Achieving PL/SQL Excellence

Oracle PL/SQL Advanced Techniques
Oracle7 thru Oracle8i
Steven Feuerstein
www.StevenFeuerstein.com www.Quest.com www.OReilly.com
and contributions most excellent from Bill Pribyl and Dick Bolz

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 1

Objective & Outline 

Objective
± Expand your knowledge and awareness of important and new features of the PL/SQL language. 

Outline
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± Building with Packages (Oracle7+) PL/SQL Collections (Oracle7 and Oracle8+) Cursor Variables (Oracle7 and Oracle8+) Dynamic SQL: DBMS_SQL and Native Dynamic SQL (8i) Calling Java from PL/SQL (Oracle8i) and C (Oracle8) Oracle Advanced Queuing with DBMS_AQ (Oracle8) Managing Large Objects with DBMS_LOB (Oracle8) Other Oracle8i New Features
» Autonomous Transactions (Oracle8i) » Invoker Rights Model (Oracle8i) » Row Level Security: DBMS_RLS

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

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Software Used in Training 

PL/Vision: a library of packages installed on top of PL/SQL.
± PL/Vision Lite - use it, copy, change it for free -- unless you build software to be sold commercially. ± Active PL/SQL Knowledge Base: contains PL/Vision Professional, the fully supported and enhanced version. 

Demonstration scripts executed in the training can be found on the RevealNet PL/SQL Pipeline:
± http://www.revealnet.com/Pipelines/PLSQL/index.htm ± Archives surfboard, Miscellaneous, PL/SQL Seminar Files ± See filedesc.doc for a listing of many of the files.
plsql_ides.txt 

The PL/SQL IDE (Integrated Development Environment).
± You no longer have to use SQL*Plus and a crude editor! Choose from among the many listed in plsql_ides.txt.

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Achieving PL/SQL Excellence

Building with PL/SQL Packages 
 

Overview Initialization section Overloading

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What is a Package? 

A collection of code elements, from procedures and functions to TYPE, variable and cursor declarations.
± Single-most important structure within PL/SQL, and almost certainly one of the most under-utilized. ± Conceptually very simple, it can take some time to fully grasp the implications and potential of the package. 

The method of choice by Oracle and other software developers for extending the PL/SQL language.
± You will find packages in the database, in Oracle Developer/2000, in Oracle Application Server. 

Let¶s review some of the benefits of packages.
tmr.pkg dbparm.pkg

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page 6 . te_employee.pkg  Improve transaction integrity by hiding data structures behind the package interface.pks te_employee.pkg insga. ± Instead of writing SQL directly in your programs.pkb  Construct very flexible and usable utilities for developers.When to Build a Package  Join physically logically-related code. custrules. ± Puts more structure and organization in your body of code.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . package-based "component". ± Can lead to performance improvements. watch. ± There's a big difference between a bunch of separate programs and a coherent. you call the packaged procedures and functions instead.

Package Initialization  The initialization section is a block of code at the end of the package body that is executed once per session. ± The PL/SQL runtime engine determines when and if this code should be run. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Does the package have an init section? yes Run initialization code. the first time any package element is referenced.page 7 . no Complete request for packaged element. Program references package element the first time in each session.

± Can have its own exception handling section. most packages you build won't have one.Package Initialization Structure  The initialization section: ± Is defined after and outside of any programs in the package. ± Confirming that package is properly instantiated.  Useful for: ± Performing complex setting of default or initial values. PACKAGE BODY pkg IS PROCEDURE proc IS BEGIN END.page 8 . FUNCTION func RETURN BEGIN END. BEGIN END pkg. In fact. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Is not required. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein BEGIN after/outside of any program defined in the pkg. ± Setting up package data which does not change for the duration of a session.

EXCEPTION WHEN NO_DATA_FOUND THEN /* No record for show_lov := show_toolbar := printer := PACKAGE sessinit IS show_lov CHAR(1). init. 'lpt1'.tst this user. defprinter INTO show_lov. END sessinit. 'Y'. 'No profile for ' || USER). END sessinit. show_toolbar.page 9 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .pkg init. PACKAGE BODY sessinit IS /* No declared package elements at all! */ BEGIN /* Get user preferences for this user. WHEN OTHERS THEN RAISE_APPLICATION_ERROR (-20000. Section  An unusual package! ± Specification contains only variables. */ 'Y'. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . printer FROM user_config WHERE user_id = USER. */ SELECT lov_flag. ± Body contains only initialization section.  Also a package with many design flaws. tb_flag.Configure Session with Init. show_toolbar CHAR(1).. printer VARCHAR2(60)..

sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . . END dt. datemgr. ± This increases the flexibility of the date conversion process. fmt_count := 12.. employs several PL/SQL tables to convert strings and to perform date arithmetic. fmts(2) := 'DD-MON-YYYY'. Initialization section populates a PL/SQL table.page 10 . fmts(4) := 'MM/DD'. fmts(11) := 'YYYYMMDD'. fmts(9) := 'MM/DD/YYYY'.pkg file demonstrates the basic technique (and the reliance on an initialization section) used to achieve this flexibility. fmts(10) := 'MMDDYYYY'.pkg dates. PLVdate. BEGIN fmts(1) := 'DD-MON-RR'.Populate Collections  The PL/Vision Date package.. fmts(3) := 'DD-MON'. fmts(12) := 'RRMMDD'. ± The datemgr.

myproc myproc 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± You can overload modules in any declaration section and in packages. you give two or more programs the same name. myproc  Overloading is a critical feature when building comprehensive programmatic interfaces (APIs) or components using packages.Program Overloading  When you overload programs. ± Overloading transfers the "need to know" from the user to the overloaded program. you need to make that code as smart and as easy to use as possible.page 11 . ± If you want others to use your code.

date_string := TO_CHAR (SYSDATE. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . number_string := TO_CHAR (10000). 'MMDDYY'). ± You just probably never gave it a thought.Overloading in PL/SQL Built-ins  PL/SQL uses overloading in many common functions. you would have to deal with something like this: date_string := TO_CHAR_FROM_DATE (SYSDATE.page 12 . ± But Oracle couldn't offer that level of convenience without overloading. and took functions like TO_CHAR and TO_DATE totally for granted. number_string := TO_CHAR_FROM_NUMBER (10000). Without overloading. 'MMDDYY').

± Arguments differ only in their mode (IN. ± The programs are of different types: procedure and function.How Overloading Works  For two or more modules to be overloaded. ± 2.  Undistinguishing characteristics: ± Functions differ only in their RETURN datatype.page 13 . order or datatype family (CHAR vs. IN OUT). When you compile the package or block containing the overloaded code.  Distinguishing characteristics: ± The formal parameters of overloaded modules must differ in number. OUT. When you compile programs that use the overloaded code. the compiler must be able to distinguish between the two calls at compile-time. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . VARCHAR2 is not different enough). ± Their formal parameters differ only in datatype and the datatypes are in the same family. There are two different "compile times": ± 1.

PROCEDURE proc1 (val IN OUT VARCHAR2). END only_returns. which one? param_modes. FUNCTION func1 (val IN VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2. PACKAGE param_modes IS PROCEDURE proc1 (val IN VARCHAR2). END too_many_cals. END param_modes. PROCEDURE calc (reg_in IN VARCHAR2).func1 (v_value)). which one? DBMS_OUTPUT. Only difference is parameter mode. PACKAGE only_returns IS FUNCTION func1 (val IN VARCHAR2) RETURN DATE.calc ('123'). Only difference is function RETURN type.page 14 .Examples of Invalid Overloadings PACKAGE too_similar IS PROCEDURE calc (reg_in IN CHAR). which one? too_similar. Parameter data types cause conflict.proc1 (v_value). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .PUT_LINE (only_returns.

You use the type of data and not its value to determine which of the overloaded programs should be executed.l substitute does an even better job. you may construct different versions of the ³same´ program which correspond to different patterns of use. ± The DBMS_OUTPUT. the overloading does not provide a single name for different activities.page 15 . so much as providing different ways of requesting the same activity.  Overloading by Type.  Fitting the Program to the User ± To make your code as useful as possible.PUT_LINE procedure illustrates this technique -and the PL/Vision p. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . not Value ± A less common application of overloading.Overload Wherever Possible  Supporting Many Data Combinations ± Apply the same action to different kinds or combinations of data. In this case.

YYYY .spb PROCEDURE l (boolean_in IN BOOLEAN). PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2. mask_in IN VARCHAR2 := 'Month DD. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2. boolean_in IN BOOLEAN). mask_in IN VARCHAR2 := µMonth DD.sps p. date_in IN DATE. number_in IN NUMBER). PACKAGE p IS PROCEDURE l (date_in IN DATE.HH:MI:SS PM'). PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2). YYYY . p.HH:MI:SS PM'). END p. allowing the user to pass data to the "display engine" without writing "pre-processing" code. PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2.page 16 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . PROCEDURE l (number_in IN NUMBER).A "Classic" Overloaded Package  Many different datatype combinations.

'MM/DD/YY HH:MI:SS')). IF print_report_fl THEN DBMS_OUTPUT. DBMS_OUTPUT. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .l (print_report_fl).l ('So what is different?').. SQLCODE).PUT_LINE (TO_CHAR (SYSDATE.PUT_LINE ('TRUE'). p..PUT_LINE ('FALSE'). END IF. p.PUT_LINE ('So what is different?').Advantage of Extended Overloading ‡ Minimal overloading means lots of extra coding. ELSE DBMS_OUTPUT.l (SQLERRM. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein ‡Extended overloadings are more likely to meet user needs. DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE (SQLERRM || ': ' || TO_CHAR (SQLCODE)).l (SYSDATE). DBMS_OUTPUT. p.page 17 . p.

page 18   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . If you take these different circumstances into account when you design your package specification. think about the way it will be used. such as "display data" or "create a file". can be applied or needed under very different circumstances. the user of your package can benefit from writing less code.. ± If you want to write software that is admired. few developers are considerate enough of their users to try to anticipate their needs. In my experience. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . appreciated.and taken completely for granted.Fitting the Program to the User Writing "unnecessary" code? Time to overload!  A single piece of functionality.. ± Your code is a a more natural "fit" under a variety of requirements.

'blah'). BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE.page 19  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . you have to declare the record to hold the file handle.FOPEN ('tmp/flags'.Creating a File for a Quick Touch  Suppose a developer needs to create a file to be used as a "flag" in the operating system.PUT_LINE (fid.  In other words. Of course.FILE_TYPE. END. so this is just the way it has to be. 'W'). ± She doesn't care what's in it.FCLOSE (fid). sometimes you will want to create a file and then perform additional operations. ± Here is the code required by UTL_FILE: DECLARE fid UTL_FILE. 'exists. It just needs to be present. UTL_FILE.flg'. even though you are simply going to close the file immediately after opening it. UTL_FILE. right? WRONG! PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

FILE_TYPE.page 20 .ini'.FILE_TYPE. line_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL).Procedure and Function Overloaded  Why not overload a "create file" program so that you can pick the one that most closely fits your situation? Consider the PLVfile package of PL/Vision.pkg PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Use as Function DECLARE fid UTL_FILE. TO_CHAR (SYSDATE)). Use as Procedure BEGIN PLVfile.put_line (fid. line_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) RETURN UTL_FILE. custrules. v_user). /* Function */ FUNCTION fcreate (file_in IN VARCHAR2.fcreate ('temp. PLVfile.fcreate ('exists. END.  Overloading of FCreate PACKAGE PLVfile IS /* Procedure */ PROCEDURE fcreate (file_in IN VARCHAR2. END PLVfile.flg'). BEGIN fid := PLVfile.

but the type of data. when you use DBMS_SQL to set up a dynamic query. ± Pass a piece of data of the right type. ± For example.  There are three ways to accomplish this: ± Don't overload. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Pass a string ³name´ of the datatype.page 21 . the user does not need to pass data. you must call the DEFINE_COLUMN procedure to define the datatype of the Nth column in the cursor."By-Type" Overloading  In some situations. Define a different program name for each datatype.

1.DEFINE_VARCHAR2_COLUMN (cur. 1.. 'NUMBER').....DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.func 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 2.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.. DBMS_SQL.. lotsa names. DBMS_SQL. Pass a named constant.page 22 . 2..  So many program names to remember! Pass a literal value. 30)..DEFINE_INTEGER_COLUMN (cur.. DBMS_SQL. 30).Options for Specifying Column Type  Don't even bother overloading.VARCHAR2_TYPE.NUMBER_TYPE).DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. 'STRING'. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.. Lotsa typing.DEFINE_COLUMN ± PLVgen. 2..  Nasty hard-coding.  Now let's look at two examples of overloading by datatype. DBMS_SQL. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. ± DBMS_SQL. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. 1). DBMS_SQL. 30).

USER. you only need to pass a value -. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.page 23 . from the perspective of DBMS_SQL. 1). ± To make it easier to accomplish this task. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 30). 1. 30). 2.Defining Dynamic SQL Columns  The DBMS_SQL. v_ename. DBMS_UTILITY. 1.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. 2. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. ± The three code blocks below are equivalent.DEFINE_COLUMN procedure defines the datatype of a column.of the correct type. DBMS_SQL. 'a'.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.any value -.GET_TIME).DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.DEFINE_COLUMN. 1. v_empno). 30).DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL. 2.

type_in IN DATE). type_in IN NUMBER). please! 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . SQL> exec plvgen. SYSDATE) SQL> exec plvgen.Generating Functions by Value  In PLVgen. type_in IN VARCHAR2). PACKAGE PLVgen IS PROCEDURE func (name_in IN VARCHAR2.func ('total_salary'. Any number.page 24 .func ('last_date'. PROCEDURE func (name_in IN VARCHAR2. any date. any string. please! A number function. ± The particular value itself is of no importance. 1) A date function. the user indicates the type of function to be generated by providing a value. PROCEDURE func (name_in IN VARCHAR2. any Boolean will do.

I rely on an anchored type (%TYPE) to establish the datatype of the second calc¶s parameter.page 25 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .The Frustrations of Overloading  Watch out! An overloading can compile successfully. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .comp_id%TYPE).  In the above example. ± When I compile profits. PROCEDURE calc (comp_id_IN IN company. PL/SQL does not sense a conflict with above overloading even though comp_id is a numeric column. END. but you might later found out that you cannot actually call any of the overloaded programs. PACKAGE profits IS PROCEDURE calc (comp_id_IN IN NUMBER).

Quiz! Nuances of Overloading PACKAGE sales IS PROCEDURE calc_total (zone_in IN VARCHAR2). sales. why not? ± If so.calc_total ('ZONE2'). END sales.pkg ? 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .calc_total ('NORTHWEST'). sales. PROCEDURE calc_total (reg_in IN VARCHAR2). how would you do it? (Don't peek at the next page!) BEGIN sales.  Can I overload two programs which have parameters that differ only by name. END.page 26 . like calc_totals shown above? ± If not.

DBMS_JOB.ANALYZE_OBJECT ' || '(''TABLE''.sql  Advantages 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . This is especially useful when working with infrequently used built-in programs.Using Named Notation <formal parameter name> => <expression>  Explicit association between the formal parameter (the "name") with the actual parameter (the "value"). next_date => TRUNC (SYSDATE + 1).''TENK''' || '.null.submit ( job => v_jobno.'.estimate_percent=>50).''ESTIMATE''.page 27 . what => 'DBMS_DDL. interval => 'TRUNC(SYSDATE+1)'). namednot. ± You can skip over (not specify values for) any IN parameters that have default values. of named notation include: ± Code is more "self-documenting". That way you don't have to know and pass default values.''LOAD1''.

Three types of collections: ± Index-by tables (Oracle7 only.Achieving PL/SQL Excellence PL/SQL Collections   Collections are single-dimensioned lists of information. Oracle8 and above) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 28 . originally called PL/SQL tables) ± Nested tables (Oracle8 and above) ± Variable arrays (VARRAYs.

page 29     1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . Build hash tables (custom indexing structures).  Emulate bi-directional cursors. Avoid mutating table errors in database triggers. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .When to Use Collections  Maintain any kind of list of related information for use in your programs. which are otherwise not supported in PL/SQL Cache data in session-level memory for faster access. Improve query performance by avoiding joins.

647 » You will not actually create tables this large. Valid row numbers range: -2. DECLARE TYPE inmem_emp_t IS TABLE OF emp%ROWTYPE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER.147.483. this broad range allows you to employ the row number as an intelligent key.147.  Characteristics of an index-by table: ± Unbounded » Practically speaking.483. ± Homogeneous » Data in each row has the same structure. ± Available only in PL/SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Sparse » Data does not have to be stored in consecutive rows of information.Index-By Tables TYPE <table_type> IS TABLE OF <datatype> INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER.647 to 2.page 30 . emp_copy inmem_emp_t. Instead.

children (6904) := 'Lisa Nadezhka'.Index_by Tables TYPE declaration PACKAGE BODY family IS TYPE child_list_type IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2 (30) INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. Component Selection kid := children (4). Error: NO_DATA_FOUND 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 31 .pkg children 6306 6412 6904 µBarbara Anne¶ µGary Richard¶ µLisa Marie¶ children (6810) := µAdam Russell. children 6306 6412 6810 6904 µBarbara Anne¶ µGary Richard¶ µAdam Russell¶ µLisa Nadezhka¶ datemgr. Variable declaration children child_list_type.

