R" mode.txt'.5 and above.Reading from a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE. Lines in the file cannot be longer than 1023 bytes in length.FILE_TYPE. ± You might want to build your own GET_LINE which handles the exception and returns an EOF Boolean status flag. BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE.FOPEN ('c:\temp'. the ceiling is raised to 32K.0. ± In Oracle8 Release 8. 'test. getnext. UTL_FILE.page 228 .

Writing to a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.PUT (fid.FCLOSE (fid). allowing for some formatting. ± PUTF is like the C printf program. END.txt'.PUT_LINE (fid. UTL_FILE. '&1'). BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE. ± The file buffers are automatically flushed when you close a file or exit your session. UTL_FILE.page 229 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . 'UTL_FILE'). 'W'). UTL_FILE is so much fun that I never want to stop Resulting Text  You can use PUT. 'test.FILE_TYPE.PUTF (fid. UTL_FILE. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ' that I never\nwant to %s'. 'is so much fun').  Call FFLUSH to make sure that everything you have written to the buffer is flushed out to the file.FOPEN ('c:\temp'. PUT_LINE or PUTF. UTL_FILE.

FCLOSE (fid).FILE_TYPE.  If you do not close the file.READ_ERROR THEN UTL_FILE.page 230   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . UTL_FILE. myline).FCLOSE (fid).txt'.FOPEN ('c:\temp'. 'test. BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE.GET_LINE (fid. UTL_FILE. EXCEPTION WHEN UTL_FILE. 'R').Closing a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE. You can close a single file with FCLOSE or all open files with FCLOSE_ALL. you will not see the data you have (supposedly) written to that file. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . You should close files in exception handlers to make sure that files are not left "hanging" open. END.

EXCEPTION.page 231 . EXCEPTION. ± NO_DATA_FOUND when you try to read past the end of the file. EXCEPTION. EXCEPTION. EXCEPTION. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . EXCEPTION.Error Handling in UTL_FILE PACKAGE UTL_FILE IS invalid_path invalid_mode invalid_filehandle invalid_operation read_error write_error internal_error END. ± They all share a common SQLCODE of 1. EXCEPTION. ± UTL_FILE-named exceptions in other cases.  You have to take special care to trap and handle the named exceptions.  UTL_FILE relies on a combination of user-defined exceptions and STANDARD exceptions to communicate errors.

RAISE. RAISE. WHEN UTL_FILE.c_write_error).INVALID_PATH THEN recNgo (PLVfile.c_invalid_operation).c_invalid_path). WHEN UTL_FILE.c_invalid_filehandle).INVALID_MODE THEN recNgo (PLVfile.page 232  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .c_internal_error). WHEN UTL_FILE. END. RAISE.INVALID_FILEHANDLE THEN recNgo (PLVfile.WRITE_ERROR THEN recNgo (PLVfile. utlflexc.c_invalid_mode). record the error. WHEN UTL_FILE. RAISE. translating the generic user-defined exception into an understandable message. WHEN UTL_FILE. Re-raise exception if you want it to propagate from that block. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .INVALID_OPERATION THEN recNgo (PLVfile. RAISE. RAISE.Recommended Exception Section EXCEPTION WHEN UTL_FILE.c_read_error).READ_ERROR THEN recNgo (PLVfile. RAISE.INTERNAL_ERROR THEN recNgo (PLVfile. WHEN UTL_FILE.sql  Trap locally by name.

. Background Process DBA_JOBS Oracle Job Queue Subsystem 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 233 ..Built-in Packages: DBMS_JOB DBMS_JOB Scheduled Execution of Stored Procedures Application SUBMIT RUN REMOVE .

Overview of DBMS_JOB  DBMS_JOB provides an API to the Oracle job queues. You can use DBMS_JOB to: Replicate data between different database instances.page 234 .1. Schedule large batch jobs to run on "off hours". but only ³publicly available´ and supported in PL/SQL Release 2. ± ± ± ±    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Create a listener program to poll the contents of a pipe and take action. Made its debut in PL/SQL Release 2. ± Spawn background processes to avoid blocking client process. which in turn offers job scheduling capabilities within the Oracle Server.2. Schedule regular maintenance on instances. Built by Oracle to support snapshots and replication.

