Achieving PL/SQL Excellence

Oracle PL/SQL Advanced Techniques
Oracle7 thru Oracle8i
Steven Feuerstein
www.StevenFeuerstein.com www.Quest.com www.OReilly.com
and contributions most excellent from Bill Pribyl and Dick Bolz

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 1

Objective & Outline 

Objective
± Expand your knowledge and awareness of important and new features of the PL/SQL language. 

Outline
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± Building with Packages (Oracle7+) PL/SQL Collections (Oracle7 and Oracle8+) Cursor Variables (Oracle7 and Oracle8+) Dynamic SQL: DBMS_SQL and Native Dynamic SQL (8i) Calling Java from PL/SQL (Oracle8i) and C (Oracle8) Oracle Advanced Queuing with DBMS_AQ (Oracle8) Managing Large Objects with DBMS_LOB (Oracle8) Other Oracle8i New Features
» Autonomous Transactions (Oracle8i) » Invoker Rights Model (Oracle8i) » Row Level Security: DBMS_RLS

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

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Software Used in Training 

PL/Vision: a library of packages installed on top of PL/SQL.
± PL/Vision Lite - use it, copy, change it for free -- unless you build software to be sold commercially. ± Active PL/SQL Knowledge Base: contains PL/Vision Professional, the fully supported and enhanced version. 

Demonstration scripts executed in the training can be found on the RevealNet PL/SQL Pipeline:
± http://www.revealnet.com/Pipelines/PLSQL/index.htm ± Archives surfboard, Miscellaneous, PL/SQL Seminar Files ± See filedesc.doc for a listing of many of the files.
plsql_ides.txt 

The PL/SQL IDE (Integrated Development Environment).
± You no longer have to use SQL*Plus and a crude editor! Choose from among the many listed in plsql_ides.txt.

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Achieving PL/SQL Excellence

Building with PL/SQL Packages 
 

Overview Initialization section Overloading

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What is a Package? 

A collection of code elements, from procedures and functions to TYPE, variable and cursor declarations.
± Single-most important structure within PL/SQL, and almost certainly one of the most under-utilized. ± Conceptually very simple, it can take some time to fully grasp the implications and potential of the package. 

The method of choice by Oracle and other software developers for extending the PL/SQL language.
± You will find packages in the database, in Oracle Developer/2000, in Oracle Application Server. 

Let¶s review some of the benefits of packages.
tmr.pkg dbparm.pkg

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pks te_employee.pkg  Improve transaction integrity by hiding data structures behind the package interface.pkb  Construct very flexible and usable utilities for developers.pkg insga.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Instead of writing SQL directly in your programs. ± Can lead to performance improvements. package-based "component". te_employee. custrules. watch. ± There's a big difference between a bunch of separate programs and a coherent. you call the packaged procedures and functions instead. ± Puts more structure and organization in your body of code.page 6 .When to Build a Package  Join physically logically-related code.

Program references package element the first time in each session. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Does the package have an init section? yes Run initialization code.Package Initialization  The initialization section is a block of code at the end of the package body that is executed once per session.page 7 . ± The PL/SQL runtime engine determines when and if this code should be run. no Complete request for packaged element. the first time any package element is referenced.

PACKAGE BODY pkg IS PROCEDURE proc IS BEGIN END. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein BEGIN after/outside of any program defined in the pkg. ± Can have its own exception handling section.  Useful for: ± Performing complex setting of default or initial values. ± Is not required.Package Initialization Structure  The initialization section: ± Is defined after and outside of any programs in the package. ± Confirming that package is properly instantiated. most packages you build won't have one. ± Setting up package data which does not change for the duration of a session.page 8 . BEGIN END pkg. In fact. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . FUNCTION func RETURN BEGIN END.

page 9 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .  Also a package with many design flaws. printer FROM user_config WHERE user_id = USER. */ 'Y'.. show_toolbar. END sessinit. defprinter INTO show_lov. tb_flag. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . */ SELECT lov_flag. 'Y'. ± Body contains only initialization section. PACKAGE BODY sessinit IS /* No declared package elements at all! */ BEGIN /* Get user preferences for this user. END sessinit.tst this user. show_toolbar CHAR(1). EXCEPTION WHEN NO_DATA_FOUND THEN /* No record for show_lov := show_toolbar := printer := PACKAGE sessinit IS show_lov CHAR(1). Section  An unusual package! ± Specification contains only variables.. printer VARCHAR2(60). init. 'No profile for ' || USER).Configure Session with Init. WHEN OTHERS THEN RAISE_APPLICATION_ERROR (-20000. 'lpt1'.pkg init.

fmts(11) := 'YYYYMMDD'. datemgr.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Initialization section populates a PL/SQL table. fmts(10) := 'MMDDYYYY'. ± This increases the flexibility of the date conversion process. fmts(12) := 'RRMMDD'.pkg dates.page 10 . ± The datemgr.. BEGIN fmts(1) := 'DD-MON-RR'. fmt_count := 12. END dt.Populate Collections  The PL/Vision Date package. employs several PL/SQL tables to convert strings and to perform date arithmetic. .. fmts(4) := 'MM/DD'.pkg file demonstrates the basic technique (and the reliance on an initialization section) used to achieve this flexibility. PLVdate. fmts(9) := 'MM/DD/YYYY'. fmts(3) := 'DD-MON'. fmts(2) := 'DD-MON-YYYY'.

page 11 . ± You can overload modules in any declaration section and in packages. myproc myproc 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . myproc  Overloading is a critical feature when building comprehensive programmatic interfaces (APIs) or components using packages. you give two or more programs the same name. ± Overloading transfers the "need to know" from the user to the overloaded program. ± If you want others to use your code. you need to make that code as smart and as easy to use as possible.Program Overloading  When you overload programs.

Without overloading.page 12 . number_string := TO_CHAR_FROM_NUMBER (10000). 'MMDDYY'). ± But Oracle couldn't offer that level of convenience without overloading.Overloading in PL/SQL Built-ins  PL/SQL uses overloading in many common functions. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . you would have to deal with something like this: date_string := TO_CHAR_FROM_DATE (SYSDATE. and took functions like TO_CHAR and TO_DATE totally for granted. number_string := TO_CHAR (10000). 'MMDDYY'). ± You just probably never gave it a thought. date_string := TO_CHAR (SYSDATE.

page 13 . When you compile programs that use the overloaded code.  Undistinguishing characteristics: ± Functions differ only in their RETURN datatype. order or datatype family (CHAR vs. IN OUT).  Distinguishing characteristics: ± The formal parameters of overloaded modules must differ in number. OUT. There are two different "compile times": ± 1. ± Their formal parameters differ only in datatype and the datatypes are in the same family. When you compile the package or block containing the overloaded code. ± 2. ± Arguments differ only in their mode (IN. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . the compiler must be able to distinguish between the two calls at compile-time.How Overloading Works  For two or more modules to be overloaded. VARCHAR2 is not different enough). ± The programs are of different types: procedure and function.

PACKAGE only_returns IS FUNCTION func1 (val IN VARCHAR2) RETURN DATE. END only_returns.page 14 . Parameter data types cause conflict. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END param_modes. FUNCTION func1 (val IN VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2. PACKAGE param_modes IS PROCEDURE proc1 (val IN VARCHAR2). which one? too_similar.func1 (v_value)). END too_many_cals.Examples of Invalid Overloadings PACKAGE too_similar IS PROCEDURE calc (reg_in IN CHAR).PUT_LINE (only_returns.proc1 (v_value). PROCEDURE proc1 (val IN OUT VARCHAR2). PROCEDURE calc (reg_in IN VARCHAR2). which one? param_modes. Only difference is function RETURN type. which one? DBMS_OUTPUT. Only difference is parameter mode.calc ('123').

Overload Wherever Possible  Supporting Many Data Combinations ± Apply the same action to different kinds or combinations of data. not Value ± A less common application of overloading. In this case.page 15 . so much as providing different ways of requesting the same activity. the overloading does not provide a single name for different activities.PUT_LINE procedure illustrates this technique -and the PL/Vision p. ± The DBMS_OUTPUT. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .l substitute does an even better job.  Fitting the Program to the User ± To make your code as useful as possible. you may construct different versions of the ³same´ program which correspond to different patterns of use.  Overloading by Type. You use the type of data and not its value to determine which of the overloaded programs should be executed.

A "Classic" Overloaded Package  Many different datatype combinations. PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2. YYYY . allowing the user to pass data to the "display engine" without writing "pre-processing" code. PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2).sps p. number_in IN NUMBER). PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2. PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2. mask_in IN VARCHAR2 := µMonth DD.spb PROCEDURE l (boolean_in IN BOOLEAN).HH:MI:SS PM'). END p. YYYY . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . PROCEDURE l (number_in IN NUMBER). p.page 16 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . date_in IN DATE. boolean_in IN BOOLEAN).HH:MI:SS PM'). PACKAGE p IS PROCEDURE l (date_in IN DATE. mask_in IN VARCHAR2 := 'Month DD.

DBMS_OUTPUT. END IF. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein ‡Extended overloadings are more likely to meet user needs. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .l ('So what is different?'). p.l (SQLERRM. DBMS_OUTPUT. p. p. ELSE DBMS_OUTPUT. p..PUT_LINE ('FALSE').PUT_LINE (TO_CHAR (SYSDATE..l (SYSDATE). SQLCODE).PUT_LINE ('TRUE').l (print_report_fl). 'MM/DD/YY HH:MI:SS')).Advantage of Extended Overloading ‡ Minimal overloading means lots of extra coding. DBMS_OUTPUT. IF print_report_fl THEN DBMS_OUTPUT.page 17 .PUT_LINE ('So what is different?').PUT_LINE (SQLERRM || ': ' || TO_CHAR (SQLCODE)).

and taken completely for granted. appreciated. In my experience. ± If you want to write software that is admired. few developers are considerate enough of their users to try to anticipate their needs.page 18   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . can be applied or needed under very different circumstances.Fitting the Program to the User Writing "unnecessary" code? Time to overload!  A single piece of functionality. think about the way it will be used... ± Your code is a a more natural "fit" under a variety of requirements. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . such as "display data" or "create a file". If you take these different circumstances into account when you design your package specification. the user of your package can benefit from writing less code.

page 19  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .FOPEN ('tmp/flags'. even though you are simply going to close the file immediately after opening it. 'blah').Creating a File for a Quick Touch  Suppose a developer needs to create a file to be used as a "flag" in the operating system. END. 'exists. It just needs to be present. BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE. ± Here is the code required by UTL_FILE: DECLARE fid UTL_FILE. 'W'). right? WRONG! PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Of course.FILE_TYPE.PUT_LINE (fid. you have to declare the record to hold the file handle. UTL_FILE. sometimes you will want to create a file and then perform additional operations. UTL_FILE.  In other words. ± She doesn't care what's in it.FCLOSE (fid). so this is just the way it has to be.flg'.

FILE_TYPE.flg'). TO_CHAR (SYSDATE)). v_user).fcreate ('temp. Use as Procedure BEGIN PLVfile. END PLVfile.ini'. BEGIN fid := PLVfile. custrules. line_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) RETURN UTL_FILE.  Overloading of FCreate PACKAGE PLVfile IS /* Procedure */ PROCEDURE fcreate (file_in IN VARCHAR2.put_line (fid.fcreate ('exists. line_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL).FILE_TYPE.pkg PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Use as Function DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.page 20 . PLVfile. /* Function */ FUNCTION fcreate (file_in IN VARCHAR2.Procedure and Function Overloaded  Why not overload a "create file" program so that you can pick the one that most closely fits your situation? Consider the PLVfile package of PL/Vision.

 There are three ways to accomplish this: ± Don't overload. when you use DBMS_SQL to set up a dynamic query. but the type of data.page 21 . you must call the DEFINE_COLUMN procedure to define the datatype of the Nth column in the cursor. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± For example. the user does not need to pass data. Define a different program name for each datatype. ± Pass a piece of data of the right type. ± Pass a string ³name´ of the datatype."By-Type" Overloading  In some situations.

1..DEFINE_VARCHAR2_COLUMN (cur. 2..DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. 'STRING'.. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. Pass a named constant.page 22 .. 1). 'NUMBER').  So many program names to remember! Pass a literal value..Options for Specifying Column Type  Don't even bother overloading... DBMS_SQL..VARCHAR2_TYPE.  Nasty hard-coding..NUMBER_TYPE).. 1. 2. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. 30).. 30). 30). BEGIN DBMS_SQL. lotsa names. Lotsa typing.DEFINE_COLUMN ± PLVgen.func 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.DEFINE_INTEGER_COLUMN (cur. DBMS_SQL. 2.. ± DBMS_SQL.  Now let's look at two examples of overloading by datatype. DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.

of the correct type. 2. DBMS_UTILITY.GET_TIME).Defining Dynamic SQL Columns  The DBMS_SQL. 1. 'a'.any value -.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN. v_empno). DBMS_SQL. v_ename. ± The three code blocks below are equivalent.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 2. 30). DBMS_SQL. ± To make it easier to accomplish this task. 1.DEFINE_COLUMN procedure defines the datatype of a column.page 23 . USER. 30). 1). BEGIN DBMS_SQL. from the perspective of DBMS_SQL. you only need to pass a value -. 2. 1. 30).

type_in IN DATE).func ('last_date'. any date. PROCEDURE func (name_in IN VARCHAR2. ± The particular value itself is of no importance. any string. any Boolean will do. please! A number function.page 24 . please! 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . the user indicates the type of function to be generated by providing a value.func ('total_salary'. SYSDATE) SQL> exec plvgen. SQL> exec plvgen. 1) A date function. type_in IN VARCHAR2). Any number. type_in IN NUMBER). PACKAGE PLVgen IS PROCEDURE func (name_in IN VARCHAR2.Generating Functions by Value  In PLVgen. PROCEDURE func (name_in IN VARCHAR2.

PACKAGE profits IS PROCEDURE calc (comp_id_IN IN NUMBER). END. PL/SQL does not sense a conflict with above overloading even though comp_id is a numeric column. I rely on an anchored type (%TYPE) to establish the datatype of the second calc¶s parameter.page 25 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . ± When I compile profits.comp_id%TYPE). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  In the above example. but you might later found out that you cannot actually call any of the overloaded programs. PROCEDURE calc (comp_id_IN IN company.The Frustrations of Overloading  Watch out! An overloading can compile successfully.

calc_total ('NORTHWEST'). sales.calc_total ('ZONE2'). how would you do it? (Don't peek at the next page!) BEGIN sales. sales.page 26 . like calc_totals shown above? ± If not. why not? ± If so.  Can I overload two programs which have parameters that differ only by name. END. END sales.Quiz! Nuances of Overloading PACKAGE sales IS PROCEDURE calc_total (zone_in IN VARCHAR2). PROCEDURE calc_total (reg_in IN VARCHAR2).pkg ? 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

''LOAD1''. of named notation include: ± Code is more "self-documenting". That way you don't have to know and pass default values. ± You can skip over (not specify values for) any IN parameters that have default values.estimate_percent=>50).sql  Advantages 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . interval => 'TRUNC(SYSDATE+1)'). next_date => TRUNC (SYSDATE + 1). what => 'DBMS_DDL. This is especially useful when working with infrequently used built-in programs.Using Named Notation <formal parameter name> => <expression>  Explicit association between the formal parameter (the "name") with the actual parameter (the "value").null.page 27 .''ESTIMATE''.ANALYZE_OBJECT ' || '(''TABLE''.submit ( job => v_jobno. namednot.''TENK''' || '. DBMS_JOB.'.

Achieving PL/SQL Excellence PL/SQL Collections   Collections are single-dimensioned lists of information. Three types of collections: ± Index-by tables (Oracle7 only. Oracle8 and above) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 28 . originally called PL/SQL tables) ± Nested tables (Oracle8 and above) ± Variable arrays (VARRAYs.

Avoid mutating table errors in database triggers. Improve query performance by avoiding joins. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .When to Use Collections  Maintain any kind of list of related information for use in your programs.page 29     1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . Build hash tables (custom indexing structures). which are otherwise not supported in PL/SQL Cache data in session-level memory for faster access.  Emulate bi-directional cursors.

Valid row numbers range: -2.647 to 2. ± Available only in PL/SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Sparse » Data does not have to be stored in consecutive rows of information.  Characteristics of an index-by table: ± Unbounded » Practically speaking.page 30 . emp_copy inmem_emp_t.147.647 » You will not actually create tables this large.Index-By Tables TYPE <table_type> IS TABLE OF <datatype> INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. this broad range allows you to employ the row number as an intelligent key. DECLARE TYPE inmem_emp_t IS TABLE OF emp%ROWTYPE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER.147. ± Homogeneous » Data in each row has the same structure.483. Instead.483.

Error: NO_DATA_FOUND 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . children 6306 6412 6810 6904 µBarbara Anne¶ µGary Richard¶ µAdam Russell¶ µLisa Nadezhka¶ datemgr.pkg children 6306 6412 6904 µBarbara Anne¶ µGary Richard¶ µLisa Marie¶ children (6810) := µAdam Russell.Index_by Tables TYPE declaration PACKAGE BODY family IS TYPE child_list_type IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2 (30) INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. children (6904) := 'Lisa Nadezhka'. Variable declaration children child_list_type.page 31 . Component Selection kid := children (4).