± Unbounded. DECLARE TYPE when_t IS TABLE OF DATE. but can become sparse if you DELETE inner rows ± Available both in PL/SQL and SQL (as a column in a table) ± The order of elements is not preserved in the database 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Nested table characteristics ± Homogeneous » Each row contains the same structure of data. Valid row numbers range: 1 to 2.Nested Tables [CREATE OR REPLACE] TYPE <table_type> IS TABLE OF <datatype> [NOT NULL]. birthdays when_t.147.483.647 ± Initially dense. but only with explicit EXTEND requests » Practically speaking.page 32 .

kids child_table_type) NESTED TABLE kids STORE AS kids_ntab. CREATE TABLE db_family (surname VARCHAR2 (30).sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 33 .Nested Tables CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE child_table_type IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2 (30). For ORACLE's use only db_family surname kids BOLZ BOND Eric Thomas Max Richard Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Marie ntdemo.

can be EXTENDed or TRIMmed.483. ± Variable arrays are actually stored in the DB table 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Bounded » Upper limit established when the TYPE is defined.647 ± Dense » Never any gaps between defined rows.147. DECLARE TYPE numbers_t IS VARRAY (10) OF NUMBER. ± Available both in PL/SQL and SQL (as a column in a table) » And the order of elements are preserved in the database. Maximum value: 2.  Characteristics of variable arrays: ± Homogeneous » Each row contains the same structure of data.page 34 . salaries numbers_t.Variable Arrays [CREATE OR REPLACE] TYPE <table_type> IS VARRAY (N) OF <datatype> [NOT NULL].

CREATE TABLE db_family (surname VARCHAR2 (30). db_family surname kids BOLZ BOND 1 Barbara Anne 2 Gary Richard 3 Lisa Marie 1 Eric Thomas 2 Max Richard vademo.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . kids child_va_type).Variable Arrays CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE child_va_type IS VARRAY (8) OF VARCHAR2 (30).page 35 .

Defining Collections  First. TYPE integer_nt IS TABLE OF INTEGER. ± For index-by tables.. END tabtypes. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE tabtypes IS TYPE integer_ibt IS TABLE OF INTEGER INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. a collection. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . TYPE integer_vat IS VARRAY(10) OF INTEGER. ± You can declare multiple collections from that TYPE. you define the TYPE of the collection. ± For nested tables and VARRAYs. from the TYPE. or in a PL/SQL declaration section.. . this can only occur in a PL/SQL declaration section. you can define the TYPE in the database with a CREATE statement.  Then you declare an instance of that type.page 36 . Best option: package specification.

Obtaining Collection Information SELECT FROM WHERE AND AND AND A.elem_type_name = A.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± The code used to define the collection TYPE  There is no information in the data dictionary available for index-by tables. all_type_attrs A T. 'TMRS_VT') T.attr_type_name Attributes all_coll_types T.  ALL_COLL_TYPES ± The types you have created (or have access to) in the database  ALL_TYPE_ATTRS ± Attributes of the data type used in the TYPE definition.owner = USER T. colldd.type_name IN ('NAMES_VT'.owner = A.type_name.' || A.page 37 .attr_name || ' .owner T.

200. DECLARE TYPE numbers_t IS VARRAY (10) OF NUMBER. salaries numbers_t := numbers_t (100. empty when declared. salary_history numbers_t). / DECLARE -.page 38 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . 300). it must be initialized. TYPE defined in PL/SQL TYPE defined in the database Collection used in a table PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . You must initialize them explicitly with a constructor. BEGIN CREATE TYPE numbers_t IS VARRAY (10) OF NUMBER. 200.Initialize the collection.Initializing Collections  Before you can use a collection. 300). BEGIN CREATE TABLE employee_denorm ( employee_id INTEGER. salaries numbers_t := numbers_t (100. ± Nested tables and VARRAYs are atomically null. ± Index-by tables are initialized automatically.

the ³homogeneous´ contents of an index-by table's row can be a record . comp_tab comp_tabtype. total_rev NUMBER). BEGIN comp_tab(1).page 39 .  Starting with Oracle8.Collections of Composites  Starting with Oracle 7. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . the datatype for any of the collection types can also be an object. Again. DECLARE TYPE comp_rectype IS RECORD (comp_id company. consider putting TYPEs in database or packages.3. Here we have a three step process. TYPE comp_tabtype IS TABLE OF comp_rectype INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. ± But you cannot have nested composite datatypes.company_id%TYPE.comp_id := 1005. ± Can easily create an index-by table with the same structure as a database table by declaring a record with %ROWTYPE.

etc.  Especially handy when caching data from relational tables in user memory.page 40 . ± You should not fill sequentially. order by date.Sparse is Nice  The sparse characteristic of index-by tables and nested tables can be put to good use. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . a row exists in the table only when a value is assigned to that row. it is very similar to a database table.  Rows do not have to be defined sequentially. ± Instead. your collections will contain a row's worth of information. In this way.). unless the order in which items are selected is of importance. ± In an index-by table. consider using the row value as "smart data" for your application (primary key. ± In almost every case.

tst  PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Initialization section of package 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein  This package moves the entire contents of the emp table into its corresponding collection.empno) := rec. Some questions: ± Why would I put this collection table in a package? ± When is the collection loaded with the data? ± What rows in that collection are utilized? psemp. END. END LOOP.page 41 . END.Transferring DB Table to Collection CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE psemp IS TYPE emp_tabtype IS TABLE OF emp%ROWTYPE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. emp_tab emp_tabtype.pkg psemp. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY psemp IS BEGIN FOR rec IN (SELECT * FROM emp) LOOP emp_tab (rec.

/ DECLARE greedy_ceos names_t := names_t (). once extended. even if you haven't assigned a value explicitly. ± Use the EXISTS method to determine if a row existed. ± For VARRAYs and nested tables. the row exists. END. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 42 . Jordan'.  For index-by tables. / Error -6533! You've got to EXTEND first!  EXTEND before assigning a value to a row. but you must do it for VARRAYs and nested tables. ± Not necessary for index-by tables.Collection Gotchas CREATE TYPE names_t IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2(30). you must reference existing rows or a NO_DATA_FOUND exception is raised. BEGIN greedy_ceos(1) := 'Hamilton.

preextend. salaries.EXISTS (v_employee_id) THEN -. ± Pre-extending a large number of rows in advance can improve performance.page 43 . salaries(salaries. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .'). ELSE DBMS_OUTPUT.Set the value of each new row to the contents of the first row. ± Assign a default value with a second.tst  Include a handler for NO_DATA_FOUND or use the EXISTS method to avoid these exceptions.  You can EXTEND one or more rows. -.PUT_LINE ('Data for employee not available.Extend by 10 since I know I will need that many. BEGIN IF salaries. END IF.EXTEND (10.Handling Collection Gotchas BEGIN -. optional argument.FIRST)).We are OK.

FIRST/LAST return lowest/highest numbers of defined rows. number of elements allowed in a VARRAY.  The built-in package plitblm (PL/sql Index-TaBLe Methods) defines these methods. ± LIMIT tells you the max. EXISTS returns TRUE if the specified row is defined. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± EXTEND adds rows to a nested table or VARRAY. ± TRIM removes rows from a VARRAY. ± ± ± ±  Modify the contents of the collection ± DELETE deletes one or more rows from the index-by table.Collection Methods  Obtain information about the collection COUNT returns number of rows currently defined in the table.page 44 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . NEXT/PRIOR return the closest defined row after/before the specified row.

DELETE (1400.Delete one (the last) row myCollection. but you may also want to call DBMS_SESSION.page 45 .Delete a range of rows myCollection. DELETE releases memory.LAST).FREE_UNUSED_USER_MEMORY. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . -. -.DELETE.DELETE (myCollection. 17255).The DELETE Method  You can delete one or more rows from a collection using DELETE: BEGIN -. END.Delete all rows myCollection.

Navigating Through Collections 


Use FIRST and NEXT to move from beginning to end. Use LAST and PRIOR to move from end to beginning.
rowind PLS_INTEGER := birthdays.FIRST; -- birthdays.LAST BEGIN LOOP EXIT WHEN rowind IS NULL; DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE (birthdays(rowind).best_present); rowind := birthdays.NEXT (rowind); -- birthdays.PRIOR END LOOP; END;

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Using Collections Inside SQL 

Nested tables and VARRAYs can be defined as columns of a table and referenced directly within SQL. You can also apply SQL operations to the contents of nested tables and VARRAYs with these operators:
± THE - Maps a single column value in a single row to a virtual database table ± CAST - Maps a collection of one type to a collection of another type ± MULTISET - Maps a database table to a collection ± TABLE - Maps a collection to a database table  

Index-by tables are programmatic constructs only.
± You cannot make a direct reference to an index-by table in SQL. ± Instead, so do indirectly with a PL/SQL function.

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Using Collections inside SQL
SELECT column_value FROM TABLE (SELECT children FROM db_family WHERE surname = 'BOLZ'); db_family surname children BOLZ BOND Eric Thomas Max Richard UPDATE TABLE (SELECT children FROM db_family WHERE SURNAME = 'BOLZ) SET column_value = 'Lisa Nadezhka' WHERE column_value = 'Lisa Marie'); db_family surname children BOLZ ...
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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 48

Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Marie

column_value Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Marie

Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Nadezhka

Using the THE Operator 

Use THE to manipulate (retrieve, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE) contents of a nested table in a database table.
± Can only use with nested tables, not VARRAYs or index-by tables. ± Only accessible from within SQL statements in PL/SQL.
CREATE TYPE action_list_t IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2(100); / CREATE TABLE inflation_beater ( focus_area VARCHAR2(100), activities action_list_t) NESTED TABLE activities STORE AS activities_tab; SELECT VALUE (act) FROM THE (SELECT activities FROM inflation_beater WHERE focus_area = 'FORTUNE 100') act; UPDATE THE (SELECT activities FROM inflation_beater WHERE focus_area = 'FORTUNE 100') SET COLUMN_VALUE = 'DISBAND OSHA' WHERE COLUMN_VALUE = 'SIDESTEP OSHA';

the.sql

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 49

Using the TABLE and CAST Operators 

Use CAST to convert a collection from one type to another, TABLE to convert a TYPE into a database table.
± Cannot use with index-by tables. ± Useful when you would like to apply SQL operations against a PL/SQL collection (ie, one not stored in a database table).
DECLARE nyc_devolution cutbacks_for_taxcuts := cutbacks_for_taxcuts ('Stop rat extermination programs', 'Fire building inspectors', 'Close public hospitals'); BEGIN DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE ( 'How to Make the NYC Rich Much, Much Richer:'); FOR rec IN (SELECT COLUMN_VALUE ohmy FROM TABLE (CAST (nyc_devolution AS cutbacks_for_taxcuts))) LOOP DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE (rec.ohmy); END LOOP; cast.sql END;

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genus.Using the MULTISET Operator  MULTISET is the inverse of TABLE. converting a set of data (table. query) into a VARRAY or nested table. END.genus = b.species) AS country_tab_t) FROM birds b. ± You can use MULTISET to emulate or transform relational joins into collections.species = b. information for the BEGIN master in one trip.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . CAST(MULTISET(SELECT bh.country FROM bird_habitats bh WHERE bh. with potential client-server performance impact. multiset. ± Cannot use with index-by tables.page 51 . b.genus AND bh.species. view. FETCH bird_curs into bird_row. OPEN bird_curs. DECLARE CURSOR bird_curs IS SELECT b. Retrieves all detail bird_row bird_curs%ROWTYPE.

PRAGMA RESTRICT_REFERENCES (rowval. call functions that retrieve the table's data.sql PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein ibtab_in_sql. FUNCTION rowval (indx IN PLS_INTEGER) RETURN DATE IS BEGIN RETURN hiredates (indx).page 52 . END. END. WNDS).  CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE ibtab IS FUNCTION rowval (indx IN PLS_INTEGER) RETURN DATE. hiredates date_tab.Referencing IB Tables inside SQL  You can't directly reference an index-by table's contents inside SQL. Make accessible in SQL for Oracle8 and below. WNPS. Instead. END. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY ibtab IS TYPE date_tab IS TABLE OF DATE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. but hide the index-by table structure.

Examples of Collections in Action  Emulation of bi-directional cursor operations Avoid mutating table problems in database triggers.page 53 .  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Bi-Directional Cursor Emulation  Oracle does not yet support the ability to move back and forth (and at random) through a cursor's result set. END.page 54 . didn't make it!  Instead. PROCEDURE prevRow.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± A talked-about feature for Oracle9i -. PROCEDURE nextRow. This is particularly useful (read: efficient) when you need to perform multiple passes against the data.  bidir.nope. Notice that the collection itself is hidden. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE bidir IS /* Iterate through rows in the result set */ PROCEDURE setRow (nth IN PLS_INTEGER).pkg bidir. deposit your data in a collection and then provide programs to access that data in the necessary fashion. FUNCTION getRow RETURN employee_plus%ROWTYPE.

it is "mutating".sql  Note: in Oracle8i. you can use autonomous transactions to relax restrictions associated with queries. So what are you supposed to do when a row-level operation needs to "touch" that table? mutating.The Mutating Table Problem  Database triggers can be attached to the SQL statement and/or the individual row operations on a table.page 55 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Statement Level UPDATE emp SET sal = 1000 UPDATE row 1 Row Level  UPDATE row N Row level triggers cannot query from or change the contents of the table to which it is attached.

1st row trigger fires Nth row trigger fires Writes to list Writes to list Work List (PL/SQL Table)  Process data in the list. If you are going to defer the work. ± an index-by table is an ideal repository for this reminder list. you need to defer the action until you get to the statement level.A Solution Based on Index-by Tables  Since you cannot perform the processing desired in the row-level trigger. Statement Trigger 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . you have to remember what you needed to do.page 56 .

91 109000. ± We might update more than one department within a statement so we must be able to retain multiple department numbers. ± By storing the salesperson¶s department ids as they change. Department ID Salesperson ID Sales Amount Rank 1055 1055 1055 1047  64333 65709 65706 70904 74055. ± As the sales amount is updated in this table. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .25 65011.An Example: Ranking Salespeople  A table holds the rankings based on the amount of annual sales of salespeople within a department. we then know which departments to re-rank.page 57 .88 144533. the rankings must also change to show the new standings for that department only. but preferable.25 3 1 2 6 "Deferred work" is not only necessary.

sales_amt != NEW.rank_depts.pkg All details of the ranking are hidden in the package body.Trigger Logic Required Row Level Trigger CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER Rank_Sales_Rtrg AFTER insert OR update OF sales_amt ON rank_sales FOR EACH ROW WHEN (OLD. END. ranking.dept_id). Statement Level Trigger CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER Rank_Sales_Strg AFTER INSERT OR UPDATE OR DELETE ON rank_sales BEGIN rank. END. Doesn't fire unless the sales_amt is actually changed.sales_amt) BEGIN rank.add_dept (:new.page 58 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

END IF. PROCEDURE add_dept (dept_id_in IN INTEGER) IS BEGIN IF NOT in_process THEN dept_tab (dept_id_in) := TRUE. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . dept_tab dept_tabtype. TYPE dept_tabtype IS TABLE OF BOOLEAN INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. PROCEDURE rank_depts. END rank.The Ranking Package PACKAGE rank IS PROCEDURE add_dept (dept_id_in IN INTEGER). END add_dept 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Create row to indicate department to be ranked.page 59 . PACKAGE BODY rank IS in_process BOOLEAN := FALSE. Table holds indicator that department needs re-ranking.

LOOP EXIT WHEN v_deptid IS NULL. Clean up for next time. Continued PROCEDURE rank_depts IS v_deptid PLS_INTEGER := dept_tab.The Ranking Package. dept_tab. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . perform_ranking (v_deptid). END LOOP. BEGIN IF NOT in_process THEN in_process := TRUE.NEXT (v_deptid).FIRST. v_deptid := dept_tab. END rank_dept. in_process := FALSE. END IF. END rank.page 60 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Avoid recursive execution of logic Row number is department number.DELETE.

± You want to use inside SQL.page 61 . Set of data is relatively small (avoid row chaining). You want to use inside SQL. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . You don't want to have to worry about sparseness.  VARRAYs ± ± ± ± You want to preserve the order in which elements are stored.  Nested tables ± You want to store large amounts of persistent data in a column.Which Collection Type Should I Use?  Index-by tables ± Need to use in both Oracle7 and Oracle8 applications ± Want to take advantage of sparse nature for "intelligent keys".

Tips for Using Collections 

Wrap access to your collections.
± In many cases, you will want to avoid direct access to (assigning and retrieving) rows in your collections. ± This will give you the flexibility to change your implementation. ± You can also hide complex rules for setting the row number. 

Get creative!
± Don't always fill and use the index-by table sequentially. ± If you can somehow translate your application data to an integer, it can be used as a row number, and therefore offers indexed access. ± Julian date formats and DBMS_UTILITY.GET_HASH_VALUE offer two different methods.

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Achieving PL/SQL Excellence

Cursor Variables

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 63

Architecture of Cursor Variables
With Hard-Coded Cursors
Hard-Coded Cursor

With Cursor Variables

PGA

Cursor Variable

Cursor Variable

Result Set

Shared Global Area

Cursor Object

Result Set 

A cursor variable points to an underlying cursor object in the database.
± The cursor object in turns points to (and keeps its place in) a result set. 

