Achieving PL/SQL Excellence

Oracle PL/SQL Advanced Techniques
Oracle7 thru Oracle8i
Steven Feuerstein
www.StevenFeuerstein.com www.Quest.com www.OReilly.com
and contributions most excellent from Bill Pribyl and Dick Bolz

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 1

Objective & Outline 

Objective
± Expand your knowledge and awareness of important and new features of the PL/SQL language. 

Outline
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± Building with Packages (Oracle7+) PL/SQL Collections (Oracle7 and Oracle8+) Cursor Variables (Oracle7 and Oracle8+) Dynamic SQL: DBMS_SQL and Native Dynamic SQL (8i) Calling Java from PL/SQL (Oracle8i) and C (Oracle8) Oracle Advanced Queuing with DBMS_AQ (Oracle8) Managing Large Objects with DBMS_LOB (Oracle8) Other Oracle8i New Features
» Autonomous Transactions (Oracle8i) » Invoker Rights Model (Oracle8i) » Row Level Security: DBMS_RLS

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 2

Software Used in Training 

PL/Vision: a library of packages installed on top of PL/SQL.
± PL/Vision Lite - use it, copy, change it for free -- unless you build software to be sold commercially. ± Active PL/SQL Knowledge Base: contains PL/Vision Professional, the fully supported and enhanced version. 

Demonstration scripts executed in the training can be found on the RevealNet PL/SQL Pipeline:
± http://www.revealnet.com/Pipelines/PLSQL/index.htm ± Archives surfboard, Miscellaneous, PL/SQL Seminar Files ± See filedesc.doc for a listing of many of the files.
plsql_ides.txt 

The PL/SQL IDE (Integrated Development Environment).
± You no longer have to use SQL*Plus and a crude editor! Choose from among the many listed in plsql_ides.txt.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 3

Achieving PL/SQL Excellence

Building with PL/SQL Packages 
 

Overview Initialization section Overloading

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 4

What is a Package? 

A collection of code elements, from procedures and functions to TYPE, variable and cursor declarations.
± Single-most important structure within PL/SQL, and almost certainly one of the most under-utilized. ± Conceptually very simple, it can take some time to fully grasp the implications and potential of the package. 

The method of choice by Oracle and other software developers for extending the PL/SQL language.
± You will find packages in the database, in Oracle Developer/2000, in Oracle Application Server. 

Let¶s review some of the benefits of packages.
tmr.pkg dbparm.pkg

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 5

± There's a big difference between a bunch of separate programs and a coherent.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Puts more structure and organization in your body of code.page 6 .pkb  Construct very flexible and usable utilities for developers.When to Build a Package  Join physically logically-related code. watch. ± Can lead to performance improvements. package-based "component". te_employee.pkg insga.pks te_employee.pkg  Improve transaction integrity by hiding data structures behind the package interface. ± Instead of writing SQL directly in your programs. custrules. you call the packaged procedures and functions instead.

the first time any package element is referenced. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . no Complete request for packaged element. ± The PL/SQL runtime engine determines when and if this code should be run.page 7 .Package Initialization  The initialization section is a block of code at the end of the package body that is executed once per session. Does the package have an init section? yes Run initialization code. Program references package element the first time in each session.

FUNCTION func RETURN BEGIN END. ± Can have its own exception handling section. In fact. ± Is not required. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . PACKAGE BODY pkg IS PROCEDURE proc IS BEGIN END. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein BEGIN after/outside of any program defined in the pkg.  Useful for: ± Performing complex setting of default or initial values.page 8 .Package Initialization Structure  The initialization section: ± Is defined after and outside of any programs in the package. most packages you build won't have one. ± Confirming that package is properly instantiated. ± Setting up package data which does not change for the duration of a session. BEGIN END pkg.

tb_flag. printer VARCHAR2(60).tst this user. */ 'Y'.page 9 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .pkg init. init. ± Body contains only initialization section. EXCEPTION WHEN NO_DATA_FOUND THEN /* No record for show_lov := show_toolbar := printer := PACKAGE sessinit IS show_lov CHAR(1).. END sessinit. Section  An unusual package! ± Specification contains only variables. PACKAGE BODY sessinit IS /* No declared package elements at all! */ BEGIN /* Get user preferences for this user. */ SELECT lov_flag. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . printer FROM user_config WHERE user_id = USER.  Also a package with many design flaws. show_toolbar. show_toolbar CHAR(1). 'No profile for ' || USER)..Configure Session with Init. WHEN OTHERS THEN RAISE_APPLICATION_ERROR (-20000. defprinter INTO show_lov. 'Y'. END sessinit. 'lpt1'.

fmts(9) := 'MM/DD/YYYY'. fmts(11) := 'YYYYMMDD'. ± The datemgr. . END dt. PLVdate. fmts(12) := 'RRMMDD'. fmts(2) := 'DD-MON-YYYY'.pkg dates. employs several PL/SQL tables to convert strings and to perform date arithmetic.page 10 . Initialization section populates a PL/SQL table.pkg file demonstrates the basic technique (and the reliance on an initialization section) used to achieve this flexibility. fmt_count := 12. fmts(4) := 'MM/DD'.Populate Collections  The PL/Vision Date package. fmts(10) := 'MMDDYYYY'. fmts(3) := 'DD-MON'.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± This increases the flexibility of the date conversion process.. BEGIN fmts(1) := 'DD-MON-RR'.. datemgr.

myproc myproc 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . myproc  Overloading is a critical feature when building comprehensive programmatic interfaces (APIs) or components using packages. ± You can overload modules in any declaration section and in packages. ± If you want others to use your code.page 11 . ± Overloading transfers the "need to know" from the user to the overloaded program. you give two or more programs the same name. you need to make that code as smart and as easy to use as possible.Program Overloading  When you overload programs.

and took functions like TO_CHAR and TO_DATE totally for granted. number_string := TO_CHAR (10000). 'MMDDYY').Overloading in PL/SQL Built-ins  PL/SQL uses overloading in many common functions. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± You just probably never gave it a thought. number_string := TO_CHAR_FROM_NUMBER (10000). Without overloading. you would have to deal with something like this: date_string := TO_CHAR_FROM_DATE (SYSDATE.page 12 . 'MMDDYY'). date_string := TO_CHAR (SYSDATE. ± But Oracle couldn't offer that level of convenience without overloading.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . order or datatype family (CHAR vs. VARCHAR2 is not different enough). IN OUT). There are two different "compile times": ± 1. ± Their formal parameters differ only in datatype and the datatypes are in the same family.How Overloading Works  For two or more modules to be overloaded. ± Arguments differ only in their mode (IN. ± The programs are of different types: procedure and function.page 13 .  Distinguishing characteristics: ± The formal parameters of overloaded modules must differ in number. the compiler must be able to distinguish between the two calls at compile-time. When you compile the package or block containing the overloaded code.  Undistinguishing characteristics: ± Functions differ only in their RETURN datatype. OUT. When you compile programs that use the overloaded code. ± 2.

which one? param_modes.PUT_LINE (only_returns. which one? DBMS_OUTPUT. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . PROCEDURE proc1 (val IN OUT VARCHAR2). Parameter data types cause conflict.page 14 . which one? too_similar.Examples of Invalid Overloadings PACKAGE too_similar IS PROCEDURE calc (reg_in IN CHAR). PACKAGE param_modes IS PROCEDURE proc1 (val IN VARCHAR2).proc1 (v_value). FUNCTION func1 (val IN VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2. Only difference is parameter mode.calc ('123'). PACKAGE only_returns IS FUNCTION func1 (val IN VARCHAR2) RETURN DATE. END only_returns. END too_many_cals. END param_modes. Only difference is function RETURN type. PROCEDURE calc (reg_in IN VARCHAR2).func1 (v_value)).

so much as providing different ways of requesting the same activity. not Value ± A less common application of overloading. In this case.l substitute does an even better job. ± The DBMS_OUTPUT. You use the type of data and not its value to determine which of the overloaded programs should be executed.  Overloading by Type. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Fitting the Program to the User ± To make your code as useful as possible.Overload Wherever Possible  Supporting Many Data Combinations ± Apply the same action to different kinds or combinations of data.page 15 . the overloading does not provide a single name for different activities.PUT_LINE procedure illustrates this technique -and the PL/Vision p. you may construct different versions of the ³same´ program which correspond to different patterns of use.

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 16 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . date_in IN DATE. END p. allowing the user to pass data to the "display engine" without writing "pre-processing" code. PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2. PROCEDURE l (number_in IN NUMBER). PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2. YYYY . number_in IN NUMBER).spb PROCEDURE l (boolean_in IN BOOLEAN). boolean_in IN BOOLEAN). PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2). mask_in IN VARCHAR2 := µMonth DD.sps p.A "Classic" Overloaded Package  Many different datatype combinations. YYYY . PACKAGE p IS PROCEDURE l (date_in IN DATE.HH:MI:SS PM'). p. mask_in IN VARCHAR2 := 'Month DD. PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2.HH:MI:SS PM').

l (SYSDATE). END IF.PUT_LINE (TO_CHAR (SYSDATE.PUT_LINE ('FALSE').Advantage of Extended Overloading ‡ Minimal overloading means lots of extra coding. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . IF print_report_fl THEN DBMS_OUTPUT. p.l ('So what is different?').PUT_LINE (SQLERRM || ': ' || TO_CHAR (SQLCODE))..PUT_LINE ('So what is different?').l (SQLERRM. p. DBMS_OUTPUT. SQLCODE). DBMS_OUTPUT. 'MM/DD/YY HH:MI:SS')).l (print_report_fl). p. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein ‡Extended overloadings are more likely to meet user needs.. p. ELSE DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE ('TRUE').page 17 . DBMS_OUTPUT.

. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Your code is a a more natural "fit" under a variety of requirements. If you take these different circumstances into account when you design your package specification. think about the way it will be used. In my experience.Fitting the Program to the User Writing "unnecessary" code? Time to overload!  A single piece of functionality. ± If you want to write software that is admired.and taken completely for granted. the user of your package can benefit from writing less code. can be applied or needed under very different circumstances. appreciated.page 18   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . few developers are considerate enough of their users to try to anticipate their needs.. such as "display data" or "create a file".

'blah'). Of course. BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE.FCLOSE (fid). UTL_FILE. 'exists.Creating a File for a Quick Touch  Suppose a developer needs to create a file to be used as a "flag" in the operating system. 'W'). ± Here is the code required by UTL_FILE: DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.PUT_LINE (fid. right? WRONG! PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .flg'. ± She doesn't care what's in it. It just needs to be present. UTL_FILE. sometimes you will want to create a file and then perform additional operations.FOPEN ('tmp/flags'.FILE_TYPE. even though you are simply going to close the file immediately after opening it. so this is just the way it has to be.  In other words. you have to declare the record to hold the file handle. END.page 19  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .

TO_CHAR (SYSDATE)). /* Function */ FUNCTION fcreate (file_in IN VARCHAR2.flg').fcreate ('exists. Use as Procedure BEGIN PLVfile. custrules.  Overloading of FCreate PACKAGE PLVfile IS /* Procedure */ PROCEDURE fcreate (file_in IN VARCHAR2. END PLVfile.Procedure and Function Overloaded  Why not overload a "create file" program so that you can pick the one that most closely fits your situation? Consider the PLVfile package of PL/Vision. END.FILE_TYPE.ini'. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Use as Function DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.fcreate ('temp. PLVfile. v_user).FILE_TYPE.page 20 .put_line (fid.pkg PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . line_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL). BEGIN fid := PLVfile. line_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) RETURN UTL_FILE.

you must call the DEFINE_COLUMN procedure to define the datatype of the Nth column in the cursor. ± Pass a string ³name´ of the datatype.page 21 . but the type of data. the user does not need to pass data.  There are three ways to accomplish this: ± Don't overload. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . when you use DBMS_SQL to set up a dynamic query. ± Pass a piece of data of the right type. Define a different program name for each datatype. ± For example."By-Type" Overloading  In some situations.

DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. DBMS_SQL. 2. 1. BEGIN DBMS_SQL..VARCHAR2_TYPE..DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. 2. 1. 'STRING'.func 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..Options for Specifying Column Type  Don't even bother overloading. 1).NUMBER_TYPE).  Nasty hard-coding. DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.. lotsa names. DBMS_SQL. 30).DEFINE_COLUMN ± PLVgen. 30). Pass a named constant. DBMS_SQL. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur..... 'NUMBER').. 30). Lotsa typing. ± DBMS_SQL.  So many program names to remember! Pass a literal value.DEFINE_VARCHAR2_COLUMN (cur. 2...DEFINE_INTEGER_COLUMN (cur..  Now let's look at two examples of overloading by datatype. DBMS_SQL.page 22 .

'a'. 1. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.of the correct type.page 23 .DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.DEFINE_COLUMN procedure defines the datatype of a column. 30).DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.Defining Dynamic SQL Columns  The DBMS_SQL. 2.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.any value -.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.DEFINE_COLUMN. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. ± To make it easier to accomplish this task. 1. v_ename. 30). 1. DBMS_SQL. from the perspective of DBMS_SQL. 2. 30).DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± The three code blocks below are equivalent. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. you only need to pass a value -. USER. DBMS_SQL.GET_TIME). DBMS_SQL. DBMS_UTILITY. 1). 2. v_empno).

any date. please! A number function. the user indicates the type of function to be generated by providing a value. type_in IN DATE). Any number. PROCEDURE func (name_in IN VARCHAR2. any string.page 24 . PROCEDURE func (name_in IN VARCHAR2. any Boolean will do. ± The particular value itself is of no importance. type_in IN VARCHAR2). PACKAGE PLVgen IS PROCEDURE func (name_in IN VARCHAR2. type_in IN NUMBER).func ('total_salary'. please! 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .func ('last_date'. SQL> exec plvgen.Generating Functions by Value  In PLVgen. 1) A date function. SYSDATE) SQL> exec plvgen.

PL/SQL does not sense a conflict with above overloading even though comp_id is a numeric column.The Frustrations of Overloading  Watch out! An overloading can compile successfully. but you might later found out that you cannot actually call any of the overloaded programs. I rely on an anchored type (%TYPE) to establish the datatype of the second calc¶s parameter. PROCEDURE calc (comp_id_IN IN company. ± When I compile profits. PACKAGE profits IS PROCEDURE calc (comp_id_IN IN NUMBER).comp_id%TYPE).  In the above example. END. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 25 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .

like calc_totals shown above? ± If not. sales.  Can I overload two programs which have parameters that differ only by name.calc_total ('NORTHWEST'). how would you do it? (Don't peek at the next page!) BEGIN sales. END.Quiz! Nuances of Overloading PACKAGE sales IS PROCEDURE calc_total (zone_in IN VARCHAR2).calc_total ('ZONE2'). why not? ± If so.pkg ? 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END sales.page 26 . PROCEDURE calc_total (reg_in IN VARCHAR2). sales.

sql  Advantages 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . what => 'DBMS_DDL.'.ANALYZE_OBJECT ' || '(''TABLE''. This is especially useful when working with infrequently used built-in programs.page 27 .''ESTIMATE''. namednot.submit ( job => v_jobno. DBMS_JOB.''TENK''' || '.estimate_percent=>50). ± You can skip over (not specify values for) any IN parameters that have default values.''LOAD1''. next_date => TRUNC (SYSDATE + 1).Using Named Notation <formal parameter name> => <expression>  Explicit association between the formal parameter (the "name") with the actual parameter (the "value"). That way you don't have to know and pass default values. interval => 'TRUNC(SYSDATE+1)'). of named notation include: ± Code is more "self-documenting".null.

originally called PL/SQL tables) ± Nested tables (Oracle8 and above) ± Variable arrays (VARRAYs. Three types of collections: ± Index-by tables (Oracle7 only.page 28 . Oracle8 and above) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence PL/SQL Collections   Collections are single-dimensioned lists of information.

Avoid mutating table errors in database triggers. which are otherwise not supported in PL/SQL Cache data in session-level memory for faster access. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Emulate bi-directional cursors.When to Use Collections  Maintain any kind of list of related information for use in your programs. Improve query performance by avoiding joins.page 29     1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . Build hash tables (custom indexing structures).

Instead.483. this broad range allows you to employ the row number as an intelligent key. DECLARE TYPE inmem_emp_t IS TABLE OF emp%ROWTYPE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. emp_copy inmem_emp_t. ± Sparse » Data does not have to be stored in consecutive rows of information. ± Homogeneous » Data in each row has the same structure.147. ± Available only in PL/SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Index-By Tables TYPE <table_type> IS TABLE OF <datatype> INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER.  Characteristics of an index-by table: ± Unbounded » Practically speaking.647 » You will not actually create tables this large.647 to 2.483. Valid row numbers range: -2.147.page 30 .