DECLARE TYPE when_t IS TABLE OF DATE. but can become sparse if you DELETE inner rows ± Available both in PL/SQL and SQL (as a column in a table) ± The order of elements is not preserved in the database 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .483. birthdays when_t.  Nested table characteristics ± Homogeneous » Each row contains the same structure of data.page 32 .147. but only with explicit EXTEND requests » Practically speaking. Valid row numbers range: 1 to 2.Nested Tables [CREATE OR REPLACE] TYPE <table_type> IS TABLE OF <datatype> [NOT NULL]. ± Unbounded.647 ± Initially dense.

CREATE TABLE db_family (surname VARCHAR2 (30).sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 33 . For ORACLE's use only db_family surname kids BOLZ BOND Eric Thomas Max Richard Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Marie ntdemo. kids child_table_type) NESTED TABLE kids STORE AS kids_ntab.Nested Tables CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE child_table_type IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2 (30).

± Variable arrays are actually stored in the DB table 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . salaries numbers_t. ± Bounded » Upper limit established when the TYPE is defined. Maximum value: 2. can be EXTENDed or TRIMmed.  Characteristics of variable arrays: ± Homogeneous » Each row contains the same structure of data. DECLARE TYPE numbers_t IS VARRAY (10) OF NUMBER. ± Available both in PL/SQL and SQL (as a column in a table) » And the order of elements are preserved in the database.147.Variable Arrays [CREATE OR REPLACE] TYPE <table_type> IS VARRAY (N) OF <datatype> [NOT NULL].647 ± Dense » Never any gaps between defined rows.page 34 .483.

sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . CREATE TABLE db_family (surname VARCHAR2 (30). kids child_va_type).Variable Arrays CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE child_va_type IS VARRAY (8) OF VARCHAR2 (30). db_family surname kids BOLZ BOND 1 Barbara Anne 2 Gary Richard 3 Lisa Marie 1 Eric Thomas 2 Max Richard vademo.page 35 .

. you can define the TYPE in the database with a CREATE statement. you define the TYPE of the collection. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Defining Collections  First.. ± For nested tables and VARRAYs.. a collection. ± For index-by tables.page 36 .  Then you declare an instance of that type. END tabtypes. this can only occur in a PL/SQL declaration section. from the TYPE. Best option: package specification. ± You can declare multiple collections from that TYPE. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE tabtypes IS TYPE integer_ibt IS TABLE OF INTEGER INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. or in a PL/SQL declaration section. TYPE integer_nt IS TABLE OF INTEGER. TYPE integer_vat IS VARRAY(10) OF INTEGER.

colldd.attr_type_name Attributes all_coll_types T.owner = A.elem_type_name = A.Obtaining Collection Information SELECT FROM WHERE AND AND AND A. 'TMRS_VT') T.type_name IN ('NAMES_VT'.type_name.' || A.attr_name || ' .owner T.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 37 .  ALL_COLL_TYPES ± The types you have created (or have access to) in the database  ALL_TYPE_ATTRS ± Attributes of the data type used in the TYPE definition. all_type_attrs A T. ± The code used to define the collection TYPE  There is no information in the data dictionary available for index-by tables.owner = USER T.

BEGIN CREATE TABLE employee_denorm ( employee_id INTEGER. 200.Initialize the collection. 300). salaries numbers_t := numbers_t (100.page 38 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . TYPE defined in PL/SQL TYPE defined in the database Collection used in a table PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . empty when declared. ± Index-by tables are initialized automatically. salaries numbers_t := numbers_t (100. DECLARE TYPE numbers_t IS VARRAY (10) OF NUMBER. / DECLARE -. ± Nested tables and VARRAYs are atomically null. 200. You must initialize them explicitly with a constructor.Initializing Collections  Before you can use a collection. it must be initialized. BEGIN CREATE TYPE numbers_t IS VARRAY (10) OF NUMBER. salary_history numbers_t). 300).

total_rev NUMBER). TYPE comp_tabtype IS TABLE OF comp_rectype INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. the datatype for any of the collection types can also be an object.comp_id := 1005. comp_tab comp_tabtype. Again. ± Can easily create an index-by table with the same structure as a database table by declaring a record with %ROWTYPE. the ³homogeneous´ contents of an index-by table's row can be a record . Here we have a three step process.Collections of Composites  Starting with Oracle 7.3. ± But you cannot have nested composite datatypes.  Starting with Oracle8. DECLARE TYPE comp_rectype IS RECORD (comp_id company. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 39 . BEGIN comp_tab(1).company_id%TYPE. consider putting TYPEs in database or packages.

etc. your collections will contain a row's worth of information. a row exists in the table only when a value is assigned to that row.Sparse is Nice  The sparse characteristic of index-by tables and nested tables can be put to good use. unless the order in which items are selected is of importance.  Rows do not have to be defined sequentially. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Especially handy when caching data from relational tables in user memory. In this way. ± In an index-by table. ± You should not fill sequentially. order by date. consider using the row value as "smart data" for your application (primary key.page 40 .). it is very similar to a database table. ± In almost every case. ± Instead.

END LOOP.Transferring DB Table to Collection CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE psemp IS TYPE emp_tabtype IS TABLE OF emp%ROWTYPE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER.pkg psemp. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY psemp IS BEGIN FOR rec IN (SELECT * FROM emp) LOOP emp_tab (rec. END.page 41 . Initialization section of package 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein  This package moves the entire contents of the emp table into its corresponding collection. emp_tab emp_tabtype. END.empno) := rec. Some questions: ± Why would I put this collection table in a package? ± When is the collection loaded with the data? ± What rows in that collection are utilized? psemp.tst  PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

once extended. / Error -6533! You've got to EXTEND first!  EXTEND before assigning a value to a row. even if you haven't assigned a value explicitly.  For index-by tables. / DECLARE greedy_ceos names_t := names_t ().page 42 . END. you must reference existing rows or a NO_DATA_FOUND exception is raised.Collection Gotchas CREATE TYPE names_t IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2(30). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Jordan'. the row exists. ± Not necessary for index-by tables. ± For VARRAYs and nested tables. but you must do it for VARRAYs and nested tables. ± Use the EXISTS method to determine if a row existed. BEGIN greedy_ceos(1) := 'Hamilton.

salaries.page 43 . END IF. ± Assign a default value with a second.'). -. salaries(salaries.EXISTS (v_employee_id) THEN -.  You can EXTEND one or more rows.FIRST)).PUT_LINE ('Data for employee not available.EXTEND (10.Set the value of each new row to the contents of the first row.Extend by 10 since I know I will need that many.We are OK. optional argument.tst  Include a handler for NO_DATA_FOUND or use the EXISTS method to avoid these exceptions. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . BEGIN IF salaries. ± Pre-extending a large number of rows in advance can improve performance.Handling Collection Gotchas BEGIN -. ELSE DBMS_OUTPUT. preextend.

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . FIRST/LAST return lowest/highest numbers of defined rows. number of elements allowed in a VARRAY. ± EXTEND adds rows to a nested table or VARRAY. ± TRIM removes rows from a VARRAY. ± ± ± ±  Modify the contents of the collection ± DELETE deletes one or more rows from the index-by table. NEXT/PRIOR return the closest defined row after/before the specified row.page 44 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .  The built-in package plitblm (PL/sql Index-TaBLe Methods) defines these methods. EXISTS returns TRUE if the specified row is defined. ± LIMIT tells you the max.Collection Methods  Obtain information about the collection COUNT returns number of rows currently defined in the table.

LAST).Delete one (the last) row myCollection.Delete a range of rows myCollection.FREE_UNUSED_USER_MEMORY. -. -.DELETE (myCollection.DELETE.DELETE (1400. DELETE releases memory.Delete all rows myCollection.The DELETE Method  You can delete one or more rows from a collection using DELETE: BEGIN -.page 45 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END. 17255). but you may also want to call DBMS_SESSION.

Navigating Through Collections 


Use FIRST and NEXT to move from beginning to end. Use LAST and PRIOR to move from end to beginning.
rowind PLS_INTEGER := birthdays.FIRST; -- birthdays.LAST BEGIN LOOP EXIT WHEN rowind IS NULL; DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE (birthdays(rowind).best_present); rowind := birthdays.NEXT (rowind); -- birthdays.PRIOR END LOOP; END;

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Using Collections Inside SQL 

Nested tables and VARRAYs can be defined as columns of a table and referenced directly within SQL. You can also apply SQL operations to the contents of nested tables and VARRAYs with these operators:
± THE - Maps a single column value in a single row to a virtual database table ± CAST - Maps a collection of one type to a collection of another type ± MULTISET - Maps a database table to a collection ± TABLE - Maps a collection to a database table  

Index-by tables are programmatic constructs only.
± You cannot make a direct reference to an index-by table in SQL. ± Instead, so do indirectly with a PL/SQL function.

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Using Collections inside SQL
SELECT column_value FROM TABLE (SELECT children FROM db_family WHERE surname = 'BOLZ'); db_family surname children BOLZ BOND Eric Thomas Max Richard UPDATE TABLE (SELECT children FROM db_family WHERE SURNAME = 'BOLZ) SET column_value = 'Lisa Nadezhka' WHERE column_value = 'Lisa Marie'); db_family surname children BOLZ ...
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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 48

Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Marie

column_value Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Marie

Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Nadezhka

Using the THE Operator 

Use THE to manipulate (retrieve, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE) contents of a nested table in a database table.
± Can only use with nested tables, not VARRAYs or index-by tables. ± Only accessible from within SQL statements in PL/SQL.
CREATE TYPE action_list_t IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2(100); / CREATE TABLE inflation_beater ( focus_area VARCHAR2(100), activities action_list_t) NESTED TABLE activities STORE AS activities_tab; SELECT VALUE (act) FROM THE (SELECT activities FROM inflation_beater WHERE focus_area = 'FORTUNE 100') act; UPDATE THE (SELECT activities FROM inflation_beater WHERE focus_area = 'FORTUNE 100') SET COLUMN_VALUE = 'DISBAND OSHA' WHERE COLUMN_VALUE = 'SIDESTEP OSHA';

the.sql

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Using the TABLE and CAST Operators 

Use CAST to convert a collection from one type to another, TABLE to convert a TYPE into a database table.
± Cannot use with index-by tables. ± Useful when you would like to apply SQL operations against a PL/SQL collection (ie, one not stored in a database table).
DECLARE nyc_devolution cutbacks_for_taxcuts := cutbacks_for_taxcuts ('Stop rat extermination programs', 'Fire building inspectors', 'Close public hospitals'); BEGIN DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE ( 'How to Make the NYC Rich Much, Much Richer:'); FOR rec IN (SELECT COLUMN_VALUE ohmy FROM TABLE (CAST (nyc_devolution AS cutbacks_for_taxcuts))) LOOP DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE (rec.ohmy); END LOOP; cast.sql END;

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country FROM bird_habitats bh WHERE bh. END.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . multiset.species. information for the BEGIN master in one trip.species) AS country_tab_t) FROM birds b.page 51 .genus. with potential client-server performance impact. ± You can use MULTISET to emulate or transform relational joins into collections. view. DECLARE CURSOR bird_curs IS SELECT b.genus AND bh. query) into a VARRAY or nested table. Retrieves all detail bird_row bird_curs%ROWTYPE.genus = b.Using the MULTISET Operator  MULTISET is the inverse of TABLE. b. OPEN bird_curs. FETCH bird_curs into bird_row. converting a set of data (table.species = b. CAST(MULTISET(SELECT bh. ± Cannot use with index-by tables.

but hide the index-by table structure. hiredates date_tab. WNDS). PRAGMA RESTRICT_REFERENCES (rowval.page 52 . END. call functions that retrieve the table's data. END. WNPS. FUNCTION rowval (indx IN PLS_INTEGER) RETURN DATE IS BEGIN RETURN hiredates (indx).sql PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE ibtab IS FUNCTION rowval (indx IN PLS_INTEGER) RETURN DATE. END. Make accessible in SQL for Oracle8 and below. Instead. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein ibtab_in_sql. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY ibtab IS TYPE date_tab IS TABLE OF DATE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER.Referencing IB Tables inside SQL  You can't directly reference an index-by table's contents inside SQL.

 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Examples of Collections in Action  Emulation of bi-directional cursor operations Avoid mutating table problems in database triggers.page 53 .

PROCEDURE nextRow.nope. PROCEDURE prevRow. Notice that the collection itself is hidden.pkg bidir. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE bidir IS /* Iterate through rows in the result set */ PROCEDURE setRow (nth IN PLS_INTEGER). didn't make it!  Instead. END. ± A talked-about feature for Oracle9i -.  bidir.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Bi-Directional Cursor Emulation  Oracle does not yet support the ability to move back and forth (and at random) through a cursor's result set. This is particularly useful (read: efficient) when you need to perform multiple passes against the data. deposit your data in a collection and then provide programs to access that data in the necessary fashion. FUNCTION getRow RETURN employee_plus%ROWTYPE.page 54 .

page 55 . Statement Level UPDATE emp SET sal = 1000 UPDATE row 1 Row Level  UPDATE row N Row level triggers cannot query from or change the contents of the table to which it is attached. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . it is "mutating".The Mutating Table Problem  Database triggers can be attached to the SQL statement and/or the individual row operations on a table. you can use autonomous transactions to relax restrictions associated with queries. So what are you supposed to do when a row-level operation needs to "touch" that table? mutating.sql  Note: in Oracle8i.

± an index-by table is an ideal repository for this reminder list. Statement Trigger 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . If you are going to defer the work.page 56 .A Solution Based on Index-by Tables  Since you cannot perform the processing desired in the row-level trigger. 1st row trigger fires Nth row trigger fires Writes to list Writes to list Work List (PL/SQL Table)  Process data in the list. you have to remember what you needed to do. you need to defer the action until you get to the statement level.

88 144533. ± We might update more than one department within a statement so we must be able to retain multiple department numbers. ± By storing the salesperson¶s department ids as they change. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . we then know which departments to re-rank.25 3 1 2 6 "Deferred work" is not only necessary.25 65011. Department ID Salesperson ID Sales Amount Rank 1055 1055 1055 1047  64333 65709 65706 70904 74055. but preferable.91 109000.An Example: Ranking Salespeople  A table holds the rankings based on the amount of annual sales of salespeople within a department. ± As the sales amount is updated in this table.page 57 . the rankings must also change to show the new standings for that department only.

sales_amt != NEW.Trigger Logic Required Row Level Trigger CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER Rank_Sales_Rtrg AFTER insert OR update OF sales_amt ON rank_sales FOR EACH ROW WHEN (OLD.page 58 . Doesn't fire unless the sales_amt is actually changed. Statement Level Trigger CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER Rank_Sales_Strg AFTER INSERT OR UPDATE OR DELETE ON rank_sales BEGIN rank.pkg All details of the ranking are hidden in the package body.sales_amt) BEGIN rank. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .add_dept (:new.dept_id). END.rank_depts. END. ranking.

The Ranking Package PACKAGE rank IS PROCEDURE add_dept (dept_id_in IN INTEGER). PACKAGE BODY rank IS in_process BOOLEAN := FALSE. END add_dept 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Create row to indicate department to be ranked.page 59 . Table holds indicator that department needs re-ranking. END rank. END IF. PROCEDURE add_dept (dept_id_in IN INTEGER) IS BEGIN IF NOT in_process THEN dept_tab (dept_id_in) := TRUE. PROCEDURE rank_depts. TYPE dept_tabtype IS TABLE OF BOOLEAN INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. dept_tab dept_tabtype. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Continued PROCEDURE rank_depts IS v_deptid PLS_INTEGER := dept_tab. Clean up for next time.The Ranking Package.DELETE. perform_ranking (v_deptid). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Avoid recursive execution of logic Row number is department number. BEGIN IF NOT in_process THEN in_process := TRUE.FIRST.NEXT (v_deptid). END LOOP. END rank. LOOP EXIT WHEN v_deptid IS NULL. END rank_dept. dept_tab. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 60 . END IF. in_process := FALSE. v_deptid := dept_tab.

 VARRAYs ± ± ± ± You want to preserve the order in which elements are stored. You want to use inside SQL. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 61 . You don't want to have to worry about sparseness. ± You want to use inside SQL.  Nested tables ± You want to store large amounts of persistent data in a column. Set of data is relatively small (avoid row chaining).Which Collection Type Should I Use?  Index-by tables ± Need to use in both Oracle7 and Oracle8 applications ± Want to take advantage of sparse nature for "intelligent keys".

Tips for Using Collections 

Wrap access to your collections.
± In many cases, you will want to avoid direct access to (assigning and retrieving) rows in your collections. ± This will give you the flexibility to change your implementation. ± You can also hide complex rules for setting the row number. 

Get creative!
± Don't always fill and use the index-by table sequentially. ± If you can somehow translate your application data to an integer, it can be used as a row number, and therefore offers indexed access. ± Julian date formats and DBMS_UTILITY.GET_HASH_VALUE offer two different methods.

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Achieving PL/SQL Excellence

Cursor Variables

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 63

Architecture of Cursor Variables
With Hard-Coded Cursors
Hard-Coded Cursor

With Cursor Variables

PGA

Cursor Variable

Cursor Variable

Result Set

Shared Global Area

Cursor Object

Result Set 

A cursor variable points to an underlying cursor object in the database.
± The cursor object in turns points to (and keeps its place in) a result set. 

