Achieving PL/SQL Excellence

Oracle PL/SQL Advanced Techniques
Oracle7 thru Oracle8i
Steven Feuerstein
www.StevenFeuerstein.com www.Quest.com www.OReilly.com
and contributions most excellent from Bill Pribyl and Dick Bolz

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 1

Objective & Outline 

Objective
± Expand your knowledge and awareness of important and new features of the PL/SQL language. 

Outline
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± Building with Packages (Oracle7+) PL/SQL Collections (Oracle7 and Oracle8+) Cursor Variables (Oracle7 and Oracle8+) Dynamic SQL: DBMS_SQL and Native Dynamic SQL (8i) Calling Java from PL/SQL (Oracle8i) and C (Oracle8) Oracle Advanced Queuing with DBMS_AQ (Oracle8) Managing Large Objects with DBMS_LOB (Oracle8) Other Oracle8i New Features
» Autonomous Transactions (Oracle8i) » Invoker Rights Model (Oracle8i) » Row Level Security: DBMS_RLS

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Software Used in Training 

PL/Vision: a library of packages installed on top of PL/SQL.
± PL/Vision Lite - use it, copy, change it for free -- unless you build software to be sold commercially. ± Active PL/SQL Knowledge Base: contains PL/Vision Professional, the fully supported and enhanced version. 

Demonstration scripts executed in the training can be found on the RevealNet PL/SQL Pipeline:
± http://www.revealnet.com/Pipelines/PLSQL/index.htm ± Archives surfboard, Miscellaneous, PL/SQL Seminar Files ± See filedesc.doc for a listing of many of the files.
plsql_ides.txt 

The PL/SQL IDE (Integrated Development Environment).
± You no longer have to use SQL*Plus and a crude editor! Choose from among the many listed in plsql_ides.txt.

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Achieving PL/SQL Excellence

Building with PL/SQL Packages 
 

Overview Initialization section Overloading

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What is a Package? 

A collection of code elements, from procedures and functions to TYPE, variable and cursor declarations.
± Single-most important structure within PL/SQL, and almost certainly one of the most under-utilized. ± Conceptually very simple, it can take some time to fully grasp the implications and potential of the package. 

The method of choice by Oracle and other software developers for extending the PL/SQL language.
± You will find packages in the database, in Oracle Developer/2000, in Oracle Application Server. 

Let¶s review some of the benefits of packages.
tmr.pkg dbparm.pkg

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package-based "component".pkg  Improve transaction integrity by hiding data structures behind the package interface.pkb  Construct very flexible and usable utilities for developers. you call the packaged procedures and functions instead. ± Can lead to performance improvements.page 6 .pkg insga. te_employee.When to Build a Package  Join physically logically-related code. ± Puts more structure and organization in your body of code.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± There's a big difference between a bunch of separate programs and a coherent. ± Instead of writing SQL directly in your programs. watch.pks te_employee. custrules.

page 7 .Package Initialization  The initialization section is a block of code at the end of the package body that is executed once per session. Does the package have an init section? yes Run initialization code. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . the first time any package element is referenced. ± The PL/SQL runtime engine determines when and if this code should be run. Program references package element the first time in each session. no Complete request for packaged element.

In fact. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein BEGIN after/outside of any program defined in the pkg. ± Can have its own exception handling section. FUNCTION func RETURN BEGIN END.Package Initialization Structure  The initialization section: ± Is defined after and outside of any programs in the package. most packages you build won't have one. ± Confirming that package is properly instantiated. ± Setting up package data which does not change for the duration of a session. PACKAGE BODY pkg IS PROCEDURE proc IS BEGIN END. ± Is not required.  Useful for: ± Performing complex setting of default or initial values. BEGIN END pkg.page 8 .

EXCEPTION WHEN NO_DATA_FOUND THEN /* No record for show_lov := show_toolbar := printer := PACKAGE sessinit IS show_lov CHAR(1). show_toolbar CHAR(1).. END sessinit. ± Body contains only initialization section. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . defprinter INTO show_lov.page 9 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . show_toolbar. 'No profile for ' || USER).Configure Session with Init.pkg init. printer FROM user_config WHERE user_id = USER. PACKAGE BODY sessinit IS /* No declared package elements at all! */ BEGIN /* Get user preferences for this user. Section  An unusual package! ± Specification contains only variables. 'Y'. WHEN OTHERS THEN RAISE_APPLICATION_ERROR (-20000. 'lpt1'. printer VARCHAR2(60).. */ SELECT lov_flag.  Also a package with many design flaws. END sessinit. tb_flag. init. */ 'Y'.tst this user.

END dt. fmts(4) := 'MM/DD'. datemgr. BEGIN fmts(1) := 'DD-MON-RR'. Initialization section populates a PL/SQL table. fmts(10) := 'MMDDYYYY'. fmts(11) := 'YYYYMMDD'. ± This increases the flexibility of the date conversion process. fmts(12) := 'RRMMDD'.. . ± The datemgr.Populate Collections  The PL/Vision Date package.pkg file demonstrates the basic technique (and the reliance on an initialization section) used to achieve this flexibility. fmts(9) := 'MM/DD/YYYY'. employs several PL/SQL tables to convert strings and to perform date arithmetic. fmt_count := 12.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .. PLVdate. fmts(2) := 'DD-MON-YYYY'.page 10 . fmts(3) := 'DD-MON'.pkg dates.

Program Overloading  When you overload programs. ± Overloading transfers the "need to know" from the user to the overloaded program. myproc  Overloading is a critical feature when building comprehensive programmatic interfaces (APIs) or components using packages. ± You can overload modules in any declaration section and in packages.page 11 . you need to make that code as smart and as easy to use as possible. ± If you want others to use your code. you give two or more programs the same name. myproc myproc 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Overloading in PL/SQL Built-ins  PL/SQL uses overloading in many common functions. 'MMDDYY'). number_string := TO_CHAR (10000). ± You just probably never gave it a thought. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . date_string := TO_CHAR (SYSDATE. Without overloading. number_string := TO_CHAR_FROM_NUMBER (10000). you would have to deal with something like this: date_string := TO_CHAR_FROM_DATE (SYSDATE.page 12 . and took functions like TO_CHAR and TO_DATE totally for granted. 'MMDDYY'). ± But Oracle couldn't offer that level of convenience without overloading.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± 2. ± The programs are of different types: procedure and function.page 13 . ± Arguments differ only in their mode (IN. IN OUT). ± Their formal parameters differ only in datatype and the datatypes are in the same family. There are two different "compile times": ± 1.  Undistinguishing characteristics: ± Functions differ only in their RETURN datatype.  Distinguishing characteristics: ± The formal parameters of overloaded modules must differ in number. the compiler must be able to distinguish between the two calls at compile-time. When you compile programs that use the overloaded code. When you compile the package or block containing the overloaded code.How Overloading Works  For two or more modules to be overloaded. OUT. order or datatype family (CHAR vs. VARCHAR2 is not different enough).

END param_modes. PACKAGE only_returns IS FUNCTION func1 (val IN VARCHAR2) RETURN DATE. Only difference is parameter mode.page 14 . Only difference is function RETURN type. PROCEDURE proc1 (val IN OUT VARCHAR2). FUNCTION func1 (val IN VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2. END only_returns. Parameter data types cause conflict. PROCEDURE calc (reg_in IN VARCHAR2). END too_many_cals.calc ('123'). which one? DBMS_OUTPUT. PACKAGE param_modes IS PROCEDURE proc1 (val IN VARCHAR2).PUT_LINE (only_returns.proc1 (v_value). which one? too_similar.func1 (v_value)). which one? param_modes.Examples of Invalid Overloadings PACKAGE too_similar IS PROCEDURE calc (reg_in IN CHAR). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

so much as providing different ways of requesting the same activity.PUT_LINE procedure illustrates this technique -and the PL/Vision p. you may construct different versions of the ³same´ program which correspond to different patterns of use.page 15 . In this case. You use the type of data and not its value to determine which of the overloaded programs should be executed.  Overloading by Type. ± The DBMS_OUTPUT. the overloading does not provide a single name for different activities.Overload Wherever Possible  Supporting Many Data Combinations ± Apply the same action to different kinds or combinations of data.l substitute does an even better job. not Value ± A less common application of overloading.  Fitting the Program to the User ± To make your code as useful as possible. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

HH:MI:SS PM'). mask_in IN VARCHAR2 := 'Month DD. PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2.A "Classic" Overloaded Package  Many different datatype combinations. YYYY . p. boolean_in IN BOOLEAN). allowing the user to pass data to the "display engine" without writing "pre-processing" code.page 16 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . END p. PACKAGE p IS PROCEDURE l (date_in IN DATE.spb PROCEDURE l (boolean_in IN BOOLEAN). mask_in IN VARCHAR2 := µMonth DD. PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2. YYYY .sps p. PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2. PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2). number_in IN NUMBER). date_in IN DATE. PROCEDURE l (number_in IN NUMBER).HH:MI:SS PM'). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

page 17 . 'MM/DD/YY HH:MI:SS')). SQLCODE). DBMS_OUTPUT. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .. p. END IF.PUT_LINE ('So what is different?'). p. ELSE DBMS_OUTPUT.l (SYSDATE).Advantage of Extended Overloading ‡ Minimal overloading means lots of extra coding.PUT_LINE (SQLERRM || ': ' || TO_CHAR (SQLCODE)). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein ‡Extended overloadings are more likely to meet user needs.l (print_report_fl). DBMS_OUTPUT.. DBMS_OUTPUT. IF print_report_fl THEN DBMS_OUTPUT.l ('So what is different?'). p.PUT_LINE ('FALSE').PUT_LINE ('TRUE'). p.l (SQLERRM.PUT_LINE (TO_CHAR (SYSDATE.

think about the way it will be used.Fitting the Program to the User Writing "unnecessary" code? Time to overload!  A single piece of functionality.. appreciated. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 18   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .and taken completely for granted. ± If you want to write software that is admired. can be applied or needed under very different circumstances. such as "display data" or "create a file". In my experience. few developers are considerate enough of their users to try to anticipate their needs. If you take these different circumstances into account when you design your package specification. the user of your package can benefit from writing less code. ± Your code is a a more natural "fit" under a variety of requirements..

BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE. UTL_FILE. 'W'). ± Here is the code required by UTL_FILE: DECLARE fid UTL_FILE. ± She doesn't care what's in it. even though you are simply going to close the file immediately after opening it. sometimes you will want to create a file and then perform additional operations. END. right? WRONG! PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . you have to declare the record to hold the file handle.Creating a File for a Quick Touch  Suppose a developer needs to create a file to be used as a "flag" in the operating system.PUT_LINE (fid. It just needs to be present.page 19  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . UTL_FILE. 'blah'). so this is just the way it has to be.  In other words. 'exists.flg'. Of course.FCLOSE (fid).FILE_TYPE.FOPEN ('tmp/flags'.

FILE_TYPE. custrules. PLVfile. v_user).ini'.fcreate ('temp.flg').put_line (fid. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Use as Function DECLARE fid UTL_FILE. Use as Procedure BEGIN PLVfile.  Overloading of FCreate PACKAGE PLVfile IS /* Procedure */ PROCEDURE fcreate (file_in IN VARCHAR2.Procedure and Function Overloaded  Why not overload a "create file" program so that you can pick the one that most closely fits your situation? Consider the PLVfile package of PL/Vision.FILE_TYPE.page 20 .fcreate ('exists. /* Function */ FUNCTION fcreate (file_in IN VARCHAR2. line_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) RETURN UTL_FILE. END PLVfile.pkg PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . TO_CHAR (SYSDATE)). BEGIN fid := PLVfile. END. line_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL).

"By-Type" Overloading  In some situations. the user does not need to pass data. ± Pass a string ³name´ of the datatype. ± For example. when you use DBMS_SQL to set up a dynamic query. you must call the DEFINE_COLUMN procedure to define the datatype of the Nth column in the cursor.  There are three ways to accomplish this: ± Don't overload. ± Pass a piece of data of the right type. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 21 . Define a different program name for each datatype. but the type of data.

. 1.. DBMS_SQL. ± DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN ± PLVgen. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL...NUMBER_TYPE). Lotsa typing. 30). lotsa names.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.  So many program names to remember! Pass a literal value. 2. 1. DBMS_SQL. 1).VARCHAR2_TYPE.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.. 2. DBMS_SQL.  Nasty hard-coding.  Now let's look at two examples of overloading by datatype.DEFINE_INTEGER_COLUMN (cur.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.func 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 'NUMBER')... 30)..Options for Specifying Column Type  Don't even bother overloading. 30)..DEFINE_VARCHAR2_COLUMN (cur. 2..page 22 . Pass a named constant.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.. DBMS_SQL. 'STRING'.

± The three code blocks below are equivalent.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. 2. ± To make it easier to accomplish this task. DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.GET_TIME). 1.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. 'a'. 1. DBMS_UTILITY. 2. 1.DEFINE_COLUMN procedure defines the datatype of a column. 30). BEGIN DBMS_SQL. from the perspective of DBMS_SQL.any value -. 1). USER. DBMS_SQL.page 23 .Defining Dynamic SQL Columns  The DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL. v_ename. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 2.of the correct type.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. 30). v_empno). BEGIN DBMS_SQL. you only need to pass a value -. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. 30).DEFINE_COLUMN.

please! A number function. type_in IN NUMBER). type_in IN VARCHAR2). PACKAGE PLVgen IS PROCEDURE func (name_in IN VARCHAR2. PROCEDURE func (name_in IN VARCHAR2. type_in IN DATE). PROCEDURE func (name_in IN VARCHAR2. 1) A date function.Generating Functions by Value  In PLVgen.func ('last_date'. SYSDATE) SQL> exec plvgen. please! 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . any Boolean will do. SQL> exec plvgen. Any number. any date.page 24 .func ('total_salary'. the user indicates the type of function to be generated by providing a value. any string. ± The particular value itself is of no importance.

PACKAGE profits IS PROCEDURE calc (comp_id_IN IN NUMBER). I rely on an anchored type (%TYPE) to establish the datatype of the second calc¶s parameter.page 25 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . PL/SQL does not sense a conflict with above overloading even though comp_id is a numeric column.  In the above example. END.comp_id%TYPE). but you might later found out that you cannot actually call any of the overloaded programs. PROCEDURE calc (comp_id_IN IN company. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .The Frustrations of Overloading  Watch out! An overloading can compile successfully. ± When I compile profits.

calc_total ('ZONE2').  Can I overload two programs which have parameters that differ only by name.calc_total ('NORTHWEST'). like calc_totals shown above? ± If not. PROCEDURE calc_total (reg_in IN VARCHAR2). sales.page 26 . END sales. END. why not? ± If so. sales. how would you do it? (Don't peek at the next page!) BEGIN sales.pkg ? 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Quiz! Nuances of Overloading PACKAGE sales IS PROCEDURE calc_total (zone_in IN VARCHAR2).

''LOAD1''. of named notation include: ± Code is more "self-documenting". DBMS_JOB. interval => 'TRUNC(SYSDATE+1)'). what => 'DBMS_DDL.sql  Advantages 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . namednot.null.estimate_percent=>50).'.Using Named Notation <formal parameter name> => <expression>  Explicit association between the formal parameter (the "name") with the actual parameter (the "value").ANALYZE_OBJECT ' || '(''TABLE''. This is especially useful when working with infrequently used built-in programs. ± You can skip over (not specify values for) any IN parameters that have default values. next_date => TRUNC (SYSDATE + 1).''TENK''' || '.submit ( job => v_jobno. That way you don't have to know and pass default values.page 27 .''ESTIMATE''.

Achieving PL/SQL Excellence PL/SQL Collections   Collections are single-dimensioned lists of information. Three types of collections: ± Index-by tables (Oracle7 only.page 28 . originally called PL/SQL tables) ± Nested tables (Oracle8 and above) ± Variable arrays (VARRAYs. Oracle8 and above) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

 Emulate bi-directional cursors.When to Use Collections  Maintain any kind of list of related information for use in your programs.page 29     1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . Improve query performance by avoiding joins. Build hash tables (custom indexing structures). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Avoid mutating table errors in database triggers. which are otherwise not supported in PL/SQL Cache data in session-level memory for faster access.

Valid row numbers range: -2. this broad range allows you to employ the row number as an intelligent key.147. ± Available only in PL/SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .147.483. DECLARE TYPE inmem_emp_t IS TABLE OF emp%ROWTYPE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER.647 » You will not actually create tables this large. Instead.647 to 2. emp_copy inmem_emp_t.Index-By Tables TYPE <table_type> IS TABLE OF <datatype> INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER.  Characteristics of an index-by table: ± Unbounded » Practically speaking. ± Sparse » Data does not have to be stored in consecutive rows of information.page 30 .483. ± Homogeneous » Data in each row has the same structure.

Component Selection kid := children (4). Variable declaration children child_list_type. Error: NO_DATA_FOUND 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Index_by Tables TYPE declaration PACKAGE BODY family IS TYPE child_list_type IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2 (30) INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. children 6306 6412 6810 6904 µBarbara Anne¶ µGary Richard¶ µAdam Russell¶ µLisa Nadezhka¶ datemgr.page 31 .pkg children 6306 6412 6904 µBarbara Anne¶ µGary Richard¶ µLisa Marie¶ children (6810) := µAdam Russell. children (6904) := 'Lisa Nadezhka'.