Component Selection kid := children (4).pkg children 6306 6412 6904 µBarbara Anne¶ µGary Richard¶ µLisa Marie¶ children (6810) := µAdam Russell. Variable declaration children child_list_type. children 6306 6412 6810 6904 µBarbara Anne¶ µGary Richard¶ µAdam Russell¶ µLisa Nadezhka¶ datemgr.page 31 .Index_by Tables TYPE declaration PACKAGE BODY family IS TYPE child_list_type IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2 (30) INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. children (6904) := 'Lisa Nadezhka'. Error: NO_DATA_FOUND 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

± Unbounded.Nested Tables [CREATE OR REPLACE] TYPE <table_type> IS TABLE OF <datatype> [NOT NULL].147.647 ± Initially dense. but only with explicit EXTEND requests » Practically speaking.  Nested table characteristics ± Homogeneous » Each row contains the same structure of data. birthdays when_t. but can become sparse if you DELETE inner rows ± Available both in PL/SQL and SQL (as a column in a table) ± The order of elements is not preserved in the database 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 32 .483. DECLARE TYPE when_t IS TABLE OF DATE. Valid row numbers range: 1 to 2.

page 33 .Nested Tables CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE child_table_type IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2 (30). kids child_table_type) NESTED TABLE kids STORE AS kids_ntab.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . CREATE TABLE db_family (surname VARCHAR2 (30). For ORACLE's use only db_family surname kids BOLZ BOND Eric Thomas Max Richard Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Marie ntdemo.

 Characteristics of variable arrays: ± Homogeneous » Each row contains the same structure of data. Maximum value: 2.483.647 ± Dense » Never any gaps between defined rows. salaries numbers_t.page 34 .Variable Arrays [CREATE OR REPLACE] TYPE <table_type> IS VARRAY (N) OF <datatype> [NOT NULL]. DECLARE TYPE numbers_t IS VARRAY (10) OF NUMBER. ± Available both in PL/SQL and SQL (as a column in a table) » And the order of elements are preserved in the database.147. ± Variable arrays are actually stored in the DB table 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . can be EXTENDed or TRIMmed. ± Bounded » Upper limit established when the TYPE is defined.

Variable Arrays CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE child_va_type IS VARRAY (8) OF VARCHAR2 (30). db_family surname kids BOLZ BOND 1 Barbara Anne 2 Gary Richard 3 Lisa Marie 1 Eric Thomas 2 Max Richard vademo. CREATE TABLE db_family (surname VARCHAR2 (30).sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 35 . kids child_va_type).

± For index-by tables. a collection. TYPE integer_nt IS TABLE OF INTEGER. you can define the TYPE in the database with a CREATE statement.Defining Collections  First. . or in a PL/SQL declaration section. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE tabtypes IS TYPE integer_ibt IS TABLE OF INTEGER INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± For nested tables and VARRAYs.page 36 . this can only occur in a PL/SQL declaration section.. you define the TYPE of the collection. Best option: package specification. TYPE integer_vat IS VARRAY(10) OF INTEGER. END tabtypes. ± You can declare multiple collections from that TYPE..  Then you declare an instance of that type. from the TYPE.

' || A.Obtaining Collection Information SELECT FROM WHERE AND AND AND A. all_type_attrs A T.page 37 .sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .owner T.elem_type_name = A. 'TMRS_VT') T.type_name. ± The code used to define the collection TYPE  There is no information in the data dictionary available for index-by tables.type_name IN ('NAMES_VT'. colldd.owner = USER T.  ALL_COLL_TYPES ± The types you have created (or have access to) in the database  ALL_TYPE_ATTRS ± Attributes of the data type used in the TYPE definition.attr_name || ' .attr_type_name Attributes all_coll_types T.owner = A.

200. DECLARE TYPE numbers_t IS VARRAY (10) OF NUMBER. it must be initialized.page 38 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . ± Index-by tables are initialized automatically. TYPE defined in PL/SQL TYPE defined in the database Collection used in a table PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Initializing Collections  Before you can use a collection. salary_history numbers_t). / DECLARE -. 300). 200. salaries numbers_t := numbers_t (100. ± Nested tables and VARRAYs are atomically null. BEGIN CREATE TABLE employee_denorm ( employee_id INTEGER. salaries numbers_t := numbers_t (100. empty when declared.Initialize the collection. 300). You must initialize them explicitly with a constructor. BEGIN CREATE TYPE numbers_t IS VARRAY (10) OF NUMBER.

page 39 . total_rev NUMBER).comp_id := 1005. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Collections of Composites  Starting with Oracle 7. the datatype for any of the collection types can also be an object. Here we have a three step process. consider putting TYPEs in database or packages.company_id%TYPE. BEGIN comp_tab(1). ± But you cannot have nested composite datatypes. ± Can easily create an index-by table with the same structure as a database table by declaring a record with %ROWTYPE. DECLARE TYPE comp_rectype IS RECORD (comp_id company. TYPE comp_tabtype IS TABLE OF comp_rectype INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. comp_tab comp_tabtype.3.  Starting with Oracle8. Again. the ³homogeneous´ contents of an index-by table's row can be a record .

a row exists in the table only when a value is assigned to that row.  Especially handy when caching data from relational tables in user memory.  Rows do not have to be defined sequentially. order by date. ± In an index-by table. unless the order in which items are selected is of importance. etc. consider using the row value as "smart data" for your application (primary key.Sparse is Nice  The sparse characteristic of index-by tables and nested tables can be put to good use. ± Instead.page 40 . it is very similar to a database table.). ± In almost every case. your collections will contain a row's worth of information. In this way. ± You should not fill sequentially. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

END. emp_tab emp_tabtype.Transferring DB Table to Collection CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE psemp IS TYPE emp_tabtype IS TABLE OF emp%ROWTYPE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER.page 41 .pkg psemp. END.tst  PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .empno) := rec. Some questions: ± Why would I put this collection table in a package? ± When is the collection loaded with the data? ± What rows in that collection are utilized? psemp. END LOOP. Initialization section of package 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein  This package moves the entire contents of the emp table into its corresponding collection. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY psemp IS BEGIN FOR rec IN (SELECT * FROM emp) LOOP emp_tab (rec.

Collection Gotchas CREATE TYPE names_t IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2(30). / DECLARE greedy_ceos names_t := names_t (). END. the row exists. ± Not necessary for index-by tables. ± Use the EXISTS method to determine if a row existed.page 42 . Jordan'. / Error -6533! You've got to EXTEND first!  EXTEND before assigning a value to a row. once extended. even if you haven't assigned a value explicitly. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± For VARRAYs and nested tables. but you must do it for VARRAYs and nested tables. you must reference existing rows or a NO_DATA_FOUND exception is raised. BEGIN greedy_ceos(1) := 'Hamilton.  For index-by tables.

optional argument. BEGIN IF salaries. END IF.EXTEND (10. ELSE DBMS_OUTPUT. ± Assign a default value with a second. salaries.Handling Collection Gotchas BEGIN -.').page 43 .EXISTS (v_employee_id) THEN -.We are OK.  You can EXTEND one or more rows. preextend.PUT_LINE ('Data for employee not available.FIRST)).Set the value of each new row to the contents of the first row. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . -.tst  Include a handler for NO_DATA_FOUND or use the EXISTS method to avoid these exceptions. ± Pre-extending a large number of rows in advance can improve performance. salaries(salaries.Extend by 10 since I know I will need that many.

± EXTEND adds rows to a nested table or VARRAY. FIRST/LAST return lowest/highest numbers of defined rows. ± ± ± ±  Modify the contents of the collection ± DELETE deletes one or more rows from the index-by table. NEXT/PRIOR return the closest defined row after/before the specified row. ± LIMIT tells you the max. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  The built-in package plitblm (PL/sql Index-TaBLe Methods) defines these methods. number of elements allowed in a VARRAY.Collection Methods  Obtain information about the collection COUNT returns number of rows currently defined in the table. EXISTS returns TRUE if the specified row is defined. ± TRIM removes rows from a VARRAY.page 44 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .

but you may also want to call DBMS_SESSION.Delete all rows myCollection.Delete a range of rows myCollection.page 45 .FREE_UNUSED_USER_MEMORY.The DELETE Method  You can delete one or more rows from a collection using DELETE: BEGIN -. -. END. -.DELETE (1400.LAST).DELETE.DELETE (myCollection. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . DELETE releases memory.Delete one (the last) row myCollection. 17255).

Navigating Through Collections 


Use FIRST and NEXT to move from beginning to end. Use LAST and PRIOR to move from end to beginning.
rowind PLS_INTEGER := birthdays.FIRST; -- birthdays.LAST BEGIN LOOP EXIT WHEN rowind IS NULL; DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE (birthdays(rowind).best_present); rowind := birthdays.NEXT (rowind); -- birthdays.PRIOR END LOOP; END;

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 46

Using Collections Inside SQL 

Nested tables and VARRAYs can be defined as columns of a table and referenced directly within SQL. You can also apply SQL operations to the contents of nested tables and VARRAYs with these operators:
± THE - Maps a single column value in a single row to a virtual database table ± CAST - Maps a collection of one type to a collection of another type ± MULTISET - Maps a database table to a collection ± TABLE - Maps a collection to a database table  

Index-by tables are programmatic constructs only.
± You cannot make a direct reference to an index-by table in SQL. ± Instead, so do indirectly with a PL/SQL function.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 47

Using Collections inside SQL
SELECT column_value FROM TABLE (SELECT children FROM db_family WHERE surname = 'BOLZ'); db_family surname children BOLZ BOND Eric Thomas Max Richard UPDATE TABLE (SELECT children FROM db_family WHERE SURNAME = 'BOLZ) SET column_value = 'Lisa Nadezhka' WHERE column_value = 'Lisa Marie'); db_family surname children BOLZ ...
1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein
PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 48

Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Marie

column_value Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Marie

Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Nadezhka

Using the THE Operator 

Use THE to manipulate (retrieve, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE) contents of a nested table in a database table.
± Can only use with nested tables, not VARRAYs or index-by tables. ± Only accessible from within SQL statements in PL/SQL.
CREATE TYPE action_list_t IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2(100); / CREATE TABLE inflation_beater ( focus_area VARCHAR2(100), activities action_list_t) NESTED TABLE activities STORE AS activities_tab; SELECT VALUE (act) FROM THE (SELECT activities FROM inflation_beater WHERE focus_area = 'FORTUNE 100') act; UPDATE THE (SELECT activities FROM inflation_beater WHERE focus_area = 'FORTUNE 100') SET COLUMN_VALUE = 'DISBAND OSHA' WHERE COLUMN_VALUE = 'SIDESTEP OSHA';

the.sql

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 49

Using the TABLE and CAST Operators 

Use CAST to convert a collection from one type to another, TABLE to convert a TYPE into a database table.
± Cannot use with index-by tables. ± Useful when you would like to apply SQL operations against a PL/SQL collection (ie, one not stored in a database table).
DECLARE nyc_devolution cutbacks_for_taxcuts := cutbacks_for_taxcuts ('Stop rat extermination programs', 'Fire building inspectors', 'Close public hospitals'); BEGIN DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE ( 'How to Make the NYC Rich Much, Much Richer:'); FOR rec IN (SELECT COLUMN_VALUE ohmy FROM TABLE (CAST (nyc_devolution AS cutbacks_for_taxcuts))) LOOP DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE (rec.ohmy); END LOOP; cast.sql END;

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 50

DECLARE CURSOR bird_curs IS SELECT b. information for the BEGIN master in one trip. OPEN bird_curs.Using the MULTISET Operator  MULTISET is the inverse of TABLE. ± Cannot use with index-by tables. multiset. ± You can use MULTISET to emulate or transform relational joins into collections.genus AND bh.genus. Retrieves all detail bird_row bird_curs%ROWTYPE.species) AS country_tab_t) FROM birds b. with potential client-server performance impact.species. CAST(MULTISET(SELECT bh. END. FETCH bird_curs into bird_row.genus = b.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .species = b. converting a set of data (table.page 51 .country FROM bird_habitats bh WHERE bh. view. b. query) into a VARRAY or nested table.

Instead.  CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE ibtab IS FUNCTION rowval (indx IN PLS_INTEGER) RETURN DATE. END. END. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY ibtab IS TYPE date_tab IS TABLE OF DATE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. hiredates date_tab. FUNCTION rowval (indx IN PLS_INTEGER) RETURN DATE IS BEGIN RETURN hiredates (indx). END. PRAGMA RESTRICT_REFERENCES (rowval. but hide the index-by table structure. WNPS. call functions that retrieve the table's data.sql PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein ibtab_in_sql.Referencing IB Tables inside SQL  You can't directly reference an index-by table's contents inside SQL. Make accessible in SQL for Oracle8 and below.page 52 . WNDS).

page 53 .  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Examples of Collections in Action  Emulation of bi-directional cursor operations Avoid mutating table problems in database triggers.

PROCEDURE prevRow.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END.Bi-Directional Cursor Emulation  Oracle does not yet support the ability to move back and forth (and at random) through a cursor's result set. PROCEDURE nextRow. FUNCTION getRow RETURN employee_plus%ROWTYPE. Notice that the collection itself is hidden. didn't make it!  Instead.pkg bidir.page 54 .  bidir. deposit your data in a collection and then provide programs to access that data in the necessary fashion.nope. This is particularly useful (read: efficient) when you need to perform multiple passes against the data. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE bidir IS /* Iterate through rows in the result set */ PROCEDURE setRow (nth IN PLS_INTEGER). ± A talked-about feature for Oracle9i -.

sql  Note: in Oracle8i. Statement Level UPDATE emp SET sal = 1000 UPDATE row 1 Row Level  UPDATE row N Row level triggers cannot query from or change the contents of the table to which it is attached.page 55 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . So what are you supposed to do when a row-level operation needs to "touch" that table? mutating. it is "mutating".The Mutating Table Problem  Database triggers can be attached to the SQL statement and/or the individual row operations on a table. you can use autonomous transactions to relax restrictions associated with queries.

you need to defer the action until you get to the statement level. you have to remember what you needed to do. 1st row trigger fires Nth row trigger fires Writes to list Writes to list Work List (PL/SQL Table)  Process data in the list. If you are going to defer the work.page 56 . Statement Trigger 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± an index-by table is an ideal repository for this reminder list.A Solution Based on Index-by Tables  Since you cannot perform the processing desired in the row-level trigger.

91 109000.page 57 . ± By storing the salesperson¶s department ids as they change. ± As the sales amount is updated in this table. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . but preferable.88 144533. the rankings must also change to show the new standings for that department only. Department ID Salesperson ID Sales Amount Rank 1055 1055 1055 1047  64333 65709 65706 70904 74055.25 3 1 2 6 "Deferred work" is not only necessary.An Example: Ranking Salespeople  A table holds the rankings based on the amount of annual sales of salespeople within a department. ± We might update more than one department within a statement so we must be able to retain multiple department numbers.25 65011. we then know which departments to re-rank.

END. Doesn't fire unless the sales_amt is actually changed. END.sales_amt) BEGIN rank.add_dept (:new. ranking.sales_amt != NEW.pkg All details of the ranking are hidden in the package body.Trigger Logic Required Row Level Trigger CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER Rank_Sales_Rtrg AFTER insert OR update OF sales_amt ON rank_sales FOR EACH ROW WHEN (OLD. Statement Level Trigger CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER Rank_Sales_Strg AFTER INSERT OR UPDATE OR DELETE ON rank_sales BEGIN rank. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .rank_depts.dept_id).page 58 .

PROCEDURE rank_depts. PROCEDURE add_dept (dept_id_in IN INTEGER) IS BEGIN IF NOT in_process THEN dept_tab (dept_id_in) := TRUE. END rank. PACKAGE BODY rank IS in_process BOOLEAN := FALSE. TYPE dept_tabtype IS TABLE OF BOOLEAN INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. Table holds indicator that department needs re-ranking. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 59 . END add_dept 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Create row to indicate department to be ranked.The Ranking Package PACKAGE rank IS PROCEDURE add_dept (dept_id_in IN INTEGER). END IF. dept_tab dept_tabtype.

Continued PROCEDURE rank_depts IS v_deptid PLS_INTEGER := dept_tab. END rank_dept. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Avoid recursive execution of logic Row number is department number.NEXT (v_deptid). END IF.The Ranking Package.page 60 . LOOP EXIT WHEN v_deptid IS NULL. END rank. Clean up for next time. perform_ranking (v_deptid).DELETE. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . dept_tab. in_process := FALSE. v_deptid := dept_tab. BEGIN IF NOT in_process THEN in_process := TRUE.FIRST. END LOOP.

You don't want to have to worry about sparseness.  VARRAYs ± ± ± ± You want to preserve the order in which elements are stored.  Nested tables ± You want to store large amounts of persistent data in a column. You want to use inside SQL.page 61 . Set of data is relatively small (avoid row chaining). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± You want to use inside SQL.Which Collection Type Should I Use?  Index-by tables ± Need to use in both Oracle7 and Oracle8 applications ± Want to take advantage of sparse nature for "intelligent keys".

Tips for Using Collections 

Wrap access to your collections.
± In many cases, you will want to avoid direct access to (assigning and retrieving) rows in your collections. ± This will give you the flexibility to change your implementation. ± You can also hide complex rules for setting the row number. 

Get creative!
± Don't always fill and use the index-by table sequentially. ± If you can somehow translate your application data to an integer, it can be used as a row number, and therefore offers indexed access. ± Julian date formats and DBMS_UTILITY.GET_HASH_VALUE offer two different methods.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 62

Achieving PL/SQL Excellence

Cursor Variables

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 63

Architecture of Cursor Variables
With Hard-Coded Cursors
Hard-Coded Cursor

With Cursor Variables

PGA

Cursor Variable

Cursor Variable

Result Set

Shared Global Area

Cursor Object

Result Set 

A cursor variable points to an underlying cursor object in the database.
± The cursor object in turns points to (and keeps its place in) a result set. 