The cursor variable can be passed between programs (even between, say, a Java servlet and a PL/SQL stored procedure).
± Static SQL only -- until Oracle8i.
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1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

Benefits of Cursor Variables 

Share cursor management between programs, even across the client-server divide.
± You don't have to pass the result sets of a cursor in order to allow the client-side program to have direct access to the data in the result set. ± Oracle Developer 2.1 utilizes cursor variables when you choose to construct a "base table block" around stored procedures instead of a database table. 

Share the same code across multiple, different queries.
± Since the cursor name is no longer hard-coded, you can use a single block of code (say, a reporting program) against different queries. ± We will try out this technique at the end of the section.

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Cursor Variable Example
DECLARE TYPE company_curtype IS REF CURSOR RETURN company%ROWTYPE;
Declare a variable cursor TYPE.

company_curvar company_curtype;

Declare cursor variable based on that type. Declare a record from cursor variable. OPEN cursor variable, specifying the query. FETCH from the cursor variable.

company_rec company_curvar%ROWTYPE; BEGIN OPEN company_curvar FOR SELECT * FROM company;

FETCH company_curvar INTO company_rec;
Close the cursor variable.

CLOSE company_curvar; END;
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Explicit Cursors and Cursor Variables 

Both hard-coded cursors and cursor variables work with static SQL.
± The SQL is fixed at compile-time. ± The difference is that with cursor variables, you get to decide which static query is opened. 

Many cursor operations are the same:
± Close a variable cursor with the same syntax as that for static cursors. ± Use cursor attributes (%ISOPEN, %FOUND, %NOTFOUND, %ROWCOUNT) with cursor variables (as of Release 2.3). ± Fetch data from the cursor result set through a cursor variable with the same syntax as that of static cursors. 

Let¶s focus on the new and different capabilities of cursor variables.
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1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

Declaring Cursor Types and Variables 

Cursors are declared in two steps, just like programmerdefined records and PL/SQL tables.
± 1. Define a cursor TYPE -- either "weak" or "strong". ± 2. Define a cursor variable.
DECLARE TYPE weak_curtype IS REF CURSOR; TYPE comp_curtype IS REF CURSOR RETURN company%ROWTYPE; curcmp_new comp_curtype; cur_any weak_curtype; BEGIN
Declare cursor variables from the TYPEs. Declare a STRONG referenced cursor TYPE. Declare a WEAK referenced cursor TYPE.

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Strong vs. Weak Cursor Types 

A strong (or constrained) cursor type has a defined return data specification.
± Can only reference cursor objects which return the same data specification, which can be any single SQL datatype or any previously defined record structure. ± Datatype mismatches are identified at compile time.

TYPE cur_typ_name IS REF CURSOR [ RETURN return_type ]; TYPE cur_typ_name IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE; /* Strong */ 

The weak (or unconstrained) cursor type does not have a RETURN clause.
± It can reference any cursor object, be opened FOR any query. ± Datatype mismatches can only be identified at runtime.

TYPE cur_typ_name IS REF CURSOR; /* Weak */
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Opening with the Cursor Variable
OPEN cursor_name FOR select_statement; 

When you open a cursor variable (whether of the weak or strong variety), you must provide the SQL query that identifies the result set.
± If the variable has not yet been assigned to cursor object, the OPEN FOR statement implicitly creates an object for the variable. ± If the variable is already pointing to a cursor object, the OPEN FOR reuses the existing object and attaches the new query to that cursor object. 

Remember, the cursor object is nothing more than a memory location.
± It is maintained independently of the query itself.
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..Opening with Strong Cursor Types DECLARE TYPE emp_curtype IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE. . emp_curvar emp_curtype.page 71 . END.  STRONG cursor data specifications must match or be compatible with the structure of the SELECT statement. Match Needed BEGIN OPEN emp_curvar FOR SELECT * from emp. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± You can establish the return type based on a database table. a cursor or a programmer-defined record.

END.page 72 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . RETURN retval. FUNCTION open_emp_or_dept (get_type_in IN VARCHAR2) RETURN pkg. THEN OPEN retval FOR SELECT * FROM dept. END. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .cv_type. you can associate any SELECT statement with a weak cursor variable. REF TYPE placed in package so that it is "globally" available.cv_type IS retval pkg. OPEN retval FOR SELECT * FROM emp.  A weak cursor TYPE doesn't define the RETURN structure. BEGIN IF get_type_in = µEMP¶ THEN Either query will "do".Opening with Weak Cursor Types PACKAGE pkg IS TYPE cv_type IS REF CURSOR. END IF. Verification will take ELSIF get_type_in = µDEPT¶ place at the FETCH.

. FETCH cursor_var_name INTO var_name. ± The ROWTYPE_MISMATCH exception is raised on failure.. ± Fetching can continue with a different INTO clause.. The INTO structure must match in number and datatype to: ± FOR STRONG cursor types. it match the cursor type data specification. var_name. .Fetching from the Cursor Variable FETCH cursor_var_name INTO record_name.   Compatibility checks are performed prior to fetching row. mismatch. it match the OPEN FOR statement structure.page 73 .  Fetching with cursor variables follows the same rules as those with static cursors.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± FOR WEAK cursor types.

When to Use Cursor Variables  Make it easier for calling programs (especially non-PL/SQL programs) to manipulate result sets.  Define a base table block in Forms Builder (formerly Oracle Forms) on stored procedures rather than a table directly.page 74 . ± JDBC recognizes cursor variables.  hccursor. but static cursors are more efficient than dynamic SQL and cursor variables are less complicated than DBMS_SQL. Use a single block of code to manipulate multiple queries. ± With explicit cursors.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . since cursor names are "hard coded". ± You could use dynamic SQL to achieve this effect. you have to repeat the code for each cursor.

pkg allcurs.Consolidating Different Cursors  The following package specification hides the SQL behind a single open function.page 75 . bysal CONSTANT INTEGER := 2. FUNCTION open (type_in IN INTEGER) RETURN cv_t.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . TYPE int_rt IS RECORD (key INTEGER).tst explcv. ± It also creates the data structures you will need to call the function. / allcurrs. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE allcurs IS bydept CONSTANT INTEGER := 1. END. TYPE cv_t IS REF CURSOR RETURN int_rt.

END. ELSIF type_in = bysal THEN OPEN retval FOR SELECT empno FROM emp ORDER BY SAL. END IF. RETURN retval. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY allcurs IS FUNCTION open (type_in IN INTEGER) RETURN cv_t IS retval cv_t.page 76 . END.Consolidating Different Cursors  The open function simply opens FOR a different SELECT based on the criteria passed to it. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . BEGIN IF type_in = bydept THEN OPEN retval FOR SELECT empno FROM emp ORDER BY deptno.

page 77 "Report processor" is independent of the particular SELECT . p.empno%TYPE.l (v_empno).open (&1).Hiding SQL Variations in Resulting Code  The following block demonstrates that you can alter which SQL statement to query -. BEGIN cv := allcurs. END. CLOSE cv. v_empno emp. change the ORDER BY clause -without having to change the code you write.in this case.cv_t. EXIT WHEN cv%NOTFOUND. DECLARE cv allcurs. LOOP FETCH cv INTO v_empno. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END LOOP.

Cursor Variables Let's summarize  Flexibility ± Choose which static SQL statement is executed at run-time.  Improve Client-Side Access to Data ± At least in Oracle Developer 2.1. unconstrained type. or a more general.page 78 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . you can build screens that access data using a cursor variable-based procedural API.  Hide Variations in Underlying SQL ± You no longer have to repeat the same code for different cursors.  Strong and Weak Types ± Create REF CURSORs for specific queries.

Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Dynamic SQL  Dynamic SQL and dynamic PL/SQL: ± The DBMS_SQL package ± Native dynamic SQL in Oracle8i 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 79 .

you no longer have to write SQL to generate SQL to get your job done. ± Also supported with "native dynamic SQL" in Oracle8i.  Execute dynamically-constructed PL/SQL programs.  Execute DDL inside PL/SQL programs.page 80 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . ± Construct powerful DBA utilities. ± Available in PL/SQL since Release 2. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Very common requirement on the Web.Dynamic SQL and PL/SQL Execution  "Dynamic SQL" mean that you construct the SQL statement or PL/SQL block at runtime and then execute it. ± One example: implement indirect referencing in PL/SQL. What can you do with Dynamic SQL?  Build ad-hoc query and update applications.1 and DBMS_SQL.

executed a single time. These methods are in increasing order of complexity.page 81 . execute one or more times. Method 2: non-queries with a fixed number of host variables. If you can recognize the types.Four Methods of Dynamic SQL   Method 1: non-queries without host variables.    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Method 3: queries with a fixed number of items in the SELECT list and a fixed number of host variables. ± Different methods require the use of different programs in DBMS_SQL. Method 4: queries with a variable number of items in the SELECT list and/or non-queries with a variable number of host variables. ± NDS does not support method 4. you can more quickly figure out how to code your solution.

 The new "native dynamic SQL" or NDS of Oracle8i offers two native statements in the PL/SQL language to implement most of your dynamic SQL requirements: ± EXECUTE IMMEDIATE <sql string>. used for DDL. you would use the DBMS_SQL built-in package to execute dynamic SQL. ± OPEN FOR <sql string>. ± But this package is very complex.page 82 . DML and single row fetches. and relatively slow (performance did improve significantly as of Oracle8).Native Dynamic SQL  Prior to Oracle8i. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . used for multi-row queries. difficult to use.

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .EXECUTE IMMEDIATE EXECUTE IMMEDIATE sql-string [INTO {define_variable[.... | record }] [USING {IN | OUT | IN OUT] bind argument [. {IN | OUT | IN OUT] bind argument]. define_variables].]. The INTO clause allows you to pass values from the select list of a single row query into local variables. collections and records. including objects.page 83   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .  Use this statement to execute any dynamic SQL statement (including a PL/SQL block) except for multi-row queries.. The USING clause allows you to specify bind arguments or variables to be passed into the SQL string before execution.

whr IN VARCHAR2 := NULL.page 84 .PUT_LINE ( 'Not the best health care system in the world.000 THEN DBMS_OUTPUT..sf compare with: tabcount. 'insured = ''NO''') > 40.COUNT(*) For Any Table  Here's a handy and simple utility based on NDS: CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION tabCount ( tab IN VARCHAR2. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein tabcount81.sf PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . sch IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) RETURN INTEGER IS Specify schema. '1=1') INTO retval. IF tabCount ('citizens'. WHERE clause.000. END. USER) || '. RETURN retval. and not much of a democracy either!'). END IF....' || tab || ' WHERE ' || NVL (whr. BEGIN EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'SELECT COUNT(*) FROM ' || NVL (sch. table and retval INTEGER.

PROCEDURE runprog (pkg_in IN VARCHAR2. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .. end_in IN DATE.page 85 . END. col_in IN VARCHAR2.Other Execute Immediate Examples  Perform an update..'. start_in IN DATE.' || name_in || '. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN pl ('Compile Error "' || SQLERRM || '" on: ' || v_str). val_in IN NUMBER) IS BEGIN EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'UPDATE ' || tab_in || ' SET ' || col_in || ' = :val WHERE hiredate BETWEEN :lodate AND :hidate' USING val_in. end_in. BEGIN v_str := 'BEGIN ' || pkg_in || '. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE updnumval ( tab_in IN VARCHAR2. EXECUTE IMMEDIATE v_str.. name_in IN VARCHAR2) IS v_str VARCHAR2 (100). END.. Pass in bind variables with USING clause. END. start_in.  Execute a stored procedure.

Using Objects and Collections in NDS  One of the key advantages to NDS over DBMS_SQL is that it works with Oracle8 datatypes. pers IN Person.. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein health$.pkg PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .. cond. ± In the following example.page 86 . the USING clause allows me to pass an object and nested table to an INSERT statement with a variable table name. END. PROCEDURE add_profit_source ( hosp_name IN VARCHAR2. including objects and collections. cond IN preexisting_conditions) IS BEGIN EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'INSERT INTO ' || tabname (hosp_name) || ' VALUES (:revenue_generator. ± No special syntax needed. :revenue_inhibitors)' USING pers.

cv cv_type. ± Here is a simple utility the displays the values of any date. val VARCHAR2(32767). ndsutil. whr IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) IS TYPE cv_type IS REF CURSOR. BEGIN OPEN cv FOR 'SELECT ' || col || ' FROM ' || tab || ' WHERE ' || NVL (whr. col IN VARCHAR2. LOOP Familiar cursor FETCH cv INTO val.sp END. CLOSE cv. END LOOP.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Multiple Row Queries and NDS  Oracle extends the cursor variable feature of Oracle7 to support multi-row dynamic queries. showcol.PUT_LINE (val). DBMS_OUTPUT. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE showcol ( tab IN VARCHAR2. '1 = 1'). number or string column in any table. variable syntax! EXIT WHEN cv%NOTFOUND.page 87 .

provide a value for each distinct placeholder (by name). Instead. pass a variable with a NULL value. then you provide a value for each placeholder (by position). etc. column names. str2list.pkg    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 88 . You can have duplicate placeholders (for bind arguments).Some Fine Print for NDS  You cannot pass schema elements (table names. ± If dynamic PL/SQL.) through the USING clause. You cannot pass the NULL literal directly in the USING clause. ± If dynamic SQL. The USING clause for a query can only have IN bind arguments.

The overhead for using DBMS_SQL has decreased significantly in Oracle8 and again in Oracle8i.     1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Supports all four methods of dynamic SQL. the only way to perform dynamic SQL was with the DBMS_SQL package. with many rules to follow and lots of code to write. in particular method 4. DBMS_SQL is a very large and complex package. You should only use DBMS_SQL when you cannot use NDS.page 89 .Dynamic SQL using DBMS_SQL  Prior to Oracle8i.

page 90 .Learning Through Examples  DDL ± Create an index from within PL/SQL  DML ± Update rows in a table  DML with binding ± Update rows using bind variables  Queries ± Method 3 and a dynamic WHERE clause  PL/SQL Version of "SELECT *" ± Example of Method 4  PL/SQL ± Create a generic calculation program 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

fdbk := DBMS_SQL. fdbk INTEGER.NATIVE). DBMS_SQL. tab_in IN VARCHAR2. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . DBMS_SQL.sp Creates an index on any column(s) in any table in your schema. DDL_statement. ± Open a cursor. END. col_in IN VARCHAR2) IS cur INTEGER := DBMS_SQL. which will be used to execute the DDL statement.CLOSE_CURSOR (cur). BEGIN DBMS_SQL.OPEN_CURSOR.EXECUTE (cur).  creind.DDL with Dynamic SQL PROCEDURE create_index (index_in IN VARCHAR2.PARSE (cur.page 91 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . DDL_statement VARCHAR2(200) := 'CREATE INDEX ' || index_in || ' ON ' || tab_in || ' ( ' || col_in || ')'. ± Construct the DDL statement as a string. ± Parse and execute that DDL statement.

DBMS_SQL. 'UPDATE emp SET ' || col_in || ' = ' || val_in || ' WHERE ename LIKE UPPER (''' || ename_in || ''')'. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE updnumval ( col_in IN VARCHAR2.CLOSE_CURSOR (cur).EXECUTE (cur).page 92 . ename_in IN emp.Updates with Dynamic SQL  Update numeric column for specified employees. END. DBMS_SQL. updnval1. fdbk PLS_INTEGER. fdbk := DBMS_SQL. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. val_in IN NUMBER) IS cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL.NATIVE).ename%TYPE.PUT_LINE ('Rows updated: ' || TO_CHAR (fdbk)).PARSE (cur.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .OPEN_CURSOR. DBMS_OUTPUT.

EXECUTE (cur). start_in IN DATE.Updates with Bind Variables  Update salaries for date range using binding.BIND_VARIABLE (cur. val_in IN NUMBER) IS cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL. fdbk PLS_INTEGER. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE updnumval ( col_in IN VARCHAR2.page 93 .BIND_VARIABLE (cur. 'lodate'. DBMS_SQL.PUT_LINE ('Rows updated: ' || TO_CHAR (fdbk)). updnval2.NATIVE). END.CLOSE_CURSOR (cur). DBMS_SQL.sp updnval3. DBMS_OUTPUT. fdbk := DBMS_SQL.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .PARSE (cur.OPEN_CURSOR. DBMS_SQL. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. 'UPDATE emp SET ' || col_in || ' = ' || val_in || ' WHERE hiredate BETWEEN :lodate AND :hidate'. DBMS_SQL. start_in). 'hidate'. end_in IN DATE. end_in).

Processing Flow for a Dynamic Query Allocate cursor memory (OPEN_CURSOR) Fill cursor with data (EXECUTE) Make sure SELECT is well formed (PARSE) Fill buffer with data (FETCH_ROWS) (EXECUTE_AND_FETCH) Bind any variables (BIND_VARIABLE) (BIND_ARRAY) Retrieve the data (COLUMN_VALUE) Give cursor structure (DEFINE_COLUMN) (DEFINE_ARRAY) Release cursor memory (CLOSE_CURSOR) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 94 .