± Unbounded.647 ± Initially dense.Nested Tables [CREATE OR REPLACE] TYPE <table_type> IS TABLE OF <datatype> [NOT NULL].483.page 32 . DECLARE TYPE when_t IS TABLE OF DATE. birthdays when_t. but can become sparse if you DELETE inner rows ± Available both in PL/SQL and SQL (as a column in a table) ± The order of elements is not preserved in the database 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Valid row numbers range: 1 to 2.147.  Nested table characteristics ± Homogeneous » Each row contains the same structure of data. but only with explicit EXTEND requests » Practically speaking.

page 33 . For ORACLE's use only db_family surname kids BOLZ BOND Eric Thomas Max Richard Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Marie ntdemo. kids child_table_type) NESTED TABLE kids STORE AS kids_ntab.Nested Tables CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE child_table_type IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2 (30).sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . CREATE TABLE db_family (surname VARCHAR2 (30).

page 34 .  Characteristics of variable arrays: ± Homogeneous » Each row contains the same structure of data. Maximum value: 2. ± Variable arrays are actually stored in the DB table 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .147.Variable Arrays [CREATE OR REPLACE] TYPE <table_type> IS VARRAY (N) OF <datatype> [NOT NULL]. salaries numbers_t. can be EXTENDed or TRIMmed. ± Bounded » Upper limit established when the TYPE is defined. DECLARE TYPE numbers_t IS VARRAY (10) OF NUMBER.483. ± Available both in PL/SQL and SQL (as a column in a table) » And the order of elements are preserved in the database.647 ± Dense » Never any gaps between defined rows.

db_family surname kids BOLZ BOND 1 Barbara Anne 2 Gary Richard 3 Lisa Marie 1 Eric Thomas 2 Max Richard vademo. kids child_va_type).Variable Arrays CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE child_va_type IS VARRAY (8) OF VARCHAR2 (30).page 35 . CREATE TABLE db_family (surname VARCHAR2 (30).sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

from the TYPE. you can define the TYPE in the database with a CREATE statement.  Then you declare an instance of that type. you define the TYPE of the collection. Best option: package specification.. ± For index-by tables. TYPE integer_vat IS VARRAY(10) OF INTEGER. END tabtypes.page 36 . a collection. . CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE tabtypes IS TYPE integer_ibt IS TABLE OF INTEGER INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. or in a PL/SQL declaration section.. ± You can declare multiple collections from that TYPE.Defining Collections  First. TYPE integer_nt IS TABLE OF INTEGER. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . this can only occur in a PL/SQL declaration section. ± For nested tables and VARRAYs.

sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .owner = A.  ALL_COLL_TYPES ± The types you have created (or have access to) in the database  ALL_TYPE_ATTRS ± Attributes of the data type used in the TYPE definition. colldd.' || A.attr_type_name Attributes all_coll_types T.type_name. all_type_attrs A T.Obtaining Collection Information SELECT FROM WHERE AND AND AND A.owner = USER T.owner T. ± The code used to define the collection TYPE  There is no information in the data dictionary available for index-by tables.type_name IN ('NAMES_VT'.elem_type_name = A. 'TMRS_VT') T.attr_name || ' .page 37 .

TYPE defined in PL/SQL TYPE defined in the database Collection used in a table PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . empty when declared. / DECLARE -. salaries numbers_t := numbers_t (100. BEGIN CREATE TABLE employee_denorm ( employee_id INTEGER. 200. DECLARE TYPE numbers_t IS VARRAY (10) OF NUMBER. salary_history numbers_t).Initialize the collection. 300). 300). BEGIN CREATE TYPE numbers_t IS VARRAY (10) OF NUMBER. ± Nested tables and VARRAYs are atomically null.page 38 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . ± Index-by tables are initialized automatically. 200. You must initialize them explicitly with a constructor.Initializing Collections  Before you can use a collection. it must be initialized. salaries numbers_t := numbers_t (100.

Again. BEGIN comp_tab(1). the ³homogeneous´ contents of an index-by table's row can be a record .company_id%TYPE.  Starting with Oracle8. consider putting TYPEs in database or packages. Here we have a three step process. total_rev NUMBER). TYPE comp_tabtype IS TABLE OF comp_rectype INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. the datatype for any of the collection types can also be an object. ± But you cannot have nested composite datatypes. DECLARE TYPE comp_rectype IS RECORD (comp_id company. ± Can easily create an index-by table with the same structure as a database table by declaring a record with %ROWTYPE.page 39 .comp_id := 1005. comp_tab comp_tabtype. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .3.Collections of Composites  Starting with Oracle 7.

unless the order in which items are selected is of importance. In this way. it is very similar to a database table. ± You should not fill sequentially.  Rows do not have to be defined sequentially.Sparse is Nice  The sparse characteristic of index-by tables and nested tables can be put to good use. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Instead. consider using the row value as "smart data" for your application (primary key. your collections will contain a row's worth of information. etc. ± In an index-by table.page 40 . ± In almost every case.). order by date.  Especially handy when caching data from relational tables in user memory. a row exists in the table only when a value is assigned to that row.

pkg psemp. END. emp_tab emp_tabtype.Transferring DB Table to Collection CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE psemp IS TYPE emp_tabtype IS TABLE OF emp%ROWTYPE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. Initialization section of package 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein  This package moves the entire contents of the emp table into its corresponding collection.empno) := rec. Some questions: ± Why would I put this collection table in a package? ± When is the collection loaded with the data? ± What rows in that collection are utilized? psemp. END LOOP. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY psemp IS BEGIN FOR rec IN (SELECT * FROM emp) LOOP emp_tab (rec.tst  PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 41 . END.

Jordan'. once extended. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . BEGIN greedy_ceos(1) := 'Hamilton. even if you haven't assigned a value explicitly. ± Not necessary for index-by tables. ± Use the EXISTS method to determine if a row existed.Collection Gotchas CREATE TYPE names_t IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2(30). END. the row exists.page 42 . but you must do it for VARRAYs and nested tables.  For index-by tables. / Error -6533! You've got to EXTEND first!  EXTEND before assigning a value to a row. / DECLARE greedy_ceos names_t := names_t (). you must reference existing rows or a NO_DATA_FOUND exception is raised. ± For VARRAYs and nested tables.

Set the value of each new row to the contents of the first row.EXTEND (10.FIRST)).EXISTS (v_employee_id) THEN -.'). salaries. ELSE DBMS_OUTPUT.Handling Collection Gotchas BEGIN -. salaries(salaries. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .We are OK. preextend.page 43 . BEGIN IF salaries. optional argument. ± Assign a default value with a second.  You can EXTEND one or more rows. ± Pre-extending a large number of rows in advance can improve performance.Extend by 10 since I know I will need that many. -.tst  Include a handler for NO_DATA_FOUND or use the EXISTS method to avoid these exceptions.PUT_LINE ('Data for employee not available. END IF.

± TRIM removes rows from a VARRAY. ± ± ± ±  Modify the contents of the collection ± DELETE deletes one or more rows from the index-by table. FIRST/LAST return lowest/highest numbers of defined rows.Collection Methods  Obtain information about the collection COUNT returns number of rows currently defined in the table. NEXT/PRIOR return the closest defined row after/before the specified row.page 44 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . ± EXTEND adds rows to a nested table or VARRAY. EXISTS returns TRUE if the specified row is defined. ± LIMIT tells you the max.  The built-in package plitblm (PL/sql Index-TaBLe Methods) defines these methods. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . number of elements allowed in a VARRAY.

Delete a range of rows myCollection. but you may also want to call DBMS_SESSION.page 45 .Delete all rows myCollection. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .The DELETE Method  You can delete one or more rows from a collection using DELETE: BEGIN -. -. -.DELETE (myCollection.DELETE. 17255).LAST).Delete one (the last) row myCollection. DELETE releases memory.DELETE (1400. END.FREE_UNUSED_USER_MEMORY.

Navigating Through Collections 


Use FIRST and NEXT to move from beginning to end. Use LAST and PRIOR to move from end to beginning.
rowind PLS_INTEGER := birthdays.FIRST; -- birthdays.LAST BEGIN LOOP EXIT WHEN rowind IS NULL; DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE (birthdays(rowind).best_present); rowind := birthdays.NEXT (rowind); -- birthdays.PRIOR END LOOP; END;

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Using Collections Inside SQL 

Nested tables and VARRAYs can be defined as columns of a table and referenced directly within SQL. You can also apply SQL operations to the contents of nested tables and VARRAYs with these operators:
± THE - Maps a single column value in a single row to a virtual database table ± CAST - Maps a collection of one type to a collection of another type ± MULTISET - Maps a database table to a collection ± TABLE - Maps a collection to a database table  

Index-by tables are programmatic constructs only.
± You cannot make a direct reference to an index-by table in SQL. ± Instead, so do indirectly with a PL/SQL function.

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Using Collections inside SQL
SELECT column_value FROM TABLE (SELECT children FROM db_family WHERE surname = 'BOLZ'); db_family surname children BOLZ BOND Eric Thomas Max Richard UPDATE TABLE (SELECT children FROM db_family WHERE SURNAME = 'BOLZ) SET column_value = 'Lisa Nadezhka' WHERE column_value = 'Lisa Marie'); db_family surname children BOLZ ...
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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 48

Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Marie

column_value Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Marie

Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Nadezhka

Using the THE Operator 

Use THE to manipulate (retrieve, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE) contents of a nested table in a database table.
± Can only use with nested tables, not VARRAYs or index-by tables. ± Only accessible from within SQL statements in PL/SQL.
CREATE TYPE action_list_t IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2(100); / CREATE TABLE inflation_beater ( focus_area VARCHAR2(100), activities action_list_t) NESTED TABLE activities STORE AS activities_tab; SELECT VALUE (act) FROM THE (SELECT activities FROM inflation_beater WHERE focus_area = 'FORTUNE 100') act; UPDATE THE (SELECT activities FROM inflation_beater WHERE focus_area = 'FORTUNE 100') SET COLUMN_VALUE = 'DISBAND OSHA' WHERE COLUMN_VALUE = 'SIDESTEP OSHA';

the.sql

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Using the TABLE and CAST Operators 

Use CAST to convert a collection from one type to another, TABLE to convert a TYPE into a database table.
± Cannot use with index-by tables. ± Useful when you would like to apply SQL operations against a PL/SQL collection (ie, one not stored in a database table).
DECLARE nyc_devolution cutbacks_for_taxcuts := cutbacks_for_taxcuts ('Stop rat extermination programs', 'Fire building inspectors', 'Close public hospitals'); BEGIN DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE ( 'How to Make the NYC Rich Much, Much Richer:'); FOR rec IN (SELECT COLUMN_VALUE ohmy FROM TABLE (CAST (nyc_devolution AS cutbacks_for_taxcuts))) LOOP DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE (rec.ohmy); END LOOP; cast.sql END;

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FETCH bird_curs into bird_row.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 51 . query) into a VARRAY or nested table. information for the BEGIN master in one trip. view. Retrieves all detail bird_row bird_curs%ROWTYPE. CAST(MULTISET(SELECT bh. ± You can use MULTISET to emulate or transform relational joins into collections. END. b. OPEN bird_curs.species = b. ± Cannot use with index-by tables.species. multiset.country FROM bird_habitats bh WHERE bh. with potential client-server performance impact.species) AS country_tab_t) FROM birds b.genus AND bh.genus = b. converting a set of data (table.genus. DECLARE CURSOR bird_curs IS SELECT b.Using the MULTISET Operator  MULTISET is the inverse of TABLE.

FUNCTION rowval (indx IN PLS_INTEGER) RETURN DATE IS BEGIN RETURN hiredates (indx).sql PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . call functions that retrieve the table's data. but hide the index-by table structure.Referencing IB Tables inside SQL  You can't directly reference an index-by table's contents inside SQL.  CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE ibtab IS FUNCTION rowval (indx IN PLS_INTEGER) RETURN DATE. END. hiredates date_tab. PRAGMA RESTRICT_REFERENCES (rowval. WNDS). Make accessible in SQL for Oracle8 and below. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY ibtab IS TYPE date_tab IS TABLE OF DATE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. END.page 52 . END. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein ibtab_in_sql. WNPS. Instead.

 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Examples of Collections in Action  Emulation of bi-directional cursor operations Avoid mutating table problems in database triggers.page 53 .

deposit your data in a collection and then provide programs to access that data in the necessary fashion. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE bidir IS /* Iterate through rows in the result set */ PROCEDURE setRow (nth IN PLS_INTEGER). ± A talked-about feature for Oracle9i -. PROCEDURE prevRow.pkg bidir.nope. FUNCTION getRow RETURN employee_plus%ROWTYPE.  bidir.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . This is particularly useful (read: efficient) when you need to perform multiple passes against the data.Bi-Directional Cursor Emulation  Oracle does not yet support the ability to move back and forth (and at random) through a cursor's result set. END. didn't make it!  Instead. PROCEDURE nextRow.page 54 . Notice that the collection itself is hidden.

The Mutating Table Problem  Database triggers can be attached to the SQL statement and/or the individual row operations on a table. Statement Level UPDATE emp SET sal = 1000 UPDATE row 1 Row Level  UPDATE row N Row level triggers cannot query from or change the contents of the table to which it is attached. it is "mutating".sql  Note: in Oracle8i. you can use autonomous transactions to relax restrictions associated with queries.page 55 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . So what are you supposed to do when a row-level operation needs to "touch" that table? mutating.

A Solution Based on Index-by Tables  Since you cannot perform the processing desired in the row-level trigger. you need to defer the action until you get to the statement level.page 56 . If you are going to defer the work. 1st row trigger fires Nth row trigger fires Writes to list Writes to list Work List (PL/SQL Table)  Process data in the list. Statement Trigger 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± an index-by table is an ideal repository for this reminder list. you have to remember what you needed to do.

± By storing the salesperson¶s department ids as they change. we then know which departments to re-rank. but preferable. ± As the sales amount is updated in this table.25 65011. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .An Example: Ranking Salespeople  A table holds the rankings based on the amount of annual sales of salespeople within a department.25 3 1 2 6 "Deferred work" is not only necessary. Department ID Salesperson ID Sales Amount Rank 1055 1055 1055 1047  64333 65709 65706 70904 74055.91 109000. the rankings must also change to show the new standings for that department only.page 57 . ± We might update more than one department within a statement so we must be able to retain multiple department numbers.88 144533.

Trigger Logic Required Row Level Trigger CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER Rank_Sales_Rtrg AFTER insert OR update OF sales_amt ON rank_sales FOR EACH ROW WHEN (OLD.sales_amt) BEGIN rank.dept_id).rank_depts. END. Doesn't fire unless the sales_amt is actually changed.page 58 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END.pkg All details of the ranking are hidden in the package body.add_dept (:new. Statement Level Trigger CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER Rank_Sales_Strg AFTER INSERT OR UPDATE OR DELETE ON rank_sales BEGIN rank.sales_amt != NEW. ranking.

TYPE dept_tabtype IS TABLE OF BOOLEAN INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. END IF. PACKAGE BODY rank IS in_process BOOLEAN := FALSE. END rank. END add_dept 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Create row to indicate department to be ranked. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . PROCEDURE rank_depts. Table holds indicator that department needs re-ranking. PROCEDURE add_dept (dept_id_in IN INTEGER) IS BEGIN IF NOT in_process THEN dept_tab (dept_id_in) := TRUE.The Ranking Package PACKAGE rank IS PROCEDURE add_dept (dept_id_in IN INTEGER). dept_tab dept_tabtype.page 59 .

END rank. END IF.page 60 . END LOOP. Clean up for next time. Continued PROCEDURE rank_depts IS v_deptid PLS_INTEGER := dept_tab.FIRST. BEGIN IF NOT in_process THEN in_process := TRUE. v_deptid := dept_tab.DELETE. in_process := FALSE. END rank_dept. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Avoid recursive execution of logic Row number is department number.The Ranking Package.NEXT (v_deptid). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . dept_tab. perform_ranking (v_deptid). LOOP EXIT WHEN v_deptid IS NULL.

 VARRAYs ± ± ± ± You want to preserve the order in which elements are stored. You don't want to have to worry about sparseness. Set of data is relatively small (avoid row chaining). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Which Collection Type Should I Use?  Index-by tables ± Need to use in both Oracle7 and Oracle8 applications ± Want to take advantage of sparse nature for "intelligent keys". ± You want to use inside SQL. You want to use inside SQL.page 61 .  Nested tables ± You want to store large amounts of persistent data in a column.

Tips for Using Collections 

Wrap access to your collections.
± In many cases, you will want to avoid direct access to (assigning and retrieving) rows in your collections. ± This will give you the flexibility to change your implementation. ± You can also hide complex rules for setting the row number. 

Get creative!
± Don't always fill and use the index-by table sequentially. ± If you can somehow translate your application data to an integer, it can be used as a row number, and therefore offers indexed access. ± Julian date formats and DBMS_UTILITY.GET_HASH_VALUE offer two different methods.

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Achieving PL/SQL Excellence

Cursor Variables

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 63

Architecture of Cursor Variables
With Hard-Coded Cursors
Hard-Coded Cursor

With Cursor Variables

PGA

Cursor Variable

Cursor Variable

Result Set

Shared Global Area

Cursor Object

Result Set 

A cursor variable points to an underlying cursor object in the database.
± The cursor object in turns points to (and keeps its place in) a result set. 