The cursor variable can be passed between programs (even between, say, a Java servlet and a PL/SQL stored procedure).
± Static SQL only -- until Oracle8i.
PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 64

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

Benefits of Cursor Variables 

Share cursor management between programs, even across the client-server divide.
± You don't have to pass the result sets of a cursor in order to allow the client-side program to have direct access to the data in the result set. ± Oracle Developer 2.1 utilizes cursor variables when you choose to construct a "base table block" around stored procedures instead of a database table. 

Share the same code across multiple, different queries.
± Since the cursor name is no longer hard-coded, you can use a single block of code (say, a reporting program) against different queries. ± We will try out this technique at the end of the section.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 65

Cursor Variable Example
DECLARE TYPE company_curtype IS REF CURSOR RETURN company%ROWTYPE;
Declare a variable cursor TYPE.

company_curvar company_curtype;

Declare cursor variable based on that type. Declare a record from cursor variable. OPEN cursor variable, specifying the query. FETCH from the cursor variable.

company_rec company_curvar%ROWTYPE; BEGIN OPEN company_curvar FOR SELECT * FROM company;

FETCH company_curvar INTO company_rec;
Close the cursor variable.

CLOSE company_curvar; END;
1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 66

Explicit Cursors and Cursor Variables 

Both hard-coded cursors and cursor variables work with static SQL.
± The SQL is fixed at compile-time. ± The difference is that with cursor variables, you get to decide which static query is opened. 

Many cursor operations are the same:
± Close a variable cursor with the same syntax as that for static cursors. ± Use cursor attributes (%ISOPEN, %FOUND, %NOTFOUND, %ROWCOUNT) with cursor variables (as of Release 2.3). ± Fetch data from the cursor result set through a cursor variable with the same syntax as that of static cursors. 

Let¶s focus on the new and different capabilities of cursor variables.
PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 67

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

Declaring Cursor Types and Variables 

Cursors are declared in two steps, just like programmerdefined records and PL/SQL tables.
± 1. Define a cursor TYPE -- either "weak" or "strong". ± 2. Define a cursor variable.
DECLARE TYPE weak_curtype IS REF CURSOR; TYPE comp_curtype IS REF CURSOR RETURN company%ROWTYPE; curcmp_new comp_curtype; cur_any weak_curtype; BEGIN
Declare cursor variables from the TYPEs. Declare a STRONG referenced cursor TYPE. Declare a WEAK referenced cursor TYPE.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 68

Strong vs. Weak Cursor Types 

A strong (or constrained) cursor type has a defined return data specification.
± Can only reference cursor objects which return the same data specification, which can be any single SQL datatype or any previously defined record structure. ± Datatype mismatches are identified at compile time.

TYPE cur_typ_name IS REF CURSOR [ RETURN return_type ]; TYPE cur_typ_name IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE; /* Strong */ 

The weak (or unconstrained) cursor type does not have a RETURN clause.
± It can reference any cursor object, be opened FOR any query. ± Datatype mismatches can only be identified at runtime.

TYPE cur_typ_name IS REF CURSOR; /* Weak */
1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein
PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 69

Opening with the Cursor Variable
OPEN cursor_name FOR select_statement; 

When you open a cursor variable (whether of the weak or strong variety), you must provide the SQL query that identifies the result set.
± If the variable has not yet been assigned to cursor object, the OPEN FOR statement implicitly creates an object for the variable. ± If the variable is already pointing to a cursor object, the OPEN FOR reuses the existing object and attaches the new query to that cursor object. 

Remember, the cursor object is nothing more than a memory location.
± It is maintained independently of the query itself.
PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 70

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

.page 71 ... ± You can establish the return type based on a database table.Opening with Strong Cursor Types DECLARE TYPE emp_curtype IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE. a cursor or a programmer-defined record. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Match Needed BEGIN OPEN emp_curvar FOR SELECT * from emp. emp_curvar emp_curtype. END.  STRONG cursor data specifications must match or be compatible with the structure of the SELECT statement.

cv_type IS retval pkg. END. RETURN retval. END IF.page 72 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  A weak cursor TYPE doesn't define the RETURN structure.cv_type. BEGIN IF get_type_in = µEMP¶ THEN Either query will "do". REF TYPE placed in package so that it is "globally" available. Verification will take ELSIF get_type_in = µDEPT¶ place at the FETCH. OPEN retval FOR SELECT * FROM emp.Opening with Weak Cursor Types PACKAGE pkg IS TYPE cv_type IS REF CURSOR. END. you can associate any SELECT statement with a weak cursor variable. THEN OPEN retval FOR SELECT * FROM dept. FUNCTION open_emp_or_dept (get_type_in IN VARCHAR2) RETURN pkg.

The INTO structure must match in number and datatype to: ± FOR STRONG cursor types. . ± Fetching can continue with a different INTO clause.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Fetching with cursor variables follows the same rules as those with static cursors.. mismatch. var_name.page 73 . ± The ROWTYPE_MISMATCH exception is raised on failure.   Compatibility checks are performed prior to fetching row. it match the OPEN FOR statement structure. FETCH cursor_var_name INTO var_name...Fetching from the Cursor Variable FETCH cursor_var_name INTO record_name. it match the cursor type data specification. ± FOR WEAK cursor types.

 hccursor. Use a single block of code to manipulate multiple queries. ± JDBC recognizes cursor variables. you have to repeat the code for each cursor.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .When to Use Cursor Variables  Make it easier for calling programs (especially non-PL/SQL programs) to manipulate result sets.  Define a base table block in Forms Builder (formerly Oracle Forms) on stored procedures rather than a table directly. but static cursors are more efficient than dynamic SQL and cursor variables are less complicated than DBMS_SQL. ± With explicit cursors. since cursor names are "hard coded".page 74 . ± You could use dynamic SQL to achieve this effect.

TYPE int_rt IS RECORD (key INTEGER).Consolidating Different Cursors  The following package specification hides the SQL behind a single open function. END.page 75 . ± It also creates the data structures you will need to call the function. TYPE cv_t IS REF CURSOR RETURN int_rt. FUNCTION open (type_in IN INTEGER) RETURN cv_t. / allcurrs.tst explcv. bysal CONSTANT INTEGER := 2. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE allcurs IS bydept CONSTANT INTEGER := 1.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .pkg allcurs.

CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY allcurs IS FUNCTION open (type_in IN INTEGER) RETURN cv_t IS retval cv_t.Consolidating Different Cursors  The open function simply opens FOR a different SELECT based on the criteria passed to it. ELSIF type_in = bysal THEN OPEN retval FOR SELECT empno FROM emp ORDER BY SAL. END. END. END IF. RETURN retval.page 76 . BEGIN IF type_in = bydept THEN OPEN retval FOR SELECT empno FROM emp ORDER BY deptno. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

CLOSE cv. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .cv_t. END. LOOP FETCH cv INTO v_empno. v_empno emp.in this case.open (&1). END LOOP. BEGIN cv := allcurs. p.page 77 "Report processor" is independent of the particular SELECT .l (v_empno). DECLARE cv allcurs.empno%TYPE. change the ORDER BY clause -without having to change the code you write. EXIT WHEN cv%NOTFOUND.Hiding SQL Variations in Resulting Code  The following block demonstrates that you can alter which SQL statement to query -.

 Improve Client-Side Access to Data ± At least in Oracle Developer 2.  Hide Variations in Underlying SQL ± You no longer have to repeat the same code for different cursors.1.  Strong and Weak Types ± Create REF CURSORs for specific queries. or a more general.Cursor Variables Let's summarize  Flexibility ± Choose which static SQL statement is executed at run-time.page 78 . unconstrained type. you can build screens that access data using a cursor variable-based procedural API. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Dynamic SQL  Dynamic SQL and dynamic PL/SQL: ± The DBMS_SQL package ± Native dynamic SQL in Oracle8i 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 79 .

± Very common requirement on the Web. ± Also supported with "native dynamic SQL" in Oracle8i. ± One example: implement indirect referencing in PL/SQL. ± Available in PL/SQL since Release 2.  Execute DDL inside PL/SQL programs.page 80 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . What can you do with Dynamic SQL?  Build ad-hoc query and update applications. you no longer have to write SQL to generate SQL to get your job done. ± Construct powerful DBA utilities.  Execute dynamically-constructed PL/SQL programs.Dynamic SQL and PL/SQL Execution  "Dynamic SQL" mean that you construct the SQL statement or PL/SQL block at runtime and then execute it.1 and DBMS_SQL. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

± NDS does not support method 4. These methods are in increasing order of complexity.Four Methods of Dynamic SQL   Method 1: non-queries without host variables. ± Different methods require the use of different programs in DBMS_SQL. Method 3: queries with a fixed number of items in the SELECT list and a fixed number of host variables.page 81 . Method 4: queries with a variable number of items in the SELECT list and/or non-queries with a variable number of host variables. executed a single time. you can more quickly figure out how to code your solution. Method 2: non-queries with a fixed number of host variables.    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . If you can recognize the types. execute one or more times.

± OPEN FOR <sql string>. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . used for multi-row queries.page 82 . DML and single row fetches. ± But this package is very complex.  The new "native dynamic SQL" or NDS of Oracle8i offers two native statements in the PL/SQL language to implement most of your dynamic SQL requirements: ± EXECUTE IMMEDIATE <sql string>. you would use the DBMS_SQL built-in package to execute dynamic SQL. used for DDL. difficult to use. and relatively slow (performance did improve significantly as of Oracle8).Native Dynamic SQL  Prior to Oracle8i.

including objects.page 83   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . The USING clause allows you to specify bind arguments or variables to be passed into the SQL string before execution.. The INTO clause allows you to pass values from the select list of a single row query into local variables. collections and records. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .. define_variables]. | record }] [USING {IN | OUT | IN OUT] bind argument [.].. {IN | OUT | IN OUT] bind argument]..  Use this statement to execute any dynamic SQL statement (including a PL/SQL block) except for multi-row queries.EXECUTE IMMEDIATE EXECUTE IMMEDIATE sql-string [INTO {define_variable[.

IF tabCount ('citizens'. whr IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. table and retval INTEGER.COUNT(*) For Any Table  Here's a handy and simple utility based on NDS: CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION tabCount ( tab IN VARCHAR2..sf compare with: tabcount.sf PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . sch IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) RETURN INTEGER IS Specify schema.000. 'insured = ''NO''') > 40. WHERE clause. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein tabcount81.page 84 ... END.000 THEN DBMS_OUTPUT. and not much of a democracy either!'). RETURN retval..PUT_LINE ( 'Not the best health care system in the world. END IF. '1=1') INTO retval. USER) || '. BEGIN EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'SELECT COUNT(*) FROM ' || NVL (sch.' || tab || ' WHERE ' || NVL (whr.

'.  Execute a stored procedure. END. val_in IN NUMBER) IS BEGIN EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'UPDATE ' || tab_in || ' SET ' || col_in || ' = :val WHERE hiredate BETWEEN :lodate AND :hidate' USING val_in.. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN pl ('Compile Error "' || SQLERRM || '" on: ' || v_str). col_in IN VARCHAR2..page 85 . END. BEGIN v_str := 'BEGIN ' || pkg_in || '. end_in IN DATE. name_in IN VARCHAR2) IS v_str VARCHAR2 (100). EXECUTE IMMEDIATE v_str. start_in..Other Execute Immediate Examples  Perform an update. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE updnumval ( tab_in IN VARCHAR2. PROCEDURE runprog (pkg_in IN VARCHAR2. start_in IN DATE. Pass in bind variables with USING clause.' || name_in || '. end_in. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END..

. cond. the USING clause allows me to pass an object and nested table to an INSERT statement with a variable table name.Using Objects and Collections in NDS  One of the key advantages to NDS over DBMS_SQL is that it works with Oracle8 datatypes. :revenue_inhibitors)' USING pers. END. pers IN Person. PROCEDURE add_profit_source ( hosp_name IN VARCHAR2. cond IN preexisting_conditions) IS BEGIN EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'INSERT INTO ' || tabname (hosp_name) || ' VALUES (:revenue_generator. ± In the following example.page 86 .pkg PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± No special syntax needed.. including objects and collections. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein health$.

CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE showcol ( tab IN VARCHAR2. number or string column in any table.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .PUT_LINE (val). CLOSE cv. '1 = 1').sp END. DBMS_OUTPUT. variable syntax! EXIT WHEN cv%NOTFOUND. LOOP Familiar cursor FETCH cv INTO val. ndsutil. cv cv_type. BEGIN OPEN cv FOR 'SELECT ' || col || ' FROM ' || tab || ' WHERE ' || NVL (whr.page 87 . val VARCHAR2(32767). ± Here is a simple utility the displays the values of any date. col IN VARCHAR2. whr IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) IS TYPE cv_type IS REF CURSOR. END LOOP.Multiple Row Queries and NDS  Oracle extends the cursor variable feature of Oracle7 to support multi-row dynamic queries. showcol.

± If dynamic PL/SQL. You cannot pass the NULL literal directly in the USING clause. provide a value for each distinct placeholder (by name). pass a variable with a NULL value.) through the USING clause. Instead. column names. ± If dynamic SQL. You can have duplicate placeholders (for bind arguments). then you provide a value for each placeholder (by position).pkg    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . etc.Some Fine Print for NDS  You cannot pass schema elements (table names.page 88 . str2list. The USING clause for a query can only have IN bind arguments.

DBMS_SQL is a very large and complex package.     1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . in particular method 4. The overhead for using DBMS_SQL has decreased significantly in Oracle8 and again in Oracle8i.page 89 . the only way to perform dynamic SQL was with the DBMS_SQL package. You should only use DBMS_SQL when you cannot use NDS. Supports all four methods of dynamic SQL.Dynamic SQL using DBMS_SQL  Prior to Oracle8i. with many rules to follow and lots of code to write.

page 90 .Learning Through Examples  DDL ± Create an index from within PL/SQL  DML ± Update rows in a table  DML with binding ± Update rows using bind variables  Queries ± Method 3 and a dynamic WHERE clause  PL/SQL Version of "SELECT *" ± Example of Method 4  PL/SQL ± Create a generic calculation program 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

tab_in IN VARCHAR2. fdbk INTEGER. DDL_statement. ± Construct the DDL statement as a string.EXECUTE (cur).OPEN_CURSOR. DBMS_SQL.CLOSE_CURSOR (cur).DDL with Dynamic SQL PROCEDURE create_index (index_in IN VARCHAR2. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.sp Creates an index on any column(s) in any table in your schema.NATIVE). ± Open a cursor. fdbk := DBMS_SQL.page 91 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . which will be used to execute the DDL statement.  creind. col_in IN VARCHAR2) IS cur INTEGER := DBMS_SQL. END. DDL_statement VARCHAR2(200) := 'CREATE INDEX ' || index_in || ' ON ' || tab_in || ' ( ' || col_in || ')'.PARSE (cur. ± Parse and execute that DDL statement. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . DBMS_SQL.

PUT_LINE ('Rows updated: ' || TO_CHAR (fdbk)). fdbk PLS_INTEGER.PARSE (cur.Updates with Dynamic SQL  Update numeric column for specified employees.NATIVE).CLOSE_CURSOR (cur). DBMS_OUTPUT.ename%TYPE. updnval1. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.OPEN_CURSOR.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 92 . END. 'UPDATE emp SET ' || col_in || ' = ' || val_in || ' WHERE ename LIKE UPPER (''' || ename_in || ''')'. DBMS_SQL. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE updnumval ( col_in IN VARCHAR2.EXECUTE (cur). fdbk := DBMS_SQL. ename_in IN emp. val_in IN NUMBER) IS cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL.

END. 'hidate'. end_in IN DATE.CLOSE_CURSOR (cur).Updates with Bind Variables  Update salaries for date range using binding. 'UPDATE emp SET ' || col_in || ' = ' || val_in || ' WHERE hiredate BETWEEN :lodate AND :hidate'.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . end_in). updnval2. start_in).EXECUTE (cur). val_in IN NUMBER) IS cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL.PUT_LINE ('Rows updated: ' || TO_CHAR (fdbk)). DBMS_OUTPUT.page 93 . DBMS_SQL.sp updnval3.NATIVE). DBMS_SQL. start_in IN DATE.BIND_VARIABLE (cur. fdbk PLS_INTEGER.PARSE (cur.BIND_VARIABLE (cur. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE updnumval ( col_in IN VARCHAR2. DBMS_SQL.OPEN_CURSOR. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. 'lodate'. fdbk := DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL.

page 94 .Processing Flow for a Dynamic Query Allocate cursor memory (OPEN_CURSOR) Fill cursor with data (EXECUTE) Make sure SELECT is well formed (PARSE) Fill buffer with data (FETCH_ROWS) (EXECUTE_AND_FETCH) Bind any variables (BIND_VARIABLE) (BIND_ARRAY) Retrieve the data (COLUMN_VALUE) Give cursor structure (DEFINE_COLUMN) (DEFINE_ARRAY) Release cursor memory (CLOSE_CURSOR) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

END LOOP. 60)..empno). fdbk := DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL.tst PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. rec. rec.OPEN_CURSOR. DBMS_SQL.Queries with Dynamic SQL  Show employees using a dynamic WHERE clause. DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.FETCH_ROWS (cur) = 0. rec emp%ROWTYPE. 'SELECT empno. 'a'.COLUMN_VALUE (cur. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE showemps (where_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) IS cur INTEGER := DBMS_SQL.CLOSE_CURSOR (cur). DBMS_SQL. 1). 1. 2. DBMS_SQL. ename FROM emp ' || ' WHERE ' || NVL (where_in.sp showemps. '1=1'). END. 2. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein showemps.EXECUTE (cur).PARSE (cur. fdbk INTEGER.page 95 .empno) || '=' || rec. DBMS_OUTPUT. 1..PUT_LINE (TO_CHAR (rec.COLUMN_VALUE (cur.NATIVE).sp showemp2. LOOP EXIT WHEN DBMS_SQL.ename).ename).