The cursor variable can be passed between programs (even between, say, a Java servlet and a PL/SQL stored procedure).
± Static SQL only -- until Oracle8i.
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1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

Benefits of Cursor Variables 

Share cursor management between programs, even across the client-server divide.
± You don't have to pass the result sets of a cursor in order to allow the client-side program to have direct access to the data in the result set. ± Oracle Developer 2.1 utilizes cursor variables when you choose to construct a "base table block" around stored procedures instead of a database table. 

Share the same code across multiple, different queries.
± Since the cursor name is no longer hard-coded, you can use a single block of code (say, a reporting program) against different queries. ± We will try out this technique at the end of the section.

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Cursor Variable Example
DECLARE TYPE company_curtype IS REF CURSOR RETURN company%ROWTYPE;
Declare a variable cursor TYPE.

company_curvar company_curtype;

Declare cursor variable based on that type. Declare a record from cursor variable. OPEN cursor variable, specifying the query. FETCH from the cursor variable.

company_rec company_curvar%ROWTYPE; BEGIN OPEN company_curvar FOR SELECT * FROM company;

FETCH company_curvar INTO company_rec;
Close the cursor variable.

CLOSE company_curvar; END;
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Explicit Cursors and Cursor Variables 

Both hard-coded cursors and cursor variables work with static SQL.
± The SQL is fixed at compile-time. ± The difference is that with cursor variables, you get to decide which static query is opened. 

Many cursor operations are the same:
± Close a variable cursor with the same syntax as that for static cursors. ± Use cursor attributes (%ISOPEN, %FOUND, %NOTFOUND, %ROWCOUNT) with cursor variables (as of Release 2.3). ± Fetch data from the cursor result set through a cursor variable with the same syntax as that of static cursors. 

Let¶s focus on the new and different capabilities of cursor variables.
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1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

Declaring Cursor Types and Variables 

Cursors are declared in two steps, just like programmerdefined records and PL/SQL tables.
± 1. Define a cursor TYPE -- either "weak" or "strong". ± 2. Define a cursor variable.
DECLARE TYPE weak_curtype IS REF CURSOR; TYPE comp_curtype IS REF CURSOR RETURN company%ROWTYPE; curcmp_new comp_curtype; cur_any weak_curtype; BEGIN
Declare cursor variables from the TYPEs. Declare a STRONG referenced cursor TYPE. Declare a WEAK referenced cursor TYPE.

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Strong vs. Weak Cursor Types 

A strong (or constrained) cursor type has a defined return data specification.
± Can only reference cursor objects which return the same data specification, which can be any single SQL datatype or any previously defined record structure. ± Datatype mismatches are identified at compile time.

TYPE cur_typ_name IS REF CURSOR [ RETURN return_type ]; TYPE cur_typ_name IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE; /* Strong */ 

The weak (or unconstrained) cursor type does not have a RETURN clause.
± It can reference any cursor object, be opened FOR any query. ± Datatype mismatches can only be identified at runtime.

TYPE cur_typ_name IS REF CURSOR; /* Weak */
1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein
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Opening with the Cursor Variable
OPEN cursor_name FOR select_statement; 

When you open a cursor variable (whether of the weak or strong variety), you must provide the SQL query that identifies the result set.
± If the variable has not yet been assigned to cursor object, the OPEN FOR statement implicitly creates an object for the variable. ± If the variable is already pointing to a cursor object, the OPEN FOR reuses the existing object and attaches the new query to that cursor object. 

Remember, the cursor object is nothing more than a memory location.
± It is maintained independently of the query itself.
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. Match Needed BEGIN OPEN emp_curvar FOR SELECT * from emp.. END. emp_curvar emp_curtype. a cursor or a programmer-defined record. ± You can establish the return type based on a database table..Opening with Strong Cursor Types DECLARE TYPE emp_curtype IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  STRONG cursor data specifications must match or be compatible with the structure of the SELECT statement.page 71 .

BEGIN IF get_type_in = µEMP¶ THEN Either query will "do".cv_type IS retval pkg. THEN OPEN retval FOR SELECT * FROM dept. you can associate any SELECT statement with a weak cursor variable.page 72 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . REF TYPE placed in package so that it is "globally" available. END. FUNCTION open_emp_or_dept (get_type_in IN VARCHAR2) RETURN pkg.  A weak cursor TYPE doesn't define the RETURN structure. END.Opening with Weak Cursor Types PACKAGE pkg IS TYPE cv_type IS REF CURSOR. Verification will take ELSIF get_type_in = µDEPT¶ place at the FETCH. OPEN retval FOR SELECT * FROM emp. RETURN retval. END IF.cv_type. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

page 73 . FETCH cursor_var_name INTO var_name. var_name. it match the cursor type data specification. it match the OPEN FOR statement structure. .. ± FOR WEAK cursor types. ± The ROWTYPE_MISMATCH exception is raised on failure.  Fetching with cursor variables follows the same rules as those with static cursors.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..Fetching from the Cursor Variable FETCH cursor_var_name INTO record_name.. ± Fetching can continue with a different INTO clause. The INTO structure must match in number and datatype to: ± FOR STRONG cursor types.   Compatibility checks are performed prior to fetching row. mismatch.

sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± You could use dynamic SQL to achieve this effect.When to Use Cursor Variables  Make it easier for calling programs (especially non-PL/SQL programs) to manipulate result sets.page 74 . since cursor names are "hard coded". ± With explicit cursors. but static cursors are more efficient than dynamic SQL and cursor variables are less complicated than DBMS_SQL. Use a single block of code to manipulate multiple queries.  hccursor. ± JDBC recognizes cursor variables.  Define a base table block in Forms Builder (formerly Oracle Forms) on stored procedures rather than a table directly. you have to repeat the code for each cursor.

END.Consolidating Different Cursors  The following package specification hides the SQL behind a single open function.tst explcv. TYPE cv_t IS REF CURSOR RETURN int_rt. bysal CONSTANT INTEGER := 2. / allcurrs.page 75 . CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE allcurs IS bydept CONSTANT INTEGER := 1. TYPE int_rt IS RECORD (key INTEGER).sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± It also creates the data structures you will need to call the function.pkg allcurs. FUNCTION open (type_in IN INTEGER) RETURN cv_t.

ELSIF type_in = bysal THEN OPEN retval FOR SELECT empno FROM emp ORDER BY SAL. BEGIN IF type_in = bydept THEN OPEN retval FOR SELECT empno FROM emp ORDER BY deptno.page 76 . END IF. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY allcurs IS FUNCTION open (type_in IN INTEGER) RETURN cv_t IS retval cv_t. RETURN retval.Consolidating Different Cursors  The open function simply opens FOR a different SELECT based on the criteria passed to it. END. END.

CLOSE cv.empno%TYPE.l (v_empno). / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .in this case.Hiding SQL Variations in Resulting Code  The following block demonstrates that you can alter which SQL statement to query -. EXIT WHEN cv%NOTFOUND. END. DECLARE cv allcurs. v_empno emp. BEGIN cv := allcurs. LOOP FETCH cv INTO v_empno.cv_t. p. END LOOP.open (&1).page 77 "Report processor" is independent of the particular SELECT . change the ORDER BY clause -without having to change the code you write.

1. unconstrained type. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Strong and Weak Types ± Create REF CURSORs for specific queries.  Hide Variations in Underlying SQL ± You no longer have to repeat the same code for different cursors. or a more general.Cursor Variables Let's summarize  Flexibility ± Choose which static SQL statement is executed at run-time. you can build screens that access data using a cursor variable-based procedural API.page 78 .  Improve Client-Side Access to Data ± At least in Oracle Developer 2.

page 79 .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Dynamic SQL  Dynamic SQL and dynamic PL/SQL: ± The DBMS_SQL package ± Native dynamic SQL in Oracle8i 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

± Construct powerful DBA utilities. ± Available in PL/SQL since Release 2.  Execute dynamically-constructed PL/SQL programs.Dynamic SQL and PL/SQL Execution  "Dynamic SQL" mean that you construct the SQL statement or PL/SQL block at runtime and then execute it. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . you no longer have to write SQL to generate SQL to get your job done. ± Also supported with "native dynamic SQL" in Oracle8i. ± One example: implement indirect referencing in PL/SQL.1 and DBMS_SQL. ± Very common requirement on the Web.  Execute DDL inside PL/SQL programs.page 80 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . What can you do with Dynamic SQL?  Build ad-hoc query and update applications.

If you can recognize the types. Method 4: queries with a variable number of items in the SELECT list and/or non-queries with a variable number of host variables. executed a single time. Method 2: non-queries with a fixed number of host variables. These methods are in increasing order of complexity. ± Different methods require the use of different programs in DBMS_SQL.Four Methods of Dynamic SQL   Method 1: non-queries without host variables. Method 3: queries with a fixed number of items in the SELECT list and a fixed number of host variables. you can more quickly figure out how to code your solution. execute one or more times.    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 81 . ± NDS does not support method 4.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Native Dynamic SQL  Prior to Oracle8i. DML and single row fetches. ± But this package is very complex. and relatively slow (performance did improve significantly as of Oracle8).  The new "native dynamic SQL" or NDS of Oracle8i offers two native statements in the PL/SQL language to implement most of your dynamic SQL requirements: ± EXECUTE IMMEDIATE <sql string>. you would use the DBMS_SQL built-in package to execute dynamic SQL.page 82 . ± OPEN FOR <sql string>. difficult to use. used for multi-row queries. used for DDL.

EXECUTE IMMEDIATE EXECUTE IMMEDIATE sql-string [INTO {define_variable[...  Use this statement to execute any dynamic SQL statement (including a PL/SQL block) except for multi-row queries. The INTO clause allows you to pass values from the select list of a single row query into local variables.. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..]. The USING clause allows you to specify bind arguments or variables to be passed into the SQL string before execution.page 83   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . {IN | OUT | IN OUT] bind argument]. define_variables]. collections and records. including objects. | record }] [USING {IN | OUT | IN OUT] bind argument [.

000.PUT_LINE ( 'Not the best health care system in the world. END IF.. USER) || '. whr IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. BEGIN EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'SELECT COUNT(*) FROM ' || NVL (sch.sf compare with: tabcount. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein tabcount81.COUNT(*) For Any Table  Here's a handy and simple utility based on NDS: CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION tabCount ( tab IN VARCHAR2.000 THEN DBMS_OUTPUT. '1=1') INTO retval...' || tab || ' WHERE ' || NVL (whr. WHERE clause. IF tabCount ('citizens'.page 84 . table and retval INTEGER.sf PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . RETURN retval. END. 'insured = ''NO''') > 40. sch IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) RETURN INTEGER IS Specify schema. and not much of a democracy either!')..

end_in. END. PROCEDURE runprog (pkg_in IN VARCHAR2. BEGIN v_str := 'BEGIN ' || pkg_in || '. start_in IN DATE.. start_in.' || name_in || '. EXECUTE IMMEDIATE v_str.. END. name_in IN VARCHAR2) IS v_str VARCHAR2 (100).page 85 . Pass in bind variables with USING clause. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . col_in IN VARCHAR2.. val_in IN NUMBER) IS BEGIN EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'UPDATE ' || tab_in || ' SET ' || col_in || ' = :val WHERE hiredate BETWEEN :lodate AND :hidate' USING val_in. end_in IN DATE.Other Execute Immediate Examples  Perform an update. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE updnumval ( tab_in IN VARCHAR2. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN pl ('Compile Error "' || SQLERRM || '" on: ' || v_str).'. END..  Execute a stored procedure.

pkg PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . the USING clause allows me to pass an object and nested table to an INSERT statement with a variable table name. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein health$.. pers IN Person.page 86 . END. ± No special syntax needed. cond IN preexisting_conditions) IS BEGIN EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'INSERT INTO ' || tabname (hosp_name) || ' VALUES (:revenue_generator. ± In the following example. PROCEDURE add_profit_source ( hosp_name IN VARCHAR2.. :revenue_inhibitors)' USING pers.Using Objects and Collections in NDS  One of the key advantages to NDS over DBMS_SQL is that it works with Oracle8 datatypes. cond. including objects and collections.

sp END. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE showcol ( tab IN VARCHAR2. val VARCHAR2(32767). LOOP Familiar cursor FETCH cv INTO val. BEGIN OPEN cv FOR 'SELECT ' || col || ' FROM ' || tab || ' WHERE ' || NVL (whr. ndsutil.page 87 . '1 = 1'). showcol. cv cv_type.PUT_LINE (val). ± Here is a simple utility the displays the values of any date.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . CLOSE cv.Multiple Row Queries and NDS  Oracle extends the cursor variable feature of Oracle7 to support multi-row dynamic queries. END LOOP. DBMS_OUTPUT. whr IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) IS TYPE cv_type IS REF CURSOR. col IN VARCHAR2. variable syntax! EXIT WHEN cv%NOTFOUND. number or string column in any table.

str2list. pass a variable with a NULL value. You cannot pass the NULL literal directly in the USING clause. You can have duplicate placeholders (for bind arguments).Some Fine Print for NDS  You cannot pass schema elements (table names.pkg    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± If dynamic SQL. etc. column names. provide a value for each distinct placeholder (by name). then you provide a value for each placeholder (by position). Instead. ± If dynamic PL/SQL.page 88 .) through the USING clause. The USING clause for a query can only have IN bind arguments.

You should only use DBMS_SQL when you cannot use NDS.Dynamic SQL using DBMS_SQL  Prior to Oracle8i. Supports all four methods of dynamic SQL.     1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . in particular method 4. The overhead for using DBMS_SQL has decreased significantly in Oracle8 and again in Oracle8i. with many rules to follow and lots of code to write.page 89 . DBMS_SQL is a very large and complex package. the only way to perform dynamic SQL was with the DBMS_SQL package.

Learning Through Examples  DDL ± Create an index from within PL/SQL  DML ± Update rows in a table  DML with binding ± Update rows using bind variables  Queries ± Method 3 and a dynamic WHERE clause  PL/SQL Version of "SELECT *" ± Example of Method 4  PL/SQL ± Create a generic calculation program 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 90 .

PARSE (cur.DDL with Dynamic SQL PROCEDURE create_index (index_in IN VARCHAR2. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . tab_in IN VARCHAR2. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.  creind. END. DDL_statement VARCHAR2(200) := 'CREATE INDEX ' || index_in || ' ON ' || tab_in || ' ( ' || col_in || ')'. DBMS_SQL. ± Open a cursor.OPEN_CURSOR. fdbk := DBMS_SQL.EXECUTE (cur).CLOSE_CURSOR (cur).sp Creates an index on any column(s) in any table in your schema.page 91 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . which will be used to execute the DDL statement. fdbk INTEGER.NATIVE). ± Parse and execute that DDL statement. ± Construct the DDL statement as a string. DBMS_SQL. DDL_statement. col_in IN VARCHAR2) IS cur INTEGER := DBMS_SQL.

PARSE (cur.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .PUT_LINE ('Rows updated: ' || TO_CHAR (fdbk)). val_in IN NUMBER) IS cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL. END.page 92 .OPEN_CURSOR. fdbk PLS_INTEGER. DBMS_SQL.NATIVE). ename_in IN emp.EXECUTE (cur).ename%TYPE. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. updnval1.CLOSE_CURSOR (cur). 'UPDATE emp SET ' || col_in || ' = ' || val_in || ' WHERE ename LIKE UPPER (''' || ename_in || ''')'. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE updnumval ( col_in IN VARCHAR2. DBMS_SQL.Updates with Dynamic SQL  Update numeric column for specified employees. DBMS_OUTPUT. fdbk := DBMS_SQL.

NATIVE). 'lodate'.PUT_LINE ('Rows updated: ' || TO_CHAR (fdbk)). start_in). 'UPDATE emp SET ' || col_in || ' = ' || val_in || ' WHERE hiredate BETWEEN :lodate AND :hidate'. updnval2. fdbk := DBMS_SQL.Updates with Bind Variables  Update salaries for date range using binding.page 93 .BIND_VARIABLE (cur. DBMS_SQL. end_in IN DATE. DBMS_SQL.BIND_VARIABLE (cur.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .CLOSE_CURSOR (cur). DBMS_OUTPUT.sp updnval3. val_in IN NUMBER) IS cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL. 'hidate'. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL.PARSE (cur.EXECUTE (cur).OPEN_CURSOR. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE updnumval ( col_in IN VARCHAR2. start_in IN DATE. DBMS_SQL. fdbk PLS_INTEGER. END. end_in).

page 94 .Processing Flow for a Dynamic Query Allocate cursor memory (OPEN_CURSOR) Fill cursor with data (EXECUTE) Make sure SELECT is well formed (PARSE) Fill buffer with data (FETCH_ROWS) (EXECUTE_AND_FETCH) Bind any variables (BIND_VARIABLE) (BIND_ARRAY) Retrieve the data (COLUMN_VALUE) Give cursor structure (DEFINE_COLUMN) (DEFINE_ARRAY) Release cursor memory (CLOSE_CURSOR) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

rec. DBMS_OUTPUT. 'SELECT empno.OPEN_CURSOR.COLUMN_VALUE (cur.empno) || '=' || rec.FETCH_ROWS (cur) = 0. fdbk := DBMS_SQL. 1. 1). fdbk INTEGER.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.PARSE (cur. DBMS_SQL.ename). rec. LOOP EXIT WHEN DBMS_SQL..DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. 60). 'a'. rec emp%ROWTYPE. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein showemps.EXECUTE (cur). '1=1').page 95 . DBMS_SQL.CLOSE_CURSOR (cur). BEGIN DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL. 2.ename).sp showemps. DBMS_SQL.NATIVE). DBMS_SQL. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE showemps (where_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) IS cur INTEGER := DBMS_SQL.. 2.Queries with Dynamic SQL  Show employees using a dynamic WHERE clause. END LOOP.sp showemp2. END.tst PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ename FROM emp ' || ' WHERE ' || NVL (where_in.COLUMN_VALUE (cur. DBMS_SQL.PUT_LINE (TO_CHAR (rec.empno). 1.