EXECUTE (cur). 60). 'SELECT empno. ename FROM emp ' || ' WHERE ' || NVL (where_in. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein showemps. END LOOP.CLOSE_CURSOR (cur). LOOP EXIT WHEN DBMS_SQL.NATIVE). DBMS_SQL. 2. fdbk INTEGER.sp showemp2. DBMS_SQL.tst PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .sp showemps. DBMS_OUTPUT.. rec. '1=1'). 1). 'a'. DBMS_SQL.Queries with Dynamic SQL  Show employees using a dynamic WHERE clause.ename). DBMS_SQL. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE showemps (where_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) IS cur INTEGER := DBMS_SQL. END.COLUMN_VALUE (cur.empno).DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.FETCH_ROWS (cur) = 0.PUT_LINE (TO_CHAR (rec.ename).OPEN_CURSOR.empno) || '=' || rec. DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL. rec emp%ROWTYPE. 1.page 95 .COLUMN_VALUE (cur.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.. fdbk := DBMS_SQL. rec. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. 2.PARSE (cur. 1.

page 96 Very simplified pseudo-code intab. END LOOP. BEGIN FOR each-column-in-table LOOP add-column-to-select-list. END LOOP.PARSE (cur. END LOOP. nth_col.Dynamic SELECT * FROM Any Table  Method 4 example: the number of columns queried changes with each table.NATIVE). ± The resulting code is much more complicated. FOR each-column-in-table LOOP DBMS_SQL. select_string.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . datatype). val). END. LOOP fetch-a-row. nth_col. FOR each-column-in-table LOOP DBMS_SQL.COLUMN_VALUE (cur. DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL. END LOOP.

TRUE). exact_match IN BOOLEAN DEFAULT FALSE) RETURN INTEGER. ± If exact_match is TRUE. ± Even if the exception is raised. numrows := DBMS_SQL.EXECUTE_AND_FETCH (cur).Using EXECUTE_AND_FETCH FUNCTION execute_and_fetch (cursor_in IN INTEGER. the first row will still be fetched and available. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Makes it easy to execute and fetch a single row from a query. which returns a single row.page 97 . then EXECUTE_AND_FETCH will raise the TOO_MANY_ROWS exception if more than one row is fetched by the SELECT. numrows := DBMS_SQL. raises NO_DATA_FOUND or raises the TOO_MANY_ROWS exception. ± Very similar to the implicit SELECT cursor in native PL/SQL.EXECUTE_AND_FETCH (cur.

Dynamic Formula Execution  Suppose I am building a user interface that allows a user to select a formula for execution. ± With DBMS_SQL. NULL. NULL. arg10_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL dyncalc.page 98 . arg2_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. FUNCTION dyncalc ( oper_in IN VARCHAR2.sf dyncalc. and enter the arguments.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Using static PL/SQL. a single function will do the trick. arg8_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. arg6_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. arg4_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. nargs_in IN INTEGER := arg1_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg3_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg5_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg7_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg9_in IN VARCHAR2 := ) RETURN VARCHAR2. NULL. NULL. NULL. 0. I would have to modify my screen every time a new formula was added.

v_deptin).sp dynplsql.VARIABLE_VALUE (cur.  Use BIND_VARIABLE to bind any placeholders in the string -. END.even OUT arguments which are not being bound to any values.BIND_VARIABLE (cur.').EXECUTE (cur). Possibilities inherent in dynamic PL/SQL are mind-boggling! dynplsql. END. DBMS_SQL. fdbk := DBMS_SQL.tst    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . µsalout¶. my_salary). my_salary). µsalout¶. You must have a BEGIN-END around the code. Use VARIABLE_VALUE to extract a value from any variable you have bound.page 99 . DBMS_SQL. µdeptin¶.BIND_VARIABLE (cur. DBMS_SQL.sql dynplsql. :salout).More on Dynamic PL/SQL BEGIN cur := open_and_parse ('BEGIN get_max_sal (:deptin.

BIND_VARIABLE (v_cur. retval).OPEN_CURSOR. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.NATIVE).tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . retval PLV.'. END. DBMS_SQL. RETURN retval.PARSE (v_cur. DBMS_SQL.EXECUTE (v_cur).CLOSE_CURSOR (v_cur). 'val'. fdbk PLS_INTEGER. DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL. 'a'. Here is an example of a "PL/SQL NAME_IN": FUNCTION valbyname (nm IN VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2 IS v_cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL. fdbk := DBMS_SQL.dbmaxvc2. 'val'.page 100  dynvar. 2000).VARIABLE_VALUE (v_cur.pkg dynvar. END.Indirect Referencing with Dyn PL/SQL  Oracle Forms offers support for indirect referencing with the NAME_IN and COPY built-ins. PL/SQL does not support indirect referencing. but you can accomplish much of the same thing with dynamic PL/SQL execution. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 'BEGIN :val := ' || nm || '.

± Call these immediately after your usage to make sure they refer to your cursor.  LAST_ROW_ID ± Returns the ROWID of last row processed.  LAST_SQL_FUNCTION_CODE ± Returns SQL function code of cursor.DBMS_SQL Status Built-ins  The package offers a set of modules to return information about the lastoperated cursor in your session.page 101 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  IS_OPEN ± Is the cursor already open?  LAST_ERROR_POSITION ± Returns relative column position in cursor of text causing error condition.  LAST_ROW_COUNT ± Returns the cumulative count of rows fetched from the cursor.

COLUMN_VALUE_LONG   First. ± DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN_LONG ± DBMS_SQL. dumplong.pkg dumplong.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Transfer the LONG contents into an index-by table so that you can transfer a value of more than 32K bytes into your PL/SQL program.page 102 .Working with LONG Values  DBMS_SQL provides special procedures so that you can extract values from a LONG column in a table. you define the column as a LONG. Then you retrieve the column using the special COLUMN_VALUE_LONG variant.

New DBMS_SQL Features PL/SQL8 Extensions to DBMS_SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 103 .

deletes and fetches. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .New Features in DBMS_SQL  The functionality of DBMS_SQL has been extended in Oracle8 in several ways: ± Parse very long SQL strings ± Describe cursor columns ± Use "array processing" to perform bulk updates. ± Support for RETURNING clause to avoid unnecessary queries. inserts.page 104 .

± The record TYPE is also defined in DBMS_SQL. ± Now you can call the DBMS_SQL.DESCRIBE_COLUMNS (c IN INTEGER.Describing Cursor Columns PROCEDURE DBMS_SQL. col_cnt OUT INTEGER.DESCRIBE_COLUMNS. it was not possible to determine the datatypes of the columns defined in a cursor.  Returns all of the column information in an index table of records.  Before PL/SQL8.DESC_TAB). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . desc_t OUT DBMS_SQL.page 105 .

Basic Steps to Describe Columns  The following script shows the individual steps you will need to perform in order to use this feature.col_name).tst showcols. END LOOP. ncols PLS_INTEGER. DBMS_SQL.PUT_LINE (cols(colind).CLOSE_CURSOR (cur). empno FROM emp'. 'SELECT hiredate. ncols LOOP DBMS_OUTPUT.DESC_TAB. desccols.OPEN_CURSOR. ncols. DBMS_SQL.pkg desccols.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . DBMS_SQL. cols DBMS_SQL.. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE show_columns IS cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL. END.DESCRIBE_COLUMNS (cur.PARSE (cur.NATIVE). FOR colind IN 1 . BEGIN DBMS_SQL.page 106 . cols).

± In actuality. i.e. inserts. you specify an index table. when you perform updates. DBMS_SQL then repeats your action for every row in the table. DBMS_SQL is executing the specified SQL statement N times. Instead of providing a scalar value for an operation. It really isn't "array processing". however. index tables. deletes and fetches."Array Processing" in DBMS_SQL  PL/SQL8 now allows you to specify the use of "arrays".. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 107 . can offer a significant performance boost over Oracle7 dynamic SQL. where N is the number of rows in the table.    This technique still.

 Use the Oracle8i invoker rights model whenever you want to share your dynamic SQL programs among multiple schemas.) through the USING clause.PARSE so that you include the trace in that program.Recommendations for Dynamic SQL  Bind (vs. column names. ± Otherwise that SQL will be executed under the authority of the owner of the code. not the invoker of the code. though you could write variations for those as well. ± Encapsulate DBMS_SQL. ± With NDS.  Encapsulate statements to improve error handling.page 108 .sql openprse. ± Increased chance of reusing parsed SQL. only possible for statements that do not need USING and INTO clauses.pkg whichsch. concatenate) whenever possible.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± But remember: you cannot pass schema elements (table names. etc. and easier code to write. effdsql.

but DBMS_SQL is hard to use.. you have upgraded to Oracle8i!  Major Advantages of NDS: ± Ease of use ± Performance ± Works with all SQL datatypes (including userdefined object and collection types) ± Fetch into records  When You'd Use DBMS_SQL: ± ± ± ± ± ± ± Method 4 Dynamic SQL DESCRIBE columns of cursor SQL statements larger than 32K RETURNING into an array Reuse of parsed SQL statements Bulk dynamic SQL Available from client-side PL/SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . of course.NDS or DBMS_SQL: Which is Best?  Dynamic SQL and PL/SQL is very useful. Both implementations will still come in handy.page 109 .. ± If.

asynchronous.page 110 .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Oracle Advanced Queuing  The high performance. persistent messaging subsytem of Oracle 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

systems are now heavily reliant on the ability of components to communicate with each other in a dependable. consistent manner.Who Needs Messaging? Everyone!  In the distributed world of the Internet. Distribution Center Coffee Beans Producer Shipping Service Retailer Consumer 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 111 .

Applications Relying on Messaging     Stock trading system Airline reservation system Auction portals Any e-commerce application 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 112 .

AQ now offers a publish/subscribe style of messaging between applications.Key Features of Oracle AQ  Leverage full power of SQL ± Messages are stored in database tables  Database high availability. ± Rule-based subscribers. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 113 . the listen feature and notification capabilities. scalability and reliability all carry over to queues ± Strong history and retention ± Backup and recovery ± Comprehensive journaliing  Rich message content increases usefulness of queueing ± Use object types to define highly structured payloads  New to Oracle8i. message propagation.

page 114 .AQ architectural overview Queue Monitor process Queue table Queue ³Producers´ Enqueued messages Message 4 Message 3 Message 2 Message1 ³Consumers´ Dequeued messages Messages include both control information and ³payload´ (content) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

AQ supports: ± ± ± ± ± Multiple queues Resetting order and priority of queued items Queue management using only SQL & PL/SQL Multiple message recipients Propagation of queue to remote servers  Oracle8i adds: ± ± ± ± Rules-based publish & subscribe Listening on multiple queues Easier monitoring Native Java interface PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Oracle AQ Highlights  In 8.page 115 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .0.

page 116 .AQ Components  The DBMS_AQ package offers enqueue and dequeue capabilities The DBMS_AQADM package provides administrative functionality to manage queues and queue tables. Underlying database tables and views The queue monitor (background process) ± Set # of processes with the AQ_TM_PROCESSES initialization parameter.    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

payload type.DBMS_AQADM Highlights CREATE_QUEUE_TABLE DROP_QUEUE_TABLE CREATE_QUEUE DROP_QUEUE START_QUEUE STOP_QUEUE ADD_SUBSCRIBER Assigns name. optionally waiting for outstanding transactions Adds an ³agent´ as a subscriber 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . assigns retry and retention properties to queue Drops a stopped queue Can also turn on/off enqueue and dequeue operations Stops queue.page 117 . whether multiple consumers Drops table if all queues in the table have been stopped Associates queue table with queue. storage clause. sort column.

Define a queue in the queue table DBMS_AQADM.CREATE_QUEUE (queue_name => 'msgqueue'.CREATE_QUEUE_TABLE (queue_table => 'msg'.Creating Queue Tables and Queues CREATE TYPE message_type AS OBJECT (title VARCHAR2(30).pkg Start the queue PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . queue_payload_type => 'message_type').START_QUEUE (queue_name => 'msgqueue'). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein aq. END. text VARCHAR2(2000)).page 118 . / BEGIN DBMS_AQADM. queue_table => 'msg'). Define the "payload" Create the queue table DBMS_AQADM.

sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . ± Only two procedures.page 119   aq. but lots of complexity buried inside the parameters of these procedures.The "operational package": DBMS_AQ  DBMS_AQ is deceptively simple.  ENQUEUE puts a message into a specified queue. and returns a RAW message handle DEQUEUE extracts a message from a specified queue Parameters control message properties such as: ± Visibility (ON_COMMIT or IMMEDIATE) ± ± ± ± Priority Delay Expiration Locking behavior PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

.* Place the message on the specified queue and get a msg ID in return. msgid aq. my_msg. DBMS_AQ. Declare records to hold various enqueue and msg properties.ENQUEUE ( 'msgqueue'.. msgid). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 120 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .ENQUEUE_OPTIONS_T. Set up the payload with an object constructor.'). msgprops.Simple Enqueue Example DECLARE queueopts DBMS_AQ. END. BEGIN my_msg := message_type ( 'First Enqueue'. 'May there be many more. my_msg message_type.msgid_type. aqenq*. queueopts. msgprops DBMS_AQ.MESSAGE_PROPERTIES_T.

.ENQUEUE ('msgqueue'.ENQUEUE ( 'msgqueue'. my_msg.sequence_deviation := DBMS_AQ. msgid2). queueopts. 'And this one goes first. msgid1). Same setup as previous page .BEFORE.delay := 3 * 60 * 60 * 24. msgprops.. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..page 121 .').More Interesting Enqueue Example DECLARE . DBMS_AQ. queueopts. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Specify a delay before the payload is available.'). my_msg.. queueopts. DBMS_AQ. queueopts.. my_msg := message_type ( 'Second Enqueue'. BEGIN my_msg := message_type ( 'First Enqueue'. 'May there be many more.. msgprops. Modify the dequeue sequence by changing the deviation field and relative msg ID.. END.relative_msgid := msgid1. msgprops..

queueopts.MESSAGE_PROPERTIES_T. aqdeq*.BROWSE).DEQUEUE ( 'msgqueue'.msgid_type. END.Dequeue Example DECLARE queueopts DBMS_AQ.REMOVE). msgprops DBMS_AQ. Dequeue operation isolated in local module.pkg */ my_msg message_type. END. getmsg (DBMS_AQ. my_msg.dequeue_mode := mode_in. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . BEGIN getmsg (DBMS_AQ. msgid aq.* Declare records to hold various dequeue and msg properties. /* defined in aq.page 122 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . PROCEDURE getmsg (mode_in IN INTEGER) IS BEGIN queueopts. Demonstrates destructive and non-destructive dequeuing. getmsg (DBMS_AQ. msgid). DBMS_AQ.REMOVE).DEQUEUE_OPTIONS_T. msgprops.

msgid).msgid_type. PROCEDURE push (item IN VARCHAR2) IS queueopts DBMS_AQ.Prioritized Payloads  You can assign priorities to individual payloads and then dequeue according to those priorities.* 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . item_obj. DBMS_AQ.  A stack implementation using AQ demonstrates this well. the higher the priority.visibility := DBMS_AQ. msgprops.MESSAGE_PROPERTIES_T. END. ± The lower the numeric priority value. g_priority := g_priority . queueopts. aqstk.IMMEDIATE. queueopts. msgprops. msgprops DBMS_AQ.page 123 .priority := g_priority. BEGIN item_obj := aqstk_objtype (item). msgid aq.pkg aqstk2. item_obj aqstk_objtype.ENQUEUE_OPTIONS_T.1.pkg priority.ENQUEUE ( c_queue.

* PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± 2.Defining Message Subscribers  You can specify that a message is to be enqueued for a list of subscribers. ± The message is then not removed from the queue until all subscribers have dequeued the message. NULL.CREATE_QUEUE_TABLE ( queue_table => 'major_qtable'. BEGIN DBMS_AQADM.  Steps to working with a subscriber list: ± 1.ADD_SUBSCRIBER ( c_queue. SYS. Add subscribers for the queue. multiple_consumers => TRUE). queue_payload_type => 'student_major_t'. DBMS_AQADM. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein aqmult*.AQ$_AGENT (name_in.page 124 . NULL)). The queue table must be defined to support multiple subscribers or consumers.

± Should be strongly supported "down the road".  Considered by Oracle to be a core component of its overall solution. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Summary  Very powerful and flexible architecture. LISTEN capability. supporting a publish-subscribe model.Oracle AQ . ± Crucial for Oracle to have a message-oriented middleware in order to offer an all-Oracle solution. ± Much more robust that DBMS_PIPE. ± Significant enhancements in Oracle8i.page 125 . improved security.

page 126 .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Managing Large Objects with DBMS_LOB 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . etc. ± Oracle has announced deprecation of LONGs. Images. though they will probably not be actually desupported.LOB Terms  LOB = Large OBject: a category of datatype allowing storage of ³unstructured´ data up to 4 gigabytes LOB datatype can be: ± Column in table ± Attribute in object type ± Element in nested table   Possible applications include office documents. LOB datatypes are the successor to LONGs. sounds. video. they should no longer be used.page 127 .

improving performance. external do not ± External LOBs are read-only from within Oracle 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 128 .  Key programming differences: ± Internal LOBs participate in transactions.Types of Large Objects  ³Internal´ LOBs ± BLOB: unstructured binary data ± CLOB: single-byte fixedwidth character data ± NCLOB: multi-byte fixedwidth character data (or varying width in )  ³External´ LOBs ± BFILE: pointer to an operating system file  Temporary LOBs ± Internal LOBs that do not participate in transactions.