COLUMN_VALUE (cur. val). DBMS_SQL. nth_col. datatype). END LOOP. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . nth_col.NATIVE). DBMS_SQL. LOOP fetch-a-row.Dynamic SELECT * FROM Any Table  Method 4 example: the number of columns queried changes with each table. ± The resulting code is much more complicated.PARSE (cur. END LOOP.page 96 Very simplified pseudo-code intab. END. FOR each-column-in-table LOOP DBMS_SQL. END LOOP.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . FOR each-column-in-table LOOP DBMS_SQL. select_string.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. BEGIN FOR each-column-in-table LOOP add-column-to-select-list. END LOOP.

numrows := DBMS_SQL. numrows := DBMS_SQL. TRUE). which returns a single row.  Makes it easy to execute and fetch a single row from a query.EXECUTE_AND_FETCH (cur.EXECUTE_AND_FETCH (cur). ± Very similar to the implicit SELECT cursor in native PL/SQL.page 97 . ± Even if the exception is raised. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . the first row will still be fetched and available. then EXECUTE_AND_FETCH will raise the TOO_MANY_ROWS exception if more than one row is fetched by the SELECT. ± If exact_match is TRUE. raises NO_DATA_FOUND or raises the TOO_MANY_ROWS exception.Using EXECUTE_AND_FETCH FUNCTION execute_and_fetch (cursor_in IN INTEGER. exact_match IN BOOLEAN DEFAULT FALSE) RETURN INTEGER.

arg10_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL dyncalc. a single function will do the trick. arg8_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . and enter the arguments. arg2_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. ± Using static PL/SQL.page 98 .sf dyncalc.Dynamic Formula Execution  Suppose I am building a user interface that allows a user to select a formula for execution. NULL. arg4_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. 0. NULL. arg6_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. FUNCTION dyncalc ( oper_in IN VARCHAR2. ± With DBMS_SQL. NULL. NULL. I would have to modify my screen every time a new formula was added. NULL. nargs_in IN INTEGER := arg1_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg3_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg5_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg7_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg9_in IN VARCHAR2 := ) RETURN VARCHAR2.

µdeptin¶.sql dynplsql.tst    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 99 .BIND_VARIABLE (cur. my_salary).BIND_VARIABLE (cur.even OUT arguments which are not being bound to any values. Use VARIABLE_VALUE to extract a value from any variable you have bound. µsalout¶.More on Dynamic PL/SQL BEGIN cur := open_and_parse ('BEGIN get_max_sal (:deptin. :salout). DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL.'). µsalout¶. v_deptin). Possibilities inherent in dynamic PL/SQL are mind-boggling! dynplsql. fdbk := DBMS_SQL.EXECUTE (cur).VARIABLE_VALUE (cur. END. my_salary). DBMS_SQL.sp dynplsql. END. You must have a BEGIN-END around the code.  Use BIND_VARIABLE to bind any placeholders in the string -.

NATIVE). retval PLV. DBMS_SQL.dbmaxvc2.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . 'val'. 'a'. DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL. END. 'val'. retval).CLOSE_CURSOR (v_cur). END. 'BEGIN :val := ' || nm || '.BIND_VARIABLE (v_cur.EXECUTE (v_cur). RETURN retval. PL/SQL does not support indirect referencing. 2000). but you can accomplish much of the same thing with dynamic PL/SQL execution. fdbk PLS_INTEGER. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.page 100  dynvar.PARSE (v_cur.pkg dynvar.VARIABLE_VALUE (v_cur. fdbk := DBMS_SQL.'. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Here is an example of a "PL/SQL NAME_IN": FUNCTION valbyname (nm IN VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2 IS v_cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL.Indirect Referencing with Dyn PL/SQL  Oracle Forms offers support for indirect referencing with the NAME_IN and COPY built-ins.OPEN_CURSOR. DBMS_SQL.

 LAST_ROW_ID ± Returns the ROWID of last row processed.  LAST_SQL_FUNCTION_CODE ± Returns SQL function code of cursor.page 101 .DBMS_SQL Status Built-ins  The package offers a set of modules to return information about the lastoperated cursor in your session. ± Call these immediately after your usage to make sure they refer to your cursor. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  LAST_ROW_COUNT ± Returns the cumulative count of rows fetched from the cursor.  IS_OPEN ± Is the cursor already open?  LAST_ERROR_POSITION ± Returns relative column position in cursor of text causing error condition.

pkg dumplong. ± DBMS_SQL. Then you retrieve the column using the special COLUMN_VALUE_LONG variant.COLUMN_VALUE_LONG   First. ± Transfer the LONG contents into an index-by table so that you can transfer a value of more than 32K bytes into your PL/SQL program.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . you define the column as a LONG. dumplong.page 102 .DEFINE_COLUMN_LONG ± DBMS_SQL.Working with LONG Values  DBMS_SQL provides special procedures so that you can extract values from a LONG column in a table.

page 103 .New DBMS_SQL Features PL/SQL8 Extensions to DBMS_SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

inserts.New Features in DBMS_SQL  The functionality of DBMS_SQL has been extended in Oracle8 in several ways: ± Parse very long SQL strings ± Describe cursor columns ± Use "array processing" to perform bulk updates. ± Support for RETURNING clause to avoid unnecessary queries. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . deletes and fetches.page 104 .

± The record TYPE is also defined in DBMS_SQL. it was not possible to determine the datatypes of the columns defined in a cursor.Describing Cursor Columns PROCEDURE DBMS_SQL.page 105 . col_cnt OUT INTEGER.DESCRIBE_COLUMNS (c IN INTEGER. ± Now you can call the DBMS_SQL.  Before PL/SQL8.  Returns all of the column information in an index table of records.DESC_TAB). desc_t OUT DBMS_SQL. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .DESCRIBE_COLUMNS.

DBMS_SQL.DESCRIBE_COLUMNS (cur.pkg desccols. cols).. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .DESC_TAB.page 106 . ncols PLS_INTEGER.PUT_LINE (cols(colind).PARSE (cur.col_name). FOR colind IN 1 .tst showcols.Basic Steps to Describe Columns  The following script shows the individual steps you will need to perform in order to use this feature. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE show_columns IS cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL. ncols. DBMS_SQL. empno FROM emp'.NATIVE). 'SELECT hiredate.OPEN_CURSOR. ncols LOOP DBMS_OUTPUT. END LOOP.CLOSE_CURSOR (cur). END. desccols. cols DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL.

. DBMS_SQL is executing the specified SQL statement N times. i. Instead of providing a scalar value for an operation. index tables.page 107 . can offer a significant performance boost over Oracle7 dynamic SQL. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .    This technique still. however. when you perform updates. ± In actuality. where N is the number of rows in the table. deletes and fetches. DBMS_SQL then repeats your action for every row in the table. inserts."Array Processing" in DBMS_SQL  PL/SQL8 now allows you to specify the use of "arrays".e. It really isn't "array processing". you specify an index table.

 Encapsulate statements to improve error handling. ± With NDS. ± Otherwise that SQL will be executed under the authority of the owner of the code. ± Encapsulate DBMS_SQL.PARSE so that you include the trace in that program. ± Increased chance of reusing parsed SQL.  Use the Oracle8i invoker rights model whenever you want to share your dynamic SQL programs among multiple schemas.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .) through the USING clause.pkg whichsch. column names.sql openprse. only possible for statements that do not need USING and INTO clauses.Recommendations for Dynamic SQL  Bind (vs. ± But remember: you cannot pass schema elements (table names. effdsql. though you could write variations for those as well.page 108 . etc. not the invoker of the code. concatenate) whenever possible. and easier code to write.

. you have upgraded to Oracle8i!  Major Advantages of NDS: ± Ease of use ± Performance ± Works with all SQL datatypes (including userdefined object and collection types) ± Fetch into records  When You'd Use DBMS_SQL: ± ± ± ± ± ± ± Method 4 Dynamic SQL DESCRIBE columns of cursor SQL statements larger than 32K RETURNING into an array Reuse of parsed SQL statements Bulk dynamic SQL Available from client-side PL/SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .NDS or DBMS_SQL: Which is Best?  Dynamic SQL and PL/SQL is very useful.page 109 . of course. but DBMS_SQL is hard to use. Both implementations will still come in handy. ± If..

asynchronous. persistent messaging subsytem of Oracle 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 110 .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Oracle Advanced Queuing  The high performance.

Distribution Center Coffee Beans Producer Shipping Service Retailer Consumer 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . systems are now heavily reliant on the ability of components to communicate with each other in a dependable. consistent manner.Who Needs Messaging? Everyone!  In the distributed world of the Internet.page 111 .

page 112 .Applications Relying on Messaging     Stock trading system Airline reservation system Auction portals Any e-commerce application 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

scalability and reliability all carry over to queues ± Strong history and retention ± Backup and recovery ± Comprehensive journaliing  Rich message content increases usefulness of queueing ± Use object types to define highly structured payloads  New to Oracle8i. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . AQ now offers a publish/subscribe style of messaging between applications.Key Features of Oracle AQ  Leverage full power of SQL ± Messages are stored in database tables  Database high availability.page 113 . ± Rule-based subscribers. the listen feature and notification capabilities. message propagation.

AQ architectural overview Queue Monitor process Queue table Queue ³Producers´ Enqueued messages Message 4 Message 3 Message 2 Message1 ³Consumers´ Dequeued messages Messages include both control information and ³payload´ (content) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 114 .

Oracle AQ Highlights  In 8.page 115 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . AQ supports: ± ± ± ± ± Multiple queues Resetting order and priority of queued items Queue management using only SQL & PL/SQL Multiple message recipients Propagation of queue to remote servers  Oracle8i adds: ± ± ± ± Rules-based publish & subscribe Listening on multiple queues Easier monitoring Native Java interface PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .0.

Underlying database tables and views The queue monitor (background process) ± Set # of processes with the AQ_TM_PROCESSES initialization parameter.AQ Components  The DBMS_AQ package offers enqueue and dequeue capabilities The DBMS_AQADM package provides administrative functionality to manage queues and queue tables.page 116 .    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

sort column.DBMS_AQADM Highlights CREATE_QUEUE_TABLE DROP_QUEUE_TABLE CREATE_QUEUE DROP_QUEUE START_QUEUE STOP_QUEUE ADD_SUBSCRIBER Assigns name. payload type. assigns retry and retention properties to queue Drops a stopped queue Can also turn on/off enqueue and dequeue operations Stops queue. optionally waiting for outstanding transactions Adds an ³agent´ as a subscriber 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 117 . whether multiple consumers Drops table if all queues in the table have been stopped Associates queue table with queue. storage clause.

END.Creating Queue Tables and Queues CREATE TYPE message_type AS OBJECT (title VARCHAR2(30).START_QUEUE (queue_name => 'msgqueue').CREATE_QUEUE_TABLE (queue_table => 'msg'. text VARCHAR2(2000)). Define the "payload" Create the queue table DBMS_AQADM. queue_payload_type => 'message_type').CREATE_QUEUE (queue_name => 'msgqueue'. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein aq. queue_table => 'msg').pkg Start the queue PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 118 . / BEGIN DBMS_AQADM. Define a queue in the queue table DBMS_AQADM.

 ENQUEUE puts a message into a specified queue.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . but lots of complexity buried inside the parameters of these procedures.page 119   aq. ± Only two procedures. and returns a RAW message handle DEQUEUE extracts a message from a specified queue Parameters control message properties such as: ± Visibility (ON_COMMIT or IMMEDIATE) ± ± ± ± Priority Delay Expiration Locking behavior PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .The "operational package": DBMS_AQ  DBMS_AQ is deceptively simple.

BEGIN my_msg := message_type ( 'First Enqueue'. Set up the payload with an object constructor.ENQUEUE ( 'msgqueue'...msgid_type.page 120 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . msgid aq. msgid). 'May there be many more. queueopts. msgprops DBMS_AQ. END. Declare records to hold various enqueue and msg properties.* Place the message on the specified queue and get a msg ID in return. my_msg message_type. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . DBMS_AQ.Simple Enqueue Example DECLARE queueopts DBMS_AQ. msgprops.').MESSAGE_PROPERTIES_T.ENQUEUE_OPTIONS_T. my_msg. aqenq*.

. queueopts. my_msg := message_type ( 'Second Enqueue'. msgprops.page 121 . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Specify a delay before the payload is available. my_msg. 'And this one goes first. 'May there be many more.. msgid2). END.ENQUEUE ('msgqueue'..'). msgprops.sequence_deviation := DBMS_AQ.More Interesting Enqueue Example DECLARE .ENQUEUE ( 'msgqueue'. msgprops. Same setup as previous page . queueopts.delay := 3 * 60 * 60 * 24.')... my_msg. queueopts.BEFORE. DBMS_AQ...relative_msgid := msgid1.. DBMS_AQ. BEGIN my_msg := message_type ( 'First Enqueue'. msgid1). queueopts. Modify the dequeue sequence by changing the deviation field and relative msg ID.

aqdeq*. END.pkg */ my_msg message_type.BROWSE). /* defined in aq. DBMS_AQ. getmsg (DBMS_AQ.MESSAGE_PROPERTIES_T. msgprops DBMS_AQ.REMOVE).dequeue_mode := mode_in. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . msgid aq. getmsg (DBMS_AQ. PROCEDURE getmsg (mode_in IN INTEGER) IS BEGIN queueopts. Demonstrates destructive and non-destructive dequeuing.page 122 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .REMOVE). my_msg. Dequeue operation isolated in local module. END.msgid_type. queueopts.Dequeue Example DECLARE queueopts DBMS_AQ. msgprops. BEGIN getmsg (DBMS_AQ. msgid).DEQUEUE_OPTIONS_T.* Declare records to hold various dequeue and msg properties.DEQUEUE ( 'msgqueue'.

msgprops DBMS_AQ.visibility := DBMS_AQ.msgid_type. msgprops.Prioritized Payloads  You can assign priorities to individual payloads and then dequeue according to those priorities.  A stack implementation using AQ demonstrates this well. PROCEDURE push (item IN VARCHAR2) IS queueopts DBMS_AQ. the higher the priority. g_priority := g_priority .page 123 .* 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .ENQUEUE_OPTIONS_T. item_obj.IMMEDIATE.MESSAGE_PROPERTIES_T.1.priority := g_priority. queueopts. ± The lower the numeric priority value. msgprops.pkg aqstk2. msgid aq. msgid). aqstk. BEGIN item_obj := aqstk_objtype (item).pkg priority. DBMS_AQ. item_obj aqstk_objtype. END. queueopts.ENQUEUE ( c_queue.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein aqmult*.* PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .CREATE_QUEUE_TABLE ( queue_table => 'major_qtable'. queue_payload_type => 'student_major_t'. multiple_consumers => TRUE). Add subscribers for the queue. The queue table must be defined to support multiple subscribers or consumers.page 124 .  Steps to working with a subscriber list: ± 1.ADD_SUBSCRIBER ( c_queue. DBMS_AQADM. ± The message is then not removed from the queue until all subscribers have dequeued the message. NULL. BEGIN DBMS_AQADM.Defining Message Subscribers  You can specify that a message is to be enqueued for a list of subscribers. ± 2. NULL)). SYS.AQ$_AGENT (name_in.

Summary  Very powerful and flexible architecture. LISTEN capability.Oracle AQ . ± Much more robust that DBMS_PIPE.  Considered by Oracle to be a core component of its overall solution. supporting a publish-subscribe model. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 125 . improved security. ± Significant enhancements in Oracle8i. ± Crucial for Oracle to have a message-oriented middleware in order to offer an all-Oracle solution. ± Should be strongly supported "down the road".

page 126 .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Managing Large Objects with DBMS_LOB 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

± Oracle has announced deprecation of LONGs.page 127 . sounds. though they will probably not be actually desupported. they should no longer be used. Images. video.  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . LOB datatypes are the successor to LONGs.LOB Terms  LOB = Large OBject: a category of datatype allowing storage of ³unstructured´ data up to 4 gigabytes LOB datatype can be: ± Column in table ± Attribute in object type ± Element in nested table   Possible applications include office documents. etc.

 Key programming differences: ± Internal LOBs participate in transactions. external do not ± External LOBs are read-only from within Oracle 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Types of Large Objects  ³Internal´ LOBs ± BLOB: unstructured binary data ± CLOB: single-byte fixedwidth character data ± NCLOB: multi-byte fixedwidth character data (or varying width in )  ³External´ LOBs ± BFILE: pointer to an operating system file  Temporary LOBs ± Internal LOBs that do not participate in transactions.page 128 . improving performance.

erase.PL/SQL built-ins for LOBs  Package DBMS_LOB ± Supports for all LOBs: Reading. close  Other built-in functions ± LOADFROMFILE (load an external BFILE into a BLOB) ± EMPTY_LOB(). substring and instring searches. trim ± For external LOBs: File existence test. open. append. EMPTY_CLOB() ± BFILENAME 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . copy. comparison and length checking ± For internal LOBs: Write.page 129 .