END LOOP. LOOP fetch-a-row.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.NATIVE). nth_col. END LOOP.COLUMN_VALUE (cur. END. END LOOP.Dynamic SELECT * FROM Any Table  Method 4 example: the number of columns queried changes with each table. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END LOOP.PARSE (cur. val). FOR each-column-in-table LOOP DBMS_SQL. nth_col. select_string. datatype). ± The resulting code is much more complicated.page 96 Very simplified pseudo-code intab. DBMS_SQL.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . DBMS_SQL. FOR each-column-in-table LOOP DBMS_SQL. BEGIN FOR each-column-in-table LOOP add-column-to-select-list.

± Even if the exception is raised.EXECUTE_AND_FETCH (cur). raises NO_DATA_FOUND or raises the TOO_MANY_ROWS exception.  Makes it easy to execute and fetch a single row from a query. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . which returns a single row. exact_match IN BOOLEAN DEFAULT FALSE) RETURN INTEGER. then EXECUTE_AND_FETCH will raise the TOO_MANY_ROWS exception if more than one row is fetched by the SELECT. TRUE).EXECUTE_AND_FETCH (cur.page 97 . numrows := DBMS_SQL.Using EXECUTE_AND_FETCH FUNCTION execute_and_fetch (cursor_in IN INTEGER. numrows := DBMS_SQL. ± If exact_match is TRUE. ± Very similar to the implicit SELECT cursor in native PL/SQL. the first row will still be fetched and available.

sf dyncalc. 0.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . and enter the arguments. arg2_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. NULL. FUNCTION dyncalc ( oper_in IN VARCHAR2. ± With DBMS_SQL. arg4_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL.page 98 . ± Using static PL/SQL. I would have to modify my screen every time a new formula was added. NULL. arg6_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. a single function will do the trick. NULL. arg10_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL dyncalc.Dynamic Formula Execution  Suppose I am building a user interface that allows a user to select a formula for execution. NULL. arg8_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. NULL. nargs_in IN INTEGER := arg1_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg3_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg5_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg7_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg9_in IN VARCHAR2 := ) RETURN VARCHAR2.

v_deptin). my_salary). my_salary). :salout). DBMS_SQL. fdbk := DBMS_SQL.EXECUTE (cur).sp dynplsql. DBMS_SQL.sql dynplsql. END.page 99 . END.More on Dynamic PL/SQL BEGIN cur := open_and_parse ('BEGIN get_max_sal (:deptin. You must have a BEGIN-END around the code.even OUT arguments which are not being bound to any values. µdeptin¶. DBMS_SQL. Use VARIABLE_VALUE to extract a value from any variable you have bound.  Use BIND_VARIABLE to bind any placeholders in the string -.VARIABLE_VALUE (cur.BIND_VARIABLE (cur.BIND_VARIABLE (cur.tst    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .'). Possibilities inherent in dynamic PL/SQL are mind-boggling! dynplsql. µsalout¶. µsalout¶.

'val'. PL/SQL does not support indirect referencing.Indirect Referencing with Dyn PL/SQL  Oracle Forms offers support for indirect referencing with the NAME_IN and COPY built-ins. 2000). DBMS_SQL.NATIVE).OPEN_CURSOR. DBMS_SQL. fdbk PLS_INTEGER. but you can accomplish much of the same thing with dynamic PL/SQL execution.pkg dynvar. DBMS_SQL. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .'. fdbk := DBMS_SQL.page 100  dynvar. 'val'. Here is an example of a "PL/SQL NAME_IN": FUNCTION valbyname (nm IN VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2 IS v_cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL. END.dbmaxvc2.EXECUTE (v_cur). RETURN retval. 'BEGIN :val := ' || nm || '.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . END. 'a'.BIND_VARIABLE (v_cur.VARIABLE_VALUE (v_cur. retval). retval PLV.CLOSE_CURSOR (v_cur).PARSE (v_cur. DBMS_SQL.

 IS_OPEN ± Is the cursor already open?  LAST_ERROR_POSITION ± Returns relative column position in cursor of text causing error condition. ± Call these immediately after your usage to make sure they refer to your cursor. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .DBMS_SQL Status Built-ins  The package offers a set of modules to return information about the lastoperated cursor in your session.page 101 .  LAST_SQL_FUNCTION_CODE ± Returns SQL function code of cursor.  LAST_ROW_ID ± Returns the ROWID of last row processed.  LAST_ROW_COUNT ± Returns the cumulative count of rows fetched from the cursor.

Then you retrieve the column using the special COLUMN_VALUE_LONG variant.DEFINE_COLUMN_LONG ± DBMS_SQL.page 102 . you define the column as a LONG. ± Transfer the LONG contents into an index-by table so that you can transfer a value of more than 32K bytes into your PL/SQL program.pkg dumplong. dumplong.COLUMN_VALUE_LONG   First.Working with LONG Values  DBMS_SQL provides special procedures so that you can extract values from a LONG column in a table.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± DBMS_SQL.

page 103 .New DBMS_SQL Features PL/SQL8 Extensions to DBMS_SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

inserts.page 104 . deletes and fetches. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .New Features in DBMS_SQL  The functionality of DBMS_SQL has been extended in Oracle8 in several ways: ± Parse very long SQL strings ± Describe cursor columns ± Use "array processing" to perform bulk updates. ± Support for RETURNING clause to avoid unnecessary queries.

it was not possible to determine the datatypes of the columns defined in a cursor. ± The record TYPE is also defined in DBMS_SQL.  Returns all of the column information in an index table of records.DESC_TAB).page 105 . ± Now you can call the DBMS_SQL. col_cnt OUT INTEGER.DESCRIBE_COLUMNS (c IN INTEGER.Describing Cursor Columns PROCEDURE DBMS_SQL. desc_t OUT DBMS_SQL. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .DESCRIBE_COLUMNS.  Before PL/SQL8.

BEGIN DBMS_SQL. ncols LOOP DBMS_OUTPUT.DESC_TAB. END LOOP. cols).OPEN_CURSOR..PARSE (cur.col_name).Basic Steps to Describe Columns  The following script shows the individual steps you will need to perform in order to use this feature. 'SELECT hiredate.tst showcols. cols DBMS_SQL. desccols. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE show_columns IS cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL. FOR colind IN 1 . END.DESCRIBE_COLUMNS (cur.PUT_LINE (cols(colind). ncols PLS_INTEGER.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL. ncols.NATIVE). empno FROM emp'.pkg desccols.CLOSE_CURSOR (cur). DBMS_SQL.page 106 .

you specify an index table. Instead of providing a scalar value for an operation. however. can offer a significant performance boost over Oracle7 dynamic SQL. It really isn't "array processing"."Array Processing" in DBMS_SQL  PL/SQL8 now allows you to specify the use of "arrays". 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . when you perform updates. deletes and fetches. DBMS_SQL is executing the specified SQL statement N times. where N is the number of rows in the table.. ± In actuality.    This technique still. DBMS_SQL then repeats your action for every row in the table. inserts. index tables.e.page 107 . i.

sql openprse.page 108 . column names.pkg whichsch.  Use the Oracle8i invoker rights model whenever you want to share your dynamic SQL programs among multiple schemas. ± Increased chance of reusing parsed SQL.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Otherwise that SQL will be executed under the authority of the owner of the code. concatenate) whenever possible. etc. effdsql.) through the USING clause. ± Encapsulate DBMS_SQL. ± With NDS.PARSE so that you include the trace in that program.Recommendations for Dynamic SQL  Bind (vs. though you could write variations for those as well.  Encapsulate statements to improve error handling. and easier code to write. only possible for statements that do not need USING and INTO clauses. ± But remember: you cannot pass schema elements (table names. not the invoker of the code.

. ± If.. Both implementations will still come in handy.page 109 . of course. but DBMS_SQL is hard to use.NDS or DBMS_SQL: Which is Best?  Dynamic SQL and PL/SQL is very useful. you have upgraded to Oracle8i!  Major Advantages of NDS: ± Ease of use ± Performance ± Works with all SQL datatypes (including userdefined object and collection types) ± Fetch into records  When You'd Use DBMS_SQL: ± ± ± ± ± ± ± Method 4 Dynamic SQL DESCRIBE columns of cursor SQL statements larger than 32K RETURNING into an array Reuse of parsed SQL statements Bulk dynamic SQL Available from client-side PL/SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

asynchronous.Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Oracle Advanced Queuing  The high performance.page 110 . persistent messaging subsytem of Oracle 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Distribution Center Coffee Beans Producer Shipping Service Retailer Consumer 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . consistent manner.page 111 .Who Needs Messaging? Everyone!  In the distributed world of the Internet. systems are now heavily reliant on the ability of components to communicate with each other in a dependable.

page 112 .Applications Relying on Messaging     Stock trading system Airline reservation system Auction portals Any e-commerce application 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

message propagation. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Key Features of Oracle AQ  Leverage full power of SQL ± Messages are stored in database tables  Database high availability. ± Rule-based subscribers.page 113 . scalability and reliability all carry over to queues ± Strong history and retention ± Backup and recovery ± Comprehensive journaliing  Rich message content increases usefulness of queueing ± Use object types to define highly structured payloads  New to Oracle8i. AQ now offers a publish/subscribe style of messaging between applications. the listen feature and notification capabilities.

AQ architectural overview Queue Monitor process Queue table Queue ³Producers´ Enqueued messages Message 4 Message 3 Message 2 Message1 ³Consumers´ Dequeued messages Messages include both control information and ³payload´ (content) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 114 .

0. AQ supports: ± ± ± ± ± Multiple queues Resetting order and priority of queued items Queue management using only SQL & PL/SQL Multiple message recipients Propagation of queue to remote servers  Oracle8i adds: ± ± ± ± Rules-based publish & subscribe Listening on multiple queues Easier monitoring Native Java interface PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 115 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .Oracle AQ Highlights  In 8.

   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .AQ Components  The DBMS_AQ package offers enqueue and dequeue capabilities The DBMS_AQADM package provides administrative functionality to manage queues and queue tables.page 116 . Underlying database tables and views The queue monitor (background process) ± Set # of processes with the AQ_TM_PROCESSES initialization parameter.

storage clause. payload type. whether multiple consumers Drops table if all queues in the table have been stopped Associates queue table with queue. sort column. assigns retry and retention properties to queue Drops a stopped queue Can also turn on/off enqueue and dequeue operations Stops queue.page 117 . optionally waiting for outstanding transactions Adds an ³agent´ as a subscriber 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .DBMS_AQADM Highlights CREATE_QUEUE_TABLE DROP_QUEUE_TABLE CREATE_QUEUE DROP_QUEUE START_QUEUE STOP_QUEUE ADD_SUBSCRIBER Assigns name.

pkg Start the queue PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . queue_table => 'msg'). / BEGIN DBMS_AQADM.CREATE_QUEUE (queue_name => 'msgqueue'.CREATE_QUEUE_TABLE (queue_table => 'msg'. text VARCHAR2(2000)).Creating Queue Tables and Queues CREATE TYPE message_type AS OBJECT (title VARCHAR2(30).START_QUEUE (queue_name => 'msgqueue'). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein aq. Define a queue in the queue table DBMS_AQADM.page 118 . queue_payload_type => 'message_type'). Define the "payload" Create the queue table DBMS_AQADM. END.

and returns a RAW message handle DEQUEUE extracts a message from a specified queue Parameters control message properties such as: ± Visibility (ON_COMMIT or IMMEDIATE) ± ± ± ± Priority Delay Expiration Locking behavior PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  ENQUEUE puts a message into a specified queue.The "operational package": DBMS_AQ  DBMS_AQ is deceptively simple.page 119   aq.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . ± Only two procedures. but lots of complexity buried inside the parameters of these procedures.

msgid aq. msgprops DBMS_AQ.MESSAGE_PROPERTIES_T. aqenq*. my_msg. Set up the payload with an object constructor. DBMS_AQ.ENQUEUE ( 'msgqueue'. 'May there be many more.Simple Enqueue Example DECLARE queueopts DBMS_AQ. msgid). Declare records to hold various enqueue and msg properties.page 120 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . END.msgid_type. BEGIN my_msg := message_type ( 'First Enqueue'.ENQUEUE_OPTIONS_T.'). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . my_msg message_type.* Place the message on the specified queue and get a msg ID in return.. queueopts.. msgprops.

More Interesting Enqueue Example DECLARE .page 121 . msgid2). my_msg.'). msgprops. queueopts.').ENQUEUE ( 'msgqueue'. Same setup as previous page .BEFORE. msgprops. msgprops.delay := 3 * 60 * 60 * 24. 'And this one goes first. END. my_msg. 'May there be many more. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . BEGIN my_msg := message_type ( 'First Enqueue'... 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Specify a delay before the payload is available. msgid1).. queueopts.. DBMS_AQ.... queueopts. DBMS_AQ.. queueopts. Modify the dequeue sequence by changing the deviation field and relative msg ID.relative_msgid := msgid1.sequence_deviation := DBMS_AQ.ENQUEUE ('msgqueue'. my_msg := message_type ( 'Second Enqueue'.

DEQUEUE_OPTIONS_T.DEQUEUE ( 'msgqueue'. msgprops DBMS_AQ. getmsg (DBMS_AQ. Demonstrates destructive and non-destructive dequeuing.REMOVE). PROCEDURE getmsg (mode_in IN INTEGER) IS BEGIN queueopts.dequeue_mode := mode_in. END.page 122 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . BEGIN getmsg (DBMS_AQ. my_msg. msgprops.BROWSE). aqdeq*. getmsg (DBMS_AQ.* Declare records to hold various dequeue and msg properties.Dequeue Example DECLARE queueopts DBMS_AQ.msgid_type. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .MESSAGE_PROPERTIES_T. queueopts. /* defined in aq.pkg */ my_msg message_type. msgid aq. msgid). END. Dequeue operation isolated in local module. DBMS_AQ.REMOVE).

item_obj. queueopts.priority := g_priority. END. BEGIN item_obj := aqstk_objtype (item).1.ENQUEUE_OPTIONS_T. ± The lower the numeric priority value. DBMS_AQ.* 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .pkg aqstk2. msgprops.pkg priority.MESSAGE_PROPERTIES_T. g_priority := g_priority . msgid aq. the higher the priority. msgid). msgprops DBMS_AQ. aqstk.ENQUEUE ( c_queue.visibility := DBMS_AQ. item_obj aqstk_objtype. msgprops.page 123 . queueopts.msgid_type.Prioritized Payloads  You can assign priorities to individual payloads and then dequeue according to those priorities.IMMEDIATE.  A stack implementation using AQ demonstrates this well. PROCEDURE push (item IN VARCHAR2) IS queueopts DBMS_AQ.

queue_payload_type => 'student_major_t'. The queue table must be defined to support multiple subscribers or consumers.Defining Message Subscribers  You can specify that a message is to be enqueued for a list of subscribers. NULL)). BEGIN DBMS_AQADM. DBMS_AQADM. NULL. ± The message is then not removed from the queue until all subscribers have dequeued the message.ADD_SUBSCRIBER ( c_queue.AQ$_AGENT (name_in.CREATE_QUEUE_TABLE ( queue_table => 'major_qtable'.  Steps to working with a subscriber list: ± 1. SYS.page 124 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein aqmult*.* PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . multiple_consumers => TRUE). ± 2. Add subscribers for the queue.

supporting a publish-subscribe model.Oracle AQ . ± Much more robust that DBMS_PIPE. LISTEN capability.Summary  Very powerful and flexible architecture. improved security. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Significant enhancements in Oracle8i.  Considered by Oracle to be a core component of its overall solution. ± Should be strongly supported "down the road".page 125 . ± Crucial for Oracle to have a message-oriented middleware in order to offer an all-Oracle solution.

page 126 .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Managing Large Objects with DBMS_LOB 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

they should no longer be used. etc.  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . video. though they will probably not be actually desupported.page 127 . sounds.LOB Terms  LOB = Large OBject: a category of datatype allowing storage of ³unstructured´ data up to 4 gigabytes LOB datatype can be: ± Column in table ± Attribute in object type ± Element in nested table   Possible applications include office documents. Images. ± Oracle has announced deprecation of LONGs. LOB datatypes are the successor to LONGs.

 Key programming differences: ± Internal LOBs participate in transactions.page 128 .Types of Large Objects  ³Internal´ LOBs ± BLOB: unstructured binary data ± CLOB: single-byte fixedwidth character data ± NCLOB: multi-byte fixedwidth character data (or varying width in )  ³External´ LOBs ± BFILE: pointer to an operating system file  Temporary LOBs ± Internal LOBs that do not participate in transactions. external do not ± External LOBs are read-only from within Oracle 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . improving performance.

open. trim ± For external LOBs: File existence test. EMPTY_CLOB() ± BFILENAME 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . erase. substring and instring searches. copy.page 129 . comparison and length checking ± For internal LOBs: Write. close  Other built-in functions ± LOADFROMFILE (load an external BFILE into a BLOB) ± EMPTY_LOB().PL/SQL built-ins for LOBs  Package DBMS_LOB ± Supports for all LOBs: Reading. append.

END. received DATE. Question: What¶s in the_fax? 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . CLOSE fax_cur.Deceptively simple example  BLOB-typed column in a table CREATE TABLE incoming_faxes (fax_id INTEGER. FETCH fax_cur INTO the_fax.page 130 . the_fax BLOB. BEGIN OPEN fax_cur.  Retrieve record with BLOB into PL/SQL variable DECLARE CURSOR fax_cur IS SELECT fax FROM incoming_faxes. fax BLOB).

page 131 .The ³LOB locator´ LOB t l sel es [ ll ] t i i t r . tt LOBs <lob segment> fax_id 281937 received 12-JAN-98 fax <lob locator> Updati  t e LOB anges t e pointer is ompli ates se of LOBs ± LOB locators cannot span transactions ± Programs must lock records containing LOBs efore updating ± Programs performing L must accommodate dynamic LOB locator alues 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

page 132 . .oodb. the_loc CLOB.. 1 of 2  Must get a new LOB locator before writing into the LOB: DECLARE the_url web_pages. EMPTY_CLOB()) RETURNING htmlloc INTO the_loc.url%TYPE := 'http://www. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..Example: Piecewise CLOB programmatic insert  Create a table CREATE TABLE web_pages ( url VARCHAR2(512) PRIMARY KEY. htmlloc CLOB).com'. BEGIN INSERT INTO web_pages VALUES (the_url.

html_tab UTL_HTTP.COUNT LOOP piece_length := LENGTH(html_tab(the_piece_no)).url%TYPE := 'http://www. running_total PLS_INTEGER := 1.REQUEST_PIECES(url => the_url).oodb. END.html_tab. END LOOP.. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . the_loc CLOB. DBMS_LOB. running_total := running_total + piece_length. into a CLOB column html_tab := UTL_HTTP. Note: We are ignoring amount => piece_length. several likely exceptions offset => running_total. EMPTY_CLOB()) and loads a web page RETURNING htmlloc INTO the_loc. buffer => html_tab(the_piece_no)). FOR the_piece_no IN 1. This block retrieves INSERT INTO web_pages VALUES (the_url.HTML_PIECES.com'.page 133 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein BEGIN .Example: Piecewise CLOB programmatic insert DECLARE the_url web_pages.WRITE(lob_loc => the_loc. piece_length PLS_INTEGER.

END IF. amount => 4.INSTR(lob_loc => the_loc.oodb. offset => str_offset. END. FETCH hcur INTO the_loc. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . the_loc CLOB. buffer => 'cool'). IF str_offset != 0 THEN DBMS_LOB. BEGIN OPEN hcur. CLOSE hcur.com' FOR UPDATE.WRITE(lob_loc => the_loc.page 134 .Example: Piecewise CLOB programmatic update DECLARE Program must lock the record explicitly CURSOR hcur IS SELECT htmlloc FROM web_pages WHERE url = 'http://www. str_offset INTEGER. str_offset := DBMS_LOB. pattern => 'oodb').

Preparing to use BFILEs  You must first create an Oracle I ORY´ ± Creates logical alias for full directory pat ± imilar to LIBRARY (used for C "external procedures").page 135 . ut IRECTORY namespace is global  Syntax: CREATE OR REPLACE DIRECTORY <directory name> AS '<full path to directory>'.  Example: CREATE DIRECTORY web_pix AS 'D:\bill\training\pix'. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

CREATE TABLE web_graphics ( image_id INTEGER.. scanned_card_image BFILE )..page 136 ... CREATE TYPE Business_card_t AS OBJECT ( name Name_t. addresses Address_tab_t. image BFILE).Using BFILE datatype in DDL  In a table. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . phones Phone_tab_t.  In an object type.

BEGIN INSERT INTO web_graphics VALUES (100015. END.gif'). file_exprn) RETURN BFILE.The built-in BFILENAME function  Returns value of datatype BFILE. /  Notes: ± No automatic file checking or synchronization ± No participation in transactions 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Example: DECLARE picture BFILE := BFILENAME('WEB_PIX'. 'prodicon.page 137 . picture). Spec: FUNCTION BFILENAME(directory_exprn.

Loading File into Database BLOB CREATE TABLE web_graphic_blobs ( image_id INTEGER. 'prodicon.FILECLOSE(pic_file). / loadblob. DECLARE pic_file BFILE := BFILENAME('WEB_PIX'.FILEOPEN(pic_file.FILE_READONLY).page 138 . DBMS_LOB.LOADFROMFILE(dest_lob => pic_blob_loc.GETLENGTH(pic_file)). DBMS_LOB. DBMS_LOB.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END. src_lob => pic_file. pic_blob_loc) RETURNING image INTO pic_blob_loc. image BLOB). BEGIN INSERT INTO web_graphic_blobs VALUES (1. DBMS_LOB. amount => DBMS_LOB. pic_blob_loc BLOB := EMPTY_BLOB().gif').

or transaction  Ability to retrieve LOB ³chunk size´ ± Allows programmer to tune READs and WRITEs  For all internal LOBs ± OPEN & CLOSE allow control over timing. call.New DBMS_LOB APIs in 8i  Support for temporary LOBs ± No logging or rollback faster! ± Lifespan: session. that can mean less I/O » Trigger will not fire until CLOSE » Indexes will not update until CLOSE ± ISOPEN 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 139 .

Large Object .page 140 . ± Complete support in PL/SQL (and other APIs) ± Much better performance and control than with LONGs ± Usable in object types HOT  Some weaknesses. COLD 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Summary  LOB support in Oracle is now significantly improved. ± LOB locator behavior slightly abstruse ± Inability to modify BFILEs directly from within PL/SQL...

Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Leveraging Java Inside PL/SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 141 .

a BRIEF introduction to Java.. mid-tier.. or server Not covered in this seminar  PL/SQL can call Java inside 8i server ± ± ± ± Command-line tools load Java classes DDL extensions publish Java classes Writing stored procedures.. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . functions.page 142 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .Overview of Java interoperability  Java inside or outside 8i server can call PL/SQL ± Standard JDBC and SQLJ calls with Oracle extensions ± Same Java on client. triggers in Java Distinct Java & PL/SQL namespaces  But first..

± We just need to keep a firm grip on common sense and stay focused on delivering solutions.Question 1: What is Java?  Could it be...page 143 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± The end of programming history as we know it? ± The easiest. slickest piece of software ever designed by human beings? ± Just the latest in a series of "silver bullets" promoted by software vendors in order to prop up quarterly sales? ± The first and only successful O-O language? ± None of the above?  We don't really need to take a vote. fastest.

page 144 . PL/SQL will still be: ± Faster and more productive than Java for database operations. ± Ubiquitous in thousands of production applications and millions of lines of code. ± Supported and improved by Oracle -.  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .and very aggressively. to boot. ± A language in which hundreds of thousands of developers are trained. it is very unlikely and totally unthinkable for years to come.Question 2: Will Java Replace PL/SQL?  While that scenario is certainly possible.

..page 145 .Some Important Things to Remember  Java is a case sensitive language. ± Before you can call a (non-static) class method.. ± Well..  You don't have to know how to do everything with Java to get lots of value out of it. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Everything is a class (or an object instantiated from a class).. everything exception the primitive datatypes. you have to instantiate an object from that class.. ± string is definitely not the same as String. ± Don't get overwhelmed by all the classes and all the strange quirks.

CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE hello IS BEGIN DBMS_OUTPUT. except the "special" main method. } }  No members.. Oh.out.PUT_LINE ('Hello world!').Building a Java Class  Let's start from the very beginning. public class Hello { public static void main (String[] args) { System.. by the way: the PL/SQL version 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . no methods. ± Used to test or run stand-alone a class. END.page 146 .println ("Hello world!").

page 147 . you must compile it with the javac command.7b\lib\classes. e:\jdk1.zip.zip. SET CLASSPATH = d:\Oracle\Ora81\jdbc\lib\classes111. ± You must also either have set the CLASSPATH or include it in your javac call.java -classpath d:\java 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± It will also automatically recompile any classes used by your class that has not been compiled since last change.class file.d:\java D:> javac Hello. ± This will convert the .java file to a .Compiling Classes  Before you can use a class.1.

java 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 148 .Running a Class  Run a class? What does that mean? It means that if your class contains a method with this header: public static void main (String[] args)  then you can "run" the main method with the java command: d:\java> java Hello  You can also pass one or more arguments on the command line: d:\java> java Hello mom Hello2.

however.page 149 . Let's build a performance analyzer class to explore these ideas. Usually.Using a Class  The main method is handy for providing a built-in test mechanism of your class.   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . you will use a class by instantiating objects from the class and then invoking class methods on the object.

l ("Elapsed time ".page 150 . } public void showElapsed () { p.currentTimeMillis() .Gstart). elapsed()). public void capture () { Gstart = System.java 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .java Tmr. } public void showElapsed (String context) { p.Compare Performance of Methods  Use System.currentTimeMillis to calculate elapsed time to nearest thousandth of a second.Gstart).currentTimeMillis(). System. } public long elapsed () { return (System. } } p.java InFile.l ("Elapsed time for " + context.currentTimeMillis() . class Tmr { private long Gstart = 0.

 Interface class ± The class only contains unimplemented methods.. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..Types of Classes  There are several different kinds of classes in Java.page 151 .  Inner class ± Classes that are defined inside other classes. besides the "regular" kind we just saw.  Abstract class ± The class can contain members and methods. but at least one method remains unimplemented.

either as its own class or as any superclass.page 152 . supertype/"wider" Citizen Person Employee Hourly Worker Salaried Worker subtype/"narrower" War Criminal Person.And Now for Some Scary Buzzwords!  Inheritance ± Subclasses inherit methods and variables from extended superclasses. ± Dynamic polymorphism: form is determined at run-time.java A Class Hierarchy Management NonManagement Corporation 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Polymorphism ± An object of a class can have "multiple" forms. ± Static polymorphism: form is chosen at compile-time (PL/SQL overloading).

you are actually allocating a new object. myName = "Feuerstein". these are not objects instantiated from classes.page 153 . if you assign a new value to it.Language Basics  Comments // Single line comment /* Block comment */ /** Documentation comment */  Primitive datatypes ± So I lied. ± Can't do a direct == comparison. if (myName. String myName. myName = "Steven".equals(YourName)) foundFamily(). boolean char byte short int long float double  Strings ± A String object is a read-only. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

static void processAll (Enumeration enum) { while (enum. indx++) System. indx < args.println ( (String)enum.out. step) { lotsaStuff } while (expression) { lostsaStuff } do { lostsaStuff } while (expression).hasMoreElements ()) { processIt (enum.nextElement()) } } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . System.Writing Loops in Java  Three kinds of loops: while.println (args[indx]).length. for (initialize. Examples: for (indx indx=0.page 154 .NextElement()). expression.out. do-while and for ± Note: you need squiggly brackets only if there is more than one statement in the loop body.

. ± No default values for arguments.page 155 . } } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . } } class LotsALingos { public static void main (String args[]) { PuterLingo Java = new PuterLingo("Java"). System.name()). } public String name () { return mname. you must supply a value for each parameter. public PuterLingo (String name) { mname = name.out.Passing Parameters  Some important differences from PL/SQL. class PuterLingo { private String mname.println (Java. you still include the open and close parentheses.. ± Only positional notation is supported. ± If a method has no arguments.

"WHEN OTHERS" } in Java } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Throwing my own public static int numBytes (String filename) { exception try { if (filename.out.println (e. Put inside try clause File myFile = new File (filename). return myFile. } catch (Exception e) { System. you "throw" and "catch" exceptions.page 156 . rather than raise and handle.Exception Handling in Java  Very similar to PL/SQL. } File-related catch (SecurityException e) { exceptions return -1.equals("")) throw new Exception ("Filename is NULL").length().toString()).

.. ± Use the throws clause in your specification. } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . NoSuchFile { . as in: public static int numBytes (String filename) throws SecurityException.  You must inform users of your method of which exceptions may be thrown.Differences Between Java & PL/SQL  Exceptions are objects derived directly or indirectly from the Exception class.page 157 . ± So you can pass them as arguments and do anything and everything else you can do with objects.

Java's Not So Tough!  You can learn enough Java in less than a week to: ± Build simple classes ± Leverage Java inside PL/SQL  Moving to the next level of expertise will be more of a challenge.page 158 . ± Object oriented development (Java) is very different from procedural coding (PL/SQL).  Now let's explore how you can put Java to work for you inside PL/SQL programs. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

using JDBC or SQLJ Oracle 8i server PL/SQL cover for Java method Java virtual machine running Java method Oracle Developer client (PL/SQL) Net8 OCI or Pro*C client VB or C++ via OO4O or ODBC 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Java Stored Procedures (JSPs) Java applet or app.page 159 .

page 160 . network communication in/out PL/SQL replacement ± More standard language ± Good performer for numeric processing tasks ± Beware database I/O & string manipulation performance Scaleable deployment of third party code ± Vertical application ± Web server ± XML parser/generator 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .JSPs: Some sample uses PL/SQL extender ± For example. better file I/O ± RMI callouts.

END 4... Create Java classes in your favorite IDE 2...Creating JSP to call from PL/SQL   1. Load into server using ³loadjava´ command-line tool 3. Publish PL/SQL cover using AS LANGUAGE JAVA.page 161 . Grant privileges as desired 5. Call from PL/SQL (or SQL) as if calling PL/SQL    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . rather than BEGIN.

System. long PceoComp) { name = Pname.println (TheGlobalMonster).java Advanced Techniques . 5000000.out. 50000000). public Corporation ( String Pname. }} 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Notes on Java classes  toString method automatically used by System. } public static void main (String[] args) { // A very scary company Corporation TheGlobalMonster = new Corporation ( "Northrup-Ford-Mattel-Yahoo-ATT". paying its" + " Chief Executive Officer " + CEOCompensation.page 162 PL/SQL .out. CEOCompensation = PceoComp. long Playoffs. layoffs = Playoffs. Entry points must be public static in most cases Classes may call other classes Avoid GUI calls     person.Create Java class(es) class Corporation extends Person { long layoffs. long CEOCompensation.println main method is used to test the class. } public String toString () { return name + " is a transnational entity with " + layoffs + " laid-off employees.

class options (abbreviated) -oci8 -resolve loadjava will connect using OCI driver Resolves external class references at compile time -resolver (shown later) Search path like CLASSPATH 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .class file .Upload using ³loadjava´ utility .jar file Oracle 8i server Java class Java source Java resource loadjava Example: loadjava loadjava -user scott/tiger -oci8 -resolve datacraft/bill/Hello.java file Java resource file .page 163 .

page 164 .Emp(int) return java. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .lang.) [ return <Ja a t pe fullname> ]'.Publish  Example (top-level call spec) CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION hello_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2 AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.String'. . /  Syntax (simplified) CREATE [ OR REPLACE PROCE URE FUNCTION <name> <sqlt pe> ] [ [ <ar s> ) ] [ AUTHID { DEFINER | CURRENT_USER } ] AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME '<met fullname> (<Ja a t pe fullname>...bill.Hello.

PUT_LINE(hello_emp(7499)).Call the wrapped method  Method 1: Call as if PL/SQL module BEGIN DBMS_OUTPUT. PRINT :thename ± CALL avoids overhead of SELECT fn FROM DUAL jsp. END.  Method 2: Use 8i SQL CALL statement.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . for example.page 165 . from SQL*Plus: VARIABLE thename VARCHAR2(12) CALL hello_emp(7499) INTO :thename.

STRUCT <named type> oracle.REF oracle.lang.ARRAY 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .sql.Timestamp java.Publishing -.sql.math.sql.BigDecimal oracle.page 166 .more concepts Shape mapping ± Java methods declared ³void´ become PL/SQL procedures ± Signature mismatches detected only at runtime Type mapping (typical) VARCHAR2 DATE NUMBER user-defined object type user-defined object type object REFerence user-defined collection type java.String java.sql.

lang..page 167 .Hello.Emp(int) return java. END.util. / (No package body required in this case) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .String'.Publish in PL/SQL Package Spec  Designate Java module in PL/SQL package spec.. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE hello_pkg AS FUNCTION hi_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2 AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.

END.page 168 .Hello. / CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY hello_pkg2 AS FUNCTION hi_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2 IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.lang.Publish as module in package body  .util. END. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..String'..or in package body CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE hello_pkg2 AS FUNCTION hi_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2.Emp(int) return java.

String').util.String'. MEMBER FUNCTION hello_emp RETURN VARCHAR2 IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.Emp(int) return java. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END.util.lang.Emp(int) return java.lang. MEMBER FUNCTION hello_emp RETURN VARCHAR2).Publish as object type method  Either in spec: CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE foo_t AS OBJECT ( bar VARCHAR2(30).Hello. / or in the body: CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE foo_t AS OBJECT ( bar VARCHAR2(30).Hello. / CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE BODY foo_t AS MEMBER FUNCTION hello_emp RETURN VARCHAR2 IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.page 169 .

DROP JAVA: drops a named Java library unit Several roles available for Java operations: ± JAVAUSERPRIV.New DDL Statements and Roles  CREATE JAVA ± Alternative to ³loadjava´ utility ± Creates or replaces an Oracle ³library unit´ from Java source. JAVASYSPRIV (needed for file IO operations). class. JAVADEBUGPRIV ± You can also grant specific privileges. resolves Java class references. or resource ± Can read file designated with BFILE() function  ALTER JAVA: compiles Java source.   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . JAVAIDPRIV.page 170 . JAVA_ADMIN.

page 171 .sql.SQLData 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .jdbc2.CustomDatum ± oracle.Passing Oracle8 objects Oracle8i server Object in O-R table Java application Java object   Harder than you¶d think Three different interfacing techniques ± oracle.STRUCT ± oracle.sql.

page 172 .JPublisher utility Database server Definition of type or REF in data dictionary User-supplied JPublisher input file What does it do? ± Generates Java that encapsulates type and REF types of mapping supported for methods JPublisher ± ³Oracle mapping´ ± ³JDBC mapping´ ± ³Object JDBC mapping´ Three Generated Java file(s) for use in Java programs 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Account_t)'.save (datacraft.Passing object using JPub-generated Java  After generating and uploading classes with JPub.bill. they become available to use in mapping Example of passing an Account_t object: CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE account_save (new_acct IN Account_t) IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.page 173 .sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . /  jspobj.AccountRuntime.bill.

page 174 .   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Example: Improving File I/O  You can read/write files in PL/SQL with UTL_FILE. Let's see how we can make that great Java stuff available from within PL/SQL. but that package is very limited. Java offers many file-related classes with much greater capabilities.

± This is not available through UTL_FILE (though you can get it through DBMS_LOB)..  Let's start with something simple..Encapsulate Java Classes  You won't generally access native Java methods in your PL/SQL wrapper. ± Instead build a static method that instantiates a Java object from the class and then invokes the relevant method against that object. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± The File class offers a length method that returns the number of bytes in a file.page 175 .

public class JFile2 { public static long length (String fileName) { File myFile = new File (fileName).java  Take each of these steps: ± Import the File class to resolve reference.io.My Own Java Class for File Manipulation  Accept the name of a file and return its length. return myFile. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . import java. ± Call the method of choice against that object and return the value. ± Instantiate a File object for the specified name. } } JFile2.length().page 176 .File.

CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE xfile IS FUNCTION length (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN NUMBER. / CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY xfile IS FUNCTION length (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN NUMBER AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'JFile. ± I translate the Java long to a PL/SQL NUMBER. END.String) return long'.length (java. END.Build a Package over Java Method  Let's put it in a package.page 177 . / xfile2.lang. we will certainly want to add more functionality over time.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

so you'd expect smooth sailing. Write a "public" PL/SQL wrapper function to convert that number to a true PL/SQL Boolean. Convert the Java boolean to a String or number and return that value.  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± 3. Not so! To pass a Boolean back from Java to PL/SQL.page 178 . you will need to take these steps: ± 1. ± 2.Mapping the Boolean Datatype  Both Java and PL/SQL support a native Boolean datatype. Write a "hidden" PL/SQL wrapper function that returns the string or number.

import java.java  Translate TRUE to 1 and FALSE to 0. ± And don't forget: this is a boolean primitive.io.File.page 179 .canRead(). else return 0. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Translate Boolean to Number  Accept the name of a file and return its length. if (retval) return 1. not a Boolean class. } } JFile3. public class JFile3 { public static int canRead (String fileName) { File myFile = new File (fileName). boolean retval = myFile.

java / xfile. xfile4.lang.java END.canRead (java..pkg RETURN IcanRead (file) = 1. / CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY xfile IS FUNCTION IcanRead (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN NUMBER AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'JFile3. END. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE xfile IS FUNCTION canRead (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN BOOLEAN.page 180 . FUNCTION canRead (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN BOOLEAN AS BEGIN xfile3. ± Avoid the hard-codings with named constants.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . JFile4.Wrapper for Pseudo-Boolean function  Simple translation back to PL/SQL Boolean.pkg END..String) return int'. JFile.

} } Extract individual attribute values from the array. // starting with 0 String laborType = (String)(attribs[0]).sql.getAttributes(). // Access individual attributes by array index.tst PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . BigDecimal hourly_rate = (BigDecimal)(attribs[1]). throws java.Passing Objects to Java with STRUCT  You can pass Oracle object information to Java without relying on JPub by using the STRUCT class. Object[] attribs = e.out. System.SQLException { // Get the attributes of the labor_source object.java passobj.println ( "Pay " + laborType + " $" + hourly_rate + " per hour"). public class UnionBuster { Obtain attributes of public static void wageStrategy (STRUCT e) the Oracle object.page 181 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein UnionBuster.

0)). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Fully specify the STRUCT class in parameter list.page 182 . '5')). / CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE bust_em_with ( labor_source_in IN labor_source_t) AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'UnionBuster.wageStrategy (oracle. The Oracle object type definition CREATE TYPE labor_source_t AS OBJECT ( labor_type VARCHAR2(30).Wrapping a STRUCT-based Method  You can pass Oracle object information to Java without relying on JPub by using the STRUCT class. / BEGIN bust_em_with ( labor_source ('Workfare'.STRUCT)'. hourly_rate NUMBER).sql. bust_em_with ( labor_source ('Prisoners'. END. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

i++) { System. }}}  When called within a PL/SQL wrapper.println.println ( "Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello All!").out. you can redirect the output to the DBMS_OUTPUT buffer. HelloAll. public class HelloAll { public static void lotsaText ( int count) { for (int i = 0. i < count.Viewing Output from Java Methods  Java provides a "print line" method similar to DBMS_OUTPUT.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Here is a good nucleus for a login.out.SET_OUTPUT (1000000).page 183 .PUT_LINE: System.sql file: SET SERVEROUTPUT ON SIZE 1000000 CALL DBMS_JAVA. ± Call it within methods and output will display in your Java environment.java HelloAll.

such as java.5). ± And also spew out the entire Java error stack! (at least through 8. you "throw" and "catch".SQLException. but more robust error handling mechanism than PL/SQL.Error Handling with Java-PL/SQL  Java offers a very similar.sql.page 184 .  Any error not caught by the JVM (Java virtual machine) will be thrown back to the PL/SQL block or SQL statement. ± Exceptions are objects instantiated from the Exception class or a subclass of it. getErrorCode() and getMessage() to obtain information about the error thrown. ± Instead of raising and handling. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Use two methods.1.

OracleStatement.check_error(KprbDBAccess.doExecuteWithTimeout(OracleStatement.executeUpdate(OracleStatement.driver.sp dropany2. END.jdbc.java) at oracle. DBMS_OUTPUT.driver.OracleStatement.parseExecuteFetch(KprbDBAccess.OracleStatement.jdbc.tst ORA-00942: table or view does not exist 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .tst ORA-29532: Java call terminated by uncaught Java exception: java.java:14) DropAny. / SQL> 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 java.driver.jdbc.driver.OracleStatement.Trapping and Identifying Errors  Currently.sql.driver.kprb. and you have to do some digging to extract the Oracle error information.SQLException: ORA-00942: table or view does not exist at oracle. BEGIN dropany ('TABLE'.java) at oracle.java) at oracle.KprbDBAccess.page 185 .jdbc.OracleStatement.kprb.PUT_LINE (SQLERRM).doExecuteWithBatch(OracleStatement.jdbc.doExecute(OracleStatement.SQLException: getErrInfo.PUT_LINE (SQLCODE).KprbDBAccess.sql.java) at oracle. 'blip').java) at oracle. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN DBMS_OUTPUT.java -29532 dropany.java) at oracle.object(DropAny.jdbc. the entire Java stack is displayed on your screen.jdbc.doExecuteOther(OracleStatement.java) at DropAny.

 An Oracle8 feature that allowed relatively "native" callouts to C from PL/SQL for the first time.Achieving PL/SQL Excellence External Procedures  An external procedure is a 3GL routine that can serve as the ³body´ of a PL/SQL function. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . procedure.page 186 . or method. ± Must be a shared object library on Unix or a dynamically linked library (DLL) on Windows.

page 187 .Process & data flow Application Makes request Net8 External Procedure Listener spawns External Shared Library Calls PL/SQL Runtime Engine PL/SQL body Client or server-side application returns results calls routine from Routine in .so file extproc returns results returns results 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .DLL or .

External procedures: Sample uses      Send email Invoke operating system command Invoke custom or legacy application Call C runtime library function Perform admin tasks email.page 188 .sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .sql diskspace.

page 189 . / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . this function returns: » » » » » sectors per cluster bytes per sector number of free clusters total number of clusters ³return code´ indicating success or failure  First. create an Oracle8 ³library´: CREATE OR REPLACE LIBRARY nt_kernel AS 'c:\winnt\system32\kernel32.Determine free disk space on NT (1/4)  Use pre-existing routine: ± GetDiskFreeSpaceA in kernel32.dll'.dll ± For given drive letter.

bytes_per_sector OUT PLS_INTEGER.Package spec (2/4)  Nothing unexpected here: CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE disk_util AS FUNCTION get_disk_free_space (root_path IN VARCHAR2. number_of_free_clusters OUT PLS_INTEGER. total_number_of_clusters OUT PLS_INTEGER) RETURN PLS_INTEGER. sectors_per_cluster OUT PLS_INTEGER.page 190 . / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END disk_util.

END disk_util. total_number_of_clusters OUT PLS_INTEGER) RETURN PLS_INTEGER IS EXTERNAL LIBRARY nt_kernel NAME "GetDiskFreeSpaceA" LANGUAGE C CALLING STANDARD PASCAL PARAMETERS (root_path STRING. number_of_free_clusters OUT pls_integer. sectors_per_cluster OUT PLS_INTEGER.page 191  All the magic is in the EXTERNAL section 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .0 (3/4) CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY disk_util AS FUNCTION get_disk_free_space (root_path IN VARCHAR2. RETURN LONG). total_number_of_clusters BY REFERENCE LONG. sectors_per_cluster BY REFERENCE LONG. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . bytes_per_sector BY REFERENCE LONG. bytes_per_sector OUT PLS_INTEGER.Package body in Oracle 8. number_of_free_clusters BY REFERENCE LONG.

Usage (4/4)
DECLARE lroot_path VARCHAR2(3) := 'C:\'; lsectors_per_cluster PLS_INTEGER; lbytes_per_sector PLS_INTEGER; lnumber_of_free_clusters PLS_INTEGER; ltotal_number_of_clusters PLS_INTEGER; return_code PLS_INTEGER; free_meg REAL; BEGIN return_code := disk_util.get_disk_free_space (lroot_path, lsectors_per_cluster, lbytes_per_sector, lnumber_of_free_clusters, ltotal_number_of_clusters); free_meg := lsectors_per_cluster * lbytes_per_sector * lnumber_of_free_clusters / 1024 / 1024; DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('free disk space, Mb = ' || free_meg); diskspace.sql END;
1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein
PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 192

Creating your own external procedure 

1. Identify or create shared library 2. Identify or CREATE LIBRARY within Oracle 3. Map the parameters using:
± EXTERNAL clause (Oracle8) or ± LANGUAGE clause (Oracle8i)  

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 193

1. Identify/create external routine 


Prerequisite: O/S must support shared libraries Some useful routines are pre-built in C runtime library
± On Unix: /lib/libc.so ± On NT: <systemroot>\system32\crtdll.dll 

Building a shared library of your own requires knowledge of:
± Appropriate language (typically C) ± Compiler & linker

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 194

2. Create the Oracle library 

Syntax:
CREATE OR REPLACE LIBRARY <library name> AS '<full path to file>'; 

Assigns a programmer-defined alias to a specific shared library file Notes
± Requires CREATE LIBRARY pri ilege ± Does not alidate directory ± Can¶t use symbolic link 

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 195

3. Map the parameters
This can get complicated, because«
± Must pass extra parameters to designate:
» NULL/NOT NULL state » String length » Maximum allocated length

± Six choices of parameter mode
» » » » » » IN RETURN IN BY REFERENCE RETURN BY REFERENCE OUT IN OUT

These details are better suited for close reading«
PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 196

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

page 197 .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Oracle8i New Features Autonomous Transactions Invoker Rights Model Row Level Security 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

   Autonomous Transactions The Invoker Rights Model Row level security 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 198 . ± And the learning curve to take advantage of these features is generally not too steep.Oracle8i New Features  Oracle8i offers a number of PL/SQL-specific features that give you tremendous additional flexibility and capability.

you can now define a PL/SQL block to execute as an "autonomous transaction".  With Oracle8i. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE loginfo ( code IN PLS_INTEGER. ± Any changes made within that block can be saved or reversed without affecting the outer or main transaction.Autonomous Transactions  Prior to Oracle8i. ± There was only one transaction allowed per connection.page 199 . a COMMIT or ROLLBACK in any program in your session committed or rolled back all changes in your session. msg IN VARCHAR2) AS PRAGMA AUTONOMOUS_TRANSACTION.

which can cause all sorts of complications: your log entry becomes a part of your transaction. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Now you can avoid the complexities (need for ROLLBACK TO savepoints and so on).page 200 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .  Call functions within SQL that change the database. software usage meter. ± One component should not have any impact (esp.  Logging Mechanism ± Commonly developers lot to database tables.  Tracing Code Usage ± Build retry mechanisms.When to Use Autonomous Transactions  Reusable Application Components ± ATs are more or less required in the new distributed application architecture of the Internet. something like a COMMIT) on other components. etc.

While we're at it.machine. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN ROLLBACK. rec.pkg retry.page 201 . logger. END. BEGIN INSERT INTO logtab VALUES (code_in.Logging with ATs  Don't forget that ROLLBACK in the exception section! CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY log IS PROCEDURE putline ( code_in IN INTEGER. SYSDATE.tst retry.pkg log81*. text_in IN VARCHAR2 ) IS PRAGMA AUTONOMOUS_TRANSACTION. END. COMMIT. SYSDATE.sp log81. let's add some session information. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Avoid interdependencies with the main transaction. USER. USER. text_in.tst PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . rec.program ).

sql autontrigger*. autonserial.sql auton_in_sql. ± You can use the SET TRANSACTION ISOLATION LEVEL SERIALIZABLE to indicate that you do not want the changes visible until the outer transaction commits. The AT PRAGMA can be used only with individual programs and toplevel anonymous blocks.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Any changes committed in an AT are visible in the outer transaction.page 202 .Tips and Gotchas with ATs  An AT program must COMMIT or ROLLBACK before terminating.   The AT PRAGMA goes in the body of packages. ± You cannot define an entire package as an AT. ± You cannot define a nested anonymous block to be an AT. ± You cannot tell by looking at the package spec if you are calling ATs or not -and this info is not available in the data dictionary. or an error is raised. ± Place the SET TRANSACTION statement in the outer transaction.

The Invoker Rights Model  Prior to Oracle8i. ± This is called the « Definer Rights Model  With Oracle8i. it ran under the privileges of the account in which the program was defined. whenever you executed a stored program. you can now decide at compilation time whether your program or package will execute in the definer's schema (the default) or the schema of the invoker of the code. ± This is called the « Invoker Rights Model PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 203 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .

But it can be a source of confusion and architectural problems.About Definer Rights  Allows you to centralize access to and control of underlying data structures. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Note: Oracle built-in packages have long had the capability of running under the invoker's authority. Ignores roles and relies on directly-granted privileges. OE Code Order_Mgt Place Cancel Sam_Sales Close Old Orders  OE Data X  Orders Cannot alter table directly.page 204 .

Problems with Definer Rights  Deployment & maintenance ± Must install module in all remote databases where needed ± In some databases. requiring copy of stored module  Security ± No declarative way to restrict privileges on certain modules in a package -.page 205 . ± Can bypass 8i¶s ³fine-grained´ access features (see the DBMS_RLS package) ± Difficult to audit privileges  Sure would be nice to have a choice.and now you do! 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..it's all or nothing. unless you write code in the package to essentially recreate roles programmatically.. each user has own copy of table(s).

do what it takes to get the code to compile. ± In other words. ± At run-time.page 206 .. AUTHID goes only in spec.. You could also create local. Synonyms may be necessary if modules use object names not qualified by schema.Oracle8i Invoker Rights Syntax  For top level modules: CREATE [ OR REPLACE ] <module type> [ AUTHID { DEFINER | CURRENT_USER } ] AS .  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . "dummy" objects. and must be at the package level. the objects referenced may well be different from those against which it compiled.  For modules with separate spec and body.

."Reflection" Capability of Invoker Rights  With invoker rights.page 207 .. yet have all references to data structures "reflect back" into your own schema. END.. you can execute code owned by another schema.acct_mgr. modify destroy ... code. accounts table 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ...destroy(.). Central Code schema PACKAGE acct_mgr make AUTHID CURRENT_USER User/Data schema PROCEDURE mng_account IS BEGIN ..FROM accounts WHERE.

all other calls in stack are resolved according to definer rights. oneversion.Tips and Gotchas for Invoker Rights  Does not apply to code objects. ± AUTHID CURRENT_USER is ignored. taking advantage of the invoker rights model whenever possible? ± A creative use of SQL*Plus substitution variables comes in very invdefinv.sql  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 208 . ± Both static and dynamic SQL is supported. the definer rights model is always applied to resolve the reference. only data ± When your stored code references another stored code element.  Once a definer rights program is called.  Information about the rights model is not available in the data dictionary What if you want to maintain a single version of your code for both pre-Oracle8i and Oracle8i installations. Note: cannot use with wrapped code.sql handy.

± Share a program that uses dynamic SQL (whether DBMS_SQL or the new native implementation) and you end up taking the most unexpected DDL and DML detours. National HQ Check City Statistics New York Schema stolenlives Chicago Schema stolenlives  Especially handy with dynamic SQL. authid.When to Invoke Invoker Rights  You want to reuse the same code among many users. but you want their own directly-granted privileges to determine access.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 209 .sql whichsch*.

sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 210 .Combining Invoker & Definer Rights  Rely on invoker rights to allow centralized code to work with schema-specific data. HQ Chicago Check City Statistics  New York stolenlives Analyze Pattern stolenlives perpetrators perp. Rely on definer rights to access centralized data from any schema.

Row Level Security DBMS_RLS Row-Level Security 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 211 .

DBMS_RLS.page 212   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Row Level Security  The establishment of security policies on (restricted access to) individual rows of a table. you could achieve this only partially through the use of views. The DBMS_RLS package (along with "system contexts") now allow you to do so in a foolproof manner. Prior to Oracle8i. with which to implement automated row-level security (also referred to as "fine grained access control").Row-Level Security with DBMS_RLS  Oracle8i offers a new package.

their context information is set properly.page 213 .  Let's step through a simple example to see how all these pieces tie together. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  DBMS_RLS ± Use programs in DBMS_RLS to associate your security policies with tables.  Security Policy Packages ± You will need to write a package containing functions that establish the security policies to be applied to a particular table.  Database Logon Triggers ± I want to make sure that when a person logs in.Components Needed for RLS  System Contexts ± A new feature in Oracle8i. the system context is a named set of attributevalue pairs global to your session.

sql  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . all children are vaccinated. fgac. all pregnant women receive excellent prenatal care. no more private insurance companies soaking up 30 cents on the dollar. ± Regulators can only see patients who reside in the same state. The main tables are patient. Here are some rules: ± Doctors can only see patients who are assigned to their clinic.A National Health Care System  The year is 2010. clinic and regulator. doctor.  We need a top-notch.page 214 . No more for-profit hospitals pulling billions of dollars out of the system. highly secure database for NHCS. popular uprising in the United States has forced the establishment of a national healthcare system. ± Patients can only see information about themselves. ± A massive.

SET_CONTEXT ( 'patient_restriction'.Set the Context  Define a context in the database.doctor_id). doc_rec. END. and create a procedure that will set the context attributes (type and ID) upon login. 'DOCTOR'). c_person_type_attr.page 215 . c_person_id_attr. doc_rec doc_cur%ROWTYPE. DBMS_SESSION. CREATE CONTEXT patient_restriction USING nhc_pkg. BEGIN OPEN doc_cur. See CURSOR doc_cur IS fgac. FETCH doc_cur INTO doc_rec.sql for logic that identifies SELECT doctor_id FROM doctor different types of people and WHERE schema_name = USER.SET_CONTEXT ( 'patient_restriction'. sets the context accordingly. PROCEDURE set_context IS This is a simplification. DBMS_SESSION. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

c_person_type_attr). name_in VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2 IS l_context VARCHAR2(100) := Extract the context SYS_CONTEXT (c_context. ''' || clause for each type of c_person_id_attr || '''))'. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . information for this retval VARCHAR2(2000).Define the Predicate  A predicate is a string that will be appended to the WHERE clause of the table to which this security policy is associated (see next page). person. connection. BEGIN IF l_context = 'DOCTOR' THEN retval := 'home_clinic_id IN (SELECT home_clinic_id FROM doctor We need a different string WHERE doctor_id = SYS_CONTEXT (''' || to modify the WHERE c_context || '''.page 216 . FUNCTION person_predicate ( schema_in VARCHAR2.

± The following procedure call specifies that the WHERE clause of any query.PATIENT table will be modified by the string returned by the person_predicate function of the SCOTT. 'patient_privacy'. 'SELECT.ADD_POLICY procedure.page 217 . ( => => => => => => 'SCOTT'.person_predicate'.ADD_POLICY OBJECT_SCHEMA OBJECT_NAME POLICY_NAME FUNCTION_SCHEMA POLICY_FUNCTION STATEMENT_TYPES END.nhc_pkg package.DELETE'). BEGIN DBMS_RLS.Create the Security Policy  Use the DBMS_RLS.UPDATE. 'patient'. 'SCOTT'. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 'nhc_pkg. update or delete against the SCOTT.

logon is disabled. END. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN DBMS_OUTPUT.page 218 .sql Exception handling in trigger is critical! If you allow an exception to go unhandled.Create Logon Trigger. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .PUT_LINE ( 'Error ' || SQLCODE || ' setting context for ' || USER'). CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER set_id_on_logon AFTER LOGON ON DATABASE BEGIN nhc_pkg. Setting Context  By setting the context in the logon trigger. fgac.set_context. we guarantee that the context is set (and the predicate applied) no matter which product is the entry point to Oracle.

IL Context Information for "CSILVA": Type: PATIENT ID: Predicate: schema_name = 'CSILVA' Patients Visible to "CSILVA": CSILVA .Veva Silva . 'person_id')) Patients Visible to "SWALLACE": CSILVA .Queries Transparently Filtered  What you see is determined automatically by who you are. Context Information for "SWALLACE": Type: DOCTOR Doctor sees only her ID: 1060 patients.Chris Silva .IL VSILVA . Predicate: home_clinic_id IN (SELECT home_clinic_id FROM doctor WHERE doctor_id = SYS_CONTEXT ('patient_restriction'.Chris Silva .IL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Patient sees only himself. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 219 .

. April..page 220 . and you use only what you know. Jump out of your rut ..and play a new tune with PL/SQL! 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . It's so easy to fall into a rut with a programming language.Take Full Advantage of PL/SQL! January.. May....  ± You learn what you need to get the job done.... February. March.

Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Appendices (a.. If time permits«)     UTL_FILE ± file IO DBMS_JOB ± Job scheduling DBMS_PIPE ± Pipe-based communication DBMS_UTILITY ± the kitchen sink package 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .k.a.page 221 .

Built-in Packages: UTL_FILE UTL_FILE Server-side File I/O Application FOPEN GET_LINE PUT_LINE . Physical Files 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ...page 222 .

page 223 . A "version 1" (fairly primitive) utility.. copy. random access to contents). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .   But you can read lines from a file and write lines to a file.5. ± No higher-level file operations supported (change privileges.UTL_FILE: Server-side I/O  Allows you to read from and write to operating system files on the database server. when it jumps to 32K. ± Limitations on files you can access (no mapped files.0. no use of environmental variables).. ± Maximum of 1023 bytes per line (read or write) until Oracle 8. delete.

page 224 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . Puts formatted text into the buffer PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .UTL_FILE Module Outline FCLOSE FCLOSE_ALL FFLUSH FOPEN GET_LINE IS_OPEN NEW_LINE PUT PUT_LINE PUTF Close the specified file Close all open files in your session Flush all data from the UTL_FILE buffer to your file Open a file Get the next line from a file Returns TRUE if the file is open (sort of) Insert a new line character in file at the end of current line Puts text into the UTL_FILE buffer Puts text and new line character into UTL_FILE buffer.

utl_file_dir = * Allows read & write for any directory. utl_file_dir = /tmp utl_file_dir = /accounts/newdev  And don't do either of the following: utl_file_dir = . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 225 Allows read & write for current directory. no trailing delimiter. ± Use a separate entry for each directory (and subdirectory.  Follow these rules to avoid many headaches. ± You do this by adding lines to the instance parameter file.Authorizing Directory Access  Oracle requires you to list explicitly those directories you wish to be able to read/write with UTL_FILE. there is no subdirectory recursion). ± No single or double quotes around directory. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .

FILE_TYPE.tst  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .PUT_LINE (fid. 'test. 'hello'). modify your initialization file. */ fid := UTL_FILE.FCLOSE (fid).page 226 . restart your database.Test UTL_FILE Access  About the hardest part to working with UTL_FILE is simply getting started. UTL_FILE. / utlfile. So before you write anything fancy. END. UTL_FILE.txt'.FOPEN ('c:\temp'. BEGIN /* Change the directory name to one to which you at least || THINK you have read/write access. 'W'). and then run the following test script (it can't get much simpler than this): DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.

Test to see if file is open with the IS_OPEN function.FILE_TYPE..Opening a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE. Not much of a test. 'W').. ± Currently contains a single ID field. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .FOPEN ('c:\temp'.page 227 . ± Types are 'R' for Read.txt'. END.  The FOPEN function returns a record ("file handle") based on the UTL_FILE. this function simply returns TRUE if the file handle's id field is NOT NULL. 'W' for Write and 'A' for Append. ± In actuality. BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE. 'test.   Maximum of 10 files may be opened in each user session.  Specify file location. name and operation type.FILE_TYPE.

txt'.Reading from a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .   Can only read from a file opened with the "R" mode.0.5 and above. getnext.GET_LINE (fid. Lines in the file cannot be longer than 1023 bytes in length. ± In Oracle8 Release 8.FOPEN ('c:\temp'. UTL_FILE.page 228 . ± You might want to build your own GET_LINE which handles the exception and returns an EOF Boolean status flag. myline).FCLOSE (fid).FILE_TYPE. 'test. UTL_FILE. 'R'). the ceiling is raised to 32K.  The NO_DATA_FOUND exception is raised if you read past the end of the file. BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE. END.

'&1'). UTL_FILE. 'W'). UTL_FILE. ' that I never\nwant to %s'. UTL_FILE.PUT_LINE (fid.PUT (fid.  Call FFLUSH to make sure that everything you have written to the buffer is flushed out to the file. 'UTL_FILE').Writing to a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.PUTF (fid. 'test. UTL_FILE is so much fun that I never want to stop Resulting Text  You can use PUT. 'is so much fun').page 229 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . ± PUTF is like the C printf program.FCLOSE (fid). UTL_FILE. BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE. END. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .FILE_TYPE. allowing for some formatting.txt'. ± The file buffers are automatically flushed when you close a file or exit your session. PUT_LINE or PUTF.FOPEN ('c:\temp'.

 If you do not close the file.page 230   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . 'test.READ_ERROR THEN UTL_FILE. BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE. you will not see the data you have (supposedly) written to that file. EXCEPTION WHEN UTL_FILE.GET_LINE (fid.Closing a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.FILE_TYPE. You can close a single file with FCLOSE or all open files with FCLOSE_ALL. myline). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .txt'. UTL_FILE. UTL_FILE. You should close files in exception handlers to make sure that files are not left "hanging" open.FOPEN ('c:\temp'. END.FCLOSE (fid). 'R').FCLOSE (fid).

EXCEPTION.Error Handling in UTL_FILE PACKAGE UTL_FILE IS invalid_path invalid_mode invalid_filehandle invalid_operation read_error write_error internal_error END. ± They all share a common SQLCODE of 1. ± NO_DATA_FOUND when you try to read past the end of the file. EXCEPTION.  You have to take special care to trap and handle the named exceptions. EXCEPTION. EXCEPTION. EXCEPTION. ± UTL_FILE-named exceptions in other cases.  UTL_FILE relies on a combination of user-defined exceptions and STANDARD exceptions to communicate errors.page 231 . EXCEPTION. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . EXCEPTION.

RAISE. RAISE. RAISE. WHEN UTL_FILE. WHEN UTL_FILE.c_invalid_mode).READ_ERROR THEN recNgo (PLVfile. translating the generic user-defined exception into an understandable message.INVALID_PATH THEN recNgo (PLVfile.c_invalid_filehandle). utlflexc. RAISE.page 232  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . END.INVALID_FILEHANDLE THEN recNgo (PLVfile.INTERNAL_ERROR THEN recNgo (PLVfile. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .INVALID_MODE THEN recNgo (PLVfile.Recommended Exception Section EXCEPTION WHEN UTL_FILE. WHEN UTL_FILE.c_invalid_path).c_invalid_operation).c_read_error).c_internal_error). record the error. RAISE.c_write_error).sql  Trap locally by name.WRITE_ERROR THEN recNgo (PLVfile. WHEN UTL_FILE. Re-raise exception if you want it to propagate from that block. WHEN UTL_FILE. RAISE. RAISE.INVALID_OPERATION THEN recNgo (PLVfile. WHEN UTL_FILE.

.. Background Process DBA_JOBS Oracle Job Queue Subsystem 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Built-in Packages: DBMS_JOB DBMS_JOB Scheduled Execution of Stored Procedures Application SUBMIT RUN REMOVE .page 233 .

2. but only ³publicly available´ and supported in PL/SQL Release 2. ± Spawn background processes to avoid blocking client process. Create a listener program to poll the contents of a pipe and take action. Schedule large batch jobs to run on "off hours". ± ± ± ±    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .1. Made its debut in PL/SQL Release 2.page 234 . Schedule regular maintenance on instances.Overview of DBMS_JOB  DBMS_JOB provides an API to the Oracle job queues. which in turn offers job scheduling capabilities within the Oracle Server. You can use DBMS_JOB to: Replicate data between different database instances. Built by Oracle to support snapshots and replication.

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Returns the job string for a job number. Removes the job from the queue. Submits a job to the queue using a predefined job number. Changes the interval between executions of a job. Forces immediate execution of the specified job number. Broken jobs will not run as scheduled.DBMS_JOB Module Outline BROKEN Marks the job as either FIXED or BROKEN. Changes the job string of a job. Submits a job to the queue returning a unique job number.page 235 CHANGE INTERVAL ISUBMIT NEXT_DATE REMOVE RUN SUBMIT USER_EXPORT WHAT 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . Changes when a queued job will run. Changes one or all attributes of a job.

± In the above example. 'SYSDATE + 1'). SYSDATE.  When you submit a job.  A job is a call to a stored procedure or an anonymous block ± It must end with a semi-colon and can contain ³hard-coded´ arguments. Notice that the start time is a DATE expression. BEGIN DBMS_JOB. while the interval is a string (this is dynamic PL/SQL!)  You can also call DBMS_JOB.Submitting a Job DECLARE job# BINARY_INTEGER. END.ISUBMIT and supply the job number. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . you specify the date on which it should next execute. and then the job¶s execution interval (frequency of execution). instead of having DBMS_JOB generate one for you. 'calculate_totals. I run calculate_totals immediately and then on a daily basis thereafter.SUBMIT (job#.'.page 236 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .

to analyze a specific table every evening at midnight. p.''LOAD1''. /  This block submits a job that uses a built-in procedure.submit ( job => v_jobno. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 237 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .ANALYZE_OBJECT ' || '(''TABLE''.Submit Job Example DECLARE v_jobno INTEGER. what => 'DBMS_DDL. BEGIN DBMS_JOB.null.l (v_jobno). interval => 'TRUNC(SYSDATE+1)' ).'. DBMS_DDL.''TENK''' || '.estimate_percent=>50). END. next_date => TRUNC (SYSDATE + 1).ANALYZE_OBJECT.''ESTIMATE''.

executes for the first time tomorrow and every 10 minutes thereafter.' .120).SYSDATE+1.interval => 'SYSDATE +1'). /  This block submits three jobs to the job queue.next_date => SYSDATE + 1/24 . 'my_job2(date_IN=>SYSDATE).'BEGIN null.'SYSDATE+10/1440').ISUBMIT (2. runs it in one hour and executes every day thereafter. numbered 1.what => 'my_job1(''string_parm_value''. DBMS_JOB.' . executes immediately. ± Job 3 is a PL/SQL block which does nothing. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Job 2 passes a date into procedure MY_JOB2. and 3. END.2.ISubmit Job Example BEGIN DBMS_JOB. and will be removed from the queue automatically. DBMS_JOB.ISUBMIT(3.ISUBMIT (job => 1 .'.SYSDATE.null).DBMS_JOB. END. ± Job 1 passes a string and number into procedure MY_JOB1.page 238 .

''Q''). Every hour Every Sunday at 2 AM First Monday of each quarter. at 9 AM Every Monday. ''MONDAY''). 3). NEXT_DAY (SYSDATE. you must use 2 single quotes to embed strings. ± Use date arithmetic to request intervals smaller than a day. Wednesday and Friday at 6 PM 'SYSDATE + 1/24' 'NEXT_DAY (TRUNC (SYSDATE).Specifying Job Times & Frequencies  Probably the most complicated part of using DBMS_JOB is to get the string expression of the job interval right. ''SATURDAY'') 2/24' 'NEXT_DAY ( ADD_MONTHS (TRUNC (SYSDATE. ''FRIDAY''))) + 18/24' PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 239 + 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . ''MONDAY'') + 9/24' 'TRUNC (LEAST ( NEXT_DAY (SYSDATE. NEXT_DAY (SYSDATE. ''WEDNESDAY''). ± Since it's a string.

Remove all jobs for current schema.ISUBMIT. retaining current job number.  Export jobs from the queue.  Run a job immediately.RUN (my_job#).REMOVE (rec.job).sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END LOOP. DBMS_JOB. ± Produces a string that can be used to recreate an existing job in the job queue. ± Only if the job was submitted from same schema BEGIN FOR rec IN (SELECT * FROM USER_JOBS) LOOP DBMS_JOB.page 240 . ± Performs an implicit COMMIT in current session. ± Uses DBMS_JOB. expjob.Other Job Queue Operations  Remove a job from the queue.

job .Job Queue Views  You can also view the job queue by looking at the DBA_JOBS_RUNNING.DBA_JOBS . SELECT jr. DBA_JOBS and USER_JOBS views.job ORDER BY jr.page 241 .sid = jr.jr. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .V$SESSION WHERE s.job = j.sid AND jr. ± The following query blends job information with session information to display currently-executing jobs.what job_id username start_date job_definition jr j s showjobs. who owns them and when they began.this_date.username .sql FROM DBA_JOBS_RUNNING .this_date .

 You will need to set three parameters in the init. therefore.Setting up the Job Facility  Make sure that the correct access is set up for the DBMS_JOB package. ± job_queue_interval=N where N is the interval in seconds to check the job queue. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . The valid range is 0 through 36.page 242 . of one hour). ± The default is PUBLIC access. You will have to take special DBA action if you want to restrict who can run jobs. The valid range is 1 to 3600 (a maximum.ora (initialization) file for your database instance: ± job_queue_processes=N where n is the number of concurrent background processes permitted.

± Do you want it to try 16 times? ± In addition. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . if your failure raises an unhandled exception.  To avoid unexpected and unhandled failures of scheduled jobs: ± Always use the RUN built-in to execute your job in a ³test´ mode.Error Handling with DBMS_JOB  What if your stored procedure fails? ± After 16 attempts. Then you can go ahead and submit it. the job facility will mark your job as broken.page 243 . it may cause the background processes to fail and no longer run any jobs at all. ± Always include a WHEN OTHERS exception handler in your job program which traps any and all problems and automatically sets the job status to broken.

page 244 . ± Uses a call to BROKEN to set the status of the job to ³broken´.sql showspc.job (µcalc_totals¶) DBMS_JOB. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . TRUE). ± Obtains the job number from a packaged function by passing the name of the procedure.sql  The WHEN OTHERS exception handler of the calc_totals procedure traps any kind of failure.. END. µFAIL¶). job_pkg. ± Calls log program of package to record that failure took place.Stopping the Job When It Fails PROCEDURE calc_totals IS BEGIN .. You can go in and fix the problem.BROKEN (job#. ± Now the job facility will not try to run this program again. spacelog.log (µcalc_totals¶. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN job# := job_pkg.

it picks up the current execution environment for the user. difficult to reproduce behavior at times with "straight" procedure calls. When a job runs. You can use the DBMS_IJOB to manage the jobs of other users.page 245 . ± DBMS_JOB only allows you to modify characteristics and behavior of jobs submitted by the current schema. If you find that you submit a job to run immediately and it does not start."Good to Knows" for DBMS_JOB  You may find it useful to always wrap your stored procedure call (the what) inside a BEGIN-END block.  You will need to fully-qualify all database links (with user name and password) to get them to work properly. perform a COMMIT after your submit.    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± We've noticed some aberrant.

page 246 .Built-in Packages: DBMS_PIPE DBMS_PIPE Inter-session Communication 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

DBMS_PIPE Overview  Allows communication between different Oracle sessions through a pipe in the RDBMS Shared Global Area. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Perform and commit DML in a separate transaction space from your main transaction.  Uses for DBMS_PIPE include: ± Parallelization of program execution. You can parallelize your own code.page 247 . ± Interface PL/SQL-database activities with operating system functions and programs written in other languages. ± More sophisticated debugging inside PL/SQL programs (work around fundamental limitations of DBMS_OUTPUT). ± Operates outside of database transaction limitations. Oracle uses database pipes to parallelize database operations.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Architecture of DBMS_PIPE Shared Global Area ³Sue´ ³Bob´ Message Buffer Message Buffer Session A  Session B A pipe is a named object that uses the System Global Area to provide a non-transaction based conduit of information. ± The pipe sends/receives a message.page 248 . which can be composed of one or more separate packets. They are reserved for Oracle use). using a maximum of 4096 bytes. ± Names can be up to 128 chars long (do not use names beginning with ³ORA$´.

± You can wait for up to 1000 days for a message. ROWID or RAW. ± Separate out the individual packets in the message (again: string.  Unpack the message packets and take action.page 249 . date. number.sql PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Each packet can be a string. so you should always specify a timeout period. ± If there isn¶t currently room in the pipe. date or number).  Send the message to a named pipe. ± This is the default.Processing Flow of DBMS_PIPE  Construct a message from packets of information.  Receive a message from that pipe.sql pipex2. ± There is just one message buffer per session. you can wait for up to 1000 days (or 86400000 seconds) for the pipe to be cleared. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein pipex1.

PURGE Empties the contents of a pipe into your local buffer freeing it for removal. NEXT_ITEM_TYPE Returns the datatype of the next item in the piped message. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . REMOVE_PIPE RESET_BUFFER Removes a pipe explicitly created via CREATE_PIPE. RECEIVE_MESSAGE Receives a message from pipe and copies to local buffer.DBMS_PIPE Module Outline Module Name CREATE_PIPE Description Creates a PUBLIC or PRIVATE pipe. Clears your buffer so that PACK_MESSAGE and UNPACK_MESSAGE can work from the first item. UNPACK_MESSAGE Unpacks the next item from the local message buffer and deposits it into the specified local variable. SEND_MESSAGE Sends contents of message buffer to the specified pipe. making it a candidate for removal with a LRU algorithm.page 250 . PACK_MESSAGE Packs an item into the message buffer for your session. UNIQUE_SESSION_NAME Returns name that is unique among all sessions in the database.

± Specify TRUE for private argument of CREATE_PIPE.  A public pipe is accessible as long as you know its name. ± Implicitly-created pipes are always public. BEGIN stat := DBMS_PIPE. maxpipesize => 20000.page 251 . ± Use CREATE_PIPE to create a pipe explicitly.CREATE_PIPE ( pipename => 'bbs'. private => TRUE). ± Send messages to non-existent pipe implicitly create it.Creating Public and Private Pipes  There are two ways to create pipes: implicitly and explicitly.  An explicit pipe can be private (accessible only to sessions with matching userID or SYSDBA privileges). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . PROCEDURE newpipe IS stat INTEGER.

FOR month_num IN 1 . seconds you will wait. 60. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . and new max pipe size (you can make it bigger.Sending a Message Provide pipe name. timeout IN INTEGER DEFAULT maxwait. FUNCTION send_message (pipename IN VARCHAR2. pipe_stat := DBMS_PIPE. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Fill your message buffer with packets of data. expanding pipe size to 40 Kbytes. END LOOP.page 252 .PACK_MESSAGE ( total_sales (month_num)). IF pipe_stat != 0 THEN RAISE could_not_send. Send to "monthly" pipe. waiting up to 1 minute. maxpipesize IN INTEGER DEFAULT 8192) RETURN INTEGER.. but not smaller).SEND_MESSAGE ( µmonthly¶. Status of 0 means message was sent. 10 * 4096). 12 LOOP DBMS_PIPE.

± You need to know the datatype of packet or check it using NEXT_ITEM_TYPE. PROCEDURE unpack_message (item OUT NUMBER). ± Specify pipe and number of seconds you will wait before you time out.  First you pull the message from the pipe and place it in buffer with RECEIVE_MESSAGE. PROCEDURE unpack_message (item OUT DATE).  Then you call UNPACK_MESSAGE to extract individual packets from the message.page 253 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Pipe status of 0 means the message was read successfully. PROCEDURE unpack_message (item OUT VARCHAR2).Receiving and Unpack a Message FUNCTION receive_message (pipename IN VARCHAR2. timeout IN INTEGER DEFAULT maxwait) RETURN INTEGER.

'Production data unavailable. pass it on to the IF pipe_status = 0 computation THEN program. If I got something. ELSE RAISE_APPLICATION_ERROR ( Stop process if -20000. END. PROCEDURE analyze_assembly_data (every_n_secs IN INTEGER) IS pipe_status INTEGER.A Pipe-based Listener Program  Program wakes up every N seconds to read the data from the pipe and analyze results from assembly line (an intentional "infinite loop"!). END IF. Wait up to N prod_total NUMBER.RECEIVE_MESSAGE ( 'production'. seconds for the BEGIN next report.'). prod_total). LOOP pipe_status := DBMS_PIPE.UNPACK_MESSAGE (prod_total). DBMS_PIPE. analyze_production (SYSDATE.page 254 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . data not received. every_n_secs). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END LOOP.

± Or you use the built-in NEXT_ITEM_TYPE to tell you in advance the datatype of the next packet in the message and take appropriate action.tst  Since a message can be composed of packets of different datatypes. Returns one of the following values: Value 0 6 9 11 12 23 Description or Data type No more items in buffer NUMBER VARCHAR2 ROWID DATE RAW dbpipe. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . you have to make sure that you unpack a packet into the right kind of variable.page 255 .sql dbpipe. Either: ± You know the datatype and therefore can ³hard-code´ the correct variable into the call to UNPACK_MESSAGE.Unpacking the Message FUNCTION next_item_type RETURN INTEGER.

total office expenses and total compensation. ± You have processes which can run in parallel. you can do the same for your application if: ± You have multiple CPUs available. but are not dependent on each other. In order to do so I must first compute total sales.page 256 .Parallelizing Your Code with Pipes  Oracle uses DBMS_PIPE to improve RDBMS performance.  Without pipes. ± These programs each take 15 minutes. I must execute them sequentially and incur an elapsed time of 45 minutes before I calculate the profits. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± The CEO is decidedly unhappy about the delay.  Suppose I want to calculate my net profit.

Parallel Execution Sequential Execution: Maximum Elapsed Time S t a r t E n d Process A Process B Process C Parallel Execution: Minimum Elapsed Time Start Process A Process B Process C End 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 257 .Sequential vs.

kick_off_exp_calc. kick_off_totcomp_calc. ± When each program is complete. END.in a muchdecreased elapsed time. it puts a message (perhaps even a value) into the pipe.  The ³wait´ program waits till it receives a message from each program. Then net profits can be computed -.  The ³kick off´ programs pass their messages to separate pipes. ± Other programs running in the background grab the messages and start their corresponding calculation program. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Parallelizing PL/SQL Execution BEGIN kick_off_sales_calc. wait_for_confirmation.page 258 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . calculate_net_profits.

BEGIN stat := DBMS_PIPE. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Receive the year. END.SEND_MESSAGE (µsales¶). and send back the results.page 259 . ELSE DBMS_PIPE.SEND_MESSAGE (µsales¶). BEGIN DBMS_PIPE.Code to Kick Off and Calculate PROCEDURE kick_off_sales_calc IS stat INTEGER.RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µsales¶).PACK_MESSAGE (NULL).SEND_MESSAGE (µsales¶). END IF. IF stat = 0 THEN lots_of_number_crunching. stat := DBMS_PIPE.PACK_MESSAGE (sales$). calculate sales. END. PROCEDURE calculate_sales IS stat INTEGER. DBMS_PIPE. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Send message to start calculations.PACK_MESSAGE (1995). stat := DBMS_PIPE. stat := DBMS_PIPE.

UNPACK_MESSAGE (comp$). DBMS_PIPE. Perform final calculation.UNPACK_MESSAGE (offexp$). PROCEDURE calculate_net_profits IS BEGIN net_profits := sales$ . DBMS_PIPE. DBMS_PIPE.comp$. END. The order in which you wait is insignificant. stat := DBMS_PIPE. stat := DBMS_PIPE.RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µoffexp¶).offexp$ . parallel.RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µcomp¶). Wait for all calculations to finish.UNPACK_MESSAGE (sales$).RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µsales¶).Waiting for Confirmation PROCEDURE wait_for_confirmation IS stat INTEGER. END. BEGIN stat := DBMS_PIPE.page 260 .sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

pkg  Implementation of a system-wide.pkg p_and_l.pkg syscache. obtains the data. ± A listener program grabs the request (including the return pipe name). ± A request for data is passed to a "central" pipe. syscache. watch. ± Demonstrates the use of toggles and switches in packages. ± The requester reads the information from the pipe. in-memory cache.Other DBMS_PIPE Examples  Simple trace package that sends it output either to screen or to pipe.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 261 . and sends it to the pipe.

. A µgrab-bag¶ of miscellaneous operations SCHEMA 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Built-in Packages: DBMS_UTILITY DBMS_UTILITY Application GET_TIME GET_HASH_VALUE FORMAT_CALL_STACK ..page 262 .

DBMS_UTILITY Module Outline ANALYZE_DATABASE ANALYZE_PART_OBJECT Analyze objects in database Runs ANALYZE TABLE or ANALYZE INDEX for each partition of the object (Oracle8).page 263 dbver. Returns error stack. Returns execution call stack. Returns database version (Oracle8) Executes DDL statement (Oracle8).pkg COMMA_TO_TABLE COMPILE_SCHEMA DATA_BLOCK_ADDRESS_BLOCK DATA_BLOCK_ADDRESS_FILE DB_VERSION EXEC_DDL_STATEMENT FORMAT_CALL_STACK FORMAT_ERROR_STACK GET_HASH_VALUE 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . Gets block number part of data block address. Parses comma-delimited list to index-by table. Gets file number part of data block address.pkg dbparm. Returns hash value for string. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Recompile INVALID objects in specified schema.

GET_PARAMETER_VALUE GET_TIME IS_PARALLEL_SERVER MAKE_DATA_BLOCK_ADDRESS NAME_RESOLVE NAME_TOKENIZE PORT_STRING TABLE_TO_COMMA Retrieves value of database parameter (Oracle8). Resolves name of object into component parts. Parses string object designator into components.page 264 . cont.DBMS_UTILITY Module Outline. Converts list (in index-by-table) of elements into a comma-delimited list (string). Returns "current time" down to hundredth of second. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Returns TRUE if in parallel server mode. Creates data block address from block & file numbers. Returns platform and version of database.

DBMS_OUTPUT. calc_totals. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .v_start). BEGIN v_start := DBMS_UTILITY. DECLARE v_start BINARY_INTEGER. ± Useful when analyzing individual PL/SQL programs.GET_TIME . especially those that run in sub-second time.Sub-Second Timings with GET_TIME  GET_TIME returns the number of 100ths of seconds that have elapsed since an arbitrary point in time.  Compare results from consecutive calls to GET_TIME to determine the elapsed time of PL/SQL code execution.PUT_LINE (DBMS_UTILITY. ± SYSDATE only reflects times down to the nearest second. END. so GET_TIME offers significant additional granularity.GET_TIME. Basic steps necessary to convert GET_TIME into a performance analysis tool.page 265 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .

sql plvtmr.sps plvtmr. adjust_in IN NUMBER := 0. PROCEDURE capture ( context_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) PROCEDURE show_elapsed (prefix_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. END. BEGIN PLVtmr.Building a Layer Over GET_TIME Partial package specification PACKAGE PLVtmr IS PROCEDURE turn_on.page 266 . PROCEDURE set_factor (factor_in IN NUMBER).spb 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . reset_in IN BOOLEAN := TRUE).show_elapsed. calc_totals. END PLVtmr. PROCEDURE turn_off. Clean and lean timing code ovrhead.capture. PLVtmr.

VALIDATE_REQUEST function STEVEN.COMPANY_TYPE procedure STEVEN.PL/SQL Call Stack ----object line object handle number name 88ce3f74 88e49fc4 88e49390 88e2bd20 8 2 1 1 package STEVEN.Accessing the Execution Call Stack Use in the exception section to show context of error.PUT_LINE ( DBMS_UTILITY. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN DBMS_OUTPUT. END.FORMAT_CALL_STACK). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . equivalent to CHR(10).CALC_NET_WORTH anonymous block  "Little known facts" about FORMAT_CALL_STACK: ± Contains embedded new-line characters. ± Most recent program at beginning of "report".page 267 . ± Does not show package elements. ----. only the package name.

sps DBMS_OUTPUT. EXIT WHEN next_newline = 0.page 268 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . which means you cannot pass it to DBMS_OUTPUT directly.PUT_LINE (next_line). startpos. startpos. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Accessing Call Stack Contents  The call stack length can easily exceed 255 bytes. use a loop to read through the stack. BEGIN stk := DBMS_UTILITY. next_line := SUBSTR ( stk. next_newline . dispcs. CHR(10). Instead. END LOOP.sp dispcs.pkg plvcs. startpos := next_newline + 1. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE dispcs IS stk VARCHAR2(10000).tst callstack. END. LOOP next_newline := INSTR (stk. next_line VARCHAR2(255).FORMAT_CALL_STACK || CHR(10). next_newline INTEGER.startpos + 1). 1). startpos INTEGER := 1.

NAME_RESOLVE (name IN VARCHAR2..pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . the way they are attached also follows a complicated syntax. ± Use NAME_RESOLVE to break down an identifier string into its components easily..Resolving Names of Stored Code  Code names have many components. see it as an opportunity. part2 OUT VARCHAR2.but don't see it as a problem. part1 OUT VARCHAR2..for encapsulation! showcomp.sp snc. object_number OUT NUMBER). dblink OUT VARCHAR2.page 269 . PROCEDURE DBMS_UTILITY. context IN NUMBER.  Possible "Part 1" Types 5 7 8 9 Synonym Procedure Function Package What a chore! All those arguments. part1_type OUT NUMBER.. schema OUT VARCHAR2.

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