EMPTY_CLOB() ± BFILENAME 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 129 . open. trim ± For external LOBs: File existence test. comparison and length checking ± For internal LOBs: Write. substring and instring searches. copy.PL/SQL built-ins for LOBs  Package DBMS_LOB ± Supports for all LOBs: Reading. append. erase. close  Other built-in functions ± LOADFROMFILE (load an external BFILE into a BLOB) ± EMPTY_LOB().

 Retrieve record with BLOB into PL/SQL variable DECLARE CURSOR fax_cur IS SELECT fax FROM incoming_faxes. received DATE. FETCH fax_cur INTO the_fax. fax BLOB). the_fax BLOB.page 130 . CLOSE fax_cur.Deceptively simple example  BLOB-typed column in a table CREATE TABLE incoming_faxes (fax_id INTEGER. Question: What¶s in the_fax? 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END. BEGIN OPEN fax_cur.

tt LOBs <lob segment> fax_id 281937 received 12-JAN-98 fax <lob locator> Updati  t e LOB anges t e pointer is ompli ates se of LOBs ± LOB locators cannot span transactions ± Programs must lock records containing LOBs efore updating ± Programs performing L must accommodate dynamic LOB locator alues 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 131 .The ³LOB locator´ LOB t l sel es [ ll ] t i i t r .

url%TYPE := 'http://www. the_loc CLOB. EMPTY_CLOB()) RETURNING htmlloc INTO the_loc..page 132 .com'. htmlloc CLOB). 1 of 2  Must get a new LOB locator before writing into the LOB: DECLARE the_url web_pages. BEGIN INSERT INTO web_pages VALUES (the_url.oodb.. .Example: Piecewise CLOB programmatic insert  Create a table CREATE TABLE web_pages ( url VARCHAR2(512) PRIMARY KEY. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

FOR the_piece_no IN 1. html_tab UTL_HTTP. several likely exceptions offset => running_total.WRITE(lob_loc => the_loc.page 133 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein BEGIN .. END. This block retrieves INSERT INTO web_pages VALUES (the_url.url%TYPE := 'http://www. DBMS_LOB. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . into a CLOB column html_tab := UTL_HTTP.HTML_PIECES. piece_length PLS_INTEGER. Note: We are ignoring amount => piece_length. running_total PLS_INTEGER := 1. EMPTY_CLOB()) and loads a web page RETURNING htmlloc INTO the_loc.html_tab. buffer => html_tab(the_piece_no)).REQUEST_PIECES(url => the_url). END LOOP. running_total := running_total + piece_length.com'. the_loc CLOB.COUNT LOOP piece_length := LENGTH(html_tab(the_piece_no)).Example: Piecewise CLOB programmatic insert DECLARE the_url web_pages.oodb.

page 134 . str_offset INTEGER. IF str_offset != 0 THEN DBMS_LOB. str_offset := DBMS_LOB. FETCH hcur INTO the_loc. amount => 4. BEGIN OPEN hcur. CLOSE hcur.com' FOR UPDATE. buffer => 'cool'). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END.Example: Piecewise CLOB programmatic update DECLARE Program must lock the record explicitly CURSOR hcur IS SELECT htmlloc FROM web_pages WHERE url = 'http://www. the_loc CLOB.WRITE(lob_loc => the_loc.INSTR(lob_loc => the_loc. END IF. offset => str_offset. pattern => 'oodb').oodb.

ut IRECTORY namespace is global  Syntax: CREATE OR REPLACE DIRECTORY <directory name> AS '<full path to directory>'.Preparing to use BFILEs  You must first create an Oracle I ORY´ ± Creates logical alias for full directory pat ± imilar to LIBRARY (used for C "external procedures").  Example: CREATE DIRECTORY web_pix AS 'D:\bill\training\pix'. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 135 .

CREATE TYPE Business_card_t AS OBJECT ( name Name_t.. CREATE TABLE web_graphics ( image_id INTEGER. phones Phone_tab_t. scanned_card_image BFILE )..page 136 . / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . image BFILE). addresses Address_tab_t..  In an object type..Using BFILE datatype in DDL  In a table.

/  Notes: ± No automatic file checking or synchronization ± No participation in transactions 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Example: DECLARE picture BFILE := BFILENAME('WEB_PIX'.page 137 . Spec: FUNCTION BFILENAME(directory_exprn. file_exprn) RETURN BFILE. 'prodicon.gif').The built-in BFILENAME function  Returns value of datatype BFILE. END. BEGIN INSERT INTO web_graphics VALUES (100015. picture).

FILE_READONLY). DECLARE pic_file BFILE := BFILENAME('WEB_PIX'. pic_blob_loc BLOB := EMPTY_BLOB(). DBMS_LOB. 'prodicon.page 138 . src_lob => pic_file. pic_blob_loc) RETURNING image INTO pic_blob_loc. DBMS_LOB.Loading File into Database BLOB CREATE TABLE web_graphic_blobs ( image_id INTEGER. DBMS_LOB.GETLENGTH(pic_file)). DBMS_LOB. END. BEGIN INSERT INTO web_graphic_blobs VALUES (1.FILECLOSE(pic_file). / loadblob. amount => DBMS_LOB. image BLOB).LOADFROMFILE(dest_lob => pic_blob_loc.FILEOPEN(pic_file.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .gif').

or transaction  Ability to retrieve LOB ³chunk size´ ± Allows programmer to tune READs and WRITEs  For all internal LOBs ± OPEN & CLOSE allow control over timing. that can mean less I/O » Trigger will not fire until CLOSE » Indexes will not update until CLOSE ± ISOPEN 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .New DBMS_LOB APIs in 8i  Support for temporary LOBs ± No logging or rollback faster! ± Lifespan: session.page 139 . call.

± Complete support in PL/SQL (and other APIs) ± Much better performance and control than with LONGs ± Usable in object types HOT  Some weaknesses.Summary  LOB support in Oracle is now significantly improved..page 140 ..Large Object . COLD 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± LOB locator behavior slightly abstruse ± Inability to modify BFILEs directly from within PL/SQL.

page 141 .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Leveraging Java Inside PL/SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

mid-tier..a BRIEF introduction to Java.page 142 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . triggers in Java Distinct Java & PL/SQL namespaces  But first. or server Not covered in this seminar  PL/SQL can call Java inside 8i server ± ± ± ± Command-line tools load Java classes DDL extensions publish Java classes Writing stored procedures.. functions. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Overview of Java interoperability  Java inside or outside 8i server can call PL/SQL ± Standard JDBC and SQLJ calls with Oracle extensions ± Same Java on client...

± The end of programming history as we know it? ± The easiest.Question 1: What is Java?  Could it be. ± We just need to keep a firm grip on common sense and stay focused on delivering solutions.page 143 . slickest piece of software ever designed by human beings? ± Just the latest in a series of "silver bullets" promoted by software vendors in order to prop up quarterly sales? ± The first and only successful O-O language? ± None of the above?  We don't really need to take a vote. fastest. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ...

± Supported and improved by Oracle -.  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . to boot.page 144 .and very aggressively. ± Ubiquitous in thousands of production applications and millions of lines of code.Question 2: Will Java Replace PL/SQL?  While that scenario is certainly possible. it is very unlikely and totally unthinkable for years to come. ± A language in which hundreds of thousands of developers are trained. PL/SQL will still be: ± Faster and more productive than Java for database operations.

± Well. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .. you have to instantiate an object from that class. ± Before you can call a (non-static) class method..  Everything is a class (or an object instantiated from a class).. ± Don't get overwhelmed by all the classes and all the strange quirks...page 145 .. ± string is definitely not the same as String.Some Important Things to Remember  Java is a case sensitive language. everything exception the primitive datatypes.  You don't have to know how to do everything with Java to get lots of value out of it.

. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE hello IS BEGIN DBMS_OUTPUT. no methods. ± Used to test or run stand-alone a class. END.Building a Java Class  Let's start from the very beginning.page 146 . } }  No members.println ("Hello world!").out.. Oh.PUT_LINE ('Hello world!'). except the "special" main method. by the way: the PL/SQL version 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . public class Hello { public static void main (String[] args) { System.

± It will also automatically recompile any classes used by your class that has not been compiled since last change.java -classpath d:\java 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .d:\java D:> javac Hello. ± This will convert the .7b\lib\classes.Compiling Classes  Before you can use a class. you must compile it with the javac command. SET CLASSPATH = d:\Oracle\Ora81\jdbc\lib\classes111.page 147 .zip.java file to a .class file. ± You must also either have set the CLASSPATH or include it in your javac call.1.zip. e:\jdk1.

Running a Class  Run a class? What does that mean? It means that if your class contains a method with this header: public static void main (String[] args)  then you can "run" the main method with the java command: d:\java> java Hello  You can also pass one or more arguments on the command line: d:\java> java Hello mom Hello2.java 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 148 .

you will use a class by instantiating objects from the class and then invoking class methods on the object.page 149 .Using a Class  The main method is handy for providing a built-in test mechanism of your class. Usually. however.   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Let's build a performance analyzer class to explore these ideas.

} public void showElapsed () { p. class Tmr { private long Gstart = 0.java 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . System. } public long elapsed () { return (System. } } p.page 150 . } public void showElapsed (String context) { p.currentTimeMillis() . elapsed()).Gstart).Gstart).Compare Performance of Methods  Use System.l ("Elapsed time for " + context.currentTimeMillis() .currentTimeMillis to calculate elapsed time to nearest thousandth of a second.l ("Elapsed time ".java InFile. public void capture () { Gstart = System.currentTimeMillis().java Tmr.

 Interface class ± The class only contains unimplemented methods. but at least one method remains unimplemented..  Inner class ± Classes that are defined inside other classes.Types of Classes  There are several different kinds of classes in Java. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..  Abstract class ± The class can contain members and methods.page 151 . besides the "regular" kind we just saw.

supertype/"wider" Citizen Person Employee Hourly Worker Salaried Worker subtype/"narrower" War Criminal Person. ± Dynamic polymorphism: form is determined at run-time.page 152 .And Now for Some Scary Buzzwords!  Inheritance ± Subclasses inherit methods and variables from extended superclasses. either as its own class or as any superclass. ± Static polymorphism: form is chosen at compile-time (PL/SQL overloading).java A Class Hierarchy Management NonManagement Corporation 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Polymorphism ± An object of a class can have "multiple" forms.

boolean char byte short int long float double  Strings ± A String object is a read-only. you are actually allocating a new object.equals(YourName)) foundFamily().page 153 . String myName. ± Can't do a direct == comparison. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . these are not objects instantiated from classes. myName = "Steven". myName = "Feuerstein".Language Basics  Comments // Single line comment /* Block comment */ /** Documentation comment */  Primitive datatypes ± So I lied. if (myName. if you assign a new value to it.

nextElement()) } } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .out.out. indx < args.Writing Loops in Java  Three kinds of loops: while.hasMoreElements ()) { processIt (enum.length.page 154 . Examples: for (indx indx=0. static void processAll (Enumeration enum) { while (enum. do-while and for ± Note: you need squiggly brackets only if there is more than one statement in the loop body.println (args[indx]). expression. step) { lotsaStuff } while (expression) { lostsaStuff } do { lostsaStuff } while (expression).println ( (String)enum. indx++) System. System. for (initialize.NextElement()).

} } class LotsALingos { public static void main (String args[]) { PuterLingo Java = new PuterLingo("Java").println (Java.. ± If a method has no arguments. you still include the open and close parentheses.out.Passing Parameters  Some important differences from PL/SQL.name()). public PuterLingo (String name) { mname = name. } public String name () { return mname. class PuterLingo { private String mname.page 155 . ± No default values for arguments. ± Only positional notation is supported. System.. you must supply a value for each parameter. } } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

} catch (Exception e) { System. Put inside try clause File myFile = new File (filename).out. return myFile.equals("")) throw new Exception ("Filename is NULL"). rather than raise and handle.page 156 . } File-related catch (SecurityException e) { exceptions return -1.Exception Handling in Java  Very similar to PL/SQL.toString()).length(). "WHEN OTHERS" } in Java } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Throwing my own public static int numBytes (String filename) { exception try { if (filename. you "throw" and "catch" exceptions.println (e.

± Use the throws clause in your specification. as in: public static int numBytes (String filename) throws SecurityException.Differences Between Java & PL/SQL  Exceptions are objects derived directly or indirectly from the Exception class..page 157 .. ± So you can pass them as arguments and do anything and everything else you can do with objects. NoSuchFile { .  You must inform users of your method of which exceptions may be thrown. } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Java's Not So Tough!  You can learn enough Java in less than a week to: ± Build simple classes ± Leverage Java inside PL/SQL  Moving to the next level of expertise will be more of a challenge.page 158 . ± Object oriented development (Java) is very different from procedural coding (PL/SQL).  Now let's explore how you can put Java to work for you inside PL/SQL programs.

Java Stored Procedures (JSPs) Java applet or app.page 159 . using JDBC or SQLJ Oracle 8i server PL/SQL cover for Java method Java virtual machine running Java method Oracle Developer client (PL/SQL) Net8 OCI or Pro*C client VB or C++ via OO4O or ODBC 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

page 160 . network communication in/out PL/SQL replacement ± More standard language ± Good performer for numeric processing tasks ± Beware database I/O & string manipulation performance Scaleable deployment of third party code ± Vertical application ± Web server ± XML parser/generator 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . better file I/O ± RMI callouts.JSPs: Some sample uses PL/SQL extender ± For example.

Call from PL/SQL (or SQL) as if calling PL/SQL    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ...page 161 . Load into server using ³loadjava´ command-line tool 3. rather than BEGIN.. Grant privileges as desired 5.END 4. Create Java classes in your favorite IDE 2..Creating JSP to call from PL/SQL   1. Publish PL/SQL cover using AS LANGUAGE JAVA.

}} 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Notes on Java classes  toString method automatically used by System. public Corporation ( String Pname.page 162 PL/SQL .java Advanced Techniques . long PceoComp) { name = Pname. paying its" + " Chief Executive Officer " + CEOCompensation. System.println (TheGlobalMonster). } public static void main (String[] args) { // A very scary company Corporation TheGlobalMonster = new Corporation ( "Northrup-Ford-Mattel-Yahoo-ATT".println main method is used to test the class. CEOCompensation = PceoComp. 5000000.out.Create Java class(es) class Corporation extends Person { long layoffs. Entry points must be public static in most cases Classes may call other classes Avoid GUI calls     person. long Playoffs. } public String toString () { return name + " is a transnational entity with " + layoffs + " laid-off employees. long CEOCompensation.out. 50000000). layoffs = Playoffs.

jar file Oracle 8i server Java class Java source Java resource loadjava Example: loadjava loadjava -user scott/tiger -oci8 -resolve datacraft/bill/Hello.page 163 .class file .Upload using ³loadjava´ utility .class options (abbreviated) -oci8 -resolve loadjava will connect using OCI driver Resolves external class references at compile time -resolver (shown later) Search path like CLASSPATH 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .java file Java resource file .

lang.. /  Syntax (simplified) CREATE [ OR REPLACE PROCE URE FUNCTION <name> <sqlt pe> ] [ [ <ar s> ) ] [ AUTHID { DEFINER | CURRENT_USER } ] AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME '<met fullname> (<Ja a t pe fullname>.bill.Emp(int) return java.String'..page 164 . .) [ return <Ja a t pe fullname> ]'. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Hello.Publish  Example (top-level call spec) CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION hello_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2 AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.

for example.  Method 2: Use 8i SQL CALL statement.page 165 .Call the wrapped method  Method 1: Call as if PL/SQL module BEGIN DBMS_OUTPUT.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . PRINT :thename ± CALL avoids overhead of SELECT fn FROM DUAL jsp.PUT_LINE(hello_emp(7499)). END. from SQL*Plus: VARIABLE thename VARCHAR2(12) CALL hello_emp(7499) INTO :thename.

math.STRUCT <named type> oracle.more concepts Shape mapping ± Java methods declared ³void´ become PL/SQL procedures ± Signature mismatches detected only at runtime Type mapping (typical) VARCHAR2 DATE NUMBER user-defined object type user-defined object type object REFerence user-defined collection type java.sql.REF oracle.ARRAY 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .BigDecimal oracle.sql.Publishing -.Timestamp java.sql.sql.String java.lang.page 166 .

util. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE hello_pkg AS FUNCTION hi_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2 AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.Publish in PL/SQL Package Spec  Designate Java module in PL/SQL package spec.page 167 . / (No package body required in this case) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END.Emp(int) return java..String'.lang..Hello.

Publish as module in package body  .util.lang.. END.or in package body CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE hello_pkg2 AS FUNCTION hi_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2.String'. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..Hello.Emp(int) return java. END. / CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY hello_pkg2 AS FUNCTION hi_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2 IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.page 168 .

/ CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE BODY foo_t AS MEMBER FUNCTION hello_emp RETURN VARCHAR2 IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft. END.util.Emp(int) return java. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Publish as object type method  Either in spec: CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE foo_t AS OBJECT ( bar VARCHAR2(30).lang.String').Hello.Emp(int) return java.util. / or in the body: CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE foo_t AS OBJECT ( bar VARCHAR2(30).Hello.page 169 .String'.lang. MEMBER FUNCTION hello_emp RETURN VARCHAR2). MEMBER FUNCTION hello_emp RETURN VARCHAR2 IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.

JAVADEBUGPRIV ± You can also grant specific privileges. resolves Java class references. DROP JAVA: drops a named Java library unit Several roles available for Java operations: ± JAVAUSERPRIV.New DDL Statements and Roles  CREATE JAVA ± Alternative to ³loadjava´ utility ± Creates or replaces an Oracle ³library unit´ from Java source. JAVA_ADMIN. or resource ± Can read file designated with BFILE() function  ALTER JAVA: compiles Java source.   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 170 . JAVASYSPRIV (needed for file IO operations). class. JAVAIDPRIV.

SQLData 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .jdbc2.sql.Passing Oracle8 objects Oracle8i server Object in O-R table Java application Java object   Harder than you¶d think Three different interfacing techniques ± oracle.page 171 .sql.STRUCT ± oracle.CustomDatum ± oracle.

JPublisher utility Database server Definition of type or REF in data dictionary User-supplied JPublisher input file What does it do? ± Generates Java that encapsulates type and REF types of mapping supported for methods JPublisher ± ³Oracle mapping´ ± ³JDBC mapping´ ± ³Object JDBC mapping´ Three Generated Java file(s) for use in Java programs 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 172 .

bill.page 173 .AccountRuntime.save (datacraft. /  jspobj.Passing object using JPub-generated Java  After generating and uploading classes with JPub.Account_t)'.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . they become available to use in mapping Example of passing an Account_t object: CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE account_save (new_acct IN Account_t) IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.bill.

Example: Improving File I/O  You can read/write files in PL/SQL with UTL_FILE. Java offers many file-related classes with much greater capabilities. but that package is very limited.page 174 . Let's see how we can make that great Java stuff available from within PL/SQL.   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

. ± This is not available through UTL_FILE (though you can get it through DBMS_LOB). ± Instead build a static method that instantiates a Java object from the class and then invokes the relevant method against that object. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± The File class offers a length method that returns the number of bytes in a file.page 175 .  Let's start with something simple.Encapsulate Java Classes  You won't generally access native Java methods in your PL/SQL wrapper..

public class JFile2 { public static long length (String fileName) { File myFile = new File (fileName).io. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 176 . } } JFile2. ± Instantiate a File object for the specified name.java  Take each of these steps: ± Import the File class to resolve reference. ± Call the method of choice against that object and return the value.File. return myFile. import java.length().My Own Java Class for File Manipulation  Accept the name of a file and return its length.

± I translate the Java long to a PL/SQL NUMBER.page 177 . / CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY xfile IS FUNCTION length (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN NUMBER AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'JFile.length (java.lang.String) return long'. END.Build a Package over Java Method  Let's put it in a package. END. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE xfile IS FUNCTION length (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN NUMBER. we will certainly want to add more functionality over time.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . / xfile2.

Not so! To pass a Boolean back from Java to PL/SQL. Write a "public" PL/SQL wrapper function to convert that number to a true PL/SQL Boolean.  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . so you'd expect smooth sailing. ± 2. you will need to take these steps: ± 1.page 178 . Convert the Java boolean to a String or number and return that value. Write a "hidden" PL/SQL wrapper function that returns the string or number.Mapping the Boolean Datatype  Both Java and PL/SQL support a native Boolean datatype. ± 3.

} } JFile3. if (retval) return 1. public class JFile3 { public static int canRead (String fileName) { File myFile = new File (fileName). ± And don't forget: this is a boolean primitive.File. boolean retval = myFile.Translate Boolean to Number  Accept the name of a file and return its length.page 179 .java  Translate TRUE to 1 and FALSE to 0. else return 0. not a Boolean class. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . import java.io.canRead().

Wrapper for Pseudo-Boolean function  Simple translation back to PL/SQL Boolean. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE xfile IS FUNCTION canRead (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN BOOLEAN.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Avoid the hard-codings with named constants.pkg END.java / xfile. xfile4. JFile. JFile4.page 180 . / CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY xfile IS FUNCTION IcanRead (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN NUMBER AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'JFile3.String) return int'. END.pkg RETURN IcanRead (file) = 1.java END. FUNCTION canRead (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN BOOLEAN AS BEGIN xfile3..canRead (java.lang..

println ( "Pay " + laborType + " $" + hourly_rate + " per hour"). BigDecimal hourly_rate = (BigDecimal)(attribs[1]). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein UnionBuster.sql. System. } } Extract individual attribute values from the array. throws java.SQLException { // Get the attributes of the labor_source object. Object[] attribs = e.out.Passing Objects to Java with STRUCT  You can pass Oracle object information to Java without relying on JPub by using the STRUCT class.java passobj. public class UnionBuster { Obtain attributes of public static void wageStrategy (STRUCT e) the Oracle object.page 181 . // starting with 0 String laborType = (String)(attribs[0]). // Access individual attributes by array index.getAttributes().tst PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Wrapping a STRUCT-based Method  You can pass Oracle object information to Java without relying on JPub by using the STRUCT class.wageStrategy (oracle. The Oracle object type definition CREATE TYPE labor_source_t AS OBJECT ( labor_type VARCHAR2(30). / CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE bust_em_with ( labor_source_in IN labor_source_t) AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'UnionBuster.STRUCT)'. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Fully specify the STRUCT class in parameter list. bust_em_with ( labor_source ('Prisoners'. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . / BEGIN bust_em_with ( labor_source ('Workfare'. hourly_rate NUMBER).sql. 0)). END.page 182 . '5')).

sql file: SET SERVEROUTPUT ON SIZE 1000000 CALL DBMS_JAVA.out. ± Here is a good nucleus for a login.PUT_LINE: System. }}}  When called within a PL/SQL wrapper. i++) { System.out.Viewing Output from Java Methods  Java provides a "print line" method similar to DBMS_OUTPUT.SET_OUTPUT (1000000). HelloAll.java HelloAll. public class HelloAll { public static void lotsaText ( int count) { for (int i = 0. i < count.println. ± Call it within methods and output will display in your Java environment.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 183 .println ( "Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello All!"). you can redirect the output to the DBMS_OUTPUT buffer.

getErrorCode() and getMessage() to obtain information about the error thrown. but more robust error handling mechanism than PL/SQL.1.Error Handling with Java-PL/SQL  Java offers a very similar. such as java. ± Instead of raising and handling. ± Exceptions are objects instantiated from the Exception class or a subclass of it. ± And also spew out the entire Java error stack! (at least through 8. you "throw" and "catch".  Any error not caught by the JVM (Java virtual machine) will be thrown back to the PL/SQL block or SQL statement.sql.SQLException. ± Use two methods. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 184 .5).

page 185 .OracleStatement.driver.jdbc.sql.kprb.doExecuteOther(OracleStatement.SQLException: getErrInfo.PUT_LINE (SQLERRM).parseExecuteFetch(KprbDBAccess.check_error(KprbDBAccess.KprbDBAccess.OracleStatement.java) at oracle.java) at DropAny.KprbDBAccess.jdbc.java) at oracle.driver. 'blip').java) at oracle.doExecuteWithTimeout(OracleStatement.java) at oracle.jdbc.object(DropAny.executeUpdate(OracleStatement.driver.jdbc. / SQL> 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 java.doExecute(OracleStatement.doExecuteWithBatch(OracleStatement.OracleStatement.driver.jdbc. BEGIN dropany ('TABLE'.java:14) DropAny.java) at oracle.tst ORA-29532: Java call terminated by uncaught Java exception: java.tst ORA-00942: table or view does not exist 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . the entire Java stack is displayed on your screen.jdbc.OracleStatement.kprb.SQLException: ORA-00942: table or view does not exist at oracle. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN DBMS_OUTPUT.driver.Trapping and Identifying Errors  Currently.java -29532 dropany.jdbc.java) at oracle.sql.PUT_LINE (SQLCODE). DBMS_OUTPUT.OracleStatement. END. and you have to do some digging to extract the Oracle error information.sp dropany2.

Achieving PL/SQL Excellence External Procedures  An external procedure is a 3GL routine that can serve as the ³body´ of a PL/SQL function.page 186 .  An Oracle8 feature that allowed relatively "native" callouts to C from PL/SQL for the first time. or method. procedure. ± Must be a shared object library on Unix or a dynamically linked library (DLL) on Windows. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

page 187 .DLL or .Process & data flow Application Makes request Net8 External Procedure Listener spawns External Shared Library Calls PL/SQL Runtime Engine PL/SQL body Client or server-side application returns results calls routine from Routine in .so file extproc returns results returns results 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .sql diskspace.page 188 .External procedures: Sample uses      Send email Invoke operating system command Invoke custom or legacy application Call C runtime library function Perform admin tasks email.

create an Oracle8 ³library´: CREATE OR REPLACE LIBRARY nt_kernel AS 'c:\winnt\system32\kernel32.dll ± For given drive letter. this function returns: » » » » » sectors per cluster bytes per sector number of free clusters total number of clusters ³return code´ indicating success or failure  First. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Determine free disk space on NT (1/4)  Use pre-existing routine: ± GetDiskFreeSpaceA in kernel32.page 189 .dll'.

END disk_util. total_number_of_clusters OUT PLS_INTEGER) RETURN PLS_INTEGER.page 190 .Package spec (2/4)  Nothing unexpected here: CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE disk_util AS FUNCTION get_disk_free_space (root_path IN VARCHAR2. number_of_free_clusters OUT PLS_INTEGER. bytes_per_sector OUT PLS_INTEGER. sectors_per_cluster OUT PLS_INTEGER. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

sectors_per_cluster OUT PLS_INTEGER. bytes_per_sector OUT PLS_INTEGER. number_of_free_clusters BY REFERENCE LONG. total_number_of_clusters BY REFERENCE LONG. sectors_per_cluster BY REFERENCE LONG. total_number_of_clusters OUT PLS_INTEGER) RETURN PLS_INTEGER IS EXTERNAL LIBRARY nt_kernel NAME "GetDiskFreeSpaceA" LANGUAGE C CALLING STANDARD PASCAL PARAMETERS (root_path STRING. RETURN LONG).0 (3/4) CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY disk_util AS FUNCTION get_disk_free_space (root_path IN VARCHAR2. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . bytes_per_sector BY REFERENCE LONG.page 191  All the magic is in the EXTERNAL section 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . END disk_util.Package body in Oracle 8. number_of_free_clusters OUT pls_integer.

Usage (4/4)
DECLARE lroot_path VARCHAR2(3) := 'C:\'; lsectors_per_cluster PLS_INTEGER; lbytes_per_sector PLS_INTEGER; lnumber_of_free_clusters PLS_INTEGER; ltotal_number_of_clusters PLS_INTEGER; return_code PLS_INTEGER; free_meg REAL; BEGIN return_code := disk_util.get_disk_free_space (lroot_path, lsectors_per_cluster, lbytes_per_sector, lnumber_of_free_clusters, ltotal_number_of_clusters); free_meg := lsectors_per_cluster * lbytes_per_sector * lnumber_of_free_clusters / 1024 / 1024; DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('free disk space, Mb = ' || free_meg); diskspace.sql END;
1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein
PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 192

Creating your own external procedure 

1. Identify or create shared library 2. Identify or CREATE LIBRARY within Oracle 3. Map the parameters using:
± EXTERNAL clause (Oracle8) or ± LANGUAGE clause (Oracle8i)  

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 193

1. Identify/create external routine 


Prerequisite: O/S must support shared libraries Some useful routines are pre-built in C runtime library
± On Unix: /lib/libc.so ± On NT: <systemroot>\system32\crtdll.dll 

Building a shared library of your own requires knowledge of:
± Appropriate language (typically C) ± Compiler & linker

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 194

2. Create the Oracle library 

Syntax:
CREATE OR REPLACE LIBRARY <library name> AS '<full path to file>'; 

Assigns a programmer-defined alias to a specific shared library file Notes
± Requires CREATE LIBRARY pri ilege ± Does not alidate directory ± Can¶t use symbolic link 

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 195

3. Map the parameters
This can get complicated, because«
± Must pass extra parameters to designate:
» NULL/NOT NULL state » String length » Maximum allocated length

± Six choices of parameter mode
» » » » » » IN RETURN IN BY REFERENCE RETURN BY REFERENCE OUT IN OUT

These details are better suited for close reading«
PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 196

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Oracle8i New Features Autonomous Transactions Invoker Rights Model Row Level Security 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 197 .

± And the learning curve to take advantage of these features is generally not too steep.page 198 .    Autonomous Transactions The Invoker Rights Model Row level security 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Oracle8i New Features  Oracle8i offers a number of PL/SQL-specific features that give you tremendous additional flexibility and capability.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . msg IN VARCHAR2) AS PRAGMA AUTONOMOUS_TRANSACTION.Autonomous Transactions  Prior to Oracle8i. a COMMIT or ROLLBACK in any program in your session committed or rolled back all changes in your session.page 199 . you can now define a PL/SQL block to execute as an "autonomous transaction".  With Oracle8i. ± There was only one transaction allowed per connection. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE loginfo ( code IN PLS_INTEGER. ± Any changes made within that block can be saved or reversed without affecting the outer or main transaction.

When to Use Autonomous Transactions  Reusable Application Components ± ATs are more or less required in the new distributed application architecture of the Internet. ± One component should not have any impact (esp.  Logging Mechanism ± Commonly developers lot to database tables. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Tracing Code Usage ± Build retry mechanisms. which can cause all sorts of complications: your log entry becomes a part of your transaction.page 200 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . etc.  Call functions within SQL that change the database. ± Now you can avoid the complexities (need for ROLLBACK TO savepoints and so on). software usage meter. something like a COMMIT) on other components.

COMMIT.pkg log81*. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Avoid interdependencies with the main transaction. logger.tst PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .sp log81. END. SYSDATE. USER. USER. let's add some session information.Logging with ATs  Don't forget that ROLLBACK in the exception section! CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY log IS PROCEDURE putline ( code_in IN INTEGER.program ). rec. text_in. END. SYSDATE.pkg retry. rec.machine.page 201 . While we're at it. BEGIN INSERT INTO logtab VALUES (code_in. text_in IN VARCHAR2 ) IS PRAGMA AUTONOMOUS_TRANSACTION. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN ROLLBACK.tst retry.

± You cannot define an entire package as an AT.page 202 .sql autontrigger*.   The AT PRAGMA goes in the body of packages.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Tips and Gotchas with ATs  An AT program must COMMIT or ROLLBACK before terminating.sql auton_in_sql.  Any changes committed in an AT are visible in the outer transaction. ± You can use the SET TRANSACTION ISOLATION LEVEL SERIALIZABLE to indicate that you do not want the changes visible until the outer transaction commits. or an error is raised. The AT PRAGMA can be used only with individual programs and toplevel anonymous blocks. autonserial. ± You cannot define a nested anonymous block to be an AT. ± Place the SET TRANSACTION statement in the outer transaction. ± You cannot tell by looking at the package spec if you are calling ATs or not -and this info is not available in the data dictionary.

± This is called the « Definer Rights Model  With Oracle8i. whenever you executed a stored program. you can now decide at compilation time whether your program or package will execute in the definer's schema (the default) or the schema of the invoker of the code.page 203 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . ± This is called the « Invoker Rights Model PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .The Invoker Rights Model  Prior to Oracle8i. it ran under the privileges of the account in which the program was defined.

OE Code Order_Mgt Place Cancel Sam_Sales Close Old Orders  OE Data X  Orders Cannot alter table directly. Ignores roles and relies on directly-granted privileges. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . But it can be a source of confusion and architectural problems. Note: Oracle built-in packages have long had the capability of running under the invoker's authority.About Definer Rights  Allows you to centralize access to and control of underlying data structures.page 204 .

each user has own copy of table(s)...and now you do! 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Can bypass 8i¶s ³fine-grained´ access features (see the DBMS_RLS package) ± Difficult to audit privileges  Sure would be nice to have a choice. requiring copy of stored module  Security ± No declarative way to restrict privileges on certain modules in a package -.Problems with Definer Rights  Deployment & maintenance ± Must install module in all remote databases where needed ± In some databases.page 205 . unless you write code in the package to essentially recreate roles programmatically.it's all or nothing.

AUTHID goes only in spec. the objects referenced may well be different from those against which it compiled. ± At run-time. You could also create local.page 206 ...  For modules with separate spec and body. and must be at the package level. Synonyms may be necessary if modules use object names not qualified by schema. "dummy" objects. ± In other words.  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Oracle8i Invoker Rights Syntax  For top level modules: CREATE [ OR REPLACE ] <module type> [ AUTHID { DEFINER | CURRENT_USER } ] AS . do what it takes to get the code to compile.

acct_mgr. code. you can execute code owned by another schema."Reflection" Capability of Invoker Rights  With invoker rights..destroy(.. modify destroy ..page 207 . END.... yet have all references to data structures "reflect back" into your own schema..)..FROM accounts WHERE. accounts table 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Central Code schema PACKAGE acct_mgr make AUTHID CURRENT_USER User/Data schema PROCEDURE mng_account IS BEGIN .

the definer rights model is always applied to resolve the reference.sql handy. oneversion.  Information about the rights model is not available in the data dictionary What if you want to maintain a single version of your code for both pre-Oracle8i and Oracle8i installations.Tips and Gotchas for Invoker Rights  Does not apply to code objects.sql  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Note: cannot use with wrapped code. all other calls in stack are resolved according to definer rights.page 208 . taking advantage of the invoker rights model whenever possible? ± A creative use of SQL*Plus substitution variables comes in very invdefinv. only data ± When your stored code references another stored code element.  Once a definer rights program is called. ± Both static and dynamic SQL is supported. ± AUTHID CURRENT_USER is ignored.

authid. National HQ Check City Statistics New York Schema stolenlives Chicago Schema stolenlives  Especially handy with dynamic SQL. but you want their own directly-granted privileges to determine access.sql whichsch*.When to Invoke Invoker Rights  You want to reuse the same code among many users.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 209 . ± Share a program that uses dynamic SQL (whether DBMS_SQL or the new native implementation) and you end up taking the most unexpected DDL and DML detours.

HQ Chicago Check City Statistics  New York stolenlives Analyze Pattern stolenlives perpetrators perp.Combining Invoker & Definer Rights  Rely on invoker rights to allow centralized code to work with schema-specific data. Rely on definer rights to access centralized data from any schema.page 210 .sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Row Level Security DBMS_RLS Row-Level Security 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 211 .

you could achieve this only partially through the use of views. The DBMS_RLS package (along with "system contexts") now allow you to do so in a foolproof manner. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . with which to implement automated row-level security (also referred to as "fine grained access control"). Row Level Security  The establishment of security policies on (restricted access to) individual rows of a table.Row-Level Security with DBMS_RLS  Oracle8i offers a new package. Prior to Oracle8i.page 212   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . DBMS_RLS.

their context information is set properly.  Security Policy Packages ± You will need to write a package containing functions that establish the security policies to be applied to a particular table.  Let's step through a simple example to see how all these pieces tie together.  Database Logon Triggers ± I want to make sure that when a person logs in. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 213 .  DBMS_RLS ± Use programs in DBMS_RLS to associate your security policies with tables.Components Needed for RLS  System Contexts ± A new feature in Oracle8i. the system context is a named set of attributevalue pairs global to your session.

sql  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . No more for-profit hospitals pulling billions of dollars out of the system.A National Health Care System  The year is 2010. all children are vaccinated. no more private insurance companies soaking up 30 cents on the dollar. highly secure database for NHCS.  We need a top-notch. fgac. ± Regulators can only see patients who reside in the same state. ± A massive. The main tables are patient. clinic and regulator. all pregnant women receive excellent prenatal care. Here are some rules: ± Doctors can only see patients who are assigned to their clinic. doctor.page 214 . ± Patients can only see information about themselves. popular uprising in the United States has forced the establishment of a national healthcare system.

doc_rec doc_cur%ROWTYPE. CREATE CONTEXT patient_restriction USING nhc_pkg. and create a procedure that will set the context attributes (type and ID) upon login. c_person_type_attr. BEGIN OPEN doc_cur.Set the Context  Define a context in the database. FETCH doc_cur INTO doc_rec.sql for logic that identifies SELECT doctor_id FROM doctor different types of people and WHERE schema_name = USER.SET_CONTEXT ( 'patient_restriction'. sets the context accordingly.doctor_id). PROCEDURE set_context IS This is a simplification. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . DBMS_SESSION. END.SET_CONTEXT ( 'patient_restriction'. c_person_id_attr. 'DOCTOR'). doc_rec.page 215 . See CURSOR doc_cur IS fgac. DBMS_SESSION.

name_in VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2 IS l_context VARCHAR2(100) := Extract the context SYS_CONTEXT (c_context. ''' || clause for each type of c_person_id_attr || '''))'. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 216 .Define the Predicate  A predicate is a string that will be appended to the WHERE clause of the table to which this security policy is associated (see next page). c_person_type_attr). BEGIN IF l_context = 'DOCTOR' THEN retval := 'home_clinic_id IN (SELECT home_clinic_id FROM doctor We need a different string WHERE doctor_id = SYS_CONTEXT (''' || to modify the WHERE c_context || '''. connection. information for this retval VARCHAR2(2000). person. FUNCTION person_predicate ( schema_in VARCHAR2.

person_predicate'.PATIENT table will be modified by the string returned by the person_predicate function of the SCOTT.ADD_POLICY procedure.page 217 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . update or delete against the SCOTT. 'patient'. ± The following procedure call specifies that the WHERE clause of any query. 'SELECT.nhc_pkg package. 'SCOTT'.Create the Security Policy  Use the DBMS_RLS.ADD_POLICY OBJECT_SCHEMA OBJECT_NAME POLICY_NAME FUNCTION_SCHEMA POLICY_FUNCTION STATEMENT_TYPES END. 'nhc_pkg. 'patient_privacy'.UPDATE. BEGIN DBMS_RLS.DELETE'). ( => => => => => => 'SCOTT'.

we guarantee that the context is set (and the predicate applied) no matter which product is the entry point to Oracle.set_context. CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER set_id_on_logon AFTER LOGON ON DATABASE BEGIN nhc_pkg. logon is disabled. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN DBMS_OUTPUT. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .sql Exception handling in trigger is critical! If you allow an exception to go unhandled. END. fgac.Create Logon Trigger. Setting Context  By setting the context in the logon trigger.PUT_LINE ( 'Error ' || SQLCODE || ' setting context for ' || USER').page 218 .

'person_id')) Patients Visible to "SWALLACE": CSILVA . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Queries Transparently Filtered  What you see is determined automatically by who you are.page 219 .Chris Silva .Veva Silva .IL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Patient sees only himself.IL VSILVA . Predicate: home_clinic_id IN (SELECT home_clinic_id FROM doctor WHERE doctor_id = SYS_CONTEXT ('patient_restriction'.Chris Silva . Context Information for "SWALLACE": Type: DOCTOR Doctor sees only her ID: 1060 patients.IL Context Information for "CSILVA": Type: PATIENT ID: Predicate: schema_name = 'CSILVA' Patients Visible to "CSILVA": CSILVA .

and you use only what you know.page 220 . March.. Jump out of your rut . It's so easy to fall into a rut with a programming language.and play a new tune with PL/SQL! 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . May.Take Full Advantage of PL/SQL! January... April.  ± You learn what you need to get the job done..... February....

If time permits«)     UTL_FILE ± file IO DBMS_JOB ± Job scheduling DBMS_PIPE ± Pipe-based communication DBMS_UTILITY ± the kitchen sink package 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .a.Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Appendices (a.page 221 .k..

Built-in Packages: UTL_FILE UTL_FILE Server-side File I/O Application FOPEN GET_LINE PUT_LINE ..page 222 .. Physical Files 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

± No higher-level file operations supported (change privileges. ± Maximum of 1023 bytes per line (read or write) until Oracle 8. copy. random access to contents).5. no use of environmental variables). when it jumps to 32K. ± Limitations on files you can access (no mapped files.0.   But you can read lines from a file and write lines to a file.. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .UTL_FILE: Server-side I/O  Allows you to read from and write to operating system files on the database server.. A "version 1" (fairly primitive) utility. delete.page 223 .

page 224 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . Puts formatted text into the buffer PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .UTL_FILE Module Outline FCLOSE FCLOSE_ALL FFLUSH FOPEN GET_LINE IS_OPEN NEW_LINE PUT PUT_LINE PUTF Close the specified file Close all open files in your session Flush all data from the UTL_FILE buffer to your file Open a file Get the next line from a file Returns TRUE if the file is open (sort of) Insert a new line character in file at the end of current line Puts text into the UTL_FILE buffer Puts text and new line character into UTL_FILE buffer.

no trailing delimiter. ± You do this by adding lines to the instance parameter file.Authorizing Directory Access  Oracle requires you to list explicitly those directories you wish to be able to read/write with UTL_FILE. there is no subdirectory recursion). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . ± No single or double quotes around directory.  Follow these rules to avoid many headaches. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Use a separate entry for each directory (and subdirectory.page 225 Allows read & write for current directory. utl_file_dir = * Allows read & write for any directory. utl_file_dir = /tmp utl_file_dir = /accounts/newdev  And don't do either of the following: utl_file_dir = .

page 226 . BEGIN /* Change the directory name to one to which you at least || THINK you have read/write access. So before you write anything fancy. 'test.PUT_LINE (fid.FILE_TYPE. modify your initialization file. */ fid := UTL_FILE. 'W'). / utlfile. 'hello').tst  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Test UTL_FILE Access  About the hardest part to working with UTL_FILE is simply getting started. UTL_FILE.txt'.FCLOSE (fid). END. UTL_FILE. and then run the following test script (it can't get much simpler than this): DECLARE fid UTL_FILE. restart your database.FOPEN ('c:\temp'.

'W' for Write and 'A' for Append. BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE.Opening a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE..FILE_TYPE.page 227 .. Test to see if file is open with the IS_OPEN function.txt'. 'W'). ± In actuality.   Maximum of 10 files may be opened in each user session.  Specify file location. name and operation type. 'test.  The FOPEN function returns a record ("file handle") based on the UTL_FILE. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .FOPEN ('c:\temp'. END. ± Types are 'R' for Read.FILE_TYPE. ± Currently contains a single ID field. Not much of a test. this function simply returns TRUE if the file handle's id field is NOT NULL.

± You might want to build your own GET_LINE which handles the exception and returns an EOF Boolean status flag. ± In Oracle8 Release 8.GET_LINE (fid. END.FOPEN ('c:\temp'. myline). 'R').5 and above.0. getnext.FILE_TYPE.Reading from a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE. BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE. 'test.FCLOSE (fid). UTL_FILE. UTL_FILE. the ceiling is raised to 32K.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  The NO_DATA_FOUND exception is raised if you read past the end of the file.   Can only read from a file opened with the "R" mode.page 228 .txt'. Lines in the file cannot be longer than 1023 bytes in length.

PUT_LINE or PUTF. UTL_FILE.PUT (fid. END.txt'. ± The file buffers are automatically flushed when you close a file or exit your session. allowing for some formatting. UTL_FILE is so much fun that I never want to stop Resulting Text  You can use PUT. UTL_FILE. 'test. '&1').PUT_LINE (fid. 'UTL_FILE').Writing to a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.FCLOSE (fid). ± PUTF is like the C printf program.PUTF (fid. BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE.FOPEN ('c:\temp'. 'is so much fun'). UTL_FILE. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ' that I never\nwant to %s'. 'W').  Call FFLUSH to make sure that everything you have written to the buffer is flushed out to the file. UTL_FILE.page 229 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .FILE_TYPE.

UTL_FILE.GET_LINE (fid. UTL_FILE.txt'. You should close files in exception handlers to make sure that files are not left "hanging" open.Closing a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.FOPEN ('c:\temp'.FCLOSE (fid). EXCEPTION WHEN UTL_FILE.page 230   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . you will not see the data you have (supposedly) written to that file.FILE_TYPE. 'test. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 'R'). END.READ_ERROR THEN UTL_FILE.  If you do not close the file. You can close a single file with FCLOSE or all open files with FCLOSE_ALL.FCLOSE (fid). BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE. myline).

page 231 . EXCEPTION. ± UTL_FILE-named exceptions in other cases. EXCEPTION. EXCEPTION. ± They all share a common SQLCODE of 1.  You have to take special care to trap and handle the named exceptions. ± NO_DATA_FOUND when you try to read past the end of the file.Error Handling in UTL_FILE PACKAGE UTL_FILE IS invalid_path invalid_mode invalid_filehandle invalid_operation read_error write_error internal_error END. EXCEPTION. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . EXCEPTION. EXCEPTION. EXCEPTION.  UTL_FILE relies on a combination of user-defined exceptions and STANDARD exceptions to communicate errors.

c_internal_error). WHEN UTL_FILE. RAISE.READ_ERROR THEN recNgo (PLVfile. RAISE. RAISE.c_write_error). WHEN UTL_FILE. WHEN UTL_FILE. Re-raise exception if you want it to propagate from that block. translating the generic user-defined exception into an understandable message.sql  Trap locally by name.INTERNAL_ERROR THEN recNgo (PLVfile.INVALID_FILEHANDLE THEN recNgo (PLVfile.Recommended Exception Section EXCEPTION WHEN UTL_FILE.c_invalid_operation).c_invalid_path). WHEN UTL_FILE.page 232  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .INVALID_OPERATION THEN recNgo (PLVfile.c_invalid_filehandle).INVALID_MODE THEN recNgo (PLVfile.INVALID_PATH THEN recNgo (PLVfile. WHEN UTL_FILE.c_read_error).c_invalid_mode). RAISE. RAISE. END. RAISE. RAISE. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .WRITE_ERROR THEN recNgo (PLVfile. record the error. WHEN UTL_FILE. utlflexc.

Background Process DBA_JOBS Oracle Job Queue Subsystem 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ...page 233 .Built-in Packages: DBMS_JOB DBMS_JOB Scheduled Execution of Stored Procedures Application SUBMIT RUN REMOVE .

± Spawn background processes to avoid blocking client process. Schedule regular maintenance on instances. Made its debut in PL/SQL Release 2.1. You can use DBMS_JOB to: Replicate data between different database instances.2. Create a listener program to poll the contents of a pipe and take action. Schedule large batch jobs to run on "off hours".Overview of DBMS_JOB  DBMS_JOB provides an API to the Oracle job queues.page 234 . which in turn offers job scheduling capabilities within the Oracle Server. Built by Oracle to support snapshots and replication. ± ± ± ±    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . but only ³publicly available´ and supported in PL/SQL Release 2.

Changes the interval between executions of a job. Changes the job string of a job. Broken jobs will not run as scheduled. Changes one or all attributes of a job. Returns the job string for a job number. Changes when a queued job will run.page 235 CHANGE INTERVAL ISUBMIT NEXT_DATE REMOVE RUN SUBMIT USER_EXPORT WHAT 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . Submits a job to the queue using a predefined job number. Forces immediate execution of the specified job number.DBMS_JOB Module Outline BROKEN Marks the job as either FIXED or BROKEN. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Removes the job from the queue. Submits a job to the queue returning a unique job number.

instead of having DBMS_JOB generate one for you. I run calculate_totals immediately and then on a daily basis thereafter. you specify the date on which it should next execute. END. ± In the above example. Notice that the start time is a DATE expression. 'calculate_totals.'.SUBMIT (job#.Submitting a Job DECLARE job# BINARY_INTEGER. and then the job¶s execution interval (frequency of execution). 'SYSDATE + 1'). SYSDATE.  When you submit a job.  A job is a call to a stored procedure or an anonymous block ± It must end with a semi-colon and can contain ³hard-coded´ arguments.ISUBMIT and supply the job number. BEGIN DBMS_JOB.page 236 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . while the interval is a string (this is dynamic PL/SQL!)  You can also call DBMS_JOB. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

ANALYZE_OBJECT. next_date => TRUNC (SYSDATE + 1).Submit Job Example DECLARE v_jobno INTEGER. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .l (v_jobno). END.ANALYZE_OBJECT ' || '(''TABLE''.''LOAD1''. to analyze a specific table every evening at midnight.''ESTIMATE''.'.submit ( job => v_jobno. DBMS_DDL. interval => 'TRUNC(SYSDATE+1)' ).page 237 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . what => 'DBMS_DDL.estimate_percent=>50).null. /  This block submits a job that uses a built-in procedure.''TENK''' || '. p. BEGIN DBMS_JOB.

null).' .'BEGIN null.ISUBMIT (2. executes for the first time tomorrow and every 10 minutes thereafter.'. DBMS_JOB.ISUBMIT (job => 1 .page 238 . END.ISubmit Job Example BEGIN DBMS_JOB. 'my_job2(date_IN=>SYSDATE). DBMS_JOB. runs it in one hour and executes every day thereafter. numbered 1. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .' .2. executes immediately.interval => 'SYSDATE +1').120).'SYSDATE+10/1440'). and will be removed from the queue automatically.SYSDATE+1.ISUBMIT(3. /  This block submits three jobs to the job queue.next_date => SYSDATE + 1/24 .DBMS_JOB. END. ± Job 3 is a PL/SQL block which does nothing. and 3.SYSDATE.what => 'my_job1(''string_parm_value''. ± Job 1 passes a string and number into procedure MY_JOB1. ± Job 2 passes a date into procedure MY_JOB2.

''MONDAY'') + 9/24' 'TRUNC (LEAST ( NEXT_DAY (SYSDATE. at 9 AM Every Monday. Wednesday and Friday at 6 PM 'SYSDATE + 1/24' 'NEXT_DAY (TRUNC (SYSDATE). ''MONDAY''). ± Since it's a string. NEXT_DAY (SYSDATE. ''FRIDAY''))) + 18/24' PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 3). ''Q''). ± Use date arithmetic to request intervals smaller than a day. you must use 2 single quotes to embed strings. ''SATURDAY'') 2/24' 'NEXT_DAY ( ADD_MONTHS (TRUNC (SYSDATE. NEXT_DAY (SYSDATE. Every hour Every Sunday at 2 AM First Monday of each quarter.page 239 + 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . ''WEDNESDAY'').Specifying Job Times & Frequencies  Probably the most complicated part of using DBMS_JOB is to get the string expression of the job interval right.

Other Job Queue Operations  Remove a job from the queue.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .RUN (my_job#). ± Produces a string that can be used to recreate an existing job in the job queue. ± Performs an implicit COMMIT in current session.job).page 240 . ± Uses DBMS_JOB.ISUBMIT. Remove all jobs for current schema.  Export jobs from the queue. ± Only if the job was submitted from same schema BEGIN FOR rec IN (SELECT * FROM USER_JOBS) LOOP DBMS_JOB. END LOOP. expjob.  Run a job immediately. retaining current job number.REMOVE (rec. DBMS_JOB.

SELECT jr.job ORDER BY jr.page 241 .sid = jr.DBA_JOBS .what job_id username start_date job_definition jr j s showjobs. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Job Queue Views  You can also view the job queue by looking at the DBA_JOBS_RUNNING.this_date .job .sid AND jr.jr. who owns them and when they began.job = j. DBA_JOBS and USER_JOBS views.username . ± The following query blends job information with session information to display currently-executing jobs.this_date.sql FROM DBA_JOBS_RUNNING .V$SESSION WHERE s.

of one hour).page 242 . The valid range is 0 through 36. The valid range is 1 to 3600 (a maximum. therefore. ± The default is PUBLIC access.  You will need to set three parameters in the init.ora (initialization) file for your database instance: ± job_queue_processes=N where n is the number of concurrent background processes permitted. You will have to take special DBA action if you want to restrict who can run jobs. ± job_queue_interval=N where N is the interval in seconds to check the job queue. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Setting up the Job Facility  Make sure that the correct access is set up for the DBMS_JOB package.

Error Handling with DBMS_JOB  What if your stored procedure fails? ± After 16 attempts. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . it may cause the background processes to fail and no longer run any jobs at all. ± Do you want it to try 16 times? ± In addition. Then you can go ahead and submit it. the job facility will mark your job as broken.page 243 . if your failure raises an unhandled exception. ± Always include a WHEN OTHERS exception handler in your job program which traps any and all problems and automatically sets the job status to broken.  To avoid unexpected and unhandled failures of scheduled jobs: ± Always use the RUN built-in to execute your job in a ³test´ mode.

job (µcalc_totals¶) DBMS_JOB. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN job# := job_pkg.sql  The WHEN OTHERS exception handler of the calc_totals procedure traps any kind of failure.page 244 . job_pkg. END.BROKEN (job#.log (µcalc_totals¶. ± Obtains the job number from a packaged function by passing the name of the procedure. ± Now the job facility will not try to run this program again. You can go in and fix the problem. ± Calls log program of package to record that failure took place.sql showspc. µFAIL¶).. TRUE).. spacelog. ± Uses a call to BROKEN to set the status of the job to ³broken´. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Stopping the Job When It Fails PROCEDURE calc_totals IS BEGIN .

it picks up the current execution environment for the user. If you find that you submit a job to run immediately and it does not start. perform a COMMIT after your submit.page 245 . You can use the DBMS_IJOB to manage the jobs of other users. When a job runs. ± DBMS_JOB only allows you to modify characteristics and behavior of jobs submitted by the current schema. ± We've noticed some aberrant."Good to Knows" for DBMS_JOB  You may find it useful to always wrap your stored procedure call (the what) inside a BEGIN-END block. difficult to reproduce behavior at times with "straight" procedure calls.  You will need to fully-qualify all database links (with user name and password) to get them to work properly.    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

page 246 .Built-in Packages: DBMS_PIPE DBMS_PIPE Inter-session Communication 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

± Perform and commit DML in a separate transaction space from your main transaction.  Uses for DBMS_PIPE include: ± Parallelization of program execution. You can parallelize your own code.DBMS_PIPE Overview  Allows communication between different Oracle sessions through a pipe in the RDBMS Shared Global Area. ± Interface PL/SQL-database activities with operating system functions and programs written in other languages. ± More sophisticated debugging inside PL/SQL programs (work around fundamental limitations of DBMS_OUTPUT). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 247 . ± Operates outside of database transaction limitations. Oracle uses database pipes to parallelize database operations.

They are reserved for Oracle use). ± The pipe sends/receives a message. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 248 . which can be composed of one or more separate packets.Architecture of DBMS_PIPE Shared Global Area ³Sue´ ³Bob´ Message Buffer Message Buffer Session A  Session B A pipe is a named object that uses the System Global Area to provide a non-transaction based conduit of information. ± Names can be up to 128 chars long (do not use names beginning with ³ORA$´. using a maximum of 4096 bytes.

sql PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± If there isn¶t currently room in the pipe. ± There is just one message buffer per session. date or number).page 249 . number.sql pipex2. ± Separate out the individual packets in the message (again: string.Processing Flow of DBMS_PIPE  Construct a message from packets of information.  Send the message to a named pipe. so you should always specify a timeout period. ± Each packet can be a string.  Receive a message from that pipe. you can wait for up to 1000 days (or 86400000 seconds) for the pipe to be cleared.  Unpack the message packets and take action. date. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein pipex1. ROWID or RAW. ± This is the default. ± You can wait for up to 1000 days for a message.

PACK_MESSAGE Packs an item into the message buffer for your session. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .DBMS_PIPE Module Outline Module Name CREATE_PIPE Description Creates a PUBLIC or PRIVATE pipe. SEND_MESSAGE Sends contents of message buffer to the specified pipe.page 250 . making it a candidate for removal with a LRU algorithm. PURGE Empties the contents of a pipe into your local buffer freeing it for removal. REMOVE_PIPE RESET_BUFFER Removes a pipe explicitly created via CREATE_PIPE. UNIQUE_SESSION_NAME Returns name that is unique among all sessions in the database. UNPACK_MESSAGE Unpacks the next item from the local message buffer and deposits it into the specified local variable. NEXT_ITEM_TYPE Returns the datatype of the next item in the piped message. Clears your buffer so that PACK_MESSAGE and UNPACK_MESSAGE can work from the first item. RECEIVE_MESSAGE Receives a message from pipe and copies to local buffer.

PROCEDURE newpipe IS stat INTEGER. ± Use CREATE_PIPE to create a pipe explicitly.CREATE_PIPE ( pipename => 'bbs'. ± Send messages to non-existent pipe implicitly create it. ± Specify TRUE for private argument of CREATE_PIPE.page 251 .  An explicit pipe can be private (accessible only to sessions with matching userID or SYSDBA privileges).  A public pipe is accessible as long as you know its name. maxpipesize => 20000. private => TRUE). ± Implicitly-created pipes are always public.Creating Public and Private Pipes  There are two ways to create pipes: implicitly and explicitly. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . BEGIN stat := DBMS_PIPE.

60. pipe_stat := DBMS_PIPE.Sending a Message Provide pipe name. FOR month_num IN 1 . waiting up to 1 minute. FUNCTION send_message (pipename IN VARCHAR2.PACK_MESSAGE ( total_sales (month_num)). but not smaller). maxpipesize IN INTEGER DEFAULT 8192) RETURN INTEGER. seconds you will wait. 10 * 4096). timeout IN INTEGER DEFAULT maxwait..SEND_MESSAGE ( µmonthly¶. 12 LOOP DBMS_PIPE.page 252 . IF pipe_stat != 0 THEN RAISE could_not_send. Send to "monthly" pipe. expanding pipe size to 40 Kbytes. Status of 0 means message was sent. and new max pipe size (you can make it bigger. END LOOP. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Fill your message buffer with packets of data. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Receiving and Unpack a Message FUNCTION receive_message (pipename IN VARCHAR2. ± Pipe status of 0 means the message was read successfully. timeout IN INTEGER DEFAULT maxwait) RETURN INTEGER.  Then you call UNPACK_MESSAGE to extract individual packets from the message. PROCEDURE unpack_message (item OUT NUMBER).  First you pull the message from the pipe and place it in buffer with RECEIVE_MESSAGE.page 253 . ± Specify pipe and number of seconds you will wait before you time out. ± You need to know the datatype of packet or check it using NEXT_ITEM_TYPE. PROCEDURE unpack_message (item OUT VARCHAR2). PROCEDURE unpack_message (item OUT DATE). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

'Production data unavailable. every_n_secs).UNPACK_MESSAGE (prod_total). If I got something.page 254 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . data not received.'). pass it on to the IF pipe_status = 0 computation THEN program. END LOOP. ELSE RAISE_APPLICATION_ERROR ( Stop process if -20000. seconds for the BEGIN next report. LOOP pipe_status := DBMS_PIPE. PROCEDURE analyze_assembly_data (every_n_secs IN INTEGER) IS pipe_status INTEGER. Wait up to N prod_total NUMBER.RECEIVE_MESSAGE ( 'production'. analyze_production (SYSDATE. DBMS_PIPE. END IF. END.A Pipe-based Listener Program  Program wakes up every N seconds to read the data from the pipe and analyze results from assembly line (an intentional "infinite loop"!). prod_total).

Either: ± You know the datatype and therefore can ³hard-code´ the correct variable into the call to UNPACK_MESSAGE.tst  Since a message can be composed of packets of different datatypes.page 255 . ± Or you use the built-in NEXT_ITEM_TYPE to tell you in advance the datatype of the next packet in the message and take appropriate action.sql dbpipe. Returns one of the following values: Value 0 6 9 11 12 23 Description or Data type No more items in buffer NUMBER VARCHAR2 ROWID DATE RAW dbpipe.Unpacking the Message FUNCTION next_item_type RETURN INTEGER. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . you have to make sure that you unpack a packet into the right kind of variable.

± You have processes which can run in parallel. ± These programs each take 15 minutes. but are not dependent on each other. total office expenses and total compensation.page 256 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . I must execute them sequentially and incur an elapsed time of 45 minutes before I calculate the profits. ± The CEO is decidedly unhappy about the delay.  Without pipes. you can do the same for your application if: ± You have multiple CPUs available.Parallelizing Your Code with Pipes  Oracle uses DBMS_PIPE to improve RDBMS performance. In order to do so I must first compute total sales.  Suppose I want to calculate my net profit.

page 257 . Parallel Execution Sequential Execution: Maximum Elapsed Time S t a r t E n d Process A Process B Process C Parallel Execution: Minimum Elapsed Time Start Process A Process B Process C End 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Sequential vs.

kick_off_totcomp_calc.  The ³wait´ program waits till it receives a message from each program.page 258 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .  The ³kick off´ programs pass their messages to separate pipes. it puts a message (perhaps even a value) into the pipe. calculate_net_profits. kick_off_exp_calc. Then net profits can be computed -.in a muchdecreased elapsed time. END. ± Other programs running in the background grab the messages and start their corresponding calculation program. wait_for_confirmation. ± When each program is complete. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Parallelizing PL/SQL Execution BEGIN kick_off_sales_calc.

END. BEGIN DBMS_PIPE. ELSE DBMS_PIPE.page 259 . calculate sales. DBMS_PIPE.SEND_MESSAGE (µsales¶). END IF. END.SEND_MESSAGE (µsales¶). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Send message to start calculations. Receive the year. stat := DBMS_PIPE.PACK_MESSAGE (NULL).SEND_MESSAGE (µsales¶). and send back the results. BEGIN stat := DBMS_PIPE.Code to Kick Off and Calculate PROCEDURE kick_off_sales_calc IS stat INTEGER.RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µsales¶). stat := DBMS_PIPE. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . IF stat = 0 THEN lots_of_number_crunching. stat := DBMS_PIPE.PACK_MESSAGE (1995).PACK_MESSAGE (sales$). PROCEDURE calculate_sales IS stat INTEGER.

stat := DBMS_PIPE. BEGIN stat := DBMS_PIPE.UNPACK_MESSAGE (sales$).UNPACK_MESSAGE (offexp$).RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µoffexp¶).sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .UNPACK_MESSAGE (comp$). Wait for all calculations to finish. DBMS_PIPE. Perform final calculation.Waiting for Confirmation PROCEDURE wait_for_confirmation IS stat INTEGER. parallel.RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µcomp¶).offexp$ .RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µsales¶). stat := DBMS_PIPE. END. The order in which you wait is insignificant.comp$. PROCEDURE calculate_net_profits IS BEGIN net_profits := sales$ . DBMS_PIPE.page 260 . END. DBMS_PIPE.

tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± A request for data is passed to a "central" pipe.page 261 . ± Demonstrates the use of toggles and switches in packages. watch.pkg syscache. ± A listener program grabs the request (including the return pipe name). obtains the data. syscache.Other DBMS_PIPE Examples  Simple trace package that sends it output either to screen or to pipe. ± The requester reads the information from the pipe.pkg p_and_l.pkg  Implementation of a system-wide. and sends it to the pipe. in-memory cache.

Built-in Packages: DBMS_UTILITY DBMS_UTILITY Application GET_TIME GET_HASH_VALUE FORMAT_CALL_STACK .page 262 .. A µgrab-bag¶ of miscellaneous operations SCHEMA 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..

pkg COMMA_TO_TABLE COMPILE_SCHEMA DATA_BLOCK_ADDRESS_BLOCK DATA_BLOCK_ADDRESS_FILE DB_VERSION EXEC_DDL_STATEMENT FORMAT_CALL_STACK FORMAT_ERROR_STACK GET_HASH_VALUE 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .DBMS_UTILITY Module Outline ANALYZE_DATABASE ANALYZE_PART_OBJECT Analyze objects in database Runs ANALYZE TABLE or ANALYZE INDEX for each partition of the object (Oracle8). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Recompile INVALID objects in specified schema. Returns error stack. Returns database version (Oracle8) Executes DDL statement (Oracle8). Returns hash value for string.pkg dbparm. Gets file number part of data block address. Parses comma-delimited list to index-by table.page 263 dbver. Returns execution call stack. Gets block number part of data block address.

Resolves name of object into component parts. GET_PARAMETER_VALUE GET_TIME IS_PARALLEL_SERVER MAKE_DATA_BLOCK_ADDRESS NAME_RESOLVE NAME_TOKENIZE PORT_STRING TABLE_TO_COMMA Retrieves value of database parameter (Oracle8). Returns platform and version of database. Returns TRUE if in parallel server mode. Returns "current time" down to hundredth of second.DBMS_UTILITY Module Outline.page 264 . cont. Converts list (in index-by-table) of elements into a comma-delimited list (string). Parses string object designator into components. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Creates data block address from block & file numbers.

PUT_LINE (DBMS_UTILITY. ± Useful when analyzing individual PL/SQL programs.v_start). DBMS_OUTPUT.Sub-Second Timings with GET_TIME  GET_TIME returns the number of 100ths of seconds that have elapsed since an arbitrary point in time. calc_totals.  Compare results from consecutive calls to GET_TIME to determine the elapsed time of PL/SQL code execution. ± SYSDATE only reflects times down to the nearest second. BEGIN v_start := DBMS_UTILITY. so GET_TIME offers significant additional granularity. especially those that run in sub-second time. DECLARE v_start BINARY_INTEGER. END.GET_TIME.page 265 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Basic steps necessary to convert GET_TIME into a performance analysis tool.GET_TIME .

PROCEDURE turn_off. Clean and lean timing code ovrhead.spb 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .sql plvtmr. END PLVtmr.page 266 . adjust_in IN NUMBER := 0. reset_in IN BOOLEAN := TRUE).Building a Layer Over GET_TIME Partial package specification PACKAGE PLVtmr IS PROCEDURE turn_on.capture. END.sps plvtmr. calc_totals. PROCEDURE set_factor (factor_in IN NUMBER). PROCEDURE capture ( context_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) PROCEDURE show_elapsed (prefix_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. PLVtmr. BEGIN PLVtmr.show_elapsed.

± Does not show package elements.Accessing the Execution Call Stack Use in the exception section to show context of error.FORMAT_CALL_STACK).VALIDATE_REQUEST function STEVEN.PL/SQL Call Stack ----object line object handle number name 88ce3f74 88e49fc4 88e49390 88e2bd20 8 2 1 1 package STEVEN.page 267 . EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN DBMS_OUTPUT.CALC_NET_WORTH anonymous block  "Little known facts" about FORMAT_CALL_STACK: ± Contains embedded new-line characters. equivalent to CHR(10). only the package name. END.PUT_LINE ( DBMS_UTILITY. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ----. ± Most recent program at beginning of "report".COMPANY_TYPE procedure STEVEN.

tst callstack. dispcs.PUT_LINE (next_line).page 268 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . 1). next_newline . LOOP next_newline := INSTR (stk.startpos + 1). END LOOP. startpos := next_newline + 1. next_newline INTEGER. startpos. which means you cannot pass it to DBMS_OUTPUT directly.FORMAT_CALL_STACK || CHR(10). BEGIN stk := DBMS_UTILITY. CHR(10).pkg plvcs.Accessing Call Stack Contents  The call stack length can easily exceed 255 bytes. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE dispcs IS stk VARCHAR2(10000). next_line := SUBSTR ( stk. use a loop to read through the stack. next_line VARCHAR2(255). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . startpos. EXIT WHEN next_newline = 0. END.sps DBMS_OUTPUT.sp dispcs. startpos INTEGER := 1. Instead.

object_number OUT NUMBER). part1 OUT VARCHAR2. dblink OUT VARCHAR2.. context IN NUMBER. part2 OUT VARCHAR2. see it as an opportunity. part1_type OUT NUMBER.sp snc.but don't see it as a problem.  Possible "Part 1" Types 5 7 8 9 Synonym Procedure Function Package What a chore! All those arguments. schema OUT VARCHAR2.NAME_RESOLVE (name IN VARCHAR2. the way they are attached also follows a complicated syntax...for encapsulation! showcomp.page 269 .pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . PROCEDURE DBMS_UTILITY.. ± Use NAME_RESOLVE to break down an identifier string into its components easily.Resolving Names of Stored Code  Code names have many components.

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