FETCH fax_cur INTO the_fax. received DATE.page 130 .Deceptively simple example  BLOB-typed column in a table CREATE TABLE incoming_faxes (fax_id INTEGER. END. the_fax BLOB. Question: What¶s in the_fax? 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . CLOSE fax_cur. BEGIN OPEN fax_cur.  Retrieve record with BLOB into PL/SQL variable DECLARE CURSOR fax_cur IS SELECT fax FROM incoming_faxes. fax BLOB).

page 131 . tt LOBs <lob segment> fax_id 281937 received 12-JAN-98 fax <lob locator> Updati  t e LOB anges t e pointer is ompli ates se of LOBs ± LOB locators cannot span transactions ± Programs must lock records containing LOBs efore updating ± Programs performing L must accommodate dynamic LOB locator alues 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .The ³LOB locator´ LOB t l sel es [ ll ] t i i t r .

1 of 2  Must get a new LOB locator before writing into the LOB: DECLARE the_url web_pages. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .url%TYPE := 'http://www.page 132 .oodb. the_loc CLOB.. . BEGIN INSERT INTO web_pages VALUES (the_url.com'.. EMPTY_CLOB()) RETURNING htmlloc INTO the_loc. htmlloc CLOB).Example: Piecewise CLOB programmatic insert  Create a table CREATE TABLE web_pages ( url VARCHAR2(512) PRIMARY KEY.

piece_length PLS_INTEGER.html_tab. EMPTY_CLOB()) and loads a web page RETURNING htmlloc INTO the_loc. Note: We are ignoring amount => piece_length. several likely exceptions offset => running_total. DBMS_LOB. running_total := running_total + piece_length. html_tab UTL_HTTP.com'. END LOOP. FOR the_piece_no IN 1. running_total PLS_INTEGER := 1.oodb.url%TYPE := 'http://www.WRITE(lob_loc => the_loc. buffer => html_tab(the_piece_no)). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 133 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein BEGIN .REQUEST_PIECES(url => the_url).COUNT LOOP piece_length := LENGTH(html_tab(the_piece_no)). the_loc CLOB.. END.HTML_PIECES. This block retrieves INSERT INTO web_pages VALUES (the_url.Example: Piecewise CLOB programmatic insert DECLARE the_url web_pages. into a CLOB column html_tab := UTL_HTTP.

INSTR(lob_loc => the_loc. str_offset := DBMS_LOB. buffer => 'cool').com' FOR UPDATE. amount => 4. CLOSE hcur.WRITE(lob_loc => the_loc. BEGIN OPEN hcur. pattern => 'oodb').page 134 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . the_loc CLOB. str_offset INTEGER. FETCH hcur INTO the_loc. IF str_offset != 0 THEN DBMS_LOB.oodb. END.Example: Piecewise CLOB programmatic update DECLARE Program must lock the record explicitly CURSOR hcur IS SELECT htmlloc FROM web_pages WHERE url = 'http://www. END IF. offset => str_offset.

Preparing to use BFILEs  You must first create an Oracle I ORY´ ± Creates logical alias for full directory pat ± imilar to LIBRARY (used for C "external procedures").page 135 . ut IRECTORY namespace is global  Syntax: CREATE OR REPLACE DIRECTORY <directory name> AS '<full path to directory>'.  Example: CREATE DIRECTORY web_pix AS 'D:\bill\training\pix'. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

CREATE TABLE web_graphics ( image_id INTEGER. image BFILE).  In an object type.page 136 . CREATE TYPE Business_card_t AS OBJECT ( name Name_t. phones Phone_tab_t.Using BFILE datatype in DDL  In a table... addresses Address_tab_t. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .. scanned_card_image BFILE )..

BEGIN INSERT INTO web_graphics VALUES (100015. picture).gif'). END. /  Notes: ± No automatic file checking or synchronization ± No participation in transactions 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . file_exprn) RETURN BFILE. Spec: FUNCTION BFILENAME(directory_exprn.The built-in BFILENAME function  Returns value of datatype BFILE.  Example: DECLARE picture BFILE := BFILENAME('WEB_PIX'.page 137 . 'prodicon.

FILEOPEN(pic_file. / loadblob. DBMS_LOB.FILE_READONLY). END. pic_blob_loc BLOB := EMPTY_BLOB(). image BLOB). 'prodicon. DECLARE pic_file BFILE := BFILENAME('WEB_PIX'. amount => DBMS_LOB.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Loading File into Database BLOB CREATE TABLE web_graphic_blobs ( image_id INTEGER.gif'). pic_blob_loc) RETURNING image INTO pic_blob_loc. src_lob => pic_file. DBMS_LOB.LOADFROMFILE(dest_lob => pic_blob_loc.page 138 . DBMS_LOB. DBMS_LOB.FILECLOSE(pic_file).GETLENGTH(pic_file)). BEGIN INSERT INTO web_graphic_blobs VALUES (1.

page 139 . call. or transaction  Ability to retrieve LOB ³chunk size´ ± Allows programmer to tune READs and WRITEs  For all internal LOBs ± OPEN & CLOSE allow control over timing.New DBMS_LOB APIs in 8i  Support for temporary LOBs ± No logging or rollback faster! ± Lifespan: session. that can mean less I/O » Trigger will not fire until CLOSE » Indexes will not update until CLOSE ± ISOPEN 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

± LOB locator behavior slightly abstruse ± Inability to modify BFILEs directly from within PL/SQL. COLD 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Summary  LOB support in Oracle is now significantly improved. ± Complete support in PL/SQL (and other APIs) ± Much better performance and control than with LONGs ± Usable in object types HOT  Some weaknesses.page 140 ..Large Object ..

page 141 .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Leveraging Java Inside PL/SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

page 142 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . mid-tier. functions. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..Overview of Java interoperability  Java inside or outside 8i server can call PL/SQL ± Standard JDBC and SQLJ calls with Oracle extensions ± Same Java on client.a BRIEF introduction to Java. triggers in Java Distinct Java & PL/SQL namespaces  But first. or server Not covered in this seminar  PL/SQL can call Java inside 8i server ± ± ± ± Command-line tools load Java classes DDL extensions publish Java classes Writing stored procedures....

slickest piece of software ever designed by human beings? ± Just the latest in a series of "silver bullets" promoted by software vendors in order to prop up quarterly sales? ± The first and only successful O-O language? ± None of the above?  We don't really need to take a vote.page 143 . fastest. ± We just need to keep a firm grip on common sense and stay focused on delivering solutions.. ± The end of programming history as we know it? ± The easiest. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..Question 1: What is Java?  Could it be.

± Ubiquitous in thousands of production applications and millions of lines of code.Question 2: Will Java Replace PL/SQL?  While that scenario is certainly possible. to boot.  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .and very aggressively. ± Supported and improved by Oracle -. PL/SQL will still be: ± Faster and more productive than Java for database operations. it is very unlikely and totally unthinkable for years to come. ± A language in which hundreds of thousands of developers are trained.page 144 .

 You don't have to know how to do everything with Java to get lots of value out of it...  Everything is a class (or an object instantiated from a class)..Some Important Things to Remember  Java is a case sensitive language... everything exception the primitive datatypes. ± Well. ± string is definitely not the same as String.page 145 . you have to instantiate an object from that class. ± Don't get overwhelmed by all the classes and all the strange quirks. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Before you can call a (non-static) class method..

by the way: the PL/SQL version 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Used to test or run stand-alone a class.Building a Java Class  Let's start from the very beginning. Oh..println ("Hello world!"). public class Hello { public static void main (String[] args) { System.page 146 .out. no methods. END.PUT_LINE ('Hello world!').. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE hello IS BEGIN DBMS_OUTPUT. except the "special" main method. } }  No members.

java file to a .page 147 . you must compile it with the javac command. ± You must also either have set the CLASSPATH or include it in your javac call. SET CLASSPATH = d:\Oracle\Ora81\jdbc\lib\classes111.1. ± It will also automatically recompile any classes used by your class that has not been compiled since last change. ± This will convert the .zip. e:\jdk1.class file.zip.Compiling Classes  Before you can use a class.d:\java D:> javac Hello.7b\lib\classes.java -classpath d:\java 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

page 148 .Running a Class  Run a class? What does that mean? It means that if your class contains a method with this header: public static void main (String[] args)  then you can "run" the main method with the java command: d:\java> java Hello  You can also pass one or more arguments on the command line: d:\java> java Hello mom Hello2.java 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

you will use a class by instantiating objects from the class and then invoking class methods on the object.page 149 .   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Usually. Let's build a performance analyzer class to explore these ideas.Using a Class  The main method is handy for providing a built-in test mechanism of your class. however.

} public void showElapsed (String context) { p.l ("Elapsed time for " + context.java InFile. } public long elapsed () { return (System. elapsed()).java Tmr. } public void showElapsed () { p.Gstart).Compare Performance of Methods  Use System.Gstart).java 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . } } p.currentTimeMillis() .page 150 .currentTimeMillis() .currentTimeMillis to calculate elapsed time to nearest thousandth of a second. public void capture () { Gstart = System.currentTimeMillis().l ("Elapsed time ". System. class Tmr { private long Gstart = 0.

besides the "regular" kind we just saw.  Abstract class ± The class can contain members and methods..  Inner class ± Classes that are defined inside other classes. but at least one method remains unimplemented.page 151 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Interface class ± The class only contains unimplemented methods..Types of Classes  There are several different kinds of classes in Java.

 Polymorphism ± An object of a class can have "multiple" forms. ± Dynamic polymorphism: form is determined at run-time.And Now for Some Scary Buzzwords!  Inheritance ± Subclasses inherit methods and variables from extended superclasses.java A Class Hierarchy Management NonManagement Corporation 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . either as its own class or as any superclass. supertype/"wider" Citizen Person Employee Hourly Worker Salaried Worker subtype/"narrower" War Criminal Person. ± Static polymorphism: form is chosen at compile-time (PL/SQL overloading).page 152 .

myName = "Feuerstein". if you assign a new value to it.equals(YourName)) foundFamily(). String myName. you are actually allocating a new object.Language Basics  Comments // Single line comment /* Block comment */ /** Documentation comment */  Primitive datatypes ± So I lied. if (myName. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . myName = "Steven". boolean char byte short int long float double  Strings ± A String object is a read-only. ± Can't do a direct == comparison. these are not objects instantiated from classes.page 153 .

println (args[indx]). System.length. step) { lotsaStuff } while (expression) { lostsaStuff } do { lostsaStuff } while (expression). static void processAll (Enumeration enum) { while (enum. for (initialize. expression.out.NextElement()).Writing Loops in Java  Three kinds of loops: while.hasMoreElements ()) { processIt (enum.println ( (String)enum.nextElement()) } } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .out. do-while and for ± Note: you need squiggly brackets only if there is more than one statement in the loop body. indx++) System.page 154 . indx < args. Examples: for (indx indx=0.

you must supply a value for each parameter. } } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .name()). System.out. ± Only positional notation is supported. public PuterLingo (String name) { mname = name.. class PuterLingo { private String mname. } public String name () { return mname.. ± If a method has no arguments. you still include the open and close parentheses.page 155 . ± No default values for arguments.Passing Parameters  Some important differences from PL/SQL. } } class LotsALingos { public static void main (String args[]) { PuterLingo Java = new PuterLingo("Java").println (Java.

rather than raise and handle.equals("")) throw new Exception ("Filename is NULL").Exception Handling in Java  Very similar to PL/SQL.length(). } File-related catch (SecurityException e) { exceptions return -1. Put inside try clause File myFile = new File (filename). } catch (Exception e) { System.page 156 . you "throw" and "catch" exceptions. "WHEN OTHERS" } in Java } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Throwing my own public static int numBytes (String filename) { exception try { if (filename.println (e.out.toString()). return myFile.

± Use the throws clause in your specification. as in: public static int numBytes (String filename) throws SecurityException..page 157 .. ± So you can pass them as arguments and do anything and everything else you can do with objects. } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Differences Between Java & PL/SQL  Exceptions are objects derived directly or indirectly from the Exception class.  You must inform users of your method of which exceptions may be thrown. NoSuchFile { .

 Now let's explore how you can put Java to work for you inside PL/SQL programs. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 158 .Java's Not So Tough!  You can learn enough Java in less than a week to: ± Build simple classes ± Leverage Java inside PL/SQL  Moving to the next level of expertise will be more of a challenge. ± Object oriented development (Java) is very different from procedural coding (PL/SQL).

page 159 . using JDBC or SQLJ Oracle 8i server PL/SQL cover for Java method Java virtual machine running Java method Oracle Developer client (PL/SQL) Net8 OCI or Pro*C client VB or C++ via OO4O or ODBC 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Java Stored Procedures (JSPs) Java applet or app.

better file I/O ± RMI callouts.JSPs: Some sample uses PL/SQL extender ± For example.page 160 . network communication in/out PL/SQL replacement ± More standard language ± Good performer for numeric processing tasks ± Beware database I/O & string manipulation performance Scaleable deployment of third party code ± Vertical application ± Web server ± XML parser/generator 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

.END 4.Creating JSP to call from PL/SQL   1.. Grant privileges as desired 5. Create Java classes in your favorite IDE 2. rather than BEGIN. Publish PL/SQL cover using AS LANGUAGE JAVA. Call from PL/SQL (or SQL) as if calling PL/SQL    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ...page 161 . Load into server using ³loadjava´ command-line tool 3.

} public String toString () { return name + " is a transnational entity with " + layoffs + " laid-off employees.page 162 PL/SQL . long CEOCompensation. } public static void main (String[] args) { // A very scary company Corporation TheGlobalMonster = new Corporation ( "Northrup-Ford-Mattel-Yahoo-ATT".Create Java class(es) class Corporation extends Person { long layoffs. 50000000). CEOCompensation = PceoComp.println (TheGlobalMonster).out. long Playoffs.java Advanced Techniques . layoffs = Playoffs. public Corporation ( String Pname.out. 5000000. }} 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Notes on Java classes  toString method automatically used by System. long PceoComp) { name = Pname. paying its" + " Chief Executive Officer " + CEOCompensation. System.println main method is used to test the class. Entry points must be public static in most cases Classes may call other classes Avoid GUI calls     person.

jar file Oracle 8i server Java class Java source Java resource loadjava Example: loadjava loadjava -user scott/tiger -oci8 -resolve datacraft/bill/Hello.class file .java file Java resource file .Upload using ³loadjava´ utility .class options (abbreviated) -oci8 -resolve loadjava will connect using OCI driver Resolves external class references at compile time -resolver (shown later) Search path like CLASSPATH 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 163 .

Publish  Example (top-level call spec) CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION hello_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2 AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.Emp(int) return java.String'...bill.page 164 .lang. . /  Syntax (simplified) CREATE [ OR REPLACE PROCE URE FUNCTION <name> <sqlt pe> ] [ [ <ar s> ) ] [ AUTHID { DEFINER | CURRENT_USER } ] AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME '<met fullname> (<Ja a t pe fullname>.Hello. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .) [ return <Ja a t pe fullname> ]'.

from SQL*Plus: VARIABLE thename VARCHAR2(12) CALL hello_emp(7499) INTO :thename.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 165 .Call the wrapped method  Method 1: Call as if PL/SQL module BEGIN DBMS_OUTPUT. for example. PRINT :thename ± CALL avoids overhead of SELECT fn FROM DUAL jsp. END.PUT_LINE(hello_emp(7499)).  Method 2: Use 8i SQL CALL statement.

STRUCT <named type> oracle.String java.Publishing -.REF oracle.sql.sql.sql.sql.math.ARRAY 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Timestamp java.BigDecimal oracle.lang.more concepts Shape mapping ± Java methods declared ³void´ become PL/SQL procedures ± Signature mismatches detected only at runtime Type mapping (typical) VARCHAR2 DATE NUMBER user-defined object type user-defined object type object REFerence user-defined collection type java.page 166 .

page 167 .String'.Hello. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE hello_pkg AS FUNCTION hi_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2 AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.lang.util.. END.Emp(int) return java.Publish in PL/SQL Package Spec  Designate Java module in PL/SQL package spec. / (No package body required in this case) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..

lang. / CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY hello_pkg2 AS FUNCTION hi_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2 IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft..page 168 .Hello. END. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Publish as module in package body  .Emp(int) return java..or in package body CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE hello_pkg2 AS FUNCTION hi_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2.util.String'. END.

page 169 .util.Hello.Publish as object type method  Either in spec: CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE foo_t AS OBJECT ( bar VARCHAR2(30).String'. / CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE BODY foo_t AS MEMBER FUNCTION hello_emp RETURN VARCHAR2 IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.Hello. END.Emp(int) return java. MEMBER FUNCTION hello_emp RETURN VARCHAR2). / or in the body: CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE foo_t AS OBJECT ( bar VARCHAR2(30).String'). MEMBER FUNCTION hello_emp RETURN VARCHAR2 IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.Emp(int) return java. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .lang.lang.util.