Submits a job to the queue using a predefined job number. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Forces immediate execution of the specified job number. Changes the job string of a job. Changes the interval between executions of a job.DBMS_JOB Module Outline BROKEN Marks the job as either FIXED or BROKEN.page 235 CHANGE INTERVAL ISUBMIT NEXT_DATE REMOVE RUN SUBMIT USER_EXPORT WHAT 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . Submits a job to the queue returning a unique job number. Removes the job from the queue. Changes when a queued job will run. Changes one or all attributes of a job. Returns the job string for a job number. Broken jobs will not run as scheduled.

 When you submit a job. ± In the above example. instead of having DBMS_JOB generate one for you.page 236 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .Submitting a Job DECLARE job# BINARY_INTEGER.ISUBMIT and supply the job number. SYSDATE. 'SYSDATE + 1'). I run calculate_totals immediately and then on a daily basis thereafter. 'calculate_totals. and then the job¶s execution interval (frequency of execution). BEGIN DBMS_JOB. END. while the interval is a string (this is dynamic PL/SQL!)  You can also call DBMS_JOB.  A job is a call to a stored procedure or an anonymous block ± It must end with a semi-colon and can contain ³hard-coded´ arguments. you specify the date on which it should next execute. Notice that the start time is a DATE expression. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .'.SUBMIT (job#.

what => 'DBMS_DDL. END. /  This block submits a job that uses a built-in procedure. next_date => TRUNC (SYSDATE + 1).''LOAD1''.''TENK''' || '.''ESTIMATE''. interval => 'TRUNC(SYSDATE+1)' ). to analyze a specific table every evening at midnight.submit ( job => v_jobno. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .'.Submit Job Example DECLARE v_jobno INTEGER.ANALYZE_OBJECT ' || '(''TABLE''. BEGIN DBMS_JOB.l (v_jobno).null.estimate_percent=>50). p.ANALYZE_OBJECT.page 237 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . DBMS_DDL.

DBMS_JOB.SYSDATE+1.2.ISubmit Job Example BEGIN DBMS_JOB.'BEGIN null.'.page 238 . runs it in one hour and executes every day thereafter. and 3.next_date => SYSDATE + 1/24 .what => 'my_job1(''string_parm_value''. DBMS_JOB.' . 'my_job2(date_IN=>SYSDATE). END.null). END. executes for the first time tomorrow and every 10 minutes thereafter. executes immediately. ± Job 1 passes a string and number into procedure MY_JOB1. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .'SYSDATE+10/1440').' .ISUBMIT(3. /  This block submits three jobs to the job queue.120). ± Job 3 is a PL/SQL block which does nothing.ISUBMIT (job => 1 .ISUBMIT (2. DBMS_JOB. and will be removed from the queue automatically. numbered 1.interval => 'SYSDATE +1'). ± Job 2 passes a date into procedure MY_JOB2.SYSDATE.

''Q'').Specifying Job Times & Frequencies  Probably the most complicated part of using DBMS_JOB is to get the string expression of the job interval right. Every hour Every Sunday at 2 AM First Monday of each quarter. NEXT_DAY (SYSDATE. ± Since it's a string. ''SATURDAY'') 2/24' 'NEXT_DAY ( ADD_MONTHS (TRUNC (SYSDATE. ''WEDNESDAY''). at 9 AM Every Monday. ± Use date arithmetic to request intervals smaller than a day. ''MONDAY'') + 9/24' 'TRUNC (LEAST ( NEXT_DAY (SYSDATE. Wednesday and Friday at 6 PM 'SYSDATE + 1/24' 'NEXT_DAY (TRUNC (SYSDATE). ''FRIDAY''))) + 18/24' PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . you must use 2 single quotes to embed strings. 3). ''MONDAY''). NEXT_DAY (SYSDATE.page 239 + 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .

 Run a job immediately.job). retaining current job number.page 240 .REMOVE (rec.RUN (my_job#). ± Performs an implicit COMMIT in current session.  Export jobs from the queue. Remove all jobs for current schema.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Other Job Queue Operations  Remove a job from the queue. END LOOP. DBMS_JOB.ISUBMIT. expjob. ± Only if the job was submitted from same schema BEGIN FOR rec IN (SELECT * FROM USER_JOBS) LOOP DBMS_JOB. ± Uses DBMS_JOB. ± Produces a string that can be used to recreate an existing job in the job queue.

job .job ORDER BY jr.jr. ± The following query blends job information with session information to display currently-executing jobs.sid AND jr.DBA_JOBS .this_date . who owns them and when they began. SELECT jr.job = j.what job_id username start_date job_definition jr j s showjobs.this_date. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Job Queue Views  You can also view the job queue by looking at the DBA_JOBS_RUNNING.V$SESSION WHERE s.sid = jr. DBA_JOBS and USER_JOBS views.sql FROM DBA_JOBS_RUNNING .username .page 241 .

The valid range is 1 to 3600 (a maximum.page 242 . ± job_queue_interval=N where N is the interval in seconds to check the job queue.ora (initialization) file for your database instance: ± job_queue_processes=N where n is the number of concurrent background processes permitted. The valid range is 0 through 36. of one hour).Setting up the Job Facility  Make sure that the correct access is set up for the DBMS_JOB package. therefore.  You will need to set three parameters in the init. You will have to take special DBA action if you want to restrict who can run jobs. ± The default is PUBLIC access. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

it may cause the background processes to fail and no longer run any jobs at all.Error Handling with DBMS_JOB  What if your stored procedure fails? ± After 16 attempts. ± Always include a WHEN OTHERS exception handler in your job program which traps any and all problems and automatically sets the job status to broken. ± Do you want it to try 16 times? ± In addition. Then you can go ahead and submit it. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . the job facility will mark your job as broken.page 243 . if your failure raises an unhandled exception.  To avoid unexpected and unhandled failures of scheduled jobs: ± Always use the RUN built-in to execute your job in a ³test´ mode.

. µFAIL¶). END.page 244 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Uses a call to BROKEN to set the status of the job to ³broken´.log (µcalc_totals¶.. You can go in and fix the problem. spacelog.sql  The WHEN OTHERS exception handler of the calc_totals procedure traps any kind of failure.Stopping the Job When It Fails PROCEDURE calc_totals IS BEGIN . TRUE). ± Obtains the job number from a packaged function by passing the name of the procedure.BROKEN (job#. job_pkg.job (µcalc_totals¶) DBMS_JOB.sql showspc. ± Calls log program of package to record that failure took place. ± Now the job facility will not try to run this program again. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN job# := job_pkg.

You can use the DBMS_IJOB to manage the jobs of other users. When a job runs. difficult to reproduce behavior at times with "straight" procedure calls. If you find that you submit a job to run immediately and it does not start.  You will need to fully-qualify all database links (with user name and password) to get them to work properly. it picks up the current execution environment for the user.page 245 .    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± DBMS_JOB only allows you to modify characteristics and behavior of jobs submitted by the current schema. perform a COMMIT after your submit. ± We've noticed some aberrant."Good to Knows" for DBMS_JOB  You may find it useful to always wrap your stored procedure call (the what) inside a BEGIN-END block.

page 246 .Built-in Packages: DBMS_PIPE DBMS_PIPE Inter-session Communication 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

± Interface PL/SQL-database activities with operating system functions and programs written in other languages. ± More sophisticated debugging inside PL/SQL programs (work around fundamental limitations of DBMS_OUTPUT).  Uses for DBMS_PIPE include: ± Parallelization of program execution. ± Operates outside of database transaction limitations. ± Perform and commit DML in a separate transaction space from your main transaction. Oracle uses database pipes to parallelize database operations. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .DBMS_PIPE Overview  Allows communication between different Oracle sessions through a pipe in the RDBMS Shared Global Area.page 247 . You can parallelize your own code.

page 248 . which can be composed of one or more separate packets.Architecture of DBMS_PIPE Shared Global Area ³Sue´ ³Bob´ Message Buffer Message Buffer Session A  Session B A pipe is a named object that uses the System Global Area to provide a non-transaction based conduit of information. ± The pipe sends/receives a message. They are reserved for Oracle use). ± Names can be up to 128 chars long (do not use names beginning with ³ORA$´. using a maximum of 4096 bytes. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

page 249 .  Send the message to a named pipe.sql pipex2. ± There is just one message buffer per session. ± Each packet can be a string. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein pipex1. date. ± Separate out the individual packets in the message (again: string.Processing Flow of DBMS_PIPE  Construct a message from packets of information.  Receive a message from that pipe.sql PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . so you should always specify a timeout period. ROWID or RAW. ± This is the default. number. ± You can wait for up to 1000 days for a message. date or number). you can wait for up to 1000 days (or 86400000 seconds) for the pipe to be cleared.  Unpack the message packets and take action. ± If there isn¶t currently room in the pipe.

making it a candidate for removal with a LRU algorithm. REMOVE_PIPE RESET_BUFFER Removes a pipe explicitly created via CREATE_PIPE.page 250 .DBMS_PIPE Module Outline Module Name CREATE_PIPE Description Creates a PUBLIC or PRIVATE pipe. PURGE Empties the contents of a pipe into your local buffer freeing it for removal. NEXT_ITEM_TYPE Returns the datatype of the next item in the piped message. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . UNIQUE_SESSION_NAME Returns name that is unique among all sessions in the database. SEND_MESSAGE Sends contents of message buffer to the specified pipe. PACK_MESSAGE Packs an item into the message buffer for your session. Clears your buffer so that PACK_MESSAGE and UNPACK_MESSAGE can work from the first item. UNPACK_MESSAGE Unpacks the next item from the local message buffer and deposits it into the specified local variable. RECEIVE_MESSAGE Receives a message from pipe and copies to local buffer.

private => TRUE). BEGIN stat := DBMS_PIPE. ± Specify TRUE for private argument of CREATE_PIPE. maxpipesize => 20000.page 251 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  An explicit pipe can be private (accessible only to sessions with matching userID or SYSDBA privileges). PROCEDURE newpipe IS stat INTEGER.  A public pipe is accessible as long as you know its name. ± Implicitly-created pipes are always public. ± Use CREATE_PIPE to create a pipe explicitly.Creating Public and Private Pipes  There are two ways to create pipes: implicitly and explicitly. ± Send messages to non-existent pipe implicitly create it.CREATE_PIPE ( pipename => 'bbs'.

timeout IN INTEGER DEFAULT maxwait. END LOOP. waiting up to 1 minute. expanding pipe size to 40 Kbytes. 10 * 4096).Sending a Message Provide pipe name. FUNCTION send_message (pipename IN VARCHAR2. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .PACK_MESSAGE ( total_sales (month_num)). 12 LOOP DBMS_PIPE.. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Fill your message buffer with packets of data. pipe_stat := DBMS_PIPE. maxpipesize IN INTEGER DEFAULT 8192) RETURN INTEGER. IF pipe_stat != 0 THEN RAISE could_not_send. 60. seconds you will wait. FOR month_num IN 1 . Status of 0 means message was sent. but not smaller).SEND_MESSAGE ( µmonthly¶.page 252 . Send to "monthly" pipe. and new max pipe size (you can make it bigger.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Then you call UNPACK_MESSAGE to extract individual packets from the message.Receiving and Unpack a Message FUNCTION receive_message (pipename IN VARCHAR2. PROCEDURE unpack_message (item OUT VARCHAR2). PROCEDURE unpack_message (item OUT NUMBER). ± Pipe status of 0 means the message was read successfully. PROCEDURE unpack_message (item OUT DATE).page 253 .  First you pull the message from the pipe and place it in buffer with RECEIVE_MESSAGE. timeout IN INTEGER DEFAULT maxwait) RETURN INTEGER. ± You need to know the datatype of packet or check it using NEXT_ITEM_TYPE. ± Specify pipe and number of seconds you will wait before you time out.

'). seconds for the BEGIN next report. PROCEDURE analyze_assembly_data (every_n_secs IN INTEGER) IS pipe_status INTEGER. Wait up to N prod_total NUMBER. 'Production data unavailable. data not received. analyze_production (SYSDATE.UNPACK_MESSAGE (prod_total). every_n_secs).A Pipe-based Listener Program  Program wakes up every N seconds to read the data from the pipe and analyze results from assembly line (an intentional "infinite loop"!). LOOP pipe_status := DBMS_PIPE. pass it on to the IF pipe_status = 0 computation THEN program. prod_total). DBMS_PIPE. END LOOP. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ELSE RAISE_APPLICATION_ERROR ( Stop process if -20000.page 254 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . END. If I got something. END IF.RECEIVE_MESSAGE ( 'production'.

you have to make sure that you unpack a packet into the right kind of variable.Unpacking the Message FUNCTION next_item_type RETURN INTEGER.sql dbpipe.page 255 .tst  Since a message can be composed of packets of different datatypes. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Returns one of the following values: Value 0 6 9 11 12 23 Description or Data type No more items in buffer NUMBER VARCHAR2 ROWID DATE RAW dbpipe. ± Or you use the built-in NEXT_ITEM_TYPE to tell you in advance the datatype of the next packet in the message and take appropriate action. Either: ± You know the datatype and therefore can ³hard-code´ the correct variable into the call to UNPACK_MESSAGE.

you can do the same for your application if: ± You have multiple CPUs available. ± The CEO is decidedly unhappy about the delay.Parallelizing Your Code with Pipes  Oracle uses DBMS_PIPE to improve RDBMS performance. In order to do so I must first compute total sales. I must execute them sequentially and incur an elapsed time of 45 minutes before I calculate the profits.  Without pipes. ± You have processes which can run in parallel. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± These programs each take 15 minutes. but are not dependent on each other.page 256 .  Suppose I want to calculate my net profit. total office expenses and total compensation.

Sequential vs. Parallel Execution Sequential Execution: Maximum Elapsed Time S t a r t E n d Process A Process B Process C Parallel Execution: Minimum Elapsed Time Start Process A Process B Process C End 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 257 .

END. it puts a message (perhaps even a value) into the pipe.  The ³kick off´ programs pass their messages to separate pipes. ± When each program is complete. wait_for_confirmation.  The ³wait´ program waits till it receives a message from each program. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . kick_off_exp_calc.in a muchdecreased elapsed time.Parallelizing PL/SQL Execution BEGIN kick_off_sales_calc. calculate_net_profits. kick_off_totcomp_calc. ± Other programs running in the background grab the messages and start their corresponding calculation program.page 258 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . Then net profits can be computed -.

END. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 259 . END IF. END.SEND_MESSAGE (µsales¶).SEND_MESSAGE (µsales¶). stat := DBMS_PIPE. DBMS_PIPE. stat := DBMS_PIPE. calculate sales.PACK_MESSAGE (sales$). and send back the results.RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µsales¶).PACK_MESSAGE (1995).PACK_MESSAGE (NULL). BEGIN DBMS_PIPE.Code to Kick Off and Calculate PROCEDURE kick_off_sales_calc IS stat INTEGER. Receive the year. stat := DBMS_PIPE. ELSE DBMS_PIPE.SEND_MESSAGE (µsales¶). PROCEDURE calculate_sales IS stat INTEGER. BEGIN stat := DBMS_PIPE. IF stat = 0 THEN lots_of_number_crunching. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Send message to start calculations.

The order in which you wait is insignificant. Perform final calculation. stat := DBMS_PIPE. Wait for all calculations to finish. parallel.offexp$ .sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .UNPACK_MESSAGE (sales$).RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µoffexp¶). END.RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µcomp¶). stat := DBMS_PIPE. BEGIN stat := DBMS_PIPE. PROCEDURE calculate_net_profits IS BEGIN net_profits := sales$ .UNPACK_MESSAGE (comp$).Waiting for Confirmation PROCEDURE wait_for_confirmation IS stat INTEGER.comp$. DBMS_PIPE.UNPACK_MESSAGE (offexp$).page 260 . DBMS_PIPE.RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µsales¶). DBMS_PIPE. END.

pkg p_and_l. ± A listener program grabs the request (including the return pipe name). ± The requester reads the information from the pipe. in-memory cache. and sends it to the pipe. obtains the data. ± Demonstrates the use of toggles and switches in packages.Other DBMS_PIPE Examples  Simple trace package that sends it output either to screen or to pipe.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .pkg  Implementation of a system-wide. ± A request for data is passed to a "central" pipe. syscache.pkg syscache.page 261 . watch.

Built-in Packages: DBMS_UTILITY DBMS_UTILITY Application GET_TIME GET_HASH_VALUE FORMAT_CALL_STACK .. A µgrab-bag¶ of miscellaneous operations SCHEMA 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..page 262 .

DBMS_UTILITY Module Outline ANALYZE_DATABASE ANALYZE_PART_OBJECT Analyze objects in database Runs ANALYZE TABLE or ANALYZE INDEX for each partition of the object (Oracle8). Returns database version (Oracle8) Executes DDL statement (Oracle8). Returns execution call stack.pkg COMMA_TO_TABLE COMPILE_SCHEMA DATA_BLOCK_ADDRESS_BLOCK DATA_BLOCK_ADDRESS_FILE DB_VERSION EXEC_DDL_STATEMENT FORMAT_CALL_STACK FORMAT_ERROR_STACK GET_HASH_VALUE 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . Gets file number part of data block address. Recompile INVALID objects in specified schema. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 263 dbver.pkg dbparm. Returns hash value for string. Parses comma-delimited list to index-by table. Gets block number part of data block address. Returns error stack.

Converts list (in index-by-table) of elements into a comma-delimited list (string). Resolves name of object into component parts. GET_PARAMETER_VALUE GET_TIME IS_PARALLEL_SERVER MAKE_DATA_BLOCK_ADDRESS NAME_RESOLVE NAME_TOKENIZE PORT_STRING TABLE_TO_COMMA Retrieves value of database parameter (Oracle8). Creates data block address from block & file numbers.page 264 . Parses string object designator into components. Returns "current time" down to hundredth of second. cont. Returns platform and version of database. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .DBMS_UTILITY Module Outline. Returns TRUE if in parallel server mode.

GET_TIME .  Compare results from consecutive calls to GET_TIME to determine the elapsed time of PL/SQL code execution. ± Useful when analyzing individual PL/SQL programs. ± SYSDATE only reflects times down to the nearest second. calc_totals. DECLARE v_start BINARY_INTEGER. especially those that run in sub-second time. Basic steps necessary to convert GET_TIME into a performance analysis tool. DBMS_OUTPUT. BEGIN v_start := DBMS_UTILITY.GET_TIME.v_start). so GET_TIME offers significant additional granularity. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .PUT_LINE (DBMS_UTILITY.Sub-Second Timings with GET_TIME  GET_TIME returns the number of 100ths of seconds that have elapsed since an arbitrary point in time.page 265 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . END.

END.sps plvtmr. BEGIN PLVtmr. PLVtmr.capture.Building a Layer Over GET_TIME Partial package specification PACKAGE PLVtmr IS PROCEDURE turn_on. calc_totals. Clean and lean timing code ovrhead.sql plvtmr. END PLVtmr. adjust_in IN NUMBER := 0.show_elapsed. PROCEDURE turn_off.spb 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . PROCEDURE set_factor (factor_in IN NUMBER).page 266 . PROCEDURE capture ( context_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) PROCEDURE show_elapsed (prefix_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. reset_in IN BOOLEAN := TRUE).

CALC_NET_WORTH anonymous block  "Little known facts" about FORMAT_CALL_STACK: ± Contains embedded new-line characters. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN DBMS_OUTPUT. ----. ± Does not show package elements.Accessing the Execution Call Stack Use in the exception section to show context of error.FORMAT_CALL_STACK). equivalent to CHR(10).PUT_LINE ( DBMS_UTILITY. only the package name.PL/SQL Call Stack ----object line object handle number name 88ce3f74 88e49fc4 88e49390 88e2bd20 8 2 1 1 package STEVEN.page 267 . ± Most recent program at beginning of "report". 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .VALIDATE_REQUEST function STEVEN. END.COMPANY_TYPE procedure STEVEN.

next_line VARCHAR2(255).pkg plvcs.Accessing Call Stack Contents  The call stack length can easily exceed 255 bytes. startpos. BEGIN stk := DBMS_UTILITY. dispcs. next_newline INTEGER.FORMAT_CALL_STACK || CHR(10).sp dispcs. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . startpos INTEGER := 1.PUT_LINE (next_line). 1).tst callstack. LOOP next_newline := INSTR (stk. next_line := SUBSTR ( stk. which means you cannot pass it to DBMS_OUTPUT directly. startpos. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE dispcs IS stk VARCHAR2(10000). CHR(10). END. use a loop to read through the stack. END LOOP. Instead. next_newline . EXIT WHEN next_newline = 0.startpos + 1).page 268 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .sps DBMS_OUTPUT. startpos := next_newline + 1.

NAME_RESOLVE (name IN VARCHAR2. part2 OUT VARCHAR2. schema OUT VARCHAR2.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ... dblink OUT VARCHAR2. see it as an opportunity.Resolving Names of Stored Code  Code names have many components. PROCEDURE DBMS_UTILITY. the way they are attached also follows a complicated syntax.  Possible "Part 1" Types 5 7 8 9 Synonym Procedure Function Package What a chore! All those arguments. context IN NUMBER. part1_type OUT NUMBER.for encapsulation! showcomp.but don't see it as a problem. part1 OUT VARCHAR2..sp snc..page 269 . ± Use NAME_RESOLVE to break down an identifier string into its components easily. object_number OUT NUMBER).

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