The cursor variable can be passed between programs (even between, say, a Java servlet and a PL/SQL stored procedure).
± Static SQL only -- until Oracle8i.
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1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

Benefits of Cursor Variables 

Share cursor management between programs, even across the client-server divide.
± You don't have to pass the result sets of a cursor in order to allow the client-side program to have direct access to the data in the result set. ± Oracle Developer 2.1 utilizes cursor variables when you choose to construct a "base table block" around stored procedures instead of a database table. 

Share the same code across multiple, different queries.
± Since the cursor name is no longer hard-coded, you can use a single block of code (say, a reporting program) against different queries. ± We will try out this technique at the end of the section.

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Cursor Variable Example
DECLARE TYPE company_curtype IS REF CURSOR RETURN company%ROWTYPE;
Declare a variable cursor TYPE.

company_curvar company_curtype;

Declare cursor variable based on that type. Declare a record from cursor variable. OPEN cursor variable, specifying the query. FETCH from the cursor variable.

company_rec company_curvar%ROWTYPE; BEGIN OPEN company_curvar FOR SELECT * FROM company;

FETCH company_curvar INTO company_rec;
Close the cursor variable.

CLOSE company_curvar; END;
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Explicit Cursors and Cursor Variables 

Both hard-coded cursors and cursor variables work with static SQL.
± The SQL is fixed at compile-time. ± The difference is that with cursor variables, you get to decide which static query is opened. 

Many cursor operations are the same:
± Close a variable cursor with the same syntax as that for static cursors. ± Use cursor attributes (%ISOPEN, %FOUND, %NOTFOUND, %ROWCOUNT) with cursor variables (as of Release 2.3). ± Fetch data from the cursor result set through a cursor variable with the same syntax as that of static cursors. 

Let¶s focus on the new and different capabilities of cursor variables.
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1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

Declaring Cursor Types and Variables 

Cursors are declared in two steps, just like programmerdefined records and PL/SQL tables.
± 1. Define a cursor TYPE -- either "weak" or "strong". ± 2. Define a cursor variable.
DECLARE TYPE weak_curtype IS REF CURSOR; TYPE comp_curtype IS REF CURSOR RETURN company%ROWTYPE; curcmp_new comp_curtype; cur_any weak_curtype; BEGIN
Declare cursor variables from the TYPEs. Declare a STRONG referenced cursor TYPE. Declare a WEAK referenced cursor TYPE.

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Strong vs. Weak Cursor Types 

A strong (or constrained) cursor type has a defined return data specification.
± Can only reference cursor objects which return the same data specification, which can be any single SQL datatype or any previously defined record structure. ± Datatype mismatches are identified at compile time.

TYPE cur_typ_name IS REF CURSOR [ RETURN return_type ]; TYPE cur_typ_name IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE; /* Strong */ 

The weak (or unconstrained) cursor type does not have a RETURN clause.
± It can reference any cursor object, be opened FOR any query. ± Datatype mismatches can only be identified at runtime.

TYPE cur_typ_name IS REF CURSOR; /* Weak */
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Opening with the Cursor Variable
OPEN cursor_name FOR select_statement; 

When you open a cursor variable (whether of the weak or strong variety), you must provide the SQL query that identifies the result set.
± If the variable has not yet been assigned to cursor object, the OPEN FOR statement implicitly creates an object for the variable. ± If the variable is already pointing to a cursor object, the OPEN FOR reuses the existing object and attaches the new query to that cursor object. 

Remember, the cursor object is nothing more than a memory location.
± It is maintained independently of the query itself.
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emp_curvar emp_curtype.. a cursor or a programmer-defined record.Opening with Strong Cursor Types DECLARE TYPE emp_curtype IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE..  STRONG cursor data specifications must match or be compatible with the structure of the SELECT statement. Match Needed BEGIN OPEN emp_curvar FOR SELECT * from emp.page 71 . END. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . . ± You can establish the return type based on a database table.

THEN OPEN retval FOR SELECT * FROM dept. BEGIN IF get_type_in = µEMP¶ THEN Either query will "do". RETURN retval. END IF. FUNCTION open_emp_or_dept (get_type_in IN VARCHAR2) RETURN pkg. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .cv_type. END. END. OPEN retval FOR SELECT * FROM emp.  A weak cursor TYPE doesn't define the RETURN structure.Opening with Weak Cursor Types PACKAGE pkg IS TYPE cv_type IS REF CURSOR. REF TYPE placed in package so that it is "globally" available.page 72 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . Verification will take ELSIF get_type_in = µDEPT¶ place at the FETCH. you can associate any SELECT statement with a weak cursor variable.cv_type IS retval pkg.

var_name. ..   Compatibility checks are performed prior to fetching row.Fetching from the Cursor Variable FETCH cursor_var_name INTO record_name.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .. ± The ROWTYPE_MISMATCH exception is raised on failure. it match the cursor type data specification. ± Fetching can continue with a different INTO clause. it match the OPEN FOR statement structure. ± FOR WEAK cursor types. The INTO structure must match in number and datatype to: ± FOR STRONG cursor types.page 73 ..  Fetching with cursor variables follows the same rules as those with static cursors. mismatch. FETCH cursor_var_name INTO var_name.

you have to repeat the code for each cursor.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .When to Use Cursor Variables  Make it easier for calling programs (especially non-PL/SQL programs) to manipulate result sets. ± You could use dynamic SQL to achieve this effect. since cursor names are "hard coded". ± With explicit cursors. Use a single block of code to manipulate multiple queries.  Define a base table block in Forms Builder (formerly Oracle Forms) on stored procedures rather than a table directly.page 74 . ± JDBC recognizes cursor variables.  hccursor. but static cursors are more efficient than dynamic SQL and cursor variables are less complicated than DBMS_SQL.

/ allcurrs. TYPE cv_t IS REF CURSOR RETURN int_rt.Consolidating Different Cursors  The following package specification hides the SQL behind a single open function. END. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE allcurs IS bydept CONSTANT INTEGER := 1. FUNCTION open (type_in IN INTEGER) RETURN cv_t.pkg allcurs. TYPE int_rt IS RECORD (key INTEGER). bysal CONSTANT INTEGER := 2. ± It also creates the data structures you will need to call the function.page 75 .tst explcv.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

BEGIN IF type_in = bydept THEN OPEN retval FOR SELECT empno FROM emp ORDER BY deptno. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END. END IF. END. ELSIF type_in = bysal THEN OPEN retval FOR SELECT empno FROM emp ORDER BY SAL.page 76 . CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY allcurs IS FUNCTION open (type_in IN INTEGER) RETURN cv_t IS retval cv_t.Consolidating Different Cursors  The open function simply opens FOR a different SELECT based on the criteria passed to it. RETURN retval.

cv_t.l (v_empno). p. DECLARE cv allcurs. BEGIN cv := allcurs.empno%TYPE.open (&1). EXIT WHEN cv%NOTFOUND. change the ORDER BY clause -without having to change the code you write. END LOOP.page 77 "Report processor" is independent of the particular SELECT .in this case.Hiding SQL Variations in Resulting Code  The following block demonstrates that you can alter which SQL statement to query -. END. v_empno emp. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . LOOP FETCH cv INTO v_empno. CLOSE cv.

unconstrained type. or a more general. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Cursor Variables Let's summarize  Flexibility ± Choose which static SQL statement is executed at run-time.  Strong and Weak Types ± Create REF CURSORs for specific queries.  Improve Client-Side Access to Data ± At least in Oracle Developer 2.page 78 .  Hide Variations in Underlying SQL ± You no longer have to repeat the same code for different cursors.1. you can build screens that access data using a cursor variable-based procedural API.

Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Dynamic SQL  Dynamic SQL and dynamic PL/SQL: ± The DBMS_SQL package ± Native dynamic SQL in Oracle8i 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 79 .

Dynamic SQL and PL/SQL Execution  "Dynamic SQL" mean that you construct the SQL statement or PL/SQL block at runtime and then execute it. ± Construct powerful DBA utilities. you no longer have to write SQL to generate SQL to get your job done.1 and DBMS_SQL. ± One example: implement indirect referencing in PL/SQL. ± Also supported with "native dynamic SQL" in Oracle8i. ± Very common requirement on the Web.  Execute DDL inside PL/SQL programs. What can you do with Dynamic SQL?  Build ad-hoc query and update applications. ± Available in PL/SQL since Release 2.  Execute dynamically-constructed PL/SQL programs. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 80 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .

Method 3: queries with a fixed number of items in the SELECT list and a fixed number of host variables. If you can recognize the types. ± NDS does not support method 4. ± Different methods require the use of different programs in DBMS_SQL. executed a single time.page 81 . you can more quickly figure out how to code your solution. Method 4: queries with a variable number of items in the SELECT list and/or non-queries with a variable number of host variables. These methods are in increasing order of complexity.Four Methods of Dynamic SQL   Method 1: non-queries without host variables. Method 2: non-queries with a fixed number of host variables.    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . execute one or more times.

page 82 . used for DDL. used for multi-row queries. DML and single row fetches. difficult to use. you would use the DBMS_SQL built-in package to execute dynamic SQL. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  The new "native dynamic SQL" or NDS of Oracle8i offers two native statements in the PL/SQL language to implement most of your dynamic SQL requirements: ± EXECUTE IMMEDIATE <sql string>. and relatively slow (performance did improve significantly as of Oracle8). ± OPEN FOR <sql string>.Native Dynamic SQL  Prior to Oracle8i. ± But this package is very complex.

 Use this statement to execute any dynamic SQL statement (including a PL/SQL block) except for multi-row queries. including objects.EXECUTE IMMEDIATE EXECUTE IMMEDIATE sql-string [INTO {define_variable[. {IN | OUT | IN OUT] bind argument]. collections and records.. | record }] [USING {IN | OUT | IN OUT] bind argument [...].page 83   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . The USING clause allows you to specify bind arguments or variables to be passed into the SQL string before execution.. define_variables]. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . The INTO clause allows you to pass values from the select list of a single row query into local variables.

WHERE clause.. IF tabCount ('citizens'.' || tab || ' WHERE ' || NVL (whr. 'insured = ''NO''') > 40.000... BEGIN EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'SELECT COUNT(*) FROM ' || NVL (sch. '1=1') INTO retval.. USER) || '.000 THEN DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE ( 'Not the best health care system in the world.sf compare with: tabcount. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein tabcount81. END. table and retval INTEGER. sch IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) RETURN INTEGER IS Specify schema. whr IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. END IF. and not much of a democracy either!'). RETURN retval.sf PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 84 .COUNT(*) For Any Table  Here's a handy and simple utility based on NDS: CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION tabCount ( tab IN VARCHAR2.

END..  Execute a stored procedure.'.page 85 . name_in IN VARCHAR2) IS v_str VARCHAR2 (100). end_in. BEGIN v_str := 'BEGIN ' || pkg_in || '.. PROCEDURE runprog (pkg_in IN VARCHAR2. start_in IN DATE.. col_in IN VARCHAR2. val_in IN NUMBER) IS BEGIN EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'UPDATE ' || tab_in || ' SET ' || col_in || ' = :val WHERE hiredate BETWEEN :lodate AND :hidate' USING val_in. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN pl ('Compile Error "' || SQLERRM || '" on: ' || v_str).Other Execute Immediate Examples  Perform an update. EXECUTE IMMEDIATE v_str. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE updnumval ( tab_in IN VARCHAR2.' || name_in || '. start_in. Pass in bind variables with USING clause. end_in IN DATE.. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END. END.

. PROCEDURE add_profit_source ( hosp_name IN VARCHAR2.page 86 .pkg PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . :revenue_inhibitors)' USING pers.Using Objects and Collections in NDS  One of the key advantages to NDS over DBMS_SQL is that it works with Oracle8 datatypes.. cond IN preexisting_conditions) IS BEGIN EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'INSERT INTO ' || tabname (hosp_name) || ' VALUES (:revenue_generator. END. the USING clause allows me to pass an object and nested table to an INSERT statement with a variable table name. ± No special syntax needed. cond. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein health$. pers IN Person. ± In the following example. including objects and collections.

'1 = 1'). col IN VARCHAR2.sp END. BEGIN OPEN cv FOR 'SELECT ' || col || ' FROM ' || tab || ' WHERE ' || NVL (whr. LOOP Familiar cursor FETCH cv INTO val. whr IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) IS TYPE cv_type IS REF CURSOR. ndsutil.page 87 . ± Here is a simple utility the displays the values of any date. cv cv_type. showcol.PUT_LINE (val). variable syntax! EXIT WHEN cv%NOTFOUND.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Multiple Row Queries and NDS  Oracle extends the cursor variable feature of Oracle7 to support multi-row dynamic queries. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE showcol ( tab IN VARCHAR2. number or string column in any table. val VARCHAR2(32767). END LOOP. DBMS_OUTPUT. CLOSE cv.

± If dynamic SQL. ± If dynamic PL/SQL.Some Fine Print for NDS  You cannot pass schema elements (table names. provide a value for each distinct placeholder (by name).pkg    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . then you provide a value for each placeholder (by position). pass a variable with a NULL value. You cannot pass the NULL literal directly in the USING clause. str2list. etc. column names. The USING clause for a query can only have IN bind arguments.page 88 . You can have duplicate placeholders (for bind arguments). Instead.) through the USING clause.

with many rules to follow and lots of code to write.page 89 .Dynamic SQL using DBMS_SQL  Prior to Oracle8i. in particular method 4. the only way to perform dynamic SQL was with the DBMS_SQL package.     1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . You should only use DBMS_SQL when you cannot use NDS. Supports all four methods of dynamic SQL. The overhead for using DBMS_SQL has decreased significantly in Oracle8 and again in Oracle8i. DBMS_SQL is a very large and complex package.

Learning Through Examples  DDL ± Create an index from within PL/SQL  DML ± Update rows in a table  DML with binding ± Update rows using bind variables  Queries ± Method 3 and a dynamic WHERE clause  PL/SQL Version of "SELECT *" ± Example of Method 4  PL/SQL ± Create a generic calculation program 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 90 .

fdbk := DBMS_SQL.OPEN_CURSOR. col_in IN VARCHAR2) IS cur INTEGER := DBMS_SQL. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. DDL_statement.NATIVE). ± Construct the DDL statement as a string.DDL with Dynamic SQL PROCEDURE create_index (index_in IN VARCHAR2. which will be used to execute the DDL statement. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .EXECUTE (cur). DDL_statement VARCHAR2(200) := 'CREATE INDEX ' || index_in || ' ON ' || tab_in || ' ( ' || col_in || ')'. tab_in IN VARCHAR2.  creind. ± Open a cursor. DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL.page 91 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .sp Creates an index on any column(s) in any table in your schema. END.CLOSE_CURSOR (cur). fdbk INTEGER. ± Parse and execute that DDL statement.PARSE (cur.

CLOSE_CURSOR (cur). DBMS_SQL. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.OPEN_CURSOR.NATIVE). DBMS_SQL.EXECUTE (cur). updnval1. 'UPDATE emp SET ' || col_in || ' = ' || val_in || ' WHERE ename LIKE UPPER (''' || ename_in || ''')'.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . fdbk PLS_INTEGER.PUT_LINE ('Rows updated: ' || TO_CHAR (fdbk)).Updates with Dynamic SQL  Update numeric column for specified employees. fdbk := DBMS_SQL. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE updnumval ( col_in IN VARCHAR2. END. DBMS_OUTPUT.PARSE (cur.ename%TYPE. val_in IN NUMBER) IS cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL.page 92 . ename_in IN emp.

BIND_VARIABLE (cur.PUT_LINE ('Rows updated: ' || TO_CHAR (fdbk)). end_in IN DATE. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE updnumval ( col_in IN VARCHAR2. fdbk := DBMS_SQL. fdbk PLS_INTEGER.OPEN_CURSOR.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . updnval2.CLOSE_CURSOR (cur). DBMS_SQL. start_in). DBMS_SQL.BIND_VARIABLE (cur. END.PARSE (cur. 'hidate'. DBMS_SQL. 'UPDATE emp SET ' || col_in || ' = ' || val_in || ' WHERE hiredate BETWEEN :lodate AND :hidate'. DBMS_OUTPUT. 'lodate'. val_in IN NUMBER) IS cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL. start_in IN DATE.Updates with Bind Variables  Update salaries for date range using binding. end_in).NATIVE).sp updnval3.EXECUTE (cur). BEGIN DBMS_SQL.page 93 .

page 94 .Processing Flow for a Dynamic Query Allocate cursor memory (OPEN_CURSOR) Fill cursor with data (EXECUTE) Make sure SELECT is well formed (PARSE) Fill buffer with data (FETCH_ROWS) (EXECUTE_AND_FETCH) Bind any variables (BIND_VARIABLE) (BIND_ARRAY) Retrieve the data (COLUMN_VALUE) Give cursor structure (DEFINE_COLUMN) (DEFINE_ARRAY) Release cursor memory (CLOSE_CURSOR) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

fdbk INTEGER. 'SELECT empno.sp showemp2. DBMS_SQL. LOOP EXIT WHEN DBMS_SQL. END.empno) || '=' || rec. rec emp%ROWTYPE. DBMS_SQL. 60).PUT_LINE (TO_CHAR (rec.COLUMN_VALUE (cur.EXECUTE (cur). CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE showemps (where_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) IS cur INTEGER := DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL.PARSE (cur.ename). DBMS_SQL. DBMS_OUTPUT.. fdbk := DBMS_SQL.page 95 . DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. 2. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein showemps. 1. END LOOP. '1=1'). rec.ename). 1. 1).COLUMN_VALUE (cur. ename FROM emp ' || ' WHERE ' || NVL (where_in.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. rec.Queries with Dynamic SQL  Show employees using a dynamic WHERE clause.NATIVE).empno).CLOSE_CURSOR (cur).sp showemps. 'a'. DBMS_SQL. 2.OPEN_CURSOR..FETCH_ROWS (cur) = 0.tst PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

val).DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. LOOP fetch-a-row. END LOOP.COLUMN_VALUE (cur.PARSE (cur.NATIVE). FOR each-column-in-table LOOP DBMS_SQL. END. BEGIN FOR each-column-in-table LOOP add-column-to-select-list. datatype). END LOOP. END LOOP.page 96 Very simplified pseudo-code intab. nth_col. DBMS_SQL. END LOOP. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . select_string. ± The resulting code is much more complicated.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .Dynamic SELECT * FROM Any Table  Method 4 example: the number of columns queried changes with each table. FOR each-column-in-table LOOP DBMS_SQL. nth_col. DBMS_SQL.

which returns a single row. TRUE).EXECUTE_AND_FETCH (cur). ± Very similar to the implicit SELECT cursor in native PL/SQL. the first row will still be fetched and available.  Makes it easy to execute and fetch a single row from a query. then EXECUTE_AND_FETCH will raise the TOO_MANY_ROWS exception if more than one row is fetched by the SELECT.EXECUTE_AND_FETCH (cur. ± Even if the exception is raised. raises NO_DATA_FOUND or raises the TOO_MANY_ROWS exception. ± If exact_match is TRUE. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 97 . numrows := DBMS_SQL.Using EXECUTE_AND_FETCH FUNCTION execute_and_fetch (cursor_in IN INTEGER. numrows := DBMS_SQL. exact_match IN BOOLEAN DEFAULT FALSE) RETURN INTEGER.

a single function will do the trick. arg8_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. NULL.Dynamic Formula Execution  Suppose I am building a user interface that allows a user to select a formula for execution. FUNCTION dyncalc ( oper_in IN VARCHAR2. ± With DBMS_SQL. arg2_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. NULL. ± Using static PL/SQL.sf dyncalc. nargs_in IN INTEGER := arg1_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg3_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg5_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg7_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg9_in IN VARCHAR2 := ) RETURN VARCHAR2. NULL. arg10_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL dyncalc.page 98 . and enter the arguments. arg4_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. NULL. 0. I would have to modify my screen every time a new formula was added. NULL. arg6_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

DBMS_SQL.EXECUTE (cur).  Use BIND_VARIABLE to bind any placeholders in the string -. µsalout¶. You must have a BEGIN-END around the code.BIND_VARIABLE (cur. END.tst    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . my_salary).BIND_VARIABLE (cur. DBMS_SQL. my_salary). µdeptin¶. :salout).').page 99 .even OUT arguments which are not being bound to any values.VARIABLE_VALUE (cur. DBMS_SQL. fdbk := DBMS_SQL.sp dynplsql. Use VARIABLE_VALUE to extract a value from any variable you have bound.sql dynplsql. END. v_deptin).More on Dynamic PL/SQL BEGIN cur := open_and_parse ('BEGIN get_max_sal (:deptin. µsalout¶. Possibilities inherent in dynamic PL/SQL are mind-boggling! dynplsql.

tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . 'BEGIN :val := ' || nm || '.dbmaxvc2. retval PLV.PARSE (v_cur.page 100  dynvar.BIND_VARIABLE (v_cur. retval).CLOSE_CURSOR (v_cur). but you can accomplish much of the same thing with dynamic PL/SQL execution. DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL. 'a'. DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL. fdbk := DBMS_SQL.EXECUTE (v_cur).pkg dynvar. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . BEGIN DBMS_SQL. 2000).NATIVE). END.VARIABLE_VALUE (v_cur. 'val'.OPEN_CURSOR.Indirect Referencing with Dyn PL/SQL  Oracle Forms offers support for indirect referencing with the NAME_IN and COPY built-ins. 'val'. RETURN retval.'. Here is an example of a "PL/SQL NAME_IN": FUNCTION valbyname (nm IN VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2 IS v_cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL. PL/SQL does not support indirect referencing. fdbk PLS_INTEGER. END.

page 101 .  LAST_SQL_FUNCTION_CODE ± Returns SQL function code of cursor. ± Call these immediately after your usage to make sure they refer to your cursor.  LAST_ROW_ID ± Returns the ROWID of last row processed.  LAST_ROW_COUNT ± Returns the cumulative count of rows fetched from the cursor.DBMS_SQL Status Built-ins  The package offers a set of modules to return information about the lastoperated cursor in your session. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  IS_OPEN ± Is the cursor already open?  LAST_ERROR_POSITION ± Returns relative column position in cursor of text causing error condition.

COLUMN_VALUE_LONG   First. ± DBMS_SQL.Working with LONG Values  DBMS_SQL provides special procedures so that you can extract values from a LONG column in a table. dumplong. you define the column as a LONG.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Transfer the LONG contents into an index-by table so that you can transfer a value of more than 32K bytes into your PL/SQL program.DEFINE_COLUMN_LONG ± DBMS_SQL.page 102 .pkg dumplong. Then you retrieve the column using the special COLUMN_VALUE_LONG variant.

page 103 .New DBMS_SQL Features PL/SQL8 Extensions to DBMS_SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

deletes and fetches.page 104 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Support for RETURNING clause to avoid unnecessary queries. inserts.New Features in DBMS_SQL  The functionality of DBMS_SQL has been extended in Oracle8 in several ways: ± Parse very long SQL strings ± Describe cursor columns ± Use "array processing" to perform bulk updates.

± The record TYPE is also defined in DBMS_SQL. ± Now you can call the DBMS_SQL.  Before PL/SQL8.DESCRIBE_COLUMNS.DESC_TAB). it was not possible to determine the datatypes of the columns defined in a cursor.DESCRIBE_COLUMNS (c IN INTEGER. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Describing Cursor Columns PROCEDURE DBMS_SQL. col_cnt OUT INTEGER.page 105 .  Returns all of the column information in an index table of records. desc_t OUT DBMS_SQL.

END.NATIVE).page 106 . desccols. DBMS_SQL.OPEN_CURSOR.pkg desccols. 'SELECT hiredate. END LOOP..tst showcols.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . BEGIN DBMS_SQL.col_name). empno FROM emp'. ncols LOOP DBMS_OUTPUT.PARSE (cur. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE show_columns IS cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL.CLOSE_CURSOR (cur).Basic Steps to Describe Columns  The following script shows the individual steps you will need to perform in order to use this feature. cols). ncols PLS_INTEGER.PUT_LINE (cols(colind). cols DBMS_SQL.DESC_TAB. FOR colind IN 1 . DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL. ncols.DESCRIBE_COLUMNS (cur.

It really isn't "array processing". when you perform updates. inserts.. however. where N is the number of rows in the table. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .e."Array Processing" in DBMS_SQL  PL/SQL8 now allows you to specify the use of "arrays".    This technique still. ± In actuality. i. can offer a significant performance boost over Oracle7 dynamic SQL. you specify an index table. index tables.page 107 . DBMS_SQL is executing the specified SQL statement N times. Instead of providing a scalar value for an operation. deletes and fetches. DBMS_SQL then repeats your action for every row in the table.

± Otherwise that SQL will be executed under the authority of the owner of the code.page 108 .pkg whichsch.PARSE so that you include the trace in that program. only possible for statements that do not need USING and INTO clauses. concatenate) whenever possible.Recommendations for Dynamic SQL  Bind (vs. effdsql. ± Encapsulate DBMS_SQL.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . column names.  Encapsulate statements to improve error handling. not the invoker of the code. though you could write variations for those as well. ± With NDS.sql openprse.  Use the Oracle8i invoker rights model whenever you want to share your dynamic SQL programs among multiple schemas.) through the USING clause. etc. ± Increased chance of reusing parsed SQL. and easier code to write. ± But remember: you cannot pass schema elements (table names.

you have upgraded to Oracle8i!  Major Advantages of NDS: ± Ease of use ± Performance ± Works with all SQL datatypes (including userdefined object and collection types) ± Fetch into records  When You'd Use DBMS_SQL: ± ± ± ± ± ± ± Method 4 Dynamic SQL DESCRIBE columns of cursor SQL statements larger than 32K RETURNING into an array Reuse of parsed SQL statements Bulk dynamic SQL Available from client-side PL/SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .NDS or DBMS_SQL: Which is Best?  Dynamic SQL and PL/SQL is very useful.page 109 .. but DBMS_SQL is hard to use. Both implementations will still come in handy.. ± If. of course.

persistent messaging subsytem of Oracle 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 110 .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Oracle Advanced Queuing  The high performance. asynchronous.

systems are now heavily reliant on the ability of components to communicate with each other in a dependable.Who Needs Messaging? Everyone!  In the distributed world of the Internet.page 111 . consistent manner. Distribution Center Coffee Beans Producer Shipping Service Retailer Consumer 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

page 112 .Applications Relying on Messaging     Stock trading system Airline reservation system Auction portals Any e-commerce application 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

AQ now offers a publish/subscribe style of messaging between applications. scalability and reliability all carry over to queues ± Strong history and retention ± Backup and recovery ± Comprehensive journaliing  Rich message content increases usefulness of queueing ± Use object types to define highly structured payloads  New to Oracle8i. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Key Features of Oracle AQ  Leverage full power of SQL ± Messages are stored in database tables  Database high availability. the listen feature and notification capabilities.page 113 . message propagation. ± Rule-based subscribers.

page 114 .AQ architectural overview Queue Monitor process Queue table Queue ³Producers´ Enqueued messages Message 4 Message 3 Message 2 Message1 ³Consumers´ Dequeued messages Messages include both control information and ³payload´ (content) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

0. AQ supports: ± ± ± ± ± Multiple queues Resetting order and priority of queued items Queue management using only SQL & PL/SQL Multiple message recipients Propagation of queue to remote servers  Oracle8i adds: ± ± ± ± Rules-based publish & subscribe Listening on multiple queues Easier monitoring Native Java interface PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Oracle AQ Highlights  In 8.page 115 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .

AQ Components  The DBMS_AQ package offers enqueue and dequeue capabilities The DBMS_AQADM package provides administrative functionality to manage queues and queue tables.    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Underlying database tables and views The queue monitor (background process) ± Set # of processes with the AQ_TM_PROCESSES initialization parameter.page 116 .

sort column.DBMS_AQADM Highlights CREATE_QUEUE_TABLE DROP_QUEUE_TABLE CREATE_QUEUE DROP_QUEUE START_QUEUE STOP_QUEUE ADD_SUBSCRIBER Assigns name. optionally waiting for outstanding transactions Adds an ³agent´ as a subscriber 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 117 . payload type. storage clause. assigns retry and retention properties to queue Drops a stopped queue Can also turn on/off enqueue and dequeue operations Stops queue. whether multiple consumers Drops table if all queues in the table have been stopped Associates queue table with queue.

END. Define a queue in the queue table DBMS_AQADM.pkg Start the queue PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . / BEGIN DBMS_AQADM.Creating Queue Tables and Queues CREATE TYPE message_type AS OBJECT (title VARCHAR2(30).CREATE_QUEUE_TABLE (queue_table => 'msg'.page 118 . Define the "payload" Create the queue table DBMS_AQADM.START_QUEUE (queue_name => 'msgqueue'). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein aq. queue_table => 'msg').CREATE_QUEUE (queue_name => 'msgqueue'. queue_payload_type => 'message_type'). text VARCHAR2(2000)).

 ENQUEUE puts a message into a specified queue. and returns a RAW message handle DEQUEUE extracts a message from a specified queue Parameters control message properties such as: ± Visibility (ON_COMMIT or IMMEDIATE) ± ± ± ± Priority Delay Expiration Locking behavior PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .The "operational package": DBMS_AQ  DBMS_AQ is deceptively simple. but lots of complexity buried inside the parameters of these procedures.page 119   aq. ± Only two procedures.

Declare records to hold various enqueue and msg properties. msgprops. DBMS_AQ. my_msg message_type. msgprops DBMS_AQ. my_msg. queueopts.. msgid aq.page 120 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . Set up the payload with an object constructor. BEGIN my_msg := message_type ( 'First Enqueue'. aqenq*..ENQUEUE_OPTIONS_T.ENQUEUE ( 'msgqueue'. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END.').MESSAGE_PROPERTIES_T.Simple Enqueue Example DECLARE queueopts DBMS_AQ. msgid). 'May there be many more.msgid_type.* Place the message on the specified queue and get a msg ID in return.

Same setup as previous page . msgid2).ENQUEUE ('msgqueue'.. 'May there be many more. my_msg := message_type ( 'Second Enqueue'.sequence_deviation := DBMS_AQ. DBMS_AQ. queueopts.page 121 . msgid1). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Specify a delay before the payload is available.More Interesting Enqueue Example DECLARE .relative_msgid := msgid1.. END. queueopts. queueopts... DBMS_AQ.ENQUEUE ( 'msgqueue'.delay := 3 * 60 * 60 * 24. msgprops. my_msg.'). msgprops..'). my_msg. Modify the dequeue sequence by changing the deviation field and relative msg ID. BEGIN my_msg := message_type ( 'First Enqueue'.. queueopts. 'And this one goes first.. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . msgprops..BEFORE.

queueopts.* Declare records to hold various dequeue and msg properties. getmsg (DBMS_AQ. END. DBMS_AQ.DEQUEUE ( 'msgqueue'. getmsg (DBMS_AQ.pkg */ my_msg message_type. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . msgprops DBMS_AQ. BEGIN getmsg (DBMS_AQ.msgid_type.Dequeue Example DECLARE queueopts DBMS_AQ. my_msg. msgprops.REMOVE). END. msgid aq. aqdeq*. Demonstrates destructive and non-destructive dequeuing. Dequeue operation isolated in local module.BROWSE). PROCEDURE getmsg (mode_in IN INTEGER) IS BEGIN queueopts.dequeue_mode := mode_in.MESSAGE_PROPERTIES_T.REMOVE).page 122 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . /* defined in aq.DEQUEUE_OPTIONS_T. msgid).

ENQUEUE ( c_queue. queueopts. msgid aq.MESSAGE_PROPERTIES_T. msgprops.IMMEDIATE. END. queueopts. item_obj aqstk_objtype.Prioritized Payloads  You can assign priorities to individual payloads and then dequeue according to those priorities.ENQUEUE_OPTIONS_T.* 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .msgid_type.visibility := DBMS_AQ. BEGIN item_obj := aqstk_objtype (item). g_priority := g_priority . aqstk.page 123 .pkg aqstk2.1. PROCEDURE push (item IN VARCHAR2) IS queueopts DBMS_AQ.pkg priority. DBMS_AQ. msgprops. ± The lower the numeric priority value. the higher the priority. msgid).priority := g_priority. item_obj. msgprops DBMS_AQ.  A stack implementation using AQ demonstrates this well.

AQ$_AGENT (name_in.page 124 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein aqmult*. DBMS_AQADM. SYS.ADD_SUBSCRIBER ( c_queue.  Steps to working with a subscriber list: ± 1. Add subscribers for the queue. ± 2. BEGIN DBMS_AQADM.Defining Message Subscribers  You can specify that a message is to be enqueued for a list of subscribers.* PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . The queue table must be defined to support multiple subscribers or consumers. NULL. queue_payload_type => 'student_major_t'. ± The message is then not removed from the queue until all subscribers have dequeued the message.CREATE_QUEUE_TABLE ( queue_table => 'major_qtable'. multiple_consumers => TRUE). NULL)).

± Should be strongly supported "down the road". supporting a publish-subscribe model. ± Crucial for Oracle to have a message-oriented middleware in order to offer an all-Oracle solution. ± Much more robust that DBMS_PIPE. ± Significant enhancements in Oracle8i. LISTEN capability.Summary  Very powerful and flexible architecture. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Oracle AQ . improved security.page 125 .  Considered by Oracle to be a core component of its overall solution.

page 126 .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Managing Large Objects with DBMS_LOB 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

± Oracle has announced deprecation of LONGs. video. Images. sounds.  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .LOB Terms  LOB = Large OBject: a category of datatype allowing storage of ³unstructured´ data up to 4 gigabytes LOB datatype can be: ± Column in table ± Attribute in object type ± Element in nested table   Possible applications include office documents.page 127 . etc. though they will probably not be actually desupported. LOB datatypes are the successor to LONGs. they should no longer be used.

Types of Large Objects  ³Internal´ LOBs ± BLOB: unstructured binary data ± CLOB: single-byte fixedwidth character data ± NCLOB: multi-byte fixedwidth character data (or varying width in )  ³External´ LOBs ± BFILE: pointer to an operating system file  Temporary LOBs ± Internal LOBs that do not participate in transactions. external do not ± External LOBs are read-only from within Oracle 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Key programming differences: ± Internal LOBs participate in transactions.page 128 . improving performance.

PL/SQL built-ins for LOBs  Package DBMS_LOB ± Supports for all LOBs: Reading. comparison and length checking ± For internal LOBs: Write. copy. trim ± For external LOBs: File existence test. erase. substring and instring searches. append. close  Other built-in functions ± LOADFROMFILE (load an external BFILE into a BLOB) ± EMPTY_LOB(). open.page 129 . EMPTY_CLOB() ± BFILENAME 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

received DATE. fax BLOB). the_fax BLOB. END.Deceptively simple example  BLOB-typed column in a table CREATE TABLE incoming_faxes (fax_id INTEGER. Question: What¶s in the_fax? 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 130 .  Retrieve record with BLOB into PL/SQL variable DECLARE CURSOR fax_cur IS SELECT fax FROM incoming_faxes. CLOSE fax_cur. FETCH fax_cur INTO the_fax. BEGIN OPEN fax_cur.

tt LOBs <lob segment> fax_id 281937 received 12-JAN-98 fax <lob locator> Updati  t e LOB anges t e pointer is ompli ates se of LOBs ± LOB locators cannot span transactions ± Programs must lock records containing LOBs efore updating ± Programs performing L must accommodate dynamic LOB locator alues 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .The ³LOB locator´ LOB t l sel es [ ll ] t i i t r .page 131 .

oodb.com'. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . EMPTY_CLOB()) RETURNING htmlloc INTO the_loc. the_loc CLOB. BEGIN INSERT INTO web_pages VALUES (the_url.Example: Piecewise CLOB programmatic insert  Create a table CREATE TABLE web_pages ( url VARCHAR2(512) PRIMARY KEY..page 132 ..url%TYPE := 'http://www. . htmlloc CLOB). 1 of 2  Must get a new LOB locator before writing into the LOB: DECLARE the_url web_pages.

FOR the_piece_no IN 1. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . html_tab UTL_HTTP. running_total := running_total + piece_length. Note: We are ignoring amount => piece_length.com'.WRITE(lob_loc => the_loc.url%TYPE := 'http://www.REQUEST_PIECES(url => the_url). EMPTY_CLOB()) and loads a web page RETURNING htmlloc INTO the_loc.oodb. piece_length PLS_INTEGER. the_loc CLOB. DBMS_LOB. END. into a CLOB column html_tab := UTL_HTTP. END LOOP.html_tab. This block retrieves INSERT INTO web_pages VALUES (the_url.HTML_PIECES. buffer => html_tab(the_piece_no)). running_total PLS_INTEGER := 1.page 133 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein BEGIN .Example: Piecewise CLOB programmatic insert DECLARE the_url web_pages.COUNT LOOP piece_length := LENGTH(html_tab(the_piece_no)). several likely exceptions offset => running_total..

INSTR(lob_loc => the_loc. BEGIN OPEN hcur. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . CLOSE hcur. buffer => 'cool'). the_loc CLOB.com' FOR UPDATE. END. END IF.Example: Piecewise CLOB programmatic update DECLARE Program must lock the record explicitly CURSOR hcur IS SELECT htmlloc FROM web_pages WHERE url = 'http://www. pattern => 'oodb').WRITE(lob_loc => the_loc. str_offset INTEGER.oodb.page 134 . IF str_offset != 0 THEN DBMS_LOB. offset => str_offset. FETCH hcur INTO the_loc. amount => 4. str_offset := DBMS_LOB.

 Example: CREATE DIRECTORY web_pix AS 'D:\bill\training\pix'.page 135 .Preparing to use BFILEs  You must first create an Oracle I ORY´ ± Creates logical alias for full directory pat ± imilar to LIBRARY (used for C "external procedures"). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ut IRECTORY namespace is global  Syntax: CREATE OR REPLACE DIRECTORY <directory name> AS '<full path to directory>'.

. image BFILE).. scanned_card_image BFILE ). CREATE TYPE Business_card_t AS OBJECT ( name Name_t.Using BFILE datatype in DDL  In a table. addresses Address_tab_t.page 136 . / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  In an object type.. CREATE TABLE web_graphics ( image_id INTEGER.. phones Phone_tab_t.

END. Spec: FUNCTION BFILENAME(directory_exprn. /  Notes: ± No automatic file checking or synchronization ± No participation in transactions 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . picture).  Example: DECLARE picture BFILE := BFILENAME('WEB_PIX'.gif'). BEGIN INSERT INTO web_graphics VALUES (100015. 'prodicon.The built-in BFILENAME function  Returns value of datatype BFILE.page 137 . file_exprn) RETURN BFILE.

src_lob => pic_file. DBMS_LOB.FILEOPEN(pic_file. END. DBMS_LOB. amount => DBMS_LOB.GETLENGTH(pic_file)). / loadblob. image BLOB). pic_blob_loc) RETURNING image INTO pic_blob_loc. 'prodicon.page 138 . BEGIN INSERT INTO web_graphic_blobs VALUES (1. DECLARE pic_file BFILE := BFILENAME('WEB_PIX'. pic_blob_loc BLOB := EMPTY_BLOB(). DBMS_LOB.FILECLOSE(pic_file).FILE_READONLY).Loading File into Database BLOB CREATE TABLE web_graphic_blobs ( image_id INTEGER.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . DBMS_LOB.LOADFROMFILE(dest_lob => pic_blob_loc.gif').

or transaction  Ability to retrieve LOB ³chunk size´ ± Allows programmer to tune READs and WRITEs  For all internal LOBs ± OPEN & CLOSE allow control over timing.page 139 . that can mean less I/O » Trigger will not fire until CLOSE » Indexes will not update until CLOSE ± ISOPEN 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .New DBMS_LOB APIs in 8i  Support for temporary LOBs ± No logging or rollback faster! ± Lifespan: session. call.

page 140 ..Large Object .Summary  LOB support in Oracle is now significantly improved. COLD 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± LOB locator behavior slightly abstruse ± Inability to modify BFILEs directly from within PL/SQL.. ± Complete support in PL/SQL (and other APIs) ± Much better performance and control than with LONGs ± Usable in object types HOT  Some weaknesses.

Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Leveraging Java Inside PL/SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 141 .

functions.a BRIEF introduction to Java.page 142 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .Overview of Java interoperability  Java inside or outside 8i server can call PL/SQL ± Standard JDBC and SQLJ calls with Oracle extensions ± Same Java on client... or server Not covered in this seminar  PL/SQL can call Java inside 8i server ± ± ± ± Command-line tools load Java classes DDL extensions publish Java classes Writing stored procedures. mid-tier.. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . triggers in Java Distinct Java & PL/SQL namespaces  But first..

page 143 . fastest... 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . slickest piece of software ever designed by human beings? ± Just the latest in a series of "silver bullets" promoted by software vendors in order to prop up quarterly sales? ± The first and only successful O-O language? ± None of the above?  We don't really need to take a vote. ± We just need to keep a firm grip on common sense and stay focused on delivering solutions. ± The end of programming history as we know it? ± The easiest.Question 1: What is Java?  Could it be.

 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . PL/SQL will still be: ± Faster and more productive than Java for database operations.page 144 . to boot. ± Ubiquitous in thousands of production applications and millions of lines of code. ± A language in which hundreds of thousands of developers are trained.and very aggressively. it is very unlikely and totally unthinkable for years to come.Question 2: Will Java Replace PL/SQL?  While that scenario is certainly possible. ± Supported and improved by Oracle -.

page 145 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..  Everything is a class (or an object instantiated from a class). ± Don't get overwhelmed by all the classes and all the strange quirks. ± Before you can call a (non-static) class method. you have to instantiate an object from that class.. ± string is definitely not the same as String.... everything exception the primitive datatypes..Some Important Things to Remember  Java is a case sensitive language.  You don't have to know how to do everything with Java to get lots of value out of it. ± Well.

except the "special" main method. } }  No members. END...Building a Java Class  Let's start from the very beginning. by the way: the PL/SQL version 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . public class Hello { public static void main (String[] args) { System.page 146 . Oh.PUT_LINE ('Hello world!').println ("Hello world!"). no methods. ± Used to test or run stand-alone a class. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE hello IS BEGIN DBMS_OUTPUT.out.

zip.d:\java D:> javac Hello. e:\jdk1.page 147 . you must compile it with the javac command.java file to a . ± You must also either have set the CLASSPATH or include it in your javac call.java -classpath d:\java 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .1. ± This will convert the .Compiling Classes  Before you can use a class. ± It will also automatically recompile any classes used by your class that has not been compiled since last change.class file.7b\lib\classes.zip. SET CLASSPATH = d:\Oracle\Ora81\jdbc\lib\classes111.

page 148 .java 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Running a Class  Run a class? What does that mean? It means that if your class contains a method with this header: public static void main (String[] args)  then you can "run" the main method with the java command: d:\java> java Hello  You can also pass one or more arguments on the command line: d:\java> java Hello mom Hello2.

Using a Class  The main method is handy for providing a built-in test mechanism of your class. you will use a class by instantiating objects from the class and then invoking class methods on the object.page 149 . Let's build a performance analyzer class to explore these ideas. however.   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Usually.

currentTimeMillis() .currentTimeMillis to calculate elapsed time to nearest thousandth of a second. System. class Tmr { private long Gstart = 0.Compare Performance of Methods  Use System.currentTimeMillis(). } } p. elapsed()).Gstart).currentTimeMillis() . } public long elapsed () { return (System.java 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . } public void showElapsed (String context) { p.java Tmr.l ("Elapsed time ". public void capture () { Gstart = System. } public void showElapsed () { p.java InFile.Gstart).l ("Elapsed time for " + context.page 150 .

 Abstract class ± The class can contain members and methods.Types of Classes  There are several different kinds of classes in Java.  Interface class ± The class only contains unimplemented methods.page 151 . besides the "regular" kind we just saw.. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . but at least one method remains unimplemented..  Inner class ± Classes that are defined inside other classes.

± Static polymorphism: form is chosen at compile-time (PL/SQL overloading).java A Class Hierarchy Management NonManagement Corporation 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Dynamic polymorphism: form is determined at run-time. supertype/"wider" Citizen Person Employee Hourly Worker Salaried Worker subtype/"narrower" War Criminal Person. either as its own class or as any superclass.page 152 .And Now for Some Scary Buzzwords!  Inheritance ± Subclasses inherit methods and variables from extended superclasses.  Polymorphism ± An object of a class can have "multiple" forms.

String myName. if you assign a new value to it. ± Can't do a direct == comparison.page 153 . you are actually allocating a new object. myName = "Steven". myName = "Feuerstein". these are not objects instantiated from classes. boolean char byte short int long float double  Strings ± A String object is a read-only.Language Basics  Comments // Single line comment /* Block comment */ /** Documentation comment */  Primitive datatypes ± So I lied. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .equals(YourName)) foundFamily(). if (myName.

indx < args.page 154 .nextElement()) } } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . for (initialize.out.NextElement()). expression. do-while and for ± Note: you need squiggly brackets only if there is more than one statement in the loop body.println ( (String)enum. Examples: for (indx indx=0. step) { lotsaStuff } while (expression) { lostsaStuff } do { lostsaStuff } while (expression).out. System.hasMoreElements ()) { processIt (enum.println (args[indx]).length. indx++) System.Writing Loops in Java  Three kinds of loops: while. static void processAll (Enumeration enum) { while (enum.

page 155 . ± Only positional notation is supported.name()). } } class LotsALingos { public static void main (String args[]) { PuterLingo Java = new PuterLingo("Java").. ± If a method has no arguments. you must supply a value for each parameter. } public String name () { return mname. ± No default values for arguments. public PuterLingo (String name) { mname = name.println (Java. you still include the open and close parentheses. System.. class PuterLingo { private String mname. } } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .out.Passing Parameters  Some important differences from PL/SQL.

} catch (Exception e) { System. } File-related catch (SecurityException e) { exceptions return -1. Put inside try clause File myFile = new File (filename). you "throw" and "catch" exceptions.equals("")) throw new Exception ("Filename is NULL").length(). return myFile.toString()). rather than raise and handle.page 156 .Exception Handling in Java  Very similar to PL/SQL. Throwing my own public static int numBytes (String filename) { exception try { if (filename.out.println (e. "WHEN OTHERS" } in Java } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

± Use the throws clause in your specification.  You must inform users of your method of which exceptions may be thrown.Differences Between Java & PL/SQL  Exceptions are objects derived directly or indirectly from the Exception class.page 157 . ± So you can pass them as arguments and do anything and everything else you can do with objects. NoSuchFile { . } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . as in: public static int numBytes (String filename) throws SecurityException...

 Now let's explore how you can put Java to work for you inside PL/SQL programs.Java's Not So Tough!  You can learn enough Java in less than a week to: ± Build simple classes ± Leverage Java inside PL/SQL  Moving to the next level of expertise will be more of a challenge.page 158 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Object oriented development (Java) is very different from procedural coding (PL/SQL).

Java Stored Procedures (JSPs) Java applet or app.page 159 . using JDBC or SQLJ Oracle 8i server PL/SQL cover for Java method Java virtual machine running Java method Oracle Developer client (PL/SQL) Net8 OCI or Pro*C client VB or C++ via OO4O or ODBC 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

page 160 . network communication in/out PL/SQL replacement ± More standard language ± Good performer for numeric processing tasks ± Beware database I/O & string manipulation performance Scaleable deployment of third party code ± Vertical application ± Web server ± XML parser/generator 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .JSPs: Some sample uses PL/SQL extender ± For example. better file I/O ± RMI callouts.

page 161 . Call from PL/SQL (or SQL) as if calling PL/SQL    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Publish PL/SQL cover using AS LANGUAGE JAVA. Grant privileges as desired 5.Creating JSP to call from PL/SQL   1.. Load into server using ³loadjava´ command-line tool 3.END 4. Create Java classes in your favorite IDE 2.. rather than BEGIN...

5000000. paying its" + " Chief Executive Officer " + CEOCompensation.out. CEOCompensation = PceoComp.println main method is used to test the class. long Playoffs. }} 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Notes on Java classes  toString method automatically used by System.page 162 PL/SQL . public Corporation ( String Pname. long CEOCompensation.java Advanced Techniques .out. } public static void main (String[] args) { // A very scary company Corporation TheGlobalMonster = new Corporation ( "Northrup-Ford-Mattel-Yahoo-ATT". System.Create Java class(es) class Corporation extends Person { long layoffs. long PceoComp) { name = Pname.println (TheGlobalMonster). Entry points must be public static in most cases Classes may call other classes Avoid GUI calls     person. layoffs = Playoffs. 50000000). } public String toString () { return name + " is a transnational entity with " + layoffs + " laid-off employees.

Upload using ³loadjava´ utility .class file .page 163 .java file Java resource file .jar file Oracle 8i server Java class Java source Java resource loadjava Example: loadjava loadjava -user scott/tiger -oci8 -resolve datacraft/bill/Hello.class options (abbreviated) -oci8 -resolve loadjava will connect using OCI driver Resolves external class references at compile time -resolver (shown later) Search path like CLASSPATH 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

page 164 .String'. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Publish  Example (top-level call spec) CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION hello_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2 AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.. .bill.lang. /  Syntax (simplified) CREATE [ OR REPLACE PROCE URE FUNCTION <name> <sqlt pe> ] [ [ <ar s> ) ] [ AUTHID { DEFINER | CURRENT_USER } ] AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME '<met fullname> (<Ja a t pe fullname>.Emp(int) return java.Hello..) [ return <Ja a t pe fullname> ]'.

for example.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . from SQL*Plus: VARIABLE thename VARCHAR2(12) CALL hello_emp(7499) INTO :thename.  Method 2: Use 8i SQL CALL statement. PRINT :thename ± CALL avoids overhead of SELECT fn FROM DUAL jsp.PUT_LINE(hello_emp(7499)). END.Call the wrapped method  Method 1: Call as if PL/SQL module BEGIN DBMS_OUTPUT.page 165 .

math.BigDecimal oracle.sql.Publishing -.lang.STRUCT <named type> oracle.Timestamp java.sql.page 166 .more concepts Shape mapping ± Java methods declared ³void´ become PL/SQL procedures ± Signature mismatches detected only at runtime Type mapping (typical) VARCHAR2 DATE NUMBER user-defined object type user-defined object type object REFerence user-defined collection type java.ARRAY 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .sql.String java.REF oracle.sql.

Publish in PL/SQL Package Spec  Designate Java module in PL/SQL package spec.Emp(int) return java.Hello. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE hello_pkg AS FUNCTION hi_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2 AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft. / (No package body required in this case) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 167 .. END.util.lang.String'..

/ 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..String'. / CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY hello_pkg2 AS FUNCTION hi_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2 IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.Publish as module in package body  .or in package body CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE hello_pkg2 AS FUNCTION hi_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2. END.util.page 168 .lang. END.Emp(int) return java.Hello..

util.Emp(int) return java.String'.Hello. / or in the body: CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE foo_t AS OBJECT ( bar VARCHAR2(30).util.lang.page 169 .Hello.Emp(int) return java.lang. END. / CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE BODY foo_t AS MEMBER FUNCTION hello_emp RETURN VARCHAR2 IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.Publish as object type method  Either in spec: CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE foo_t AS OBJECT ( bar VARCHAR2(30). MEMBER FUNCTION hello_emp RETURN VARCHAR2 IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.String'). / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . MEMBER FUNCTION hello_emp RETURN VARCHAR2).

  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . resolves Java class references. JAVASYSPRIV (needed for file IO operations). or resource ± Can read file designated with BFILE() function  ALTER JAVA: compiles Java source.New DDL Statements and Roles  CREATE JAVA ± Alternative to ³loadjava´ utility ± Creates or replaces an Oracle ³library unit´ from Java source. JAVA_ADMIN. DROP JAVA: drops a named Java library unit Several roles available for Java operations: ± JAVAUSERPRIV. JAVADEBUGPRIV ± You can also grant specific privileges. class.page 170 . JAVAIDPRIV.

jdbc2.Passing Oracle8 objects Oracle8i server Object in O-R table Java application Java object   Harder than you¶d think Three different interfacing techniques ± oracle.CustomDatum ± oracle.SQLData 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .sql.sql.STRUCT ± oracle.page 171 .

page 172 .JPublisher utility Database server Definition of type or REF in data dictionary User-supplied JPublisher input file What does it do? ± Generates Java that encapsulates type and REF types of mapping supported for methods JPublisher ± ³Oracle mapping´ ± ³JDBC mapping´ ± ³Object JDBC mapping´ Three Generated Java file(s) for use in Java programs 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Passing object using JPub-generated Java  After generating and uploading classes with JPub.bill.save (datacraft.bill.page 173 .AccountRuntime. /  jspobj. they become available to use in mapping Example of passing an Account_t object: CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE account_save (new_acct IN Account_t) IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.Account_t)'.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Example: Improving File I/O  You can read/write files in PL/SQL with UTL_FILE. but that package is very limited.   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Let's see how we can make that great Java stuff available from within PL/SQL. Java offers many file-related classes with much greater capabilities.page 174 .

page 175 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .. ± Instead build a static method that instantiates a Java object from the class and then invokes the relevant method against that object.. ± The File class offers a length method that returns the number of bytes in a file.  Let's start with something simple.Encapsulate Java Classes  You won't generally access native Java methods in your PL/SQL wrapper. ± This is not available through UTL_FILE (though you can get it through DBMS_LOB).

public class JFile2 { public static long length (String fileName) { File myFile = new File (fileName). import java.File. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .length().page 176 .io. return myFile. } } JFile2.My Own Java Class for File Manipulation  Accept the name of a file and return its length.java  Take each of these steps: ± Import the File class to resolve reference. ± Instantiate a File object for the specified name. ± Call the method of choice against that object and return the value.

lang.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Build a Package over Java Method  Let's put it in a package. ± I translate the Java long to a PL/SQL NUMBER. we will certainly want to add more functionality over time. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE xfile IS FUNCTION length (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN NUMBER. END.page 177 . / xfile2. / CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY xfile IS FUNCTION length (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN NUMBER AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'JFile. END.length (java.String) return long'.

Write a "public" PL/SQL wrapper function to convert that number to a true PL/SQL Boolean.  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± 2.Mapping the Boolean Datatype  Both Java and PL/SQL support a native Boolean datatype. so you'd expect smooth sailing. Convert the Java boolean to a String or number and return that value. you will need to take these steps: ± 1.page 178 . Write a "hidden" PL/SQL wrapper function that returns the string or number. ± 3. Not so! To pass a Boolean back from Java to PL/SQL.

public class JFile3 { public static int canRead (String fileName) { File myFile = new File (fileName). else return 0.page 179 .File.java  Translate TRUE to 1 and FALSE to 0. boolean retval = myFile. if (retval) return 1.io. not a Boolean class. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Translate Boolean to Number  Accept the name of a file and return its length. ± And don't forget: this is a boolean primitive.canRead(). } } JFile3. import java.

pkg END.lang. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE xfile IS FUNCTION canRead (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN BOOLEAN. ± Avoid the hard-codings with named constants.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .java / xfile. JFile.Wrapper for Pseudo-Boolean function  Simple translation back to PL/SQL Boolean.pkg RETURN IcanRead (file) = 1.. JFile4. FUNCTION canRead (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN BOOLEAN AS BEGIN xfile3.java END.canRead (java. xfile4.. END.String) return int'. / CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY xfile IS FUNCTION IcanRead (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN NUMBER AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'JFile3.page 180 .

page 181 .println ( "Pay " + laborType + " $" + hourly_rate + " per hour").out. BigDecimal hourly_rate = (BigDecimal)(attribs[1]). // Access individual attributes by array index. throws java.getAttributes().java passobj. System. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein UnionBuster. Object[] attribs = e.Passing Objects to Java with STRUCT  You can pass Oracle object information to Java without relying on JPub by using the STRUCT class.tst PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . } } Extract individual attribute values from the array. public class UnionBuster { Obtain attributes of public static void wageStrategy (STRUCT e) the Oracle object.sql.SQLException { // Get the attributes of the labor_source object. // starting with 0 String laborType = (String)(attribs[0]).

sql. hourly_rate NUMBER).wageStrategy (oracle. '5')). / BEGIN bust_em_with ( labor_source ('Workfare'. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END. The Oracle object type definition CREATE TYPE labor_source_t AS OBJECT ( labor_type VARCHAR2(30). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Fully specify the STRUCT class in parameter list. 0)). / CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE bust_em_with ( labor_source_in IN labor_source_t) AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'UnionBuster.STRUCT)'.Wrapping a STRUCT-based Method  You can pass Oracle object information to Java without relying on JPub by using the STRUCT class. bust_em_with ( labor_source ('Prisoners'.page 182 .

out.PUT_LINE: System. i++) { System. you can redirect the output to the DBMS_OUTPUT buffer.sql file: SET SERVEROUTPUT ON SIZE 1000000 CALL DBMS_JAVA.java HelloAll. public class HelloAll { public static void lotsaText ( int count) { for (int i = 0. i < count.page 183 .out.println.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Call it within methods and output will display in your Java environment.println ( "Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello All!"). ± Here is a good nucleus for a login. }}}  When called within a PL/SQL wrapper. HelloAll.SET_OUTPUT (1000000).Viewing Output from Java Methods  Java provides a "print line" method similar to DBMS_OUTPUT.

you "throw" and "catch". ± Use two methods. ± And also spew out the entire Java error stack! (at least through 8.Error Handling with Java-PL/SQL  Java offers a very similar. but more robust error handling mechanism than PL/SQL. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Exceptions are objects instantiated from the Exception class or a subclass of it.SQLException.sql. ± Instead of raising and handling.  Any error not caught by the JVM (Java virtual machine) will be thrown back to the PL/SQL block or SQL statement.5). such as java.1. getErrorCode() and getMessage() to obtain information about the error thrown.page 184 .

tst ORA-29532: Java call terminated by uncaught Java exception: java.check_error(KprbDBAccess. BEGIN dropany ('TABLE'. DBMS_OUTPUT.jdbc. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN DBMS_OUTPUT.java) at DropAny.executeUpdate(OracleStatement.driver.jdbc.doExecute(OracleStatement.driver.SQLException: ORA-00942: table or view does not exist at oracle.java) at oracle. END.driver.driver.parseExecuteFetch(KprbDBAccess.kprb.OracleStatement.java) at oracle. and you have to do some digging to extract the Oracle error information.java:14) DropAny.sql.doExecuteOther(OracleStatement.PUT_LINE (SQLERRM).java) at oracle.jdbc.kprb.jdbc.driver.java) at oracle.jdbc.doExecuteWithBatch(OracleStatement.java -29532 dropany.OracleStatement.tst ORA-00942: table or view does not exist 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .jdbc.OracleStatement.Trapping and Identifying Errors  Currently.jdbc.sql.KprbDBAccess.sp dropany2.java) at oracle.doExecuteWithTimeout(OracleStatement.object(DropAny.java) at oracle.KprbDBAccess.SQLException: getErrInfo.page 185 .OracleStatement. 'blip').OracleStatement.PUT_LINE (SQLCODE). the entire Java stack is displayed on your screen. / SQL> 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 java.

Achieving PL/SQL Excellence External Procedures  An external procedure is a 3GL routine that can serve as the ³body´ of a PL/SQL function.page 186 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . procedure.  An Oracle8 feature that allowed relatively "native" callouts to C from PL/SQL for the first time. ± Must be a shared object library on Unix or a dynamically linked library (DLL) on Windows. or method.

so file extproc returns results returns results 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Process & data flow Application Makes request Net8 External Procedure Listener spawns External Shared Library Calls PL/SQL Runtime Engine PL/SQL body Client or server-side application returns results calls routine from Routine in .page 187 .DLL or .

sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 188 .External procedures: Sample uses      Send email Invoke operating system command Invoke custom or legacy application Call C runtime library function Perform admin tasks email.sql diskspace.

page 189 .dll ± For given drive letter.Determine free disk space on NT (1/4)  Use pre-existing routine: ± GetDiskFreeSpaceA in kernel32. create an Oracle8 ³library´: CREATE OR REPLACE LIBRARY nt_kernel AS 'c:\winnt\system32\kernel32. this function returns: » » » » » sectors per cluster bytes per sector number of free clusters total number of clusters ³return code´ indicating success or failure  First.dll'. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

sectors_per_cluster OUT PLS_INTEGER. total_number_of_clusters OUT PLS_INTEGER) RETURN PLS_INTEGER.Package spec (2/4)  Nothing unexpected here: CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE disk_util AS FUNCTION get_disk_free_space (root_path IN VARCHAR2. END disk_util. bytes_per_sector OUT PLS_INTEGER.page 190 . / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . number_of_free_clusters OUT PLS_INTEGER.

number_of_free_clusters OUT pls_integer. number_of_free_clusters BY REFERENCE LONG.Package body in Oracle 8. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . bytes_per_sector OUT PLS_INTEGER. RETURN LONG).page 191  All the magic is in the EXTERNAL section 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . sectors_per_cluster OUT PLS_INTEGER. total_number_of_clusters BY REFERENCE LONG. total_number_of_clusters OUT PLS_INTEGER) RETURN PLS_INTEGER IS EXTERNAL LIBRARY nt_kernel NAME "GetDiskFreeSpaceA" LANGUAGE C CALLING STANDARD PASCAL PARAMETERS (root_path STRING. bytes_per_sector BY REFERENCE LONG. END disk_util. sectors_per_cluster BY REFERENCE LONG.0 (3/4) CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY disk_util AS FUNCTION get_disk_free_space (root_path IN VARCHAR2.

Usage (4/4)
DECLARE lroot_path VARCHAR2(3) := 'C:\'; lsectors_per_cluster PLS_INTEGER; lbytes_per_sector PLS_INTEGER; lnumber_of_free_clusters PLS_INTEGER; ltotal_number_of_clusters PLS_INTEGER; return_code PLS_INTEGER; free_meg REAL; BEGIN return_code := disk_util.get_disk_free_space (lroot_path, lsectors_per_cluster, lbytes_per_sector, lnumber_of_free_clusters, ltotal_number_of_clusters); free_meg := lsectors_per_cluster * lbytes_per_sector * lnumber_of_free_clusters / 1024 / 1024; DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('free disk space, Mb = ' || free_meg); diskspace.sql END;
1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein
PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 192

Creating your own external procedure 

1. Identify or create shared library 2. Identify or CREATE LIBRARY within Oracle 3. Map the parameters using:
± EXTERNAL clause (Oracle8) or ± LANGUAGE clause (Oracle8i)  

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 193

1. Identify/create external routine 


Prerequisite: O/S must support shared libraries Some useful routines are pre-built in C runtime library
± On Unix: /lib/libc.so ± On NT: <systemroot>\system32\crtdll.dll 

Building a shared library of your own requires knowledge of:
± Appropriate language (typically C) ± Compiler & linker

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 194

2. Create the Oracle library 

Syntax:
CREATE OR REPLACE LIBRARY <library name> AS '<full path to file>'; 

Assigns a programmer-defined alias to a specific shared library file Notes
± Requires CREATE LIBRARY pri ilege ± Does not alidate directory ± Can¶t use symbolic link 

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 195

3. Map the parameters
This can get complicated, because«
± Must pass extra parameters to designate:
» NULL/NOT NULL state » String length » Maximum allocated length

± Six choices of parameter mode
» » » » » » IN RETURN IN BY REFERENCE RETURN BY REFERENCE OUT IN OUT

These details are better suited for close reading«
PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 196

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Oracle8i New Features Autonomous Transactions Invoker Rights Model Row Level Security 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 197 .

Oracle8i New Features  Oracle8i offers a number of PL/SQL-specific features that give you tremendous additional flexibility and capability.    Autonomous Transactions The Invoker Rights Model Row level security 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± And the learning curve to take advantage of these features is generally not too steep.page 198 .

± There was only one transaction allowed per connection. you can now define a PL/SQL block to execute as an "autonomous transaction".Autonomous Transactions  Prior to Oracle8i.page 199 .  With Oracle8i. ± Any changes made within that block can be saved or reversed without affecting the outer or main transaction. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . a COMMIT or ROLLBACK in any program in your session committed or rolled back all changes in your session. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE loginfo ( code IN PLS_INTEGER. msg IN VARCHAR2) AS PRAGMA AUTONOMOUS_TRANSACTION.

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Tracing Code Usage ± Build retry mechanisms.page 200 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . ± One component should not have any impact (esp. software usage meter. ± Now you can avoid the complexities (need for ROLLBACK TO savepoints and so on).  Logging Mechanism ± Commonly developers lot to database tables. etc. which can cause all sorts of complications: your log entry becomes a part of your transaction. something like a COMMIT) on other components.When to Use Autonomous Transactions  Reusable Application Components ± ATs are more or less required in the new distributed application architecture of the Internet.  Call functions within SQL that change the database.

rec. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN ROLLBACK. logger. END.tst retry. While we're at it. text_in IN VARCHAR2 ) IS PRAGMA AUTONOMOUS_TRANSACTION.pkg retry. let's add some session information.pkg log81*. rec. USER.page 201 . END. text_in. BEGIN INSERT INTO logtab VALUES (code_in.Logging with ATs  Don't forget that ROLLBACK in the exception section! CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY log IS PROCEDURE putline ( code_in IN INTEGER. COMMIT. USER.machine.sp log81. SYSDATE.tst PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .program ). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Avoid interdependencies with the main transaction. SYSDATE.

page 202 . ± You cannot define a nested anonymous block to be an AT. or an error is raised. The AT PRAGMA can be used only with individual programs and toplevel anonymous blocks.Tips and Gotchas with ATs  An AT program must COMMIT or ROLLBACK before terminating. ± You cannot tell by looking at the package spec if you are calling ATs or not -and this info is not available in the data dictionary. ± You cannot define an entire package as an AT.  Any changes committed in an AT are visible in the outer transaction. autonserial.sql auton_in_sql. ± Place the SET TRANSACTION statement in the outer transaction.   The AT PRAGMA goes in the body of packages.sql autontrigger*. ± You can use the SET TRANSACTION ISOLATION LEVEL SERIALIZABLE to indicate that you do not want the changes visible until the outer transaction commits.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

± This is called the « Definer Rights Model  With Oracle8i. whenever you executed a stored program.The Invoker Rights Model  Prior to Oracle8i. you can now decide at compilation time whether your program or package will execute in the definer's schema (the default) or the schema of the invoker of the code.page 203 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . ± This is called the « Invoker Rights Model PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . it ran under the privileges of the account in which the program was defined.

page 204 . Ignores roles and relies on directly-granted privileges.About Definer Rights  Allows you to centralize access to and control of underlying data structures. OE Code Order_Mgt Place Cancel Sam_Sales Close Old Orders  OE Data X  Orders Cannot alter table directly. Note: Oracle built-in packages have long had the capability of running under the invoker's authority. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . But it can be a source of confusion and architectural problems.

it's all or nothing.and now you do! 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Problems with Definer Rights  Deployment & maintenance ± Must install module in all remote databases where needed ± In some databases... ± Can bypass 8i¶s ³fine-grained´ access features (see the DBMS_RLS package) ± Difficult to audit privileges  Sure would be nice to have a choice. requiring copy of stored module  Security ± No declarative way to restrict privileges on certain modules in a package -. unless you write code in the package to essentially recreate roles programmatically. each user has own copy of table(s).page 205 .

. ± At run-time.. Synonyms may be necessary if modules use object names not qualified by schema.  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . do what it takes to get the code to compile. "dummy" objects. AUTHID goes only in spec. You could also create local. the objects referenced may well be different from those against which it compiled. and must be at the package level.  For modules with separate spec and body. ± In other words.Oracle8i Invoker Rights Syntax  For top level modules: CREATE [ OR REPLACE ] <module type> [ AUTHID { DEFINER | CURRENT_USER } ] AS .page 206 .

acct_mgr.. modify destroy .destroy(. you can execute code owned by another schema.. END.. accounts table 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Central Code schema PACKAGE acct_mgr make AUTHID CURRENT_USER User/Data schema PROCEDURE mng_account IS BEGIN .page 207 . code. yet have all references to data structures "reflect back" into your own schema..).."Reflection" Capability of Invoker Rights  With invoker rights....FROM accounts WHERE.

 Information about the rights model is not available in the data dictionary What if you want to maintain a single version of your code for both pre-Oracle8i and Oracle8i installations. the definer rights model is always applied to resolve the reference. all other calls in stack are resolved according to definer rights. Note: cannot use with wrapped code.page 208 . taking advantage of the invoker rights model whenever possible? ± A creative use of SQL*Plus substitution variables comes in very invdefinv. ± AUTHID CURRENT_USER is ignored.Tips and Gotchas for Invoker Rights  Does not apply to code objects. ± Both static and dynamic SQL is supported.  Once a definer rights program is called. oneversion.sql  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .sql handy. only data ± When your stored code references another stored code element.

but you want their own directly-granted privileges to determine access.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .When to Invoke Invoker Rights  You want to reuse the same code among many users.sql whichsch*. ± Share a program that uses dynamic SQL (whether DBMS_SQL or the new native implementation) and you end up taking the most unexpected DDL and DML detours.page 209 . authid. National HQ Check City Statistics New York Schema stolenlives Chicago Schema stolenlives  Especially handy with dynamic SQL.

sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Rely on definer rights to access centralized data from any schema.Combining Invoker & Definer Rights  Rely on invoker rights to allow centralized code to work with schema-specific data.page 210 . HQ Chicago Check City Statistics  New York stolenlives Analyze Pattern stolenlives perpetrators perp.

page 211 .Row Level Security DBMS_RLS Row-Level Security 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Prior to Oracle8i.Row-Level Security with DBMS_RLS  Oracle8i offers a new package. you could achieve this only partially through the use of views.page 212   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . DBMS_RLS. with which to implement automated row-level security (also referred to as "fine grained access control"). The DBMS_RLS package (along with "system contexts") now allow you to do so in a foolproof manner. Row Level Security  The establishment of security policies on (restricted access to) individual rows of a table.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Security Policy Packages ± You will need to write a package containing functions that establish the security policies to be applied to a particular table. their context information is set properly.Components Needed for RLS  System Contexts ± A new feature in Oracle8i.page 213 .  Let's step through a simple example to see how all these pieces tie together.  Database Logon Triggers ± I want to make sure that when a person logs in.  DBMS_RLS ± Use programs in DBMS_RLS to associate your security policies with tables. the system context is a named set of attributevalue pairs global to your session.

all children are vaccinated. ± Regulators can only see patients who reside in the same state. ± A massive. all pregnant women receive excellent prenatal care.sql  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . No more for-profit hospitals pulling billions of dollars out of the system. doctor. The main tables are patient. no more private insurance companies soaking up 30 cents on the dollar. clinic and regulator.  We need a top-notch. Here are some rules: ± Doctors can only see patients who are assigned to their clinic. highly secure database for NHCS.A National Health Care System  The year is 2010. ± Patients can only see information about themselves. popular uprising in the United States has forced the establishment of a national healthcare system. fgac.page 214 .

FETCH doc_cur INTO doc_rec.page 215 . c_person_id_attr. PROCEDURE set_context IS This is a simplification. DBMS_SESSION. CREATE CONTEXT patient_restriction USING nhc_pkg. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . DBMS_SESSION. 'DOCTOR').Set the Context  Define a context in the database.doctor_id). See CURSOR doc_cur IS fgac. and create a procedure that will set the context attributes (type and ID) upon login. doc_rec doc_cur%ROWTYPE. sets the context accordingly. doc_rec.SET_CONTEXT ( 'patient_restriction'.SET_CONTEXT ( 'patient_restriction'. c_person_type_attr.sql for logic that identifies SELECT doctor_id FROM doctor different types of people and WHERE schema_name = USER. END. BEGIN OPEN doc_cur.

''' || clause for each type of c_person_id_attr || '''))'. BEGIN IF l_context = 'DOCTOR' THEN retval := 'home_clinic_id IN (SELECT home_clinic_id FROM doctor We need a different string WHERE doctor_id = SYS_CONTEXT (''' || to modify the WHERE c_context || '''. name_in VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2 IS l_context VARCHAR2(100) := Extract the context SYS_CONTEXT (c_context. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . connection. c_person_type_attr). FUNCTION person_predicate ( schema_in VARCHAR2.page 216 . person. information for this retval VARCHAR2(2000).Define the Predicate  A predicate is a string that will be appended to the WHERE clause of the table to which this security policy is associated (see next page).

'patient'.ADD_POLICY procedure. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . BEGIN DBMS_RLS.person_predicate'. update or delete against the SCOTT.DELETE'). 'SELECT. ( => => => => => => 'SCOTT'.PATIENT table will be modified by the string returned by the person_predicate function of the SCOTT.nhc_pkg package. 'patient_privacy'.Create the Security Policy  Use the DBMS_RLS.ADD_POLICY OBJECT_SCHEMA OBJECT_NAME POLICY_NAME FUNCTION_SCHEMA POLICY_FUNCTION STATEMENT_TYPES END.page 217 . 'SCOTT'.UPDATE. 'nhc_pkg. ± The following procedure call specifies that the WHERE clause of any query.

CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER set_id_on_logon AFTER LOGON ON DATABASE BEGIN nhc_pkg. logon is disabled. END.Create Logon Trigger.page 218 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .sql Exception handling in trigger is critical! If you allow an exception to go unhandled. fgac. Setting Context  By setting the context in the logon trigger.set_context. we guarantee that the context is set (and the predicate applied) no matter which product is the entry point to Oracle.PUT_LINE ( 'Error ' || SQLCODE || ' setting context for ' || USER'). EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN DBMS_OUTPUT.

IL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Patient sees only himself.Queries Transparently Filtered  What you see is determined automatically by who you are. Context Information for "SWALLACE": Type: DOCTOR Doctor sees only her ID: 1060 patients.Chris Silva .IL VSILVA . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .IL Context Information for "CSILVA": Type: PATIENT ID: Predicate: schema_name = 'CSILVA' Patients Visible to "CSILVA": CSILVA . Predicate: home_clinic_id IN (SELECT home_clinic_id FROM doctor WHERE doctor_id = SYS_CONTEXT ('patient_restriction'. 'person_id')) Patients Visible to "SWALLACE": CSILVA .Chris Silva .Veva Silva .page 219 .

April.and play a new tune with PL/SQL! 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . February.. and you use only what you know...  ± You learn what you need to get the job done..... Jump out of your rut . March.page 220 .Take Full Advantage of PL/SQL! January.. It's so easy to fall into a rut with a programming language. May...

k..page 221 .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Appendices (a. If time permits«)     UTL_FILE ± file IO DBMS_JOB ± Job scheduling DBMS_PIPE ± Pipe-based communication DBMS_UTILITY ± the kitchen sink package 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .a.

page 222 ... Physical Files 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Built-in Packages: UTL_FILE UTL_FILE Server-side File I/O Application FOPEN GET_LINE PUT_LINE .

A "version 1" (fairly primitive) utility..0.UTL_FILE: Server-side I/O  Allows you to read from and write to operating system files on the database server. ± Maximum of 1023 bytes per line (read or write) until Oracle 8. ± No higher-level file operations supported (change privileges. when it jumps to 32K.. delete.page 223 . copy. ± Limitations on files you can access (no mapped files.   But you can read lines from a file and write lines to a file.5. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . no use of environmental variables). random access to contents).

Puts formatted text into the buffer PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .UTL_FILE Module Outline FCLOSE FCLOSE_ALL FFLUSH FOPEN GET_LINE IS_OPEN NEW_LINE PUT PUT_LINE PUTF Close the specified file Close all open files in your session Flush all data from the UTL_FILE buffer to your file Open a file Get the next line from a file Returns TRUE if the file is open (sort of) Insert a new line character in file at the end of current line Puts text into the UTL_FILE buffer Puts text and new line character into UTL_FILE buffer.page 224 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .

utl_file_dir = /tmp utl_file_dir = /accounts/newdev  And don't do either of the following: utl_file_dir = . no trailing delimiter. ± You do this by adding lines to the instance parameter file.Authorizing Directory Access  Oracle requires you to list explicitly those directories you wish to be able to read/write with UTL_FILE.  Follow these rules to avoid many headaches.page 225 Allows read & write for current directory. ± Use a separate entry for each directory (and subdirectory. ± No single or double quotes around directory. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . utl_file_dir = * Allows read & write for any directory. there is no subdirectory recursion).

'hello'). / utlfile. BEGIN /* Change the directory name to one to which you at least || THINK you have read/write access.tst  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END. 'test.FILE_TYPE.FCLOSE (fid). UTL_FILE. and then run the following test script (it can't get much simpler than this): DECLARE fid UTL_FILE. UTL_FILE.page 226 .FOPEN ('c:\temp'.txt'. */ fid := UTL_FILE. modify your initialization file.Test UTL_FILE Access  About the hardest part to working with UTL_FILE is simply getting started. So before you write anything fancy.PUT_LINE (fid. 'W'). restart your database.

  Maximum of 10 files may be opened in each user session.FOPEN ('c:\temp'. Not much of a test. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .FILE_TYPE. 'W' for Write and 'A' for Append. ± In actuality.txt'..page 227 . ± Types are 'R' for Read. 'test.Opening a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.FILE_TYPE.  The FOPEN function returns a record ("file handle") based on the UTL_FILE. Test to see if file is open with the IS_OPEN function. END. BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE. name and operation type. this function simply returns TRUE if the file handle's id field is NOT NULL.  Specify file location. 'W').. ± Currently contains a single ID field.

FILE_TYPE.FCLOSE (fid). UTL_FILE.GET_LINE (fid.FOPEN ('c:\temp'. getnext. ± You might want to build your own GET_LINE which handles the exception and returns an EOF Boolean status flag.Reading from a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE. the ceiling is raised to 32K.page 228 .5 and above. myline). ± In Oracle8 Release 8.0. 'R'). Lines in the file cannot be longer than 1023 bytes in length.   Can only read from a file opened with the "R" mode. END. 'test. BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE. UTL_FILE.txt'.  The NO_DATA_FOUND exception is raised if you read past the end of the file.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

'test.  Call FFLUSH to make sure that everything you have written to the buffer is flushed out to the file.FCLOSE (fid). UTL_FILE.PUT (fid. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .FILE_TYPE.page 229 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .Writing to a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE. END. ± The file buffers are automatically flushed when you close a file or exit your session. UTL_FILE is so much fun that I never want to stop Resulting Text  You can use PUT. UTL_FILE. UTL_FILE.PUTF (fid.FOPEN ('c:\temp'.PUT_LINE (fid. '&1'). 'is so much fun'). 'W'). ± PUTF is like the C printf program.txt'. 'UTL_FILE'). allowing for some formatting. ' that I never\nwant to %s'. BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE. UTL_FILE. PUT_LINE or PUTF.

EXCEPTION WHEN UTL_FILE.  If you do not close the file.GET_LINE (fid. You can close a single file with FCLOSE or all open files with FCLOSE_ALL. you will not see the data you have (supposedly) written to that file. UTL_FILE.txt'.FCLOSE (fid).FCLOSE (fid). 'test. You should close files in exception handlers to make sure that files are not left "hanging" open. UTL_FILE. END.READ_ERROR THEN UTL_FILE.page 230   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .FILE_TYPE. myline).Closing a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE. 'R'). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .FOPEN ('c:\temp'. BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE.

± UTL_FILE-named exceptions in other cases. ± They all share a common SQLCODE of 1. EXCEPTION.  UTL_FILE relies on a combination of user-defined exceptions and STANDARD exceptions to communicate errors. ± NO_DATA_FOUND when you try to read past the end of the file. EXCEPTION. EXCEPTION.Error Handling in UTL_FILE PACKAGE UTL_FILE IS invalid_path invalid_mode invalid_filehandle invalid_operation read_error write_error internal_error END. EXCEPTION. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . EXCEPTION. EXCEPTION.page 231 .  You have to take special care to trap and handle the named exceptions. EXCEPTION.

WHEN UTL_FILE. RAISE.c_invalid_path). WHEN UTL_FILE. RAISE. record the error.c_invalid_mode). Re-raise exception if you want it to propagate from that block.c_invalid_filehandle). RAISE. END.Recommended Exception Section EXCEPTION WHEN UTL_FILE. RAISE. WHEN UTL_FILE. translating the generic user-defined exception into an understandable message.WRITE_ERROR THEN recNgo (PLVfile.c_write_error).INVALID_PATH THEN recNgo (PLVfile.c_invalid_operation).READ_ERROR THEN recNgo (PLVfile. WHEN UTL_FILE.INVALID_MODE THEN recNgo (PLVfile.INVALID_OPERATION THEN recNgo (PLVfile.INTERNAL_ERROR THEN recNgo (PLVfile. utlflexc.c_read_error). WHEN UTL_FILE.page 232  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . RAISE. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .c_internal_error).INVALID_FILEHANDLE THEN recNgo (PLVfile. WHEN UTL_FILE.sql  Trap locally by name. RAISE. RAISE.

Background Process DBA_JOBS Oracle Job Queue Subsystem 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 233 ..Built-in Packages: DBMS_JOB DBMS_JOB Scheduled Execution of Stored Procedures Application SUBMIT RUN REMOVE ..

Schedule large batch jobs to run on "off hours". ± Spawn background processes to avoid blocking client process.page 234 . which in turn offers job scheduling capabilities within the Oracle Server. Made its debut in PL/SQL Release 2. Schedule regular maintenance on instances. You can use DBMS_JOB to: Replicate data between different database instances.2. but only ³publicly available´ and supported in PL/SQL Release 2.Overview of DBMS_JOB  DBMS_JOB provides an API to the Oracle job queues. Built by Oracle to support snapshots and replication. ± ± ± ±    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .1. Create a listener program to poll the contents of a pipe and take action.

page 235 CHANGE INTERVAL ISUBMIT NEXT_DATE REMOVE RUN SUBMIT USER_EXPORT WHAT 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .DBMS_JOB Module Outline BROKEN Marks the job as either FIXED or BROKEN. Submits a job to the queue using a predefined job number. Broken jobs will not run as scheduled. Changes when a queued job will run. Changes one or all attributes of a job. Submits a job to the queue returning a unique job number. Returns the job string for a job number. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Changes the interval between executions of a job. Removes the job from the queue. Changes the job string of a job. Forces immediate execution of the specified job number.

SYSDATE. 'calculate_totals.  When you submit a job. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . you specify the date on which it should next execute.Submitting a Job DECLARE job# BINARY_INTEGER. and then the job¶s execution interval (frequency of execution).ISUBMIT and supply the job number. BEGIN DBMS_JOB.'.  A job is a call to a stored procedure or an anonymous block ± It must end with a semi-colon and can contain ³hard-coded´ arguments. ± In the above example. END.SUBMIT (job#. Notice that the start time is a DATE expression. 'SYSDATE + 1'). I run calculate_totals immediately and then on a daily basis thereafter.page 236 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . while the interval is a string (this is dynamic PL/SQL!)  You can also call DBMS_JOB. instead of having DBMS_JOB generate one for you.

/  This block submits a job that uses a built-in procedure.''LOAD1''.page 237 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .Submit Job Example DECLARE v_jobno INTEGER. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . next_date => TRUNC (SYSDATE + 1). BEGIN DBMS_JOB.l (v_jobno). what => 'DBMS_DDL.''ESTIMATE''.null.submit ( job => v_jobno.ANALYZE_OBJECT.'. interval => 'TRUNC(SYSDATE+1)' ). DBMS_DDL. p. END.estimate_percent=>50).ANALYZE_OBJECT ' || '(''TABLE''.''TENK''' || '. to analyze a specific table every evening at midnight.

120).interval => 'SYSDATE +1').'. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .'BEGIN null. END. 'my_job2(date_IN=>SYSDATE). ± Job 2 passes a date into procedure MY_JOB2. /  This block submits three jobs to the job queue.ISubmit Job Example BEGIN DBMS_JOB. executes for the first time tomorrow and every 10 minutes thereafter.next_date => SYSDATE + 1/24 .ISUBMIT (job => 1 . and will be removed from the queue automatically.null).ISUBMIT(3.DBMS_JOB.' . ± Job 1 passes a string and number into procedure MY_JOB1. executes immediately.' . numbered 1.SYSDATE.SYSDATE+1. END.2.what => 'my_job1(''string_parm_value''.page 238 . DBMS_JOB. DBMS_JOB. ± Job 3 is a PL/SQL block which does nothing.'SYSDATE+10/1440'). runs it in one hour and executes every day thereafter.ISUBMIT (2. and 3.

Specifying Job Times & Frequencies  Probably the most complicated part of using DBMS_JOB is to get the string expression of the job interval right. ''Q''). ''WEDNESDAY''). NEXT_DAY (SYSDATE. 3). you must use 2 single quotes to embed strings.page 239 + 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . at 9 AM Every Monday. ''MONDAY''). ''SATURDAY'') 2/24' 'NEXT_DAY ( ADD_MONTHS (TRUNC (SYSDATE. ''FRIDAY''))) + 18/24' PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . NEXT_DAY (SYSDATE. ± Use date arithmetic to request intervals smaller than a day. ± Since it's a string. ''MONDAY'') + 9/24' 'TRUNC (LEAST ( NEXT_DAY (SYSDATE. Every hour Every Sunday at 2 AM First Monday of each quarter. Wednesday and Friday at 6 PM 'SYSDATE + 1/24' 'NEXT_DAY (TRUNC (SYSDATE).

± Produces a string that can be used to recreate an existing job in the job queue.ISUBMIT. Remove all jobs for current schema.  Run a job immediately. retaining current job number. END LOOP.REMOVE (rec. ± Only if the job was submitted from same schema BEGIN FOR rec IN (SELECT * FROM USER_JOBS) LOOP DBMS_JOB. DBMS_JOB. ± Uses DBMS_JOB. ± Performs an implicit COMMIT in current session. expjob.page 240 .sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .job).  Export jobs from the queue.RUN (my_job#).Other Job Queue Operations  Remove a job from the queue.

sql FROM DBA_JOBS_RUNNING .username .sid = jr.job ORDER BY jr.this_date .jr.sid AND jr. ± The following query blends job information with session information to display currently-executing jobs. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 241 .job = j.this_date. who owns them and when they began.job . SELECT jr.DBA_JOBS .V$SESSION WHERE s. DBA_JOBS and USER_JOBS views.Job Queue Views  You can also view the job queue by looking at the DBA_JOBS_RUNNING.what job_id username start_date job_definition jr j s showjobs.

therefore. of one hour). The valid range is 0 through 36. ± The default is PUBLIC access.Setting up the Job Facility  Make sure that the correct access is set up for the DBMS_JOB package.ora (initialization) file for your database instance: ± job_queue_processes=N where n is the number of concurrent background processes permitted. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± job_queue_interval=N where N is the interval in seconds to check the job queue. The valid range is 1 to 3600 (a maximum.page 242 .  You will need to set three parameters in the init. You will have to take special DBA action if you want to restrict who can run jobs.

the job facility will mark your job as broken.page 243 .Error Handling with DBMS_JOB  What if your stored procedure fails? ± After 16 attempts. ± Do you want it to try 16 times? ± In addition. ± Always include a WHEN OTHERS exception handler in your job program which traps any and all problems and automatically sets the job status to broken.  To avoid unexpected and unhandled failures of scheduled jobs: ± Always use the RUN built-in to execute your job in a ³test´ mode. if your failure raises an unhandled exception. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Then you can go ahead and submit it. it may cause the background processes to fail and no longer run any jobs at all.

± Calls log program of package to record that failure took place.Stopping the Job When It Fails PROCEDURE calc_totals IS BEGIN .job (µcalc_totals¶) DBMS_JOB. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN job# := job_pkg.. ± Now the job facility will not try to run this program again. µFAIL¶). spacelog. ± Uses a call to BROKEN to set the status of the job to ³broken´.BROKEN (job#. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 244 . TRUE). END. You can go in and fix the problem.log (µcalc_totals¶.sql  The WHEN OTHERS exception handler of the calc_totals procedure traps any kind of failure.sql showspc. ± Obtains the job number from a packaged function by passing the name of the procedure.. job_pkg.

If you find that you submit a job to run immediately and it does not start. When a job runs. difficult to reproduce behavior at times with "straight" procedure calls.page 245 . perform a COMMIT after your submit.  You will need to fully-qualify all database links (with user name and password) to get them to work properly. ± DBMS_JOB only allows you to modify characteristics and behavior of jobs submitted by the current schema. it picks up the current execution environment for the user. ± We've noticed some aberrant."Good to Knows" for DBMS_JOB  You may find it useful to always wrap your stored procedure call (the what) inside a BEGIN-END block.    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . You can use the DBMS_IJOB to manage the jobs of other users.

Built-in Packages: DBMS_PIPE DBMS_PIPE Inter-session Communication 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 246 .

Oracle uses database pipes to parallelize database operations. You can parallelize your own code.DBMS_PIPE Overview  Allows communication between different Oracle sessions through a pipe in the RDBMS Shared Global Area.page 247 .  Uses for DBMS_PIPE include: ± Parallelization of program execution. ± Perform and commit DML in a separate transaction space from your main transaction. ± Operates outside of database transaction limitations. ± More sophisticated debugging inside PL/SQL programs (work around fundamental limitations of DBMS_OUTPUT). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Interface PL/SQL-database activities with operating system functions and programs written in other languages.

± The pipe sends/receives a message. ± Names can be up to 128 chars long (do not use names beginning with ³ORA$´. They are reserved for Oracle use). which can be composed of one or more separate packets.Architecture of DBMS_PIPE Shared Global Area ³Sue´ ³Bob´ Message Buffer Message Buffer Session A  Session B A pipe is a named object that uses the System Global Area to provide a non-transaction based conduit of information. using a maximum of 4096 bytes.page 248 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

date. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein pipex1.  Unpack the message packets and take action. number.page 249 .Processing Flow of DBMS_PIPE  Construct a message from packets of information. ± This is the default.sql PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . date or number). ± There is just one message buffer per session. so you should always specify a timeout period. ± Separate out the individual packets in the message (again: string. ± You can wait for up to 1000 days for a message.  Receive a message from that pipe. you can wait for up to 1000 days (or 86400000 seconds) for the pipe to be cleared. ± Each packet can be a string.  Send the message to a named pipe. ROWID or RAW.sql pipex2. ± If there isn¶t currently room in the pipe.

PACK_MESSAGE Packs an item into the message buffer for your session. NEXT_ITEM_TYPE Returns the datatype of the next item in the piped message. UNIQUE_SESSION_NAME Returns name that is unique among all sessions in the database. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . SEND_MESSAGE Sends contents of message buffer to the specified pipe.page 250 . making it a candidate for removal with a LRU algorithm. Clears your buffer so that PACK_MESSAGE and UNPACK_MESSAGE can work from the first item.DBMS_PIPE Module Outline Module Name CREATE_PIPE Description Creates a PUBLIC or PRIVATE pipe. UNPACK_MESSAGE Unpacks the next item from the local message buffer and deposits it into the specified local variable. RECEIVE_MESSAGE Receives a message from pipe and copies to local buffer. PURGE Empties the contents of a pipe into your local buffer freeing it for removal. REMOVE_PIPE RESET_BUFFER Removes a pipe explicitly created via CREATE_PIPE.

± Send messages to non-existent pipe implicitly create it. ± Specify TRUE for private argument of CREATE_PIPE. ± Use CREATE_PIPE to create a pipe explicitly. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . PROCEDURE newpipe IS stat INTEGER. BEGIN stat := DBMS_PIPE.page 251 . maxpipesize => 20000.  A public pipe is accessible as long as you know its name.Creating Public and Private Pipes  There are two ways to create pipes: implicitly and explicitly.  An explicit pipe can be private (accessible only to sessions with matching userID or SYSDBA privileges).CREATE_PIPE ( pipename => 'bbs'. ± Implicitly-created pipes are always public. private => TRUE).

timeout IN INTEGER DEFAULT maxwait. maxpipesize IN INTEGER DEFAULT 8192) RETURN INTEGER. FUNCTION send_message (pipename IN VARCHAR2.. expanding pipe size to 40 Kbytes.Sending a Message Provide pipe name. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 10 * 4096). Send to "monthly" pipe. waiting up to 1 minute. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Fill your message buffer with packets of data.page 252 . FOR month_num IN 1 . 12 LOOP DBMS_PIPE. Status of 0 means message was sent. but not smaller). and new max pipe size (you can make it bigger. END LOOP. pipe_stat := DBMS_PIPE. IF pipe_stat != 0 THEN RAISE could_not_send. seconds you will wait.PACK_MESSAGE ( total_sales (month_num)).SEND_MESSAGE ( µmonthly¶. 60.

PROCEDURE unpack_message (item OUT DATE). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 253 .  Then you call UNPACK_MESSAGE to extract individual packets from the message. ± You need to know the datatype of packet or check it using NEXT_ITEM_TYPE.Receiving and Unpack a Message FUNCTION receive_message (pipename IN VARCHAR2. PROCEDURE unpack_message (item OUT NUMBER). PROCEDURE unpack_message (item OUT VARCHAR2). timeout IN INTEGER DEFAULT maxwait) RETURN INTEGER.  First you pull the message from the pipe and place it in buffer with RECEIVE_MESSAGE. ± Specify pipe and number of seconds you will wait before you time out. ± Pipe status of 0 means the message was read successfully.

seconds for the BEGIN next report. END IF. PROCEDURE analyze_assembly_data (every_n_secs IN INTEGER) IS pipe_status INTEGER. pass it on to the IF pipe_status = 0 computation THEN program.UNPACK_MESSAGE (prod_total). ELSE RAISE_APPLICATION_ERROR ( Stop process if -20000. prod_total). every_n_secs). END LOOP. If I got something. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . LOOP pipe_status := DBMS_PIPE. 'Production data unavailable.RECEIVE_MESSAGE ( 'production'. Wait up to N prod_total NUMBER.A Pipe-based Listener Program  Program wakes up every N seconds to read the data from the pipe and analyze results from assembly line (an intentional "infinite loop"!).'). data not received. END. analyze_production (SYSDATE. DBMS_PIPE.page 254 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .

you have to make sure that you unpack a packet into the right kind of variable.Unpacking the Message FUNCTION next_item_type RETURN INTEGER.page 255 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Or you use the built-in NEXT_ITEM_TYPE to tell you in advance the datatype of the next packet in the message and take appropriate action.sql dbpipe.tst  Since a message can be composed of packets of different datatypes. Either: ± You know the datatype and therefore can ³hard-code´ the correct variable into the call to UNPACK_MESSAGE. Returns one of the following values: Value 0 6 9 11 12 23 Description or Data type No more items in buffer NUMBER VARCHAR2 ROWID DATE RAW dbpipe.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Without pipes. In order to do so I must first compute total sales. but are not dependent on each other. ± These programs each take 15 minutes. ± The CEO is decidedly unhappy about the delay.page 256 . I must execute them sequentially and incur an elapsed time of 45 minutes before I calculate the profits. ± You have processes which can run in parallel. you can do the same for your application if: ± You have multiple CPUs available.  Suppose I want to calculate my net profit.Parallelizing Your Code with Pipes  Oracle uses DBMS_PIPE to improve RDBMS performance. total office expenses and total compensation.

Parallel Execution Sequential Execution: Maximum Elapsed Time S t a r t E n d Process A Process B Process C Parallel Execution: Minimum Elapsed Time Start Process A Process B Process C End 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Sequential vs.page 257 .

 The ³wait´ program waits till it receives a message from each program. it puts a message (perhaps even a value) into the pipe. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .in a muchdecreased elapsed time.  The ³kick off´ programs pass their messages to separate pipes. Then net profits can be computed -.Parallelizing PL/SQL Execution BEGIN kick_off_sales_calc. calculate_net_profits. kick_off_totcomp_calc. ± Other programs running in the background grab the messages and start their corresponding calculation program.page 258 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . ± When each program is complete. wait_for_confirmation. END. kick_off_exp_calc.

END. END IF. stat := DBMS_PIPE.PACK_MESSAGE (NULL). IF stat = 0 THEN lots_of_number_crunching. END. calculate sales. stat := DBMS_PIPE. ELSE DBMS_PIPE.RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µsales¶). BEGIN DBMS_PIPE.SEND_MESSAGE (µsales¶).SEND_MESSAGE (µsales¶).PACK_MESSAGE (sales$). Receive the year. and send back the results. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 259 . DBMS_PIPE.Code to Kick Off and Calculate PROCEDURE kick_off_sales_calc IS stat INTEGER.PACK_MESSAGE (1995). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Send message to start calculations. BEGIN stat := DBMS_PIPE.SEND_MESSAGE (µsales¶). stat := DBMS_PIPE. PROCEDURE calculate_sales IS stat INTEGER.

RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µcomp¶). END.RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µoffexp¶). BEGIN stat := DBMS_PIPE.UNPACK_MESSAGE (comp$). Wait for all calculations to finish.UNPACK_MESSAGE (sales$).sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .comp$.UNPACK_MESSAGE (offexp$). parallel.page 260 . stat := DBMS_PIPE.Waiting for Confirmation PROCEDURE wait_for_confirmation IS stat INTEGER.RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µsales¶). DBMS_PIPE. END.offexp$ . DBMS_PIPE. The order in which you wait is insignificant. Perform final calculation. stat := DBMS_PIPE. PROCEDURE calculate_net_profits IS BEGIN net_profits := sales$ . DBMS_PIPE.

pkg p_and_l. ± The requester reads the information from the pipe. obtains the data. and sends it to the pipe. syscache.page 261 .pkg  Implementation of a system-wide. ± Demonstrates the use of toggles and switches in packages.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . in-memory cache. ± A request for data is passed to a "central" pipe.pkg syscache.Other DBMS_PIPE Examples  Simple trace package that sends it output either to screen or to pipe. ± A listener program grabs the request (including the return pipe name). watch.

page 262 . A µgrab-bag¶ of miscellaneous operations SCHEMA 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..Built-in Packages: DBMS_UTILITY DBMS_UTILITY Application GET_TIME GET_HASH_VALUE FORMAT_CALL_STACK ..

Parses comma-delimited list to index-by table. Returns database version (Oracle8) Executes DDL statement (Oracle8). Recompile INVALID objects in specified schema.DBMS_UTILITY Module Outline ANALYZE_DATABASE ANALYZE_PART_OBJECT Analyze objects in database Runs ANALYZE TABLE or ANALYZE INDEX for each partition of the object (Oracle8). Gets block number part of data block address. Returns error stack. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Returns hash value for string.pkg COMMA_TO_TABLE COMPILE_SCHEMA DATA_BLOCK_ADDRESS_BLOCK DATA_BLOCK_ADDRESS_FILE DB_VERSION EXEC_DDL_STATEMENT FORMAT_CALL_STACK FORMAT_ERROR_STACK GET_HASH_VALUE 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .page 263 dbver. Gets file number part of data block address.pkg dbparm. Returns execution call stack.

page 264 . cont. GET_PARAMETER_VALUE GET_TIME IS_PARALLEL_SERVER MAKE_DATA_BLOCK_ADDRESS NAME_RESOLVE NAME_TOKENIZE PORT_STRING TABLE_TO_COMMA Retrieves value of database parameter (Oracle8). Creates data block address from block & file numbers. Parses string object designator into components. Converts list (in index-by-table) of elements into a comma-delimited list (string). Resolves name of object into component parts. Returns TRUE if in parallel server mode. Returns platform and version of database. Returns "current time" down to hundredth of second. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .DBMS_UTILITY Module Outline.

calc_totals. Basic steps necessary to convert GET_TIME into a performance analysis tool. ± Useful when analyzing individual PL/SQL programs. especially those that run in sub-second time. so GET_TIME offers significant additional granularity.Sub-Second Timings with GET_TIME  GET_TIME returns the number of 100ths of seconds that have elapsed since an arbitrary point in time. DECLARE v_start BINARY_INTEGER.page 265 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . BEGIN v_start := DBMS_UTILITY.  Compare results from consecutive calls to GET_TIME to determine the elapsed time of PL/SQL code execution.v_start). END. ± SYSDATE only reflects times down to the nearest second.GET_TIME. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .PUT_LINE (DBMS_UTILITY. DBMS_OUTPUT.GET_TIME .

sql plvtmr. reset_in IN BOOLEAN := TRUE). PROCEDURE capture ( context_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) PROCEDURE show_elapsed (prefix_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL.Building a Layer Over GET_TIME Partial package specification PACKAGE PLVtmr IS PROCEDURE turn_on.capture. BEGIN PLVtmr. adjust_in IN NUMBER := 0. Clean and lean timing code ovrhead. END.spb 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .show_elapsed.sps plvtmr. PROCEDURE set_factor (factor_in IN NUMBER). PLVtmr. PROCEDURE turn_off. END PLVtmr.page 266 . calc_totals.

CALC_NET_WORTH anonymous block  "Little known facts" about FORMAT_CALL_STACK: ± Contains embedded new-line characters.Accessing the Execution Call Stack Use in the exception section to show context of error. ± Does not show package elements. ----.PL/SQL Call Stack ----object line object handle number name 88ce3f74 88e49fc4 88e49390 88e2bd20 8 2 1 1 package STEVEN.VALIDATE_REQUEST function STEVEN.page 267 . only the package name. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .COMPANY_TYPE procedure STEVEN. ± Most recent program at beginning of "report". END. equivalent to CHR(10).PUT_LINE ( DBMS_UTILITY.FORMAT_CALL_STACK). EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN DBMS_OUTPUT.

use a loop to read through the stack. next_line := SUBSTR ( stk. END.sps DBMS_OUTPUT.pkg plvcs.Accessing Call Stack Contents  The call stack length can easily exceed 255 bytes.PUT_LINE (next_line).FORMAT_CALL_STACK || CHR(10).page 268 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . BEGIN stk := DBMS_UTILITY. startpos. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .sp dispcs. next_newline . which means you cannot pass it to DBMS_OUTPUT directly. Instead. 1). startpos := next_newline + 1. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE dispcs IS stk VARCHAR2(10000). startpos INTEGER := 1. CHR(10). next_line VARCHAR2(255). EXIT WHEN next_newline = 0. startpos.tst callstack. END LOOP.startpos + 1). next_newline INTEGER. dispcs. LOOP next_newline := INSTR (stk.

page 269 . part1 OUT VARCHAR2.. part2 OUT VARCHAR2.. PROCEDURE DBMS_UTILITY.NAME_RESOLVE (name IN VARCHAR2. dblink OUT VARCHAR2. ± Use NAME_RESOLVE to break down an identifier string into its components easily. context IN NUMBER. object_number OUT NUMBER).pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .. schema OUT VARCHAR2.but don't see it as a problem.for encapsulation! showcomp.Resolving Names of Stored Code  Code names have many components.sp snc.  Possible "Part 1" Types 5 7 8 9 Synonym Procedure Function Package What a chore! All those arguments.. see it as an opportunity. the way they are attached also follows a complicated syntax. part1_type OUT NUMBER.

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