JAVA_ADMIN.page 170 . or resource ± Can read file designated with BFILE() function  ALTER JAVA: compiles Java source.New DDL Statements and Roles  CREATE JAVA ± Alternative to ³loadjava´ utility ± Creates or replaces an Oracle ³library unit´ from Java source. JAVAIDPRIV.   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . resolves Java class references. class. DROP JAVA: drops a named Java library unit Several roles available for Java operations: ± JAVAUSERPRIV. JAVASYSPRIV (needed for file IO operations). JAVADEBUGPRIV ± You can also grant specific privileges.

STRUCT ± oracle.sql.jdbc2.CustomDatum ± oracle.sql.page 171 .Passing Oracle8 objects Oracle8i server Object in O-R table Java application Java object   Harder than you¶d think Three different interfacing techniques ± oracle.SQLData 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

page 172 .JPublisher utility Database server Definition of type or REF in data dictionary User-supplied JPublisher input file What does it do? ± Generates Java that encapsulates type and REF types of mapping supported for methods JPublisher ± ³Oracle mapping´ ± ³JDBC mapping´ ± ³Object JDBC mapping´ Three Generated Java file(s) for use in Java programs 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

they become available to use in mapping Example of passing an Account_t object: CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE account_save (new_acct IN Account_t) IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.Account_t)'.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .AccountRuntime.save (datacraft. /  jspobj.Passing object using JPub-generated Java  After generating and uploading classes with JPub.page 173 .bill.bill.

but that package is very limited.Example: Improving File I/O  You can read/write files in PL/SQL with UTL_FILE. Java offers many file-related classes with much greater capabilities.   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Let's see how we can make that great Java stuff available from within PL/SQL.page 174 .

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Encapsulate Java Classes  You won't generally access native Java methods in your PL/SQL wrapper. ± Instead build a static method that instantiates a Java object from the class and then invokes the relevant method against that object. ± This is not available through UTL_FILE (though you can get it through DBMS_LOB).  Let's start with something simple. ± The File class offers a length method that returns the number of bytes in a file..page 175 ..

return myFile.page 176 .My Own Java Class for File Manipulation  Accept the name of a file and return its length. import java.java  Take each of these steps: ± Import the File class to resolve reference. ± Instantiate a File object for the specified name.io.length(). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . } } JFile2. public class JFile2 { public static long length (String fileName) { File myFile = new File (fileName). ± Call the method of choice against that object and return the value.File.

pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . / xfile2. END.Build a Package over Java Method  Let's put it in a package.lang. ± I translate the Java long to a PL/SQL NUMBER. END. / CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY xfile IS FUNCTION length (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN NUMBER AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'JFile.length (java. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE xfile IS FUNCTION length (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN NUMBER.page 177 .String) return long'. we will certainly want to add more functionality over time.

Convert the Java boolean to a String or number and return that value. ± 2. you will need to take these steps: ± 1. ± 3.page 178 . Write a "public" PL/SQL wrapper function to convert that number to a true PL/SQL Boolean. so you'd expect smooth sailing.  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Mapping the Boolean Datatype  Both Java and PL/SQL support a native Boolean datatype. Write a "hidden" PL/SQL wrapper function that returns the string or number. Not so! To pass a Boolean back from Java to PL/SQL.

import java. public class JFile3 { public static int canRead (String fileName) { File myFile = new File (fileName).page 179 . else return 0. boolean retval = myFile.File.io.java  Translate TRUE to 1 and FALSE to 0.canRead(). } } JFile3. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . not a Boolean class.Translate Boolean to Number  Accept the name of a file and return its length. if (retval) return 1. ± And don't forget: this is a boolean primitive.

pkg END.lang. ± Avoid the hard-codings with named constants. xfile4. JFile.page 180 . / CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY xfile IS FUNCTION IcanRead (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN NUMBER AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'JFile3.Wrapper for Pseudo-Boolean function  Simple translation back to PL/SQL Boolean.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END. JFile4. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE xfile IS FUNCTION canRead (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN BOOLEAN.java END. FUNCTION canRead (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN BOOLEAN AS BEGIN xfile3.java / xfile..canRead (java.String) return int'.pkg RETURN IcanRead (file) = 1..

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein UnionBuster. Object[] attribs = e.println ( "Pay " + laborType + " $" + hourly_rate + " per hour"). // starting with 0 String laborType = (String)(attribs[0]).SQLException { // Get the attributes of the labor_source object. } } Extract individual attribute values from the array.page 181 .Passing Objects to Java with STRUCT  You can pass Oracle object information to Java without relying on JPub by using the STRUCT class. throws java.out. public class UnionBuster { Obtain attributes of public static void wageStrategy (STRUCT e) the Oracle object.sql. // Access individual attributes by array index. BigDecimal hourly_rate = (BigDecimal)(attribs[1]). System.tst PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .getAttributes().java passobj.

page 182 .wageStrategy (oracle. END.sql. / CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE bust_em_with ( labor_source_in IN labor_source_t) AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'UnionBuster.STRUCT)'. hourly_rate NUMBER). '5')). / BEGIN bust_em_with ( labor_source ('Workfare'. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . The Oracle object type definition CREATE TYPE labor_source_t AS OBJECT ( labor_type VARCHAR2(30). 0)). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Fully specify the STRUCT class in parameter list. bust_em_with ( labor_source ('Prisoners'.Wrapping a STRUCT-based Method  You can pass Oracle object information to Java without relying on JPub by using the STRUCT class.

}}}  When called within a PL/SQL wrapper.Viewing Output from Java Methods  Java provides a "print line" method similar to DBMS_OUTPUT.page 183 .tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . i++) { System.java HelloAll.println. public class HelloAll { public static void lotsaText ( int count) { for (int i = 0. ± Call it within methods and output will display in your Java environment. HelloAll.sql file: SET SERVEROUTPUT ON SIZE 1000000 CALL DBMS_JAVA.PUT_LINE: System.out.SET_OUTPUT (1000000).println ( "Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello All!").out. ± Here is a good nucleus for a login. you can redirect the output to the DBMS_OUTPUT buffer. i < count.

but more robust error handling mechanism than PL/SQL. such as java.Error Handling with Java-PL/SQL  Java offers a very similar.sql.SQLException.page 184 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± And also spew out the entire Java error stack! (at least through 8. ± Use two methods.5).  Any error not caught by the JVM (Java virtual machine) will be thrown back to the PL/SQL block or SQL statement. you "throw" and "catch". ± Instead of raising and handling.1. getErrorCode() and getMessage() to obtain information about the error thrown. ± Exceptions are objects instantiated from the Exception class or a subclass of it.

SQLException: ORA-00942: table or view does not exist at oracle.PUT_LINE (SQLERRM). END.java) at DropAny. and you have to do some digging to extract the Oracle error information.driver.object(DropAny.kprb.KprbDBAccess.doExecuteWithTimeout(OracleStatement.jdbc.jdbc.java) at oracle.doExecuteOther(OracleStatement. / SQL> 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 java.java) at oracle.OracleStatement.KprbDBAccess.sql.java -29532 dropany.Trapping and Identifying Errors  Currently.OracleStatement. the entire Java stack is displayed on your screen.doExecuteWithBatch(OracleStatement.java) at oracle.OracleStatement.driver.kprb.jdbc.SQLException: getErrInfo.java) at oracle. BEGIN dropany ('TABLE'.OracleStatement.java) at oracle.tst ORA-29532: Java call terminated by uncaught Java exception: java.jdbc.page 185 .jdbc.driver.sql.java:14) DropAny.jdbc.driver. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN DBMS_OUTPUT.check_error(KprbDBAccess. 'blip').jdbc.sp dropany2.tst ORA-00942: table or view does not exist 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE (SQLCODE).java) at oracle.driver.executeUpdate(OracleStatement.OracleStatement.doExecute(OracleStatement.parseExecuteFetch(KprbDBAccess.

page 186 . procedure.Achieving PL/SQL Excellence External Procedures  An external procedure is a 3GL routine that can serve as the ³body´ of a PL/SQL function. ± Must be a shared object library on Unix or a dynamically linked library (DLL) on Windows.  An Oracle8 feature that allowed relatively "native" callouts to C from PL/SQL for the first time. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . or method.

so file extproc returns results returns results 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .DLL or .Process & data flow Application Makes request Net8 External Procedure Listener spawns External Shared Library Calls PL/SQL Runtime Engine PL/SQL body Client or server-side application returns results calls routine from Routine in .page 187 .

page 188 .External procedures: Sample uses      Send email Invoke operating system command Invoke custom or legacy application Call C runtime library function Perform admin tasks email.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .sql diskspace.

dll'.Determine free disk space on NT (1/4)  Use pre-existing routine: ± GetDiskFreeSpaceA in kernel32. this function returns: » » » » » sectors per cluster bytes per sector number of free clusters total number of clusters ³return code´ indicating success or failure  First.page 189 .dll ± For given drive letter. create an Oracle8 ³library´: CREATE OR REPLACE LIBRARY nt_kernel AS 'c:\winnt\system32\kernel32. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Package spec (2/4)  Nothing unexpected here: CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE disk_util AS FUNCTION get_disk_free_space (root_path IN VARCHAR2. total_number_of_clusters OUT PLS_INTEGER) RETURN PLS_INTEGER. END disk_util. bytes_per_sector OUT PLS_INTEGER. number_of_free_clusters OUT PLS_INTEGER. sectors_per_cluster OUT PLS_INTEGER. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 190 .

sectors_per_cluster OUT PLS_INTEGER.0 (3/4) CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY disk_util AS FUNCTION get_disk_free_space (root_path IN VARCHAR2. number_of_free_clusters BY REFERENCE LONG. RETURN LONG).Package body in Oracle 8. total_number_of_clusters BY REFERENCE LONG. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . bytes_per_sector BY REFERENCE LONG. number_of_free_clusters OUT pls_integer. sectors_per_cluster BY REFERENCE LONG. bytes_per_sector OUT PLS_INTEGER. total_number_of_clusters OUT PLS_INTEGER) RETURN PLS_INTEGER IS EXTERNAL LIBRARY nt_kernel NAME "GetDiskFreeSpaceA" LANGUAGE C CALLING STANDARD PASCAL PARAMETERS (root_path STRING.page 191  All the magic is in the EXTERNAL section 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . END disk_util.

Usage (4/4)
DECLARE lroot_path VARCHAR2(3) := 'C:\'; lsectors_per_cluster PLS_INTEGER; lbytes_per_sector PLS_INTEGER; lnumber_of_free_clusters PLS_INTEGER; ltotal_number_of_clusters PLS_INTEGER; return_code PLS_INTEGER; free_meg REAL; BEGIN return_code := disk_util.get_disk_free_space (lroot_path, lsectors_per_cluster, lbytes_per_sector, lnumber_of_free_clusters, ltotal_number_of_clusters); free_meg := lsectors_per_cluster * lbytes_per_sector * lnumber_of_free_clusters / 1024 / 1024; DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('free disk space, Mb = ' || free_meg); diskspace.sql END;
1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein
PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 192

Creating your own external procedure 

1. Identify or create shared library 2. Identify or CREATE LIBRARY within Oracle 3. Map the parameters using:
± EXTERNAL clause (Oracle8) or ± LANGUAGE clause (Oracle8i)  

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 193

1. Identify/create external routine 


Prerequisite: O/S must support shared libraries Some useful routines are pre-built in C runtime library
± On Unix: /lib/libc.so ± On NT: <systemroot>\system32\crtdll.dll 

Building a shared library of your own requires knowledge of:
± Appropriate language (typically C) ± Compiler & linker

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 194

2. Create the Oracle library 

Syntax:
CREATE OR REPLACE LIBRARY <library name> AS '<full path to file>'; 

Assigns a programmer-defined alias to a specific shared library file Notes
± Requires CREATE LIBRARY pri ilege ± Does not alidate directory ± Can¶t use symbolic link 

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 195

3. Map the parameters
This can get complicated, because«
± Must pass extra parameters to designate:
» NULL/NOT NULL state » String length » Maximum allocated length

± Six choices of parameter mode
» » » » » » IN RETURN IN BY REFERENCE RETURN BY REFERENCE OUT IN OUT

These details are better suited for close reading«
PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 196

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Oracle8i New Features Autonomous Transactions Invoker Rights Model Row Level Security 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 197 .

± And the learning curve to take advantage of these features is generally not too steep.    Autonomous Transactions The Invoker Rights Model Row level security 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 198 .Oracle8i New Features  Oracle8i offers a number of PL/SQL-specific features that give you tremendous additional flexibility and capability.

± Any changes made within that block can be saved or reversed without affecting the outer or main transaction.Autonomous Transactions  Prior to Oracle8i. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE loginfo ( code IN PLS_INTEGER. ± There was only one transaction allowed per connection. a COMMIT or ROLLBACK in any program in your session committed or rolled back all changes in your session. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . you can now define a PL/SQL block to execute as an "autonomous transaction".  With Oracle8i.page 199 . msg IN VARCHAR2) AS PRAGMA AUTONOMOUS_TRANSACTION.

page 200 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . ± Now you can avoid the complexities (need for ROLLBACK TO savepoints and so on). software usage meter. etc.When to Use Autonomous Transactions  Reusable Application Components ± ATs are more or less required in the new distributed application architecture of the Internet. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Logging Mechanism ± Commonly developers lot to database tables. which can cause all sorts of complications: your log entry becomes a part of your transaction.  Tracing Code Usage ± Build retry mechanisms. something like a COMMIT) on other components.  Call functions within SQL that change the database. ± One component should not have any impact (esp.

let's add some session information.program ). rec. text_in IN VARCHAR2 ) IS PRAGMA AUTONOMOUS_TRANSACTION.page 201 . USER.tst PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . SYSDATE. SYSDATE. END. While we're at it. USER.Logging with ATs  Don't forget that ROLLBACK in the exception section! CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY log IS PROCEDURE putline ( code_in IN INTEGER. rec. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Avoid interdependencies with the main transaction. logger.machine. BEGIN INSERT INTO logtab VALUES (code_in. END.sp log81. text_in.tst retry. COMMIT.pkg retry.pkg log81*. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN ROLLBACK.

page 202 . ± You cannot tell by looking at the package spec if you are calling ATs or not -and this info is not available in the data dictionary. The AT PRAGMA can be used only with individual programs and toplevel anonymous blocks.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± You cannot define an entire package as an AT. ± You can use the SET TRANSACTION ISOLATION LEVEL SERIALIZABLE to indicate that you do not want the changes visible until the outer transaction commits.sql autontrigger*. ± Place the SET TRANSACTION statement in the outer transaction. ± You cannot define a nested anonymous block to be an AT. autonserial.  Any changes committed in an AT are visible in the outer transaction. or an error is raised.Tips and Gotchas with ATs  An AT program must COMMIT or ROLLBACK before terminating.   The AT PRAGMA goes in the body of packages.sql auton_in_sql.

The Invoker Rights Model  Prior to Oracle8i. ± This is called the « Definer Rights Model  With Oracle8i. you can now decide at compilation time whether your program or package will execute in the definer's schema (the default) or the schema of the invoker of the code.page 203 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . whenever you executed a stored program. it ran under the privileges of the account in which the program was defined. ± This is called the « Invoker Rights Model PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

About Definer Rights  Allows you to centralize access to and control of underlying data structures.page 204 . Ignores roles and relies on directly-granted privileges. But it can be a source of confusion and architectural problems. OE Code Order_Mgt Place Cancel Sam_Sales Close Old Orders  OE Data X  Orders Cannot alter table directly. Note: Oracle built-in packages have long had the capability of running under the invoker's authority. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

and now you do! 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .it's all or nothing..page 205 ..Problems with Definer Rights  Deployment & maintenance ± Must install module in all remote databases where needed ± In some databases. unless you write code in the package to essentially recreate roles programmatically. each user has own copy of table(s). requiring copy of stored module  Security ± No declarative way to restrict privileges on certain modules in a package -. ± Can bypass 8i¶s ³fine-grained´ access features (see the DBMS_RLS package) ± Difficult to audit privileges  Sure would be nice to have a choice.

page 206 . Synonyms may be necessary if modules use object names not qualified by schema. and must be at the package level.Oracle8i Invoker Rights Syntax  For top level modules: CREATE [ OR REPLACE ] <module type> [ AUTHID { DEFINER | CURRENT_USER } ] AS . AUTHID goes only in spec. ± At run-time..  For modules with separate spec and body. ± In other words.  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .. the objects referenced may well be different from those against which it compiled. "dummy" objects. You could also create local. do what it takes to get the code to compile.

.. yet have all references to data structures "reflect back" into your own schema.. modify destroy ... Central Code schema PACKAGE acct_mgr make AUTHID CURRENT_USER User/Data schema PROCEDURE mng_account IS BEGIN . accounts table 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 207 .destroy(.. code.FROM accounts WHERE. you can execute code owned by another schema.. END..acct_mgr.)."Reflection" Capability of Invoker Rights  With invoker rights.

sql  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . all other calls in stack are resolved according to definer rights. taking advantage of the invoker rights model whenever possible? ± A creative use of SQL*Plus substitution variables comes in very invdefinv.sql handy.page 208 . the definer rights model is always applied to resolve the reference.Tips and Gotchas for Invoker Rights  Does not apply to code objects.  Once a definer rights program is called. only data ± When your stored code references another stored code element. ± Both static and dynamic SQL is supported.  Information about the rights model is not available in the data dictionary What if you want to maintain a single version of your code for both pre-Oracle8i and Oracle8i installations. Note: cannot use with wrapped code. oneversion. ± AUTHID CURRENT_USER is ignored.

sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Share a program that uses dynamic SQL (whether DBMS_SQL or the new native implementation) and you end up taking the most unexpected DDL and DML detours. but you want their own directly-granted privileges to determine access. National HQ Check City Statistics New York Schema stolenlives Chicago Schema stolenlives  Especially handy with dynamic SQL.sql whichsch*.When to Invoke Invoker Rights  You want to reuse the same code among many users.page 209 . authid.

Rely on definer rights to access centralized data from any schema.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . HQ Chicago Check City Statistics  New York stolenlives Analyze Pattern stolenlives perpetrators perp.Combining Invoker & Definer Rights  Rely on invoker rights to allow centralized code to work with schema-specific data.page 210 .

Row Level Security DBMS_RLS Row-Level Security 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 211 .

with which to implement automated row-level security (also referred to as "fine grained access control").Row-Level Security with DBMS_RLS  Oracle8i offers a new package. The DBMS_RLS package (along with "system contexts") now allow you to do so in a foolproof manner.page 212   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . DBMS_RLS. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Prior to Oracle8i. Row Level Security  The establishment of security policies on (restricted access to) individual rows of a table. you could achieve this only partially through the use of views.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Let's step through a simple example to see how all these pieces tie together.Components Needed for RLS  System Contexts ± A new feature in Oracle8i.  Security Policy Packages ± You will need to write a package containing functions that establish the security policies to be applied to a particular table.  DBMS_RLS ± Use programs in DBMS_RLS to associate your security policies with tables.  Database Logon Triggers ± I want to make sure that when a person logs in.page 213 . their context information is set properly. the system context is a named set of attributevalue pairs global to your session.

± Patients can only see information about themselves. clinic and regulator. popular uprising in the United States has forced the establishment of a national healthcare system. no more private insurance companies soaking up 30 cents on the dollar. Here are some rules: ± Doctors can only see patients who are assigned to their clinic.  We need a top-notch.page 214 . all pregnant women receive excellent prenatal care. ± A massive. fgac. highly secure database for NHCS.A National Health Care System  The year is 2010. No more for-profit hospitals pulling billions of dollars out of the system. ± Regulators can only see patients who reside in the same state.sql  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . all children are vaccinated. The main tables are patient. doctor.

SET_CONTEXT ( 'patient_restriction'. doc_rec doc_cur%ROWTYPE. and create a procedure that will set the context attributes (type and ID) upon login. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . BEGIN OPEN doc_cur. 'DOCTOR'). c_person_id_attr. END. DBMS_SESSION.SET_CONTEXT ( 'patient_restriction'. See CURSOR doc_cur IS fgac. CREATE CONTEXT patient_restriction USING nhc_pkg. sets the context accordingly.doctor_id). FETCH doc_cur INTO doc_rec.page 215 .sql for logic that identifies SELECT doctor_id FROM doctor different types of people and WHERE schema_name = USER. doc_rec. PROCEDURE set_context IS This is a simplification. c_person_type_attr. DBMS_SESSION.Set the Context  Define a context in the database.

Define the Predicate  A predicate is a string that will be appended to the WHERE clause of the table to which this security policy is associated (see next page). information for this retval VARCHAR2(2000). FUNCTION person_predicate ( schema_in VARCHAR2. ''' || clause for each type of c_person_id_attr || '''))'. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 216 . person. c_person_type_attr). connection. BEGIN IF l_context = 'DOCTOR' THEN retval := 'home_clinic_id IN (SELECT home_clinic_id FROM doctor We need a different string WHERE doctor_id = SYS_CONTEXT (''' || to modify the WHERE c_context || '''. name_in VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2 IS l_context VARCHAR2(100) := Extract the context SYS_CONTEXT (c_context.

PATIENT table will be modified by the string returned by the person_predicate function of the SCOTT.ADD_POLICY procedure.Create the Security Policy  Use the DBMS_RLS.person_predicate'.page 217 . 'nhc_pkg.nhc_pkg package.ADD_POLICY OBJECT_SCHEMA OBJECT_NAME POLICY_NAME FUNCTION_SCHEMA POLICY_FUNCTION STATEMENT_TYPES END. BEGIN DBMS_RLS. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .DELETE'). 'SCOTT'. update or delete against the SCOTT. 'patient'. ± The following procedure call specifies that the WHERE clause of any query. 'SELECT.UPDATE. 'patient_privacy'. ( => => => => => => 'SCOTT'.

we guarantee that the context is set (and the predicate applied) no matter which product is the entry point to Oracle.PUT_LINE ( 'Error ' || SQLCODE || ' setting context for ' || USER'). CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER set_id_on_logon AFTER LOGON ON DATABASE BEGIN nhc_pkg. logon is disabled. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN DBMS_OUTPUT.sql Exception handling in trigger is critical! If you allow an exception to go unhandled.page 218 . fgac. Setting Context  By setting the context in the logon trigger. END.Create Logon Trigger.set_context. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

page 219 . 'person_id')) Patients Visible to "SWALLACE": CSILVA .IL VSILVA .Chris Silva . Predicate: home_clinic_id IN (SELECT home_clinic_id FROM doctor WHERE doctor_id = SYS_CONTEXT ('patient_restriction'.Chris Silva .Veva Silva .IL Context Information for "CSILVA": Type: PATIENT ID: Predicate: schema_name = 'CSILVA' Patients Visible to "CSILVA": CSILVA . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Context Information for "SWALLACE": Type: DOCTOR Doctor sees only her ID: 1060 patients.Queries Transparently Filtered  What you see is determined automatically by who you are.IL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Patient sees only himself.

. March.... February.....Take Full Advantage of PL/SQL! January. April. It's so easy to fall into a rut with a programming language..  ± You learn what you need to get the job done. May. and you use only what you know..page 220 .and play a new tune with PL/SQL! 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Jump out of your rut .

k.Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Appendices (a..a. If time permits«)     UTL_FILE ± file IO DBMS_JOB ± Job scheduling DBMS_PIPE ± Pipe-based communication DBMS_UTILITY ± the kitchen sink package 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 221 .

. Physical Files 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 222 ..Built-in Packages: UTL_FILE UTL_FILE Server-side File I/O Application FOPEN GET_LINE PUT_LINE .

. ± No higher-level file operations supported (change privileges. delete.   But you can read lines from a file and write lines to a file.5. ± Limitations on files you can access (no mapped files. A "version 1" (fairly primitive) utility. ± Maximum of 1023 bytes per line (read or write) until Oracle 8.. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . random access to contents).UTL_FILE: Server-side I/O  Allows you to read from and write to operating system files on the database server.0. copy. when it jumps to 32K.page 223 . no use of environmental variables).

Puts formatted text into the buffer PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 224 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .UTL_FILE Module Outline FCLOSE FCLOSE_ALL FFLUSH FOPEN GET_LINE IS_OPEN NEW_LINE PUT PUT_LINE PUTF Close the specified file Close all open files in your session Flush all data from the UTL_FILE buffer to your file Open a file Get the next line from a file Returns TRUE if the file is open (sort of) Insert a new line character in file at the end of current line Puts text into the UTL_FILE buffer Puts text and new line character into UTL_FILE buffer.

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Authorizing Directory Access  Oracle requires you to list explicitly those directories you wish to be able to read/write with UTL_FILE. ± You do this by adding lines to the instance parameter file.  Follow these rules to avoid many headaches. utl_file_dir = * Allows read & write for any directory. no trailing delimiter. there is no subdirectory recursion).page 225 Allows read & write for current directory. utl_file_dir = /tmp utl_file_dir = /accounts/newdev  And don't do either of the following: utl_file_dir = . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . ± No single or double quotes around directory. ± Use a separate entry for each directory (and subdirectory.

*/ fid := UTL_FILE. BEGIN /* Change the directory name to one to which you at least || THINK you have read/write access.txt'. So before you write anything fancy.FCLOSE (fid).tst  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .FILE_TYPE. 'W'). 'test. / utlfile.Test UTL_FILE Access  About the hardest part to working with UTL_FILE is simply getting started.page 226 . UTL_FILE. restart your database. and then run the following test script (it can't get much simpler than this): DECLARE fid UTL_FILE. UTL_FILE. 'hello'). END.PUT_LINE (fid.FOPEN ('c:\temp'. modify your initialization file.

± Types are 'R' for Read. END. Test to see if file is open with the IS_OPEN function. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 'test.. BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE.FILE_TYPE. 'W' for Write and 'A' for Append.  The FOPEN function returns a record ("file handle") based on the UTL_FILE. ± In actuality. this function simply returns TRUE if the file handle's id field is NOT NULL.Opening a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE. name and operation type.. 'W').txt'.FOPEN ('c:\temp'.FILE_TYPE.page 227 .   Maximum of 10 files may be opened in each user session. ± Currently contains a single ID field.  Specify file location. Not much of a test.

± In Oracle8 Release 8.  The NO_DATA_FOUND exception is raised if you read past the end of the file.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE. END.GET_LINE (fid.5 and above.FILE_TYPE.   Can only read from a file opened with the "R" mode.FOPEN ('c:\temp'. UTL_FILE.txt'. getnext. 'test. ± You might want to build your own GET_LINE which handles the exception and returns an EOF Boolean status flag.FCLOSE (fid). Lines in the file cannot be longer than 1023 bytes in length. 'R').page 228 . myline).Reading from a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE. the ceiling is raised to 32K. UTL_FILE.0.

FOPEN ('c:\temp'.FILE_TYPE. UTL_FILE. '&1'). ± PUTF is like the C printf program. UTL_FILE. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± The file buffers are automatically flushed when you close a file or exit your session.PUT (fid. allowing for some formatting. PUT_LINE or PUTF. END. UTL_FILE. 'is so much fun'). 'W'). ' that I never\nwant to %s'.PUT_LINE (fid. 'UTL_FILE').FCLOSE (fid). 'test.PUTF (fid.page 229 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE.  Call FFLUSH to make sure that everything you have written to the buffer is flushed out to the file.txt'. UTL_FILE. UTL_FILE is so much fun that I never want to stop Resulting Text  You can use PUT.Writing to a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.

You can close a single file with FCLOSE or all open files with FCLOSE_ALL. You should close files in exception handlers to make sure that files are not left "hanging" open. UTL_FILE.page 230   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE. EXCEPTION WHEN UTL_FILE. END.FCLOSE (fid).FCLOSE (fid). myline). 'R').  If you do not close the file.FILE_TYPE. UTL_FILE.GET_LINE (fid.txt'.Closing a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE. you will not see the data you have (supposedly) written to that file. 'test.FOPEN ('c:\temp'.READ_ERROR THEN UTL_FILE. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

± NO_DATA_FOUND when you try to read past the end of the file. ± UTL_FILE-named exceptions in other cases. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 231 . EXCEPTION. EXCEPTION. EXCEPTION. ± They all share a common SQLCODE of 1.Error Handling in UTL_FILE PACKAGE UTL_FILE IS invalid_path invalid_mode invalid_filehandle invalid_operation read_error write_error internal_error END. EXCEPTION. EXCEPTION. EXCEPTION.  You have to take special care to trap and handle the named exceptions. EXCEPTION.  UTL_FILE relies on a combination of user-defined exceptions and STANDARD exceptions to communicate errors.

c_internal_error). WHEN UTL_FILE. WHEN UTL_FILE. WHEN UTL_FILE.c_read_error).page 232  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . WHEN UTL_FILE. RAISE. RAISE. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Recommended Exception Section EXCEPTION WHEN UTL_FILE. utlflexc.c_write_error).INVALID_OPERATION THEN recNgo (PLVfile.INVALID_PATH THEN recNgo (PLVfile. RAISE. RAISE. WHEN UTL_FILE.READ_ERROR THEN recNgo (PLVfile.c_invalid_path). RAISE.INTERNAL_ERROR THEN recNgo (PLVfile.INVALID_FILEHANDLE THEN recNgo (PLVfile. translating the generic user-defined exception into an understandable message. END.c_invalid_filehandle). Re-raise exception if you want it to propagate from that block. RAISE.INVALID_MODE THEN recNgo (PLVfile. RAISE.c_invalid_mode).c_invalid_operation). WHEN UTL_FILE. record the error.WRITE_ERROR THEN recNgo (PLVfile.sql  Trap locally by name.

page 233 .. Background Process DBA_JOBS Oracle Job Queue Subsystem 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..Built-in Packages: DBMS_JOB DBMS_JOB Scheduled Execution of Stored Procedures Application SUBMIT RUN REMOVE .

Schedule regular maintenance on instances. but only ³publicly available´ and supported in PL/SQL Release 2. Built by Oracle to support snapshots and replication.2. Schedule large batch jobs to run on "off hours". Create a listener program to poll the contents of a pipe and take action. You can use DBMS_JOB to: Replicate data between different database instances.Overview of DBMS_JOB  DBMS_JOB provides an API to the Oracle job queues.1. which in turn offers job scheduling capabilities within the Oracle Server. Made its debut in PL/SQL Release 2. ± ± ± ±    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Spawn background processes to avoid blocking client process.page 234 .

Changes one or all attributes of a job.page 235 CHANGE INTERVAL ISUBMIT NEXT_DATE REMOVE RUN SUBMIT USER_EXPORT WHAT 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . Removes the job from the queue. Submits a job to the queue using a predefined job number. Changes the interval between executions of a job. Returns the job string for a job number. Changes the job string of a job. Forces immediate execution of the specified job number.DBMS_JOB Module Outline BROKEN Marks the job as either FIXED or BROKEN. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Broken jobs will not run as scheduled. Submits a job to the queue returning a unique job number. Changes when a queued job will run.

 A job is a call to a stored procedure or an anonymous block ± It must end with a semi-colon and can contain ³hard-coded´ arguments. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . and then the job¶s execution interval (frequency of execution).ISUBMIT and supply the job number. you specify the date on which it should next execute. SYSDATE. ± In the above example.Submitting a Job DECLARE job# BINARY_INTEGER. END.'. 'SYSDATE + 1'). I run calculate_totals immediately and then on a daily basis thereafter. BEGIN DBMS_JOB.  When you submit a job. Notice that the start time is a DATE expression. instead of having DBMS_JOB generate one for you. while the interval is a string (this is dynamic PL/SQL!)  You can also call DBMS_JOB. 'calculate_totals.SUBMIT (job#.page 236 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .

p.'. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .ANALYZE_OBJECT ' || '(''TABLE''. interval => 'TRUNC(SYSDATE+1)' ). BEGIN DBMS_JOB. /  This block submits a job that uses a built-in procedure. DBMS_DDL.null.submit ( job => v_jobno. END.page 237 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . next_date => TRUNC (SYSDATE + 1). what => 'DBMS_DDL.ANALYZE_OBJECT. to analyze a specific table every evening at midnight.''TENK''' || '.l (v_jobno).''LOAD1''.''ESTIMATE''.estimate_percent=>50).Submit Job Example DECLARE v_jobno INTEGER.

120). runs it in one hour and executes every day thereafter. ± Job 1 passes a string and number into procedure MY_JOB1.'BEGIN null.null). 'my_job2(date_IN=>SYSDATE).'SYSDATE+10/1440').DBMS_JOB. END. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .' . and will be removed from the queue automatically.ISUBMIT (2.what => 'my_job1(''string_parm_value''. DBMS_JOB.page 238 . /  This block submits three jobs to the job queue.ISubmit Job Example BEGIN DBMS_JOB. DBMS_JOB.'. executes immediately.interval => 'SYSDATE +1').2. ± Job 3 is a PL/SQL block which does nothing. numbered 1. executes for the first time tomorrow and every 10 minutes thereafter.ISUBMIT (job => 1 .SYSDATE+1.ISUBMIT(3.SYSDATE. END.' . ± Job 2 passes a date into procedure MY_JOB2. and 3.next_date => SYSDATE + 1/24 .

''MONDAY''). ''FRIDAY''))) + 18/24' PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Specifying Job Times & Frequencies  Probably the most complicated part of using DBMS_JOB is to get the string expression of the job interval right. you must use 2 single quotes to embed strings. ''WEDNESDAY''). ''MONDAY'') + 9/24' 'TRUNC (LEAST ( NEXT_DAY (SYSDATE. ± Use date arithmetic to request intervals smaller than a day. ''Q''). ''SATURDAY'') 2/24' 'NEXT_DAY ( ADD_MONTHS (TRUNC (SYSDATE. NEXT_DAY (SYSDATE.page 239 + 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . at 9 AM Every Monday. NEXT_DAY (SYSDATE. ± Since it's a string. 3). Wednesday and Friday at 6 PM 'SYSDATE + 1/24' 'NEXT_DAY (TRUNC (SYSDATE). Every hour Every Sunday at 2 AM First Monday of each quarter.

page 240 . ± Uses DBMS_JOB.  Run a job immediately.job).RUN (my_job#).Other Job Queue Operations  Remove a job from the queue. END LOOP. ± Only if the job was submitted from same schema BEGIN FOR rec IN (SELECT * FROM USER_JOBS) LOOP DBMS_JOB. retaining current job number.ISUBMIT.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .REMOVE (rec. expjob.  Export jobs from the queue. ± Produces a string that can be used to recreate an existing job in the job queue. DBMS_JOB. ± Performs an implicit COMMIT in current session. Remove all jobs for current schema.

job .sid AND jr. who owns them and when they began.job ORDER BY jr.DBA_JOBS .what job_id username start_date job_definition jr j s showjobs. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . SELECT jr.V$SESSION WHERE s.this_date .jr. ± The following query blends job information with session information to display currently-executing jobs.username .Job Queue Views  You can also view the job queue by looking at the DBA_JOBS_RUNNING. DBA_JOBS and USER_JOBS views.page 241 .this_date.sid = jr.job = j.sql FROM DBA_JOBS_RUNNING .

You will have to take special DBA action if you want to restrict who can run jobs. therefore. ± The default is PUBLIC access. of one hour).ora (initialization) file for your database instance: ± job_queue_processes=N where n is the number of concurrent background processes permitted. The valid range is 1 to 3600 (a maximum.  You will need to set three parameters in the init. ± job_queue_interval=N where N is the interval in seconds to check the job queue. The valid range is 0 through 36. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Setting up the Job Facility  Make sure that the correct access is set up for the DBMS_JOB package.page 242 .

the job facility will mark your job as broken.  To avoid unexpected and unhandled failures of scheduled jobs: ± Always use the RUN built-in to execute your job in a ³test´ mode. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . if your failure raises an unhandled exception. it may cause the background processes to fail and no longer run any jobs at all. Then you can go ahead and submit it. ± Do you want it to try 16 times? ± In addition.page 243 .Error Handling with DBMS_JOB  What if your stored procedure fails? ± After 16 attempts. ± Always include a WHEN OTHERS exception handler in your job program which traps any and all problems and automatically sets the job status to broken.

job (µcalc_totals¶) DBMS_JOB. ± Obtains the job number from a packaged function by passing the name of the procedure. µFAIL¶).. You can go in and fix the problem.BROKEN (job#. TRUE).sql  The WHEN OTHERS exception handler of the calc_totals procedure traps any kind of failure. END. ± Now the job facility will not try to run this program again.log (µcalc_totals¶.sql showspc.. job_pkg. ± Uses a call to BROKEN to set the status of the job to ³broken´. ± Calls log program of package to record that failure took place. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . spacelog.Stopping the Job When It Fails PROCEDURE calc_totals IS BEGIN . EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN job# := job_pkg.page 244 .

page 245 . perform a COMMIT after your submit. ± DBMS_JOB only allows you to modify characteristics and behavior of jobs submitted by the current schema. When a job runs."Good to Knows" for DBMS_JOB  You may find it useful to always wrap your stored procedure call (the what) inside a BEGIN-END block. difficult to reproduce behavior at times with "straight" procedure calls. it picks up the current execution environment for the user.    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . If you find that you submit a job to run immediately and it does not start.  You will need to fully-qualify all database links (with user name and password) to get them to work properly. You can use the DBMS_IJOB to manage the jobs of other users. ± We've noticed some aberrant.

Built-in Packages: DBMS_PIPE DBMS_PIPE Inter-session Communication 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 246 .

DBMS_PIPE Overview  Allows communication between different Oracle sessions through a pipe in the RDBMS Shared Global Area. ± Perform and commit DML in a separate transaction space from your main transaction. You can parallelize your own code.page 247 . ± Interface PL/SQL-database activities with operating system functions and programs written in other languages. ± Operates outside of database transaction limitations. Oracle uses database pipes to parallelize database operations. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± More sophisticated debugging inside PL/SQL programs (work around fundamental limitations of DBMS_OUTPUT).  Uses for DBMS_PIPE include: ± Parallelization of program execution.

page 248 . using a maximum of 4096 bytes. ± Names can be up to 128 chars long (do not use names beginning with ³ORA$´. ± The pipe sends/receives a message. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . They are reserved for Oracle use). which can be composed of one or more separate packets.Architecture of DBMS_PIPE Shared Global Area ³Sue´ ³Bob´ Message Buffer Message Buffer Session A  Session B A pipe is a named object that uses the System Global Area to provide a non-transaction based conduit of information.

Processing Flow of DBMS_PIPE  Construct a message from packets of information. so you should always specify a timeout period.  Receive a message from that pipe. date or number). ± This is the default. ± Separate out the individual packets in the message (again: string. ± You can wait for up to 1000 days for a message. number. ± If there isn¶t currently room in the pipe.  Unpack the message packets and take action. ROWID or RAW. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein pipex1. ± There is just one message buffer per session.  Send the message to a named pipe. date. you can wait for up to 1000 days (or 86400000 seconds) for the pipe to be cleared.page 249 .sql PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Each packet can be a string.sql pipex2.

SEND_MESSAGE Sends contents of message buffer to the specified pipe.page 250 . UNIQUE_SESSION_NAME Returns name that is unique among all sessions in the database. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . RECEIVE_MESSAGE Receives a message from pipe and copies to local buffer. REMOVE_PIPE RESET_BUFFER Removes a pipe explicitly created via CREATE_PIPE. making it a candidate for removal with a LRU algorithm. PACK_MESSAGE Packs an item into the message buffer for your session. Clears your buffer so that PACK_MESSAGE and UNPACK_MESSAGE can work from the first item.DBMS_PIPE Module Outline Module Name CREATE_PIPE Description Creates a PUBLIC or PRIVATE pipe. NEXT_ITEM_TYPE Returns the datatype of the next item in the piped message. PURGE Empties the contents of a pipe into your local buffer freeing it for removal. UNPACK_MESSAGE Unpacks the next item from the local message buffer and deposits it into the specified local variable.

± Implicitly-created pipes are always public. maxpipesize => 20000. private => TRUE). BEGIN stat := DBMS_PIPE. ± Use CREATE_PIPE to create a pipe explicitly. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Specify TRUE for private argument of CREATE_PIPE.page 251 . ± Send messages to non-existent pipe implicitly create it.Creating Public and Private Pipes  There are two ways to create pipes: implicitly and explicitly.CREATE_PIPE ( pipename => 'bbs'. PROCEDURE newpipe IS stat INTEGER.  A public pipe is accessible as long as you know its name.  An explicit pipe can be private (accessible only to sessions with matching userID or SYSDBA privileges).

seconds you will wait.PACK_MESSAGE ( total_sales (month_num)). 10 * 4096). IF pipe_stat != 0 THEN RAISE could_not_send. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Fill your message buffer with packets of data. expanding pipe size to 40 Kbytes. and new max pipe size (you can make it bigger. timeout IN INTEGER DEFAULT maxwait.page 252 . 12 LOOP DBMS_PIPE.. Send to "monthly" pipe. Status of 0 means message was sent.SEND_MESSAGE ( µmonthly¶. pipe_stat := DBMS_PIPE. END LOOP. waiting up to 1 minute. FOR month_num IN 1 . 60. but not smaller). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . FUNCTION send_message (pipename IN VARCHAR2. maxpipesize IN INTEGER DEFAULT 8192) RETURN INTEGER.Sending a Message Provide pipe name.

timeout IN INTEGER DEFAULT maxwait) RETURN INTEGER. ± You need to know the datatype of packet or check it using NEXT_ITEM_TYPE.  First you pull the message from the pipe and place it in buffer with RECEIVE_MESSAGE. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . PROCEDURE unpack_message (item OUT VARCHAR2). ± Specify pipe and number of seconds you will wait before you time out. PROCEDURE unpack_message (item OUT NUMBER). ± Pipe status of 0 means the message was read successfully.page 253 . PROCEDURE unpack_message (item OUT DATE).  Then you call UNPACK_MESSAGE to extract individual packets from the message.Receiving and Unpack a Message FUNCTION receive_message (pipename IN VARCHAR2.

analyze_production (SYSDATE. DBMS_PIPE. END LOOP. If I got something. PROCEDURE analyze_assembly_data (every_n_secs IN INTEGER) IS pipe_status INTEGER.'). END. pass it on to the IF pipe_status = 0 computation THEN program.A Pipe-based Listener Program  Program wakes up every N seconds to read the data from the pipe and analyze results from assembly line (an intentional "infinite loop"!).UNPACK_MESSAGE (prod_total).RECEIVE_MESSAGE ( 'production'. prod_total).page 254 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . END IF. ELSE RAISE_APPLICATION_ERROR ( Stop process if -20000. LOOP pipe_status := DBMS_PIPE. seconds for the BEGIN next report. data not received. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Wait up to N prod_total NUMBER. every_n_secs). 'Production data unavailable.

you have to make sure that you unpack a packet into the right kind of variable.tst  Since a message can be composed of packets of different datatypes. Returns one of the following values: Value 0 6 9 11 12 23 Description or Data type No more items in buffer NUMBER VARCHAR2 ROWID DATE RAW dbpipe.sql dbpipe.page 255 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Or you use the built-in NEXT_ITEM_TYPE to tell you in advance the datatype of the next packet in the message and take appropriate action. Either: ± You know the datatype and therefore can ³hard-code´ the correct variable into the call to UNPACK_MESSAGE.Unpacking the Message FUNCTION next_item_type RETURN INTEGER.

 Suppose I want to calculate my net profit.page 256 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Without pipes.Parallelizing Your Code with Pipes  Oracle uses DBMS_PIPE to improve RDBMS performance. In order to do so I must first compute total sales. total office expenses and total compensation. ± The CEO is decidedly unhappy about the delay. I must execute them sequentially and incur an elapsed time of 45 minutes before I calculate the profits. ± You have processes which can run in parallel. but are not dependent on each other. ± These programs each take 15 minutes. you can do the same for your application if: ± You have multiple CPUs available.

page 257 . Parallel Execution Sequential Execution: Maximum Elapsed Time S t a r t E n d Process A Process B Process C Parallel Execution: Minimum Elapsed Time Start Process A Process B Process C End 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Sequential vs.

in a muchdecreased elapsed time. kick_off_totcomp_calc. it puts a message (perhaps even a value) into the pipe. ± Other programs running in the background grab the messages and start their corresponding calculation program.Parallelizing PL/SQL Execution BEGIN kick_off_sales_calc. wait_for_confirmation.page 258 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . ± When each program is complete. kick_off_exp_calc. END. Then net profits can be computed -. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  The ³kick off´ programs pass their messages to separate pipes.  The ³wait´ program waits till it receives a message from each program. calculate_net_profits.

stat := DBMS_PIPE.Code to Kick Off and Calculate PROCEDURE kick_off_sales_calc IS stat INTEGER.SEND_MESSAGE (µsales¶). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .PACK_MESSAGE (1995). and send back the results. stat := DBMS_PIPE. BEGIN DBMS_PIPE. Receive the year. END.page 259 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Send message to start calculations. DBMS_PIPE. calculate sales. BEGIN stat := DBMS_PIPE.SEND_MESSAGE (µsales¶). stat := DBMS_PIPE.PACK_MESSAGE (NULL). END. ELSE DBMS_PIPE.SEND_MESSAGE (µsales¶).RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µsales¶).PACK_MESSAGE (sales$). END IF. IF stat = 0 THEN lots_of_number_crunching. PROCEDURE calculate_sales IS stat INTEGER.

DBMS_PIPE. Perform final calculation.RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µsales¶).Waiting for Confirmation PROCEDURE wait_for_confirmation IS stat INTEGER. DBMS_PIPE. PROCEDURE calculate_net_profits IS BEGIN net_profits := sales$ . parallel.RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µcomp¶).sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .UNPACK_MESSAGE (sales$). END.page 260 .UNPACK_MESSAGE (offexp$). Wait for all calculations to finish.comp$. END.RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µoffexp¶). stat := DBMS_PIPE. stat := DBMS_PIPE. BEGIN stat := DBMS_PIPE. DBMS_PIPE. The order in which you wait is insignificant.offexp$ .UNPACK_MESSAGE (comp$).

tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .pkg  Implementation of a system-wide. ± A request for data is passed to a "central" pipe.pkg syscache.Other DBMS_PIPE Examples  Simple trace package that sends it output either to screen or to pipe. ± The requester reads the information from the pipe. and sends it to the pipe. ± A listener program grabs the request (including the return pipe name).page 261 . watch. ± Demonstrates the use of toggles and switches in packages.pkg p_and_l. in-memory cache. obtains the data. syscache.

. A µgrab-bag¶ of miscellaneous operations SCHEMA 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 262 ..Built-in Packages: DBMS_UTILITY DBMS_UTILITY Application GET_TIME GET_HASH_VALUE FORMAT_CALL_STACK .

Gets file number part of data block address. Returns execution call stack.DBMS_UTILITY Module Outline ANALYZE_DATABASE ANALYZE_PART_OBJECT Analyze objects in database Runs ANALYZE TABLE or ANALYZE INDEX for each partition of the object (Oracle8). Returns hash value for string. Gets block number part of data block address. Returns database version (Oracle8) Executes DDL statement (Oracle8). Returns error stack. Recompile INVALID objects in specified schema. Parses comma-delimited list to index-by table.pkg COMMA_TO_TABLE COMPILE_SCHEMA DATA_BLOCK_ADDRESS_BLOCK DATA_BLOCK_ADDRESS_FILE DB_VERSION EXEC_DDL_STATEMENT FORMAT_CALL_STACK FORMAT_ERROR_STACK GET_HASH_VALUE 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .page 263 dbver. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .pkg dbparm.

Resolves name of object into component parts. Creates data block address from block & file numbers. Parses string object designator into components. Returns "current time" down to hundredth of second.page 264 .DBMS_UTILITY Module Outline. cont. GET_PARAMETER_VALUE GET_TIME IS_PARALLEL_SERVER MAKE_DATA_BLOCK_ADDRESS NAME_RESOLVE NAME_TOKENIZE PORT_STRING TABLE_TO_COMMA Retrieves value of database parameter (Oracle8). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Returns TRUE if in parallel server mode. Returns platform and version of database. Converts list (in index-by-table) of elements into a comma-delimited list (string).

± SYSDATE only reflects times down to the nearest second. DECLARE v_start BINARY_INTEGER. Basic steps necessary to convert GET_TIME into a performance analysis tool.GET_TIME. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . calc_totals. END.GET_TIME .v_start). BEGIN v_start := DBMS_UTILITY.Sub-Second Timings with GET_TIME  GET_TIME returns the number of 100ths of seconds that have elapsed since an arbitrary point in time.  Compare results from consecutive calls to GET_TIME to determine the elapsed time of PL/SQL code execution.PUT_LINE (DBMS_UTILITY. so GET_TIME offers significant additional granularity.page 265 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . especially those that run in sub-second time. ± Useful when analyzing individual PL/SQL programs. DBMS_OUTPUT.

sps plvtmr. calc_totals. PROCEDURE set_factor (factor_in IN NUMBER). PROCEDURE turn_off. Clean and lean timing code ovrhead.show_elapsed.Building a Layer Over GET_TIME Partial package specification PACKAGE PLVtmr IS PROCEDURE turn_on.capture. END PLVtmr. PLVtmr. PROCEDURE capture ( context_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) PROCEDURE show_elapsed (prefix_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. BEGIN PLVtmr.page 266 . reset_in IN BOOLEAN := TRUE). END.sql plvtmr. adjust_in IN NUMBER := 0.spb 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

± Most recent program at beginning of "report". equivalent to CHR(10). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .VALIDATE_REQUEST function STEVEN.Accessing the Execution Call Stack Use in the exception section to show context of error.page 267 .CALC_NET_WORTH anonymous block  "Little known facts" about FORMAT_CALL_STACK: ± Contains embedded new-line characters.COMPANY_TYPE procedure STEVEN. only the package name. ± Does not show package elements.FORMAT_CALL_STACK).PUT_LINE ( DBMS_UTILITY. ----. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN DBMS_OUTPUT. END.PL/SQL Call Stack ----object line object handle number name 88ce3f74 88e49fc4 88e49390 88e2bd20 8 2 1 1 package STEVEN.

startpos. LOOP next_newline := INSTR (stk.FORMAT_CALL_STACK || CHR(10).sp dispcs. startpos := next_newline + 1. startpos. next_newline INTEGER.page 268 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .startpos + 1). startpos INTEGER := 1. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .sps DBMS_OUTPUT.pkg plvcs.Accessing Call Stack Contents  The call stack length can easily exceed 255 bytes.PUT_LINE (next_line). CHR(10). EXIT WHEN next_newline = 0. dispcs.tst callstack. 1). END LOOP. use a loop to read through the stack. BEGIN stk := DBMS_UTILITY. which means you cannot pass it to DBMS_OUTPUT directly. Instead. next_line VARCHAR2(255). next_line := SUBSTR ( stk. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE dispcs IS stk VARCHAR2(10000). next_newline . END.

object_number OUT NUMBER).page 269 .but don't see it as a problem.Resolving Names of Stored Code  Code names have many components..NAME_RESOLVE (name IN VARCHAR2. PROCEDURE DBMS_UTILITY.  Possible "Part 1" Types 5 7 8 9 Synonym Procedure Function Package What a chore! All those arguments. see it as an opportunity.sp snc. schema OUT VARCHAR2.. part1 OUT VARCHAR2. context IN NUMBER... part2 OUT VARCHAR2. ± Use NAME_RESOLVE to break down an identifier string into its components easily. the way they are attached also follows a complicated syntax.for encapsulation! showcomp. part1_type OUT NUMBER. dblink OUT VARCHAR2.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful