Achieving PL/SQL Excellence

Oracle PL/SQL Advanced Techniques
Oracle7 thru Oracle8i
Steven Feuerstein
www.StevenFeuerstein.com www.Quest.com www.OReilly.com
and contributions most excellent from Bill Pribyl and Dick Bolz

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 1

Objective & Outline 

Objective
± Expand your knowledge and awareness of important and new features of the PL/SQL language. 

Outline
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± Building with Packages (Oracle7+) PL/SQL Collections (Oracle7 and Oracle8+) Cursor Variables (Oracle7 and Oracle8+) Dynamic SQL: DBMS_SQL and Native Dynamic SQL (8i) Calling Java from PL/SQL (Oracle8i) and C (Oracle8) Oracle Advanced Queuing with DBMS_AQ (Oracle8) Managing Large Objects with DBMS_LOB (Oracle8) Other Oracle8i New Features
» Autonomous Transactions (Oracle8i) » Invoker Rights Model (Oracle8i) » Row Level Security: DBMS_RLS

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Software Used in Training 

PL/Vision: a library of packages installed on top of PL/SQL.
± PL/Vision Lite - use it, copy, change it for free -- unless you build software to be sold commercially. ± Active PL/SQL Knowledge Base: contains PL/Vision Professional, the fully supported and enhanced version. 

Demonstration scripts executed in the training can be found on the RevealNet PL/SQL Pipeline:
± http://www.revealnet.com/Pipelines/PLSQL/index.htm ± Archives surfboard, Miscellaneous, PL/SQL Seminar Files ± See filedesc.doc for a listing of many of the files.
plsql_ides.txt 

The PL/SQL IDE (Integrated Development Environment).
± You no longer have to use SQL*Plus and a crude editor! Choose from among the many listed in plsql_ides.txt.

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Achieving PL/SQL Excellence

Building with PL/SQL Packages 
 

Overview Initialization section Overloading

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What is a Package? 

A collection of code elements, from procedures and functions to TYPE, variable and cursor declarations.
± Single-most important structure within PL/SQL, and almost certainly one of the most under-utilized. ± Conceptually very simple, it can take some time to fully grasp the implications and potential of the package. 

The method of choice by Oracle and other software developers for extending the PL/SQL language.
± You will find packages in the database, in Oracle Developer/2000, in Oracle Application Server. 

Let¶s review some of the benefits of packages.
tmr.pkg dbparm.pkg

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± Instead of writing SQL directly in your programs. ± There's a big difference between a bunch of separate programs and a coherent.pkb  Construct very flexible and usable utilities for developers. custrules.When to Build a Package  Join physically logically-related code. package-based "component".pkg  Improve transaction integrity by hiding data structures behind the package interface. you call the packaged procedures and functions instead.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 6 .pks te_employee. watch.pkg insga. ± Can lead to performance improvements. te_employee. ± Puts more structure and organization in your body of code.

Does the package have an init section? yes Run initialization code. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . the first time any package element is referenced. Program references package element the first time in each session.page 7 . no Complete request for packaged element. ± The PL/SQL runtime engine determines when and if this code should be run.Package Initialization  The initialization section is a block of code at the end of the package body that is executed once per session.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein BEGIN after/outside of any program defined in the pkg. ± Setting up package data which does not change for the duration of a session. ± Can have its own exception handling section. ± Is not required.  Useful for: ± Performing complex setting of default or initial values. BEGIN END pkg. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Confirming that package is properly instantiated. In fact. PACKAGE BODY pkg IS PROCEDURE proc IS BEGIN END.page 8 . most packages you build won't have one. FUNCTION func RETURN BEGIN END.Package Initialization Structure  The initialization section: ± Is defined after and outside of any programs in the package.

'Y'..page 9 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . END sessinit.  Also a package with many design flaws. END sessinit. 'No profile for ' || USER).. printer FROM user_config WHERE user_id = USER. show_toolbar CHAR(1). printer VARCHAR2(60). Section  An unusual package! ± Specification contains only variables. */ SELECT lov_flag. tb_flag. init. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . PACKAGE BODY sessinit IS /* No declared package elements at all! */ BEGIN /* Get user preferences for this user. */ 'Y'.pkg init. defprinter INTO show_lov. ± Body contains only initialization section. show_toolbar.tst this user.Configure Session with Init. EXCEPTION WHEN NO_DATA_FOUND THEN /* No record for show_lov := show_toolbar := printer := PACKAGE sessinit IS show_lov CHAR(1). 'lpt1'. WHEN OTHERS THEN RAISE_APPLICATION_ERROR (-20000.

fmts(11) := 'YYYYMMDD'.. ± The datemgr. fmts(2) := 'DD-MON-YYYY'. fmts(3) := 'DD-MON'. ± This increases the flexibility of the date conversion process. fmt_count := 12. Initialization section populates a PL/SQL table..pkg file demonstrates the basic technique (and the reliance on an initialization section) used to achieve this flexibility. fmts(12) := 'RRMMDD'. fmts(10) := 'MMDDYYYY'. datemgr.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 10 . . BEGIN fmts(1) := 'DD-MON-RR'. fmts(9) := 'MM/DD/YYYY'.pkg dates.Populate Collections  The PL/Vision Date package. employs several PL/SQL tables to convert strings and to perform date arithmetic. PLVdate. END dt. fmts(4) := 'MM/DD'.

you give two or more programs the same name. myproc  Overloading is a critical feature when building comprehensive programmatic interfaces (APIs) or components using packages. ± Overloading transfers the "need to know" from the user to the overloaded program.page 11 . ± If you want others to use your code. ± You can overload modules in any declaration section and in packages.Program Overloading  When you overload programs. myproc myproc 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . you need to make that code as smart and as easy to use as possible.

you would have to deal with something like this: date_string := TO_CHAR_FROM_DATE (SYSDATE. 'MMDDYY'). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Overloading in PL/SQL Built-ins  PL/SQL uses overloading in many common functions. and took functions like TO_CHAR and TO_DATE totally for granted.page 12 . 'MMDDYY'). date_string := TO_CHAR (SYSDATE. number_string := TO_CHAR (10000). Without overloading. ± You just probably never gave it a thought. number_string := TO_CHAR_FROM_NUMBER (10000). ± But Oracle couldn't offer that level of convenience without overloading.

± Arguments differ only in their mode (IN. There are two different "compile times": ± 1. the compiler must be able to distinguish between the two calls at compile-time.How Overloading Works  For two or more modules to be overloaded. ± Their formal parameters differ only in datatype and the datatypes are in the same family.page 13 .  Undistinguishing characteristics: ± Functions differ only in their RETURN datatype. When you compile programs that use the overloaded code. ± 2. VARCHAR2 is not different enough). ± The programs are of different types: procedure and function. When you compile the package or block containing the overloaded code. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Distinguishing characteristics: ± The formal parameters of overloaded modules must differ in number. order or datatype family (CHAR vs. OUT. IN OUT).

which one? param_modes. PACKAGE only_returns IS FUNCTION func1 (val IN VARCHAR2) RETURN DATE.PUT_LINE (only_returns.proc1 (v_value). Only difference is function RETURN type.func1 (v_value)). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . PACKAGE param_modes IS PROCEDURE proc1 (val IN VARCHAR2). END param_modes. END too_many_cals. PROCEDURE proc1 (val IN OUT VARCHAR2). Parameter data types cause conflict. FUNCTION func1 (val IN VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2. which one? too_similar.calc ('123'). PROCEDURE calc (reg_in IN VARCHAR2).Examples of Invalid Overloadings PACKAGE too_similar IS PROCEDURE calc (reg_in IN CHAR). Only difference is parameter mode. which one? DBMS_OUTPUT. END only_returns.page 14 .

± The DBMS_OUTPUT. so much as providing different ways of requesting the same activity.  Fitting the Program to the User ± To make your code as useful as possible.l substitute does an even better job. You use the type of data and not its value to determine which of the overloaded programs should be executed. the overloading does not provide a single name for different activities. In this case.  Overloading by Type. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Overload Wherever Possible  Supporting Many Data Combinations ± Apply the same action to different kinds or combinations of data.page 15 . you may construct different versions of the ³same´ program which correspond to different patterns of use.PUT_LINE procedure illustrates this technique -and the PL/Vision p. not Value ± A less common application of overloading.

p. YYYY .HH:MI:SS PM'). number_in IN NUMBER). boolean_in IN BOOLEAN). PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2.HH:MI:SS PM'). allowing the user to pass data to the "display engine" without writing "pre-processing" code. PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2.spb PROCEDURE l (boolean_in IN BOOLEAN).page 16 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2).A "Classic" Overloaded Package  Many different datatype combinations. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . PROCEDURE l (number_in IN NUMBER). mask_in IN VARCHAR2 := µMonth DD. PACKAGE p IS PROCEDURE l (date_in IN DATE. END p. date_in IN DATE. YYYY . mask_in IN VARCHAR2 := 'Month DD.sps p. PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2.

p. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .l (SQLERRM. IF print_report_fl THEN DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE (TO_CHAR (SYSDATE.l (print_report_fl).l ('So what is different?').. DBMS_OUTPUT. p. 'MM/DD/YY HH:MI:SS')).Advantage of Extended Overloading ‡ Minimal overloading means lots of extra coding.PUT_LINE ('So what is different?'). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein ‡Extended overloadings are more likely to meet user needs. SQLCODE). DBMS_OUTPUT. END IF. DBMS_OUTPUT. ELSE DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE ('FALSE'). p.page 17 .PUT_LINE (SQLERRM || ': ' || TO_CHAR (SQLCODE)). p.PUT_LINE ('TRUE')..l (SYSDATE).

± If you want to write software that is admired.Fitting the Program to the User Writing "unnecessary" code? Time to overload!  A single piece of functionality. think about the way it will be used. can be applied or needed under very different circumstances. ± Your code is a a more natural "fit" under a variety of requirements. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . such as "display data" or "create a file". If you take these different circumstances into account when you design your package specification. appreciated..and taken completely for granted. the user of your package can benefit from writing less code. In my experience.page 18   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .. few developers are considerate enough of their users to try to anticipate their needs.

UTL_FILE. so this is just the way it has to be. END. 'W'). UTL_FILE. 'blah').PUT_LINE (fid.flg'. even though you are simply going to close the file immediately after opening it.  In other words.FILE_TYPE. 'exists.FCLOSE (fid). ± Here is the code required by UTL_FILE: DECLARE fid UTL_FILE. you have to declare the record to hold the file handle.page 19  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . It just needs to be present. Of course. sometimes you will want to create a file and then perform additional operations. right? WRONG! PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± She doesn't care what's in it. BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE.Creating a File for a Quick Touch  Suppose a developer needs to create a file to be used as a "flag" in the operating system.FOPEN ('tmp/flags'.

END. BEGIN fid := PLVfile. custrules.pkg PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . TO_CHAR (SYSDATE)). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Use as Function DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.FILE_TYPE. PLVfile.fcreate ('exists.FILE_TYPE.fcreate ('temp.ini'.  Overloading of FCreate PACKAGE PLVfile IS /* Procedure */ PROCEDURE fcreate (file_in IN VARCHAR2.page 20 .flg').put_line (fid. /* Function */ FUNCTION fcreate (file_in IN VARCHAR2.Procedure and Function Overloaded  Why not overload a "create file" program so that you can pick the one that most closely fits your situation? Consider the PLVfile package of PL/Vision. line_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) RETURN UTL_FILE. line_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL). END PLVfile. Use as Procedure BEGIN PLVfile. v_user).

but the type of data. you must call the DEFINE_COLUMN procedure to define the datatype of the Nth column in the cursor. ± For example."By-Type" Overloading  In some situations. the user does not need to pass data. when you use DBMS_SQL to set up a dynamic query. ± Pass a string ³name´ of the datatype. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Define a different program name for each datatype.page 21 .  There are three ways to accomplish this: ± Don't overload. ± Pass a piece of data of the right type.

.func 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . DBMS_SQL. 2. lotsa names. 1.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.DEFINE_COLUMN ± PLVgen. 2.. DBMS_SQL. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.VARCHAR2_TYPE.  So many program names to remember! Pass a literal value. 30).DEFINE_INTEGER_COLUMN (cur.. 1)... DBMS_SQL. 1.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.page 22 . DBMS_SQL. 30). 2. 'STRING'. BEGIN DBMS_SQL...NUMBER_TYPE).. 'NUMBER').  Now let's look at two examples of overloading by datatype.  Nasty hard-coding..DEFINE_COLUMN (cur...Options for Specifying Column Type  Don't even bother overloading. ± DBMS_SQL. Pass a named constant.DEFINE_VARCHAR2_COLUMN (cur. 30). BEGIN DBMS_SQL. Lotsa typing.. DBMS_SQL.

BEGIN DBMS_SQL. ± The three code blocks below are equivalent. 'a'. v_ename.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. ± To make it easier to accomplish this task. you only need to pass a value -.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. 1). 1. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .any value -.page 23 . 1.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.Defining Dynamic SQL Columns  The DBMS_SQL. 2.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. 30). v_empno). from the perspective of DBMS_SQL. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. 30). DBMS_SQL. 1. 2. USER.DEFINE_COLUMN procedure defines the datatype of a column.of the correct type. 30). 2. DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL. DBMS_UTILITY.DEFINE_COLUMN.GET_TIME).

type_in IN NUMBER).func ('total_salary'.func ('last_date'. please! 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Any number.Generating Functions by Value  In PLVgen. any Boolean will do. type_in IN DATE). SYSDATE) SQL> exec plvgen. type_in IN VARCHAR2). any string. PROCEDURE func (name_in IN VARCHAR2. please! A number function. PACKAGE PLVgen IS PROCEDURE func (name_in IN VARCHAR2. PROCEDURE func (name_in IN VARCHAR2. SQL> exec plvgen. ± The particular value itself is of no importance. the user indicates the type of function to be generated by providing a value.page 24 . any date. 1) A date function.

I rely on an anchored type (%TYPE) to establish the datatype of the second calc¶s parameter. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . PL/SQL does not sense a conflict with above overloading even though comp_id is a numeric column.comp_id%TYPE). ± When I compile profits. but you might later found out that you cannot actually call any of the overloaded programs.page 25 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .  In the above example. PACKAGE profits IS PROCEDURE calc (comp_id_IN IN NUMBER).The Frustrations of Overloading  Watch out! An overloading can compile successfully. END. PROCEDURE calc (comp_id_IN IN company.

PROCEDURE calc_total (reg_in IN VARCHAR2). END. sales. sales. how would you do it? (Don't peek at the next page!) BEGIN sales.pkg ? 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . why not? ± If so.page 26 . END sales.calc_total ('NORTHWEST').Quiz! Nuances of Overloading PACKAGE sales IS PROCEDURE calc_total (zone_in IN VARCHAR2).  Can I overload two programs which have parameters that differ only by name.calc_total ('ZONE2'). like calc_totals shown above? ± If not.

what => 'DBMS_DDL.estimate_percent=>50). of named notation include: ± Code is more "self-documenting". DBMS_JOB.sql  Advantages 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .''TENK''' || '. That way you don't have to know and pass default values. next_date => TRUNC (SYSDATE + 1).''ESTIMATE''.'. ± You can skip over (not specify values for) any IN parameters that have default values.ANALYZE_OBJECT ' || '(''TABLE''.page 27 .submit ( job => v_jobno. interval => 'TRUNC(SYSDATE+1)').''LOAD1''.Using Named Notation <formal parameter name> => <expression>  Explicit association between the formal parameter (the "name") with the actual parameter (the "value"). namednot. This is especially useful when working with infrequently used built-in programs.null.

page 28 . Three types of collections: ± Index-by tables (Oracle7 only. Oracle8 and above) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . originally called PL/SQL tables) ± Nested tables (Oracle8 and above) ± Variable arrays (VARRAYs.Achieving PL/SQL Excellence PL/SQL Collections   Collections are single-dimensioned lists of information.

Build hash tables (custom indexing structures).page 29     1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . Improve query performance by avoiding joins. Avoid mutating table errors in database triggers. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .When to Use Collections  Maintain any kind of list of related information for use in your programs.  Emulate bi-directional cursors. which are otherwise not supported in PL/SQL Cache data in session-level memory for faster access.

emp_copy inmem_emp_t. ± Homogeneous » Data in each row has the same structure. Instead.Index-By Tables TYPE <table_type> IS TABLE OF <datatype> INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER.  Characteristics of an index-by table: ± Unbounded » Practically speaking.page 30 . this broad range allows you to employ the row number as an intelligent key. DECLARE TYPE inmem_emp_t IS TABLE OF emp%ROWTYPE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER.483.147. Valid row numbers range: -2.647 to 2.647 » You will not actually create tables this large. ± Sparse » Data does not have to be stored in consecutive rows of information. ± Available only in PL/SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .147.483.

Index_by Tables TYPE declaration PACKAGE BODY family IS TYPE child_list_type IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2 (30) INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. Error: NO_DATA_FOUND 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Variable declaration children child_list_type. children (6904) := 'Lisa Nadezhka'.pkg children 6306 6412 6904 µBarbara Anne¶ µGary Richard¶ µLisa Marie¶ children (6810) := µAdam Russell. Component Selection kid := children (4). children 6306 6412 6810 6904 µBarbara Anne¶ µGary Richard¶ µAdam Russell¶ µLisa Nadezhka¶ datemgr.page 31 .

± Unbounded.page 32 .Nested Tables [CREATE OR REPLACE] TYPE <table_type> IS TABLE OF <datatype> [NOT NULL]. but only with explicit EXTEND requests » Practically speaking. DECLARE TYPE when_t IS TABLE OF DATE. but can become sparse if you DELETE inner rows ± Available both in PL/SQL and SQL (as a column in a table) ± The order of elements is not preserved in the database 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . birthdays when_t.483. Valid row numbers range: 1 to 2.647 ± Initially dense.147.  Nested table characteristics ± Homogeneous » Each row contains the same structure of data.

sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Nested Tables CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE child_table_type IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2 (30). kids child_table_type) NESTED TABLE kids STORE AS kids_ntab.page 33 . CREATE TABLE db_family (surname VARCHAR2 (30). For ORACLE's use only db_family surname kids BOLZ BOND Eric Thomas Max Richard Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Marie ntdemo.

salaries numbers_t. Maximum value: 2.Variable Arrays [CREATE OR REPLACE] TYPE <table_type> IS VARRAY (N) OF <datatype> [NOT NULL]. ± Bounded » Upper limit established when the TYPE is defined.147.page 34 . ± Variable arrays are actually stored in the DB table 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .647 ± Dense » Never any gaps between defined rows. can be EXTENDed or TRIMmed.  Characteristics of variable arrays: ± Homogeneous » Each row contains the same structure of data. DECLARE TYPE numbers_t IS VARRAY (10) OF NUMBER.483. ± Available both in PL/SQL and SQL (as a column in a table) » And the order of elements are preserved in the database.

Variable Arrays CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE child_va_type IS VARRAY (8) OF VARCHAR2 (30). CREATE TABLE db_family (surname VARCHAR2 (30). db_family surname kids BOLZ BOND 1 Barbara Anne 2 Gary Richard 3 Lisa Marie 1 Eric Thomas 2 Max Richard vademo.page 35 . kids child_va_type).sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE tabtypes IS TYPE integer_ibt IS TABLE OF INTEGER INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. Best option: package specification. from the TYPE.. or in a PL/SQL declaration section.Defining Collections  First. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . a collection.. this can only occur in a PL/SQL declaration section. END tabtypes. you define the TYPE of the collection. ± For nested tables and VARRAYs. ± You can declare multiple collections from that TYPE.page 36 .  Then you declare an instance of that type. ± For index-by tables. . TYPE integer_nt IS TABLE OF INTEGER. TYPE integer_vat IS VARRAY(10) OF INTEGER. you can define the TYPE in the database with a CREATE statement.

± The code used to define the collection TYPE  There is no information in the data dictionary available for index-by tables.page 37 .type_name IN ('NAMES_VT'.owner = A.elem_type_name = A.Obtaining Collection Information SELECT FROM WHERE AND AND AND A.attr_type_name Attributes all_coll_types T.owner = USER T.  ALL_COLL_TYPES ± The types you have created (or have access to) in the database  ALL_TYPE_ATTRS ± Attributes of the data type used in the TYPE definition.owner T.' || A. colldd. all_type_attrs A T.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .type_name. 'TMRS_VT') T.attr_name || ' .

Initializing Collections  Before you can use a collection. ± Nested tables and VARRAYs are atomically null. 200. it must be initialized. / DECLARE -. BEGIN CREATE TABLE employee_denorm ( employee_id INTEGER. ± Index-by tables are initialized automatically. salaries numbers_t := numbers_t (100.Initialize the collection. empty when declared. You must initialize them explicitly with a constructor.page 38 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . TYPE defined in PL/SQL TYPE defined in the database Collection used in a table PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 300). BEGIN CREATE TYPE numbers_t IS VARRAY (10) OF NUMBER. 300). salaries numbers_t := numbers_t (100. salary_history numbers_t). 200. DECLARE TYPE numbers_t IS VARRAY (10) OF NUMBER.

 Starting with Oracle8. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .company_id%TYPE.Collections of Composites  Starting with Oracle 7. consider putting TYPEs in database or packages.page 39 . the datatype for any of the collection types can also be an object. comp_tab comp_tabtype. total_rev NUMBER). ± Can easily create an index-by table with the same structure as a database table by declaring a record with %ROWTYPE. Here we have a three step process. Again.comp_id := 1005.3. DECLARE TYPE comp_rectype IS RECORD (comp_id company. TYPE comp_tabtype IS TABLE OF comp_rectype INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. BEGIN comp_tab(1). ± But you cannot have nested composite datatypes. the ³homogeneous´ contents of an index-by table's row can be a record .

etc.Sparse is Nice  The sparse characteristic of index-by tables and nested tables can be put to good use. a row exists in the table only when a value is assigned to that row. ± You should not fill sequentially. order by date.  Rows do not have to be defined sequentially. In this way. ± In almost every case.). ± Instead. consider using the row value as "smart data" for your application (primary key. your collections will contain a row's worth of information.  Especially handy when caching data from relational tables in user memory. ± In an index-by table.page 40 . it is very similar to a database table. unless the order in which items are selected is of importance. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY psemp IS BEGIN FOR rec IN (SELECT * FROM emp) LOOP emp_tab (rec. END.empno) := rec. emp_tab emp_tabtype. END.page 41 .tst  PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .pkg psemp. END LOOP. Some questions: ± Why would I put this collection table in a package? ± When is the collection loaded with the data? ± What rows in that collection are utilized? psemp. Initialization section of package 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein  This package moves the entire contents of the emp table into its corresponding collection.Transferring DB Table to Collection CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE psemp IS TYPE emp_tabtype IS TABLE OF emp%ROWTYPE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER.

± For VARRAYs and nested tables. you must reference existing rows or a NO_DATA_FOUND exception is raised. BEGIN greedy_ceos(1) := 'Hamilton. even if you haven't assigned a value explicitly. ± Not necessary for index-by tables. but you must do it for VARRAYs and nested tables.  For index-by tables. once extended. END. / DECLARE greedy_ceos names_t := names_t (). the row exists.page 42 .Collection Gotchas CREATE TYPE names_t IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2(30). ± Use the EXISTS method to determine if a row existed. / Error -6533! You've got to EXTEND first!  EXTEND before assigning a value to a row. Jordan'. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Handling Collection Gotchas BEGIN -.Set the value of each new row to the contents of the first row.PUT_LINE ('Data for employee not available. salaries(salaries.'). END IF. BEGIN IF salaries. ± Assign a default value with a second.EXTEND (10.tst  Include a handler for NO_DATA_FOUND or use the EXISTS method to avoid these exceptions. salaries.  You can EXTEND one or more rows. -.We are OK.EXISTS (v_employee_id) THEN -. ± Pre-extending a large number of rows in advance can improve performance. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Extend by 10 since I know I will need that many. preextend. ELSE DBMS_OUTPUT. optional argument.FIRST)).page 43 .

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Collection Methods  Obtain information about the collection COUNT returns number of rows currently defined in the table. ± TRIM removes rows from a VARRAY. EXISTS returns TRUE if the specified row is defined.  The built-in package plitblm (PL/sql Index-TaBLe Methods) defines these methods. NEXT/PRIOR return the closest defined row after/before the specified row. ± ± ± ±  Modify the contents of the collection ± DELETE deletes one or more rows from the index-by table.page 44 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . number of elements allowed in a VARRAY. ± LIMIT tells you the max. ± EXTEND adds rows to a nested table or VARRAY. FIRST/LAST return lowest/highest numbers of defined rows.

DELETE.LAST). -.DELETE (myCollection. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 45 .Delete a range of rows myCollection. DELETE releases memory. but you may also want to call DBMS_SESSION.The DELETE Method  You can delete one or more rows from a collection using DELETE: BEGIN -. 17255).FREE_UNUSED_USER_MEMORY.Delete all rows myCollection. -.Delete one (the last) row myCollection. END.DELETE (1400.

Navigating Through Collections 


Use FIRST and NEXT to move from beginning to end. Use LAST and PRIOR to move from end to beginning.
rowind PLS_INTEGER := birthdays.FIRST; -- birthdays.LAST BEGIN LOOP EXIT WHEN rowind IS NULL; DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE (birthdays(rowind).best_present); rowind := birthdays.NEXT (rowind); -- birthdays.PRIOR END LOOP; END;

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Using Collections Inside SQL 

Nested tables and VARRAYs can be defined as columns of a table and referenced directly within SQL. You can also apply SQL operations to the contents of nested tables and VARRAYs with these operators:
± THE - Maps a single column value in a single row to a virtual database table ± CAST - Maps a collection of one type to a collection of another type ± MULTISET - Maps a database table to a collection ± TABLE - Maps a collection to a database table  

Index-by tables are programmatic constructs only.
± You cannot make a direct reference to an index-by table in SQL. ± Instead, so do indirectly with a PL/SQL function.

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Using Collections inside SQL
SELECT column_value FROM TABLE (SELECT children FROM db_family WHERE surname = 'BOLZ'); db_family surname children BOLZ BOND Eric Thomas Max Richard UPDATE TABLE (SELECT children FROM db_family WHERE SURNAME = 'BOLZ) SET column_value = 'Lisa Nadezhka' WHERE column_value = 'Lisa Marie'); db_family surname children BOLZ ...
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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 48

Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Marie

column_value Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Marie

Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Nadezhka

Using the THE Operator 

Use THE to manipulate (retrieve, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE) contents of a nested table in a database table.
± Can only use with nested tables, not VARRAYs or index-by tables. ± Only accessible from within SQL statements in PL/SQL.
CREATE TYPE action_list_t IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2(100); / CREATE TABLE inflation_beater ( focus_area VARCHAR2(100), activities action_list_t) NESTED TABLE activities STORE AS activities_tab; SELECT VALUE (act) FROM THE (SELECT activities FROM inflation_beater WHERE focus_area = 'FORTUNE 100') act; UPDATE THE (SELECT activities FROM inflation_beater WHERE focus_area = 'FORTUNE 100') SET COLUMN_VALUE = 'DISBAND OSHA' WHERE COLUMN_VALUE = 'SIDESTEP OSHA';

the.sql

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Using the TABLE and CAST Operators 

Use CAST to convert a collection from one type to another, TABLE to convert a TYPE into a database table.
± Cannot use with index-by tables. ± Useful when you would like to apply SQL operations against a PL/SQL collection (ie, one not stored in a database table).
DECLARE nyc_devolution cutbacks_for_taxcuts := cutbacks_for_taxcuts ('Stop rat extermination programs', 'Fire building inspectors', 'Close public hospitals'); BEGIN DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE ( 'How to Make the NYC Rich Much, Much Richer:'); FOR rec IN (SELECT COLUMN_VALUE ohmy FROM TABLE (CAST (nyc_devolution AS cutbacks_for_taxcuts))) LOOP DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE (rec.ohmy); END LOOP; cast.sql END;

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page 51 .species = b. DECLARE CURSOR bird_curs IS SELECT b. converting a set of data (table. ± You can use MULTISET to emulate or transform relational joins into collections.genus AND bh. Retrieves all detail bird_row bird_curs%ROWTYPE. FETCH bird_curs into bird_row. CAST(MULTISET(SELECT bh.genus.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Using the MULTISET Operator  MULTISET is the inverse of TABLE.species) AS country_tab_t) FROM birds b.genus = b. query) into a VARRAY or nested table. multiset. b. END. view. OPEN bird_curs. ± Cannot use with index-by tables.country FROM bird_habitats bh WHERE bh. information for the BEGIN master in one trip. with potential client-server performance impact.species.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein ibtab_in_sql. END. hiredates date_tab.Referencing IB Tables inside SQL  You can't directly reference an index-by table's contents inside SQL. PRAGMA RESTRICT_REFERENCES (rowval. END.sql PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Instead. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY ibtab IS TYPE date_tab IS TABLE OF DATE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. Make accessible in SQL for Oracle8 and below. END.page 52 . but hide the index-by table structure.  CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE ibtab IS FUNCTION rowval (indx IN PLS_INTEGER) RETURN DATE. FUNCTION rowval (indx IN PLS_INTEGER) RETURN DATE IS BEGIN RETURN hiredates (indx). call functions that retrieve the table's data. WNDS). WNPS.

 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Examples of Collections in Action  Emulation of bi-directional cursor operations Avoid mutating table problems in database triggers.page 53 .

Notice that the collection itself is hidden. PROCEDURE nextRow. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE bidir IS /* Iterate through rows in the result set */ PROCEDURE setRow (nth IN PLS_INTEGER).nope.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . PROCEDURE prevRow.Bi-Directional Cursor Emulation  Oracle does not yet support the ability to move back and forth (and at random) through a cursor's result set. FUNCTION getRow RETURN employee_plus%ROWTYPE. deposit your data in a collection and then provide programs to access that data in the necessary fashion.pkg bidir.  bidir.page 54 . didn't make it!  Instead. This is particularly useful (read: efficient) when you need to perform multiple passes against the data. ± A talked-about feature for Oracle9i -. END.

The Mutating Table Problem  Database triggers can be attached to the SQL statement and/or the individual row operations on a table. you can use autonomous transactions to relax restrictions associated with queries. Statement Level UPDATE emp SET sal = 1000 UPDATE row 1 Row Level  UPDATE row N Row level triggers cannot query from or change the contents of the table to which it is attached. it is "mutating".page 55 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . So what are you supposed to do when a row-level operation needs to "touch" that table? mutating.sql  Note: in Oracle8i.

A Solution Based on Index-by Tables  Since you cannot perform the processing desired in the row-level trigger. If you are going to defer the work. 1st row trigger fires Nth row trigger fires Writes to list Writes to list Work List (PL/SQL Table)  Process data in the list. Statement Trigger 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 56 . you need to defer the action until you get to the statement level. ± an index-by table is an ideal repository for this reminder list. you have to remember what you needed to do.

± We might update more than one department within a statement so we must be able to retain multiple department numbers. but preferable. we then know which departments to re-rank. Department ID Salesperson ID Sales Amount Rank 1055 1055 1055 1047  64333 65709 65706 70904 74055.91 109000.25 65011. ± As the sales amount is updated in this table.An Example: Ranking Salespeople  A table holds the rankings based on the amount of annual sales of salespeople within a department. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 57 .88 144533. ± By storing the salesperson¶s department ids as they change.25 3 1 2 6 "Deferred work" is not only necessary. the rankings must also change to show the new standings for that department only.

Doesn't fire unless the sales_amt is actually changed.pkg All details of the ranking are hidden in the package body. ranking.sales_amt != NEW.dept_id).Trigger Logic Required Row Level Trigger CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER Rank_Sales_Rtrg AFTER insert OR update OF sales_amt ON rank_sales FOR EACH ROW WHEN (OLD. Statement Level Trigger CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER Rank_Sales_Strg AFTER INSERT OR UPDATE OR DELETE ON rank_sales BEGIN rank.sales_amt) BEGIN rank. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .rank_depts.page 58 . END. END.add_dept (:new.

END rank. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . TYPE dept_tabtype IS TABLE OF BOOLEAN INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. Table holds indicator that department needs re-ranking. dept_tab dept_tabtype. END IF. END add_dept 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Create row to indicate department to be ranked. PROCEDURE add_dept (dept_id_in IN INTEGER) IS BEGIN IF NOT in_process THEN dept_tab (dept_id_in) := TRUE. PROCEDURE rank_depts. PACKAGE BODY rank IS in_process BOOLEAN := FALSE.page 59 .The Ranking Package PACKAGE rank IS PROCEDURE add_dept (dept_id_in IN INTEGER).

LOOP EXIT WHEN v_deptid IS NULL.FIRST. END rank_dept. Clean up for next time. END IF. v_deptid := dept_tab. in_process := FALSE. perform_ranking (v_deptid).The Ranking Package. END rank.NEXT (v_deptid). END LOOP. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Avoid recursive execution of logic Row number is department number.page 60 .DELETE. dept_tab. BEGIN IF NOT in_process THEN in_process := TRUE. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Continued PROCEDURE rank_depts IS v_deptid PLS_INTEGER := dept_tab.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  VARRAYs ± ± ± ± You want to preserve the order in which elements are stored. Set of data is relatively small (avoid row chaining).  Nested tables ± You want to store large amounts of persistent data in a column. You don't want to have to worry about sparseness.Which Collection Type Should I Use?  Index-by tables ± Need to use in both Oracle7 and Oracle8 applications ± Want to take advantage of sparse nature for "intelligent keys". You want to use inside SQL.page 61 . ± You want to use inside SQL.

Tips for Using Collections 

Wrap access to your collections.
± In many cases, you will want to avoid direct access to (assigning and retrieving) rows in your collections. ± This will give you the flexibility to change your implementation. ± You can also hide complex rules for setting the row number. 

Get creative!
± Don't always fill and use the index-by table sequentially. ± If you can somehow translate your application data to an integer, it can be used as a row number, and therefore offers indexed access. ± Julian date formats and DBMS_UTILITY.GET_HASH_VALUE offer two different methods.

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Achieving PL/SQL Excellence

Cursor Variables

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 63

Architecture of Cursor Variables
With Hard-Coded Cursors
Hard-Coded Cursor

With Cursor Variables

PGA

Cursor Variable

Cursor Variable

Result Set

Shared Global Area

Cursor Object

Result Set 

A cursor variable points to an underlying cursor object in the database.
± The cursor object in turns points to (and keeps its place in) a result set. 

The cursor variable can be passed between programs (even between, say, a Java servlet and a PL/SQL stored procedure).
± Static SQL only -- until Oracle8i.
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1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

Benefits of Cursor Variables 

Share cursor management between programs, even across the client-server divide.
± You don't have to pass the result sets of a cursor in order to allow the client-side program to have direct access to the data in the result set. ± Oracle Developer 2.1 utilizes cursor variables when you choose to construct a "base table block" around stored procedures instead of a database table. 

Share the same code across multiple, different queries.
± Since the cursor name is no longer hard-coded, you can use a single block of code (say, a reporting program) against different queries. ± We will try out this technique at the end of the section.

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Cursor Variable Example
DECLARE TYPE company_curtype IS REF CURSOR RETURN company%ROWTYPE;
Declare a variable cursor TYPE.

company_curvar company_curtype;

Declare cursor variable based on that type. Declare a record from cursor variable. OPEN cursor variable, specifying the query. FETCH from the cursor variable.

company_rec company_curvar%ROWTYPE; BEGIN OPEN company_curvar FOR SELECT * FROM company;

FETCH company_curvar INTO company_rec;
Close the cursor variable.

CLOSE company_curvar; END;
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Explicit Cursors and Cursor Variables 

Both hard-coded cursors and cursor variables work with static SQL.
± The SQL is fixed at compile-time. ± The difference is that with cursor variables, you get to decide which static query is opened. 

Many cursor operations are the same:
± Close a variable cursor with the same syntax as that for static cursors. ± Use cursor attributes (%ISOPEN, %FOUND, %NOTFOUND, %ROWCOUNT) with cursor variables (as of Release 2.3). ± Fetch data from the cursor result set through a cursor variable with the same syntax as that of static cursors. 

Let¶s focus on the new and different capabilities of cursor variables.
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1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

Declaring Cursor Types and Variables 

Cursors are declared in two steps, just like programmerdefined records and PL/SQL tables.
± 1. Define a cursor TYPE -- either "weak" or "strong". ± 2. Define a cursor variable.
DECLARE TYPE weak_curtype IS REF CURSOR; TYPE comp_curtype IS REF CURSOR RETURN company%ROWTYPE; curcmp_new comp_curtype; cur_any weak_curtype; BEGIN
Declare cursor variables from the TYPEs. Declare a STRONG referenced cursor TYPE. Declare a WEAK referenced cursor TYPE.

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Strong vs. Weak Cursor Types 

A strong (or constrained) cursor type has a defined return data specification.
± Can only reference cursor objects which return the same data specification, which can be any single SQL datatype or any previously defined record structure. ± Datatype mismatches are identified at compile time.

TYPE cur_typ_name IS REF CURSOR [ RETURN return_type ]; TYPE cur_typ_name IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE; /* Strong */ 

The weak (or unconstrained) cursor type does not have a RETURN clause.
± It can reference any cursor object, be opened FOR any query. ± Datatype mismatches can only be identified at runtime.

TYPE cur_typ_name IS REF CURSOR; /* Weak */
1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein
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Opening with the Cursor Variable
OPEN cursor_name FOR select_statement; 

When you open a cursor variable (whether of the weak or strong variety), you must provide the SQL query that identifies the result set.
± If the variable has not yet been assigned to cursor object, the OPEN FOR statement implicitly creates an object for the variable. ± If the variable is already pointing to a cursor object, the OPEN FOR reuses the existing object and attaches the new query to that cursor object. 

Remember, the cursor object is nothing more than a memory location.
± It is maintained independently of the query itself.
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1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . a cursor or a programmer-defined record.page 71 . ± You can establish the return type based on a database table.Opening with Strong Cursor Types DECLARE TYPE emp_curtype IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE. Match Needed BEGIN OPEN emp_curvar FOR SELECT * from emp.. emp_curvar emp_curtype. . END.  STRONG cursor data specifications must match or be compatible with the structure of the SELECT statement..

 A weak cursor TYPE doesn't define the RETURN structure. BEGIN IF get_type_in = µEMP¶ THEN Either query will "do". END. FUNCTION open_emp_or_dept (get_type_in IN VARCHAR2) RETURN pkg.page 72 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . END IF. Verification will take ELSIF get_type_in = µDEPT¶ place at the FETCH.cv_type IS retval pkg. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . REF TYPE placed in package so that it is "globally" available. END.Opening with Weak Cursor Types PACKAGE pkg IS TYPE cv_type IS REF CURSOR.cv_type. OPEN retval FOR SELECT * FROM emp. you can associate any SELECT statement with a weak cursor variable. THEN OPEN retval FOR SELECT * FROM dept. RETURN retval.

Fetching from the Cursor Variable FETCH cursor_var_name INTO record_name. . ± The ROWTYPE_MISMATCH exception is raised on failure. The INTO structure must match in number and datatype to: ± FOR STRONG cursor types. ± FOR WEAK cursor types. FETCH cursor_var_name INTO var_name.  Fetching with cursor variables follows the same rules as those with static cursors.   Compatibility checks are performed prior to fetching row.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .. it match the cursor type data specification... mismatch. var_name. ± Fetching can continue with a different INTO clause. it match the OPEN FOR statement structure.page 73 .

page 74 . Use a single block of code to manipulate multiple queries.  Define a base table block in Forms Builder (formerly Oracle Forms) on stored procedures rather than a table directly.  hccursor. since cursor names are "hard coded". ± JDBC recognizes cursor variables. ± You could use dynamic SQL to achieve this effect.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .When to Use Cursor Variables  Make it easier for calling programs (especially non-PL/SQL programs) to manipulate result sets. ± With explicit cursors. you have to repeat the code for each cursor. but static cursors are more efficient than dynamic SQL and cursor variables are less complicated than DBMS_SQL.

bysal CONSTANT INTEGER := 2.pkg allcurs.Consolidating Different Cursors  The following package specification hides the SQL behind a single open function. FUNCTION open (type_in IN INTEGER) RETURN cv_t.page 75 . TYPE int_rt IS RECORD (key INTEGER). TYPE cv_t IS REF CURSOR RETURN int_rt. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE allcurs IS bydept CONSTANT INTEGER := 1.tst explcv. / allcurrs.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END. ± It also creates the data structures you will need to call the function.

Consolidating Different Cursors  The open function simply opens FOR a different SELECT based on the criteria passed to it. BEGIN IF type_in = bydept THEN OPEN retval FOR SELECT empno FROM emp ORDER BY deptno. ELSIF type_in = bysal THEN OPEN retval FOR SELECT empno FROM emp ORDER BY SAL. END. RETURN retval. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END. END IF. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY allcurs IS FUNCTION open (type_in IN INTEGER) RETURN cv_t IS retval cv_t.page 76 .

CLOSE cv.cv_t. v_empno emp. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . change the ORDER BY clause -without having to change the code you write. LOOP FETCH cv INTO v_empno. DECLARE cv allcurs.Hiding SQL Variations in Resulting Code  The following block demonstrates that you can alter which SQL statement to query -. BEGIN cv := allcurs.empno%TYPE. EXIT WHEN cv%NOTFOUND.l (v_empno). END. p. END LOOP.open (&1).page 77 "Report processor" is independent of the particular SELECT .in this case.

page 78 .  Improve Client-Side Access to Data ± At least in Oracle Developer 2.  Strong and Weak Types ± Create REF CURSORs for specific queries.Cursor Variables Let's summarize  Flexibility ± Choose which static SQL statement is executed at run-time.1. you can build screens that access data using a cursor variable-based procedural API. or a more general. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Hide Variations in Underlying SQL ± You no longer have to repeat the same code for different cursors. unconstrained type.

page 79 .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Dynamic SQL  Dynamic SQL and dynamic PL/SQL: ± The DBMS_SQL package ± Native dynamic SQL in Oracle8i 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

What can you do with Dynamic SQL?  Build ad-hoc query and update applications. ± One example: implement indirect referencing in PL/SQL.1 and DBMS_SQL. ± Construct powerful DBA utilities. you no longer have to write SQL to generate SQL to get your job done. ± Also supported with "native dynamic SQL" in Oracle8i.  Execute DDL inside PL/SQL programs. ± Very common requirement on the Web.  Execute dynamically-constructed PL/SQL programs. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Available in PL/SQL since Release 2.page 80 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .Dynamic SQL and PL/SQL Execution  "Dynamic SQL" mean that you construct the SQL statement or PL/SQL block at runtime and then execute it.

Method 3: queries with a fixed number of items in the SELECT list and a fixed number of host variables. If you can recognize the types. Method 4: queries with a variable number of items in the SELECT list and/or non-queries with a variable number of host variables. executed a single time. These methods are in increasing order of complexity.    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . execute one or more times. ± Different methods require the use of different programs in DBMS_SQL. you can more quickly figure out how to code your solution. Method 2: non-queries with a fixed number of host variables. ± NDS does not support method 4.page 81 .Four Methods of Dynamic SQL   Method 1: non-queries without host variables.

used for multi-row queries. you would use the DBMS_SQL built-in package to execute dynamic SQL. DML and single row fetches. ± But this package is very complex.Native Dynamic SQL  Prior to Oracle8i.  The new "native dynamic SQL" or NDS of Oracle8i offers two native statements in the PL/SQL language to implement most of your dynamic SQL requirements: ± EXECUTE IMMEDIATE <sql string>. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . and relatively slow (performance did improve significantly as of Oracle8). used for DDL. difficult to use. ± OPEN FOR <sql string>.page 82 .

The USING clause allows you to specify bind arguments or variables to be passed into the SQL string before execution. define_variables]. | record }] [USING {IN | OUT | IN OUT] bind argument [... collections and records. including objects. {IN | OUT | IN OUT] bind argument]..page 83   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .EXECUTE IMMEDIATE EXECUTE IMMEDIATE sql-string [INTO {define_variable[. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .. The INTO clause allows you to pass values from the select list of a single row query into local variables.  Use this statement to execute any dynamic SQL statement (including a PL/SQL block) except for multi-row queries.].

000 THEN DBMS_OUTPUT. END. and not much of a democracy either!').sf compare with: tabcount.page 84 . 'insured = ''NO''') > 40.' || tab || ' WHERE ' || NVL (whr. whr IN VARCHAR2 := NULL.. '1=1') INTO retval. END IF. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein tabcount81. USER) || '. table and retval INTEGER. sch IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) RETURN INTEGER IS Specify schema. WHERE clause.000.COUNT(*) For Any Table  Here's a handy and simple utility based on NDS: CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION tabCount ( tab IN VARCHAR2...sf PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . BEGIN EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'SELECT COUNT(*) FROM ' || NVL (sch.. IF tabCount ('citizens'. RETURN retval.PUT_LINE ( 'Not the best health care system in the world.

BEGIN v_str := 'BEGIN ' || pkg_in || '. END. name_in IN VARCHAR2) IS v_str VARCHAR2 (100).. END.. END. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN pl ('Compile Error "' || SQLERRM || '" on: ' || v_str). col_in IN VARCHAR2. PROCEDURE runprog (pkg_in IN VARCHAR2.' || name_in || '. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE updnumval ( tab_in IN VARCHAR2. Pass in bind variables with USING clause. val_in IN NUMBER) IS BEGIN EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'UPDATE ' || tab_in || ' SET ' || col_in || ' = :val WHERE hiredate BETWEEN :lodate AND :hidate' USING val_in.Other Execute Immediate Examples  Perform an update. end_in. EXECUTE IMMEDIATE v_str.. end_in IN DATE. start_in IN DATE. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Execute a stored procedure.page 85 .'.. start_in.

:revenue_inhibitors)' USING pers. cond.. ± In the following example. pers IN Person.page 86 . cond IN preexisting_conditions) IS BEGIN EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'INSERT INTO ' || tabname (hosp_name) || ' VALUES (:revenue_generator. the USING clause allows me to pass an object and nested table to an INSERT statement with a variable table name. END. ± No special syntax needed.Using Objects and Collections in NDS  One of the key advantages to NDS over DBMS_SQL is that it works with Oracle8 datatypes. PROCEDURE add_profit_source ( hosp_name IN VARCHAR2.. including objects and collections.pkg PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein health$.

showcol. cv cv_type. val VARCHAR2(32767). ± Here is a simple utility the displays the values of any date. '1 = 1'). END LOOP. LOOP Familiar cursor FETCH cv INTO val. variable syntax! EXIT WHEN cv%NOTFOUND. ndsutil. whr IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) IS TYPE cv_type IS REF CURSOR.sp END. col IN VARCHAR2. number or string column in any table.Multiple Row Queries and NDS  Oracle extends the cursor variable feature of Oracle7 to support multi-row dynamic queries.page 87 .PUT_LINE (val). CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE showcol ( tab IN VARCHAR2. BEGIN OPEN cv FOR 'SELECT ' || col || ' FROM ' || tab || ' WHERE ' || NVL (whr. DBMS_OUTPUT. CLOSE cv.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

) through the USING clause. The USING clause for a query can only have IN bind arguments. You cannot pass the NULL literal directly in the USING clause. Instead. ± If dynamic PL/SQL. column names. provide a value for each distinct placeholder (by name). str2list. then you provide a value for each placeholder (by position). ± If dynamic SQL. pass a variable with a NULL value.page 88 . etc.Some Fine Print for NDS  You cannot pass schema elements (table names. You can have duplicate placeholders (for bind arguments).pkg    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

You should only use DBMS_SQL when you cannot use NDS. the only way to perform dynamic SQL was with the DBMS_SQL package.page 89 . DBMS_SQL is a very large and complex package. The overhead for using DBMS_SQL has decreased significantly in Oracle8 and again in Oracle8i. in particular method 4. with many rules to follow and lots of code to write.Dynamic SQL using DBMS_SQL  Prior to Oracle8i. Supports all four methods of dynamic SQL.     1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Learning Through Examples  DDL ± Create an index from within PL/SQL  DML ± Update rows in a table  DML with binding ± Update rows using bind variables  Queries ± Method 3 and a dynamic WHERE clause  PL/SQL Version of "SELECT *" ± Example of Method 4  PL/SQL ± Create a generic calculation program 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 90 .

col_in IN VARCHAR2) IS cur INTEGER := DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL. ± Parse and execute that DDL statement. tab_in IN VARCHAR2.page 91 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . DDL_statement VARCHAR2(200) := 'CREATE INDEX ' || index_in || ' ON ' || tab_in || ' ( ' || col_in || ')'.CLOSE_CURSOR (cur).  creind.DDL with Dynamic SQL PROCEDURE create_index (index_in IN VARCHAR2.NATIVE). fdbk INTEGER. DDL_statement. ± Construct the DDL statement as a string. END. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . which will be used to execute the DDL statement.sp Creates an index on any column(s) in any table in your schema. fdbk := DBMS_SQL.EXECUTE (cur).PARSE (cur.OPEN_CURSOR. ± Open a cursor.

'UPDATE emp SET ' || col_in || ' = ' || val_in || ' WHERE ename LIKE UPPER (''' || ename_in || ''')'. val_in IN NUMBER) IS cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL.CLOSE_CURSOR (cur).EXECUTE (cur).PUT_LINE ('Rows updated: ' || TO_CHAR (fdbk)). fdbk PLS_INTEGER. DBMS_OUTPUT. DBMS_SQL. ename_in IN emp. updnval1. fdbk := DBMS_SQL.ename%TYPE.Updates with Dynamic SQL  Update numeric column for specified employees.NATIVE). DBMS_SQL. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.OPEN_CURSOR. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE updnumval ( col_in IN VARCHAR2.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END.PARSE (cur.page 92 .

CLOSE_CURSOR (cur). DBMS_SQL.OPEN_CURSOR. DBMS_SQL.page 93 .Updates with Bind Variables  Update salaries for date range using binding. end_in).PARSE (cur.BIND_VARIABLE (cur.sp updnval3. end_in IN DATE. updnval2. DBMS_OUTPUT.NATIVE). BEGIN DBMS_SQL.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . fdbk PLS_INTEGER. 'UPDATE emp SET ' || col_in || ' = ' || val_in || ' WHERE hiredate BETWEEN :lodate AND :hidate'. DBMS_SQL. start_in). 'hidate'.PUT_LINE ('Rows updated: ' || TO_CHAR (fdbk)). CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE updnumval ( col_in IN VARCHAR2. 'lodate'. start_in IN DATE. fdbk := DBMS_SQL.EXECUTE (cur).BIND_VARIABLE (cur. END. DBMS_SQL. val_in IN NUMBER) IS cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL.

page 94 .Processing Flow for a Dynamic Query Allocate cursor memory (OPEN_CURSOR) Fill cursor with data (EXECUTE) Make sure SELECT is well formed (PARSE) Fill buffer with data (FETCH_ROWS) (EXECUTE_AND_FETCH) Bind any variables (BIND_VARIABLE) (BIND_ARRAY) Retrieve the data (COLUMN_VALUE) Give cursor structure (DEFINE_COLUMN) (DEFINE_ARRAY) Release cursor memory (CLOSE_CURSOR) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

ename FROM emp ' || ' WHERE ' || NVL (where_in. 2.PUT_LINE (TO_CHAR (rec.page 95 .COLUMN_VALUE (cur. END LOOP..Queries with Dynamic SQL  Show employees using a dynamic WHERE clause.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. 1).ename). DBMS_SQL.tst PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .empno) || '=' || rec. fdbk INTEGER. LOOP EXIT WHEN DBMS_SQL. 'SELECT empno. END.sp showemp2. 2. DBMS_SQL.COLUMN_VALUE (cur. rec. DBMS_SQL.. '1=1'). 'a'. 60).DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL.EXECUTE (cur).empno). DBMS_SQL.NATIVE). rec. fdbk := DBMS_SQL. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE showemps (where_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) IS cur INTEGER := DBMS_SQL. 1.OPEN_CURSOR. DBMS_OUTPUT.sp showemps. DBMS_SQL. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein showemps. 1.FETCH_ROWS (cur) = 0.CLOSE_CURSOR (cur).ename). rec emp%ROWTYPE.PARSE (cur.

page 96 Very simplified pseudo-code intab. nth_col. ± The resulting code is much more complicated. FOR each-column-in-table LOOP DBMS_SQL. END LOOP.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . DBMS_SQL. BEGIN FOR each-column-in-table LOOP add-column-to-select-list. FOR each-column-in-table LOOP DBMS_SQL. datatype). val). DBMS_SQL. END LOOP.Dynamic SELECT * FROM Any Table  Method 4 example: the number of columns queried changes with each table.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. END LOOP. LOOP fetch-a-row. nth_col. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END LOOP. END.COLUMN_VALUE (cur. select_string.NATIVE).PARSE (cur.

numrows := DBMS_SQL. exact_match IN BOOLEAN DEFAULT FALSE) RETURN INTEGER. TRUE). ± Even if the exception is raised.EXECUTE_AND_FETCH (cur. which returns a single row. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Very similar to the implicit SELECT cursor in native PL/SQL. raises NO_DATA_FOUND or raises the TOO_MANY_ROWS exception. numrows := DBMS_SQL. then EXECUTE_AND_FETCH will raise the TOO_MANY_ROWS exception if more than one row is fetched by the SELECT.Using EXECUTE_AND_FETCH FUNCTION execute_and_fetch (cursor_in IN INTEGER. the first row will still be fetched and available.EXECUTE_AND_FETCH (cur).  Makes it easy to execute and fetch a single row from a query.page 97 . ± If exact_match is TRUE.

arg6_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL.page 98 .sf dyncalc.Dynamic Formula Execution  Suppose I am building a user interface that allows a user to select a formula for execution. NULL. arg4_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. arg8_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. ± Using static PL/SQL. NULL. NULL. I would have to modify my screen every time a new formula was added. arg10_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL dyncalc. ± With DBMS_SQL. 0. FUNCTION dyncalc ( oper_in IN VARCHAR2. NULL. a single function will do the trick. NULL. and enter the arguments.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . arg2_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. nargs_in IN INTEGER := arg1_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg3_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg5_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg7_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg9_in IN VARCHAR2 := ) RETURN VARCHAR2.

BIND_VARIABLE (cur.sql dynplsql. DBMS_SQL. END. µsalout¶.BIND_VARIABLE (cur. Possibilities inherent in dynamic PL/SQL are mind-boggling! dynplsql. END. my_salary).sp dynplsql. DBMS_SQL.EXECUTE (cur). µdeptin¶. fdbk := DBMS_SQL. µsalout¶.  Use BIND_VARIABLE to bind any placeholders in the string -. Use VARIABLE_VALUE to extract a value from any variable you have bound.tst    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 99 . You must have a BEGIN-END around the code. my_salary).More on Dynamic PL/SQL BEGIN cur := open_and_parse ('BEGIN get_max_sal (:deptin. :salout). v_deptin). DBMS_SQL.VARIABLE_VALUE (cur.').even OUT arguments which are not being bound to any values.

OPEN_CURSOR. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 'val'. 'a'.BIND_VARIABLE (v_cur.dbmaxvc2.page 100  dynvar.PARSE (v_cur. END. fdbk := DBMS_SQL. but you can accomplish much of the same thing with dynamic PL/SQL execution. DBMS_SQL.CLOSE_CURSOR (v_cur). 2000). RETURN retval.EXECUTE (v_cur).'. DBMS_SQL. PL/SQL does not support indirect referencing. 'val'. 'BEGIN :val := ' || nm || '.NATIVE). retval). retval PLV. DBMS_SQL. fdbk PLS_INTEGER. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. END.Indirect Referencing with Dyn PL/SQL  Oracle Forms offers support for indirect referencing with the NAME_IN and COPY built-ins. Here is an example of a "PL/SQL NAME_IN": FUNCTION valbyname (nm IN VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2 IS v_cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL.VARIABLE_VALUE (v_cur.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . DBMS_SQL.pkg dynvar.

 IS_OPEN ± Is the cursor already open?  LAST_ERROR_POSITION ± Returns relative column position in cursor of text causing error condition. ± Call these immediately after your usage to make sure they refer to your cursor.DBMS_SQL Status Built-ins  The package offers a set of modules to return information about the lastoperated cursor in your session.  LAST_ROW_ID ± Returns the ROWID of last row processed. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  LAST_SQL_FUNCTION_CODE ± Returns SQL function code of cursor.  LAST_ROW_COUNT ± Returns the cumulative count of rows fetched from the cursor.page 101 .

Then you retrieve the column using the special COLUMN_VALUE_LONG variant. you define the column as a LONG.Working with LONG Values  DBMS_SQL provides special procedures so that you can extract values from a LONG column in a table.pkg dumplong.page 102 .COLUMN_VALUE_LONG   First.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Transfer the LONG contents into an index-by table so that you can transfer a value of more than 32K bytes into your PL/SQL program.DEFINE_COLUMN_LONG ± DBMS_SQL. dumplong. ± DBMS_SQL.

page 103 .New DBMS_SQL Features PL/SQL8 Extensions to DBMS_SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

deletes and fetches.New Features in DBMS_SQL  The functionality of DBMS_SQL has been extended in Oracle8 in several ways: ± Parse very long SQL strings ± Describe cursor columns ± Use "array processing" to perform bulk updates. inserts.page 104 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Support for RETURNING clause to avoid unnecessary queries.

DESCRIBE_COLUMNS. ± The record TYPE is also defined in DBMS_SQL. desc_t OUT DBMS_SQL.DESCRIBE_COLUMNS (c IN INTEGER. it was not possible to determine the datatypes of the columns defined in a cursor.DESC_TAB).  Returns all of the column information in an index table of records.  Before PL/SQL8.Describing Cursor Columns PROCEDURE DBMS_SQL.page 105 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Now you can call the DBMS_SQL. col_cnt OUT INTEGER.

NATIVE). DBMS_SQL.PARSE (cur. DBMS_SQL. cols).DESC_TAB.PUT_LINE (cols(colind). desccols. ncols LOOP DBMS_OUTPUT. ncols PLS_INTEGER. END. ncols.pkg desccols.. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE show_columns IS cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL. END LOOP. FOR colind IN 1 . 'SELECT hiredate.CLOSE_CURSOR (cur). empno FROM emp'.col_name).sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . DBMS_SQL.DESCRIBE_COLUMNS (cur. cols DBMS_SQL.page 106 .Basic Steps to Describe Columns  The following script shows the individual steps you will need to perform in order to use this feature.tst showcols. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.OPEN_CURSOR.

where N is the number of rows in the table. It really isn't "array processing".e. DBMS_SQL then repeats your action for every row in the table.page 107 .    This technique still. i. index tables.. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ."Array Processing" in DBMS_SQL  PL/SQL8 now allows you to specify the use of "arrays". can offer a significant performance boost over Oracle7 dynamic SQL. ± In actuality. DBMS_SQL is executing the specified SQL statement N times. however. inserts. you specify an index table. deletes and fetches. when you perform updates. Instead of providing a scalar value for an operation.

column names. ± With NDS.  Encapsulate statements to improve error handling. ± Encapsulate DBMS_SQL. etc.sql openprse. ± But remember: you cannot pass schema elements (table names.pkg whichsch.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Increased chance of reusing parsed SQL.) through the USING clause. ± Otherwise that SQL will be executed under the authority of the owner of the code. though you could write variations for those as well. concatenate) whenever possible. effdsql.page 108 .  Use the Oracle8i invoker rights model whenever you want to share your dynamic SQL programs among multiple schemas.PARSE so that you include the trace in that program. only possible for statements that do not need USING and INTO clauses.Recommendations for Dynamic SQL  Bind (vs. not the invoker of the code. and easier code to write.

page 109 . ± If.. of course. Both implementations will still come in handy. but DBMS_SQL is hard to use.NDS or DBMS_SQL: Which is Best?  Dynamic SQL and PL/SQL is very useful. you have upgraded to Oracle8i!  Major Advantages of NDS: ± Ease of use ± Performance ± Works with all SQL datatypes (including userdefined object and collection types) ± Fetch into records  When You'd Use DBMS_SQL: ± ± ± ± ± ± ± Method 4 Dynamic SQL DESCRIBE columns of cursor SQL statements larger than 32K RETURNING into an array Reuse of parsed SQL statements Bulk dynamic SQL Available from client-side PL/SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..

page 110 . persistent messaging subsytem of Oracle 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . asynchronous.Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Oracle Advanced Queuing  The high performance.

Distribution Center Coffee Beans Producer Shipping Service Retailer Consumer 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 111 .Who Needs Messaging? Everyone!  In the distributed world of the Internet. consistent manner. systems are now heavily reliant on the ability of components to communicate with each other in a dependable.

page 112 .Applications Relying on Messaging     Stock trading system Airline reservation system Auction portals Any e-commerce application 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

message propagation. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . AQ now offers a publish/subscribe style of messaging between applications.Key Features of Oracle AQ  Leverage full power of SQL ± Messages are stored in database tables  Database high availability.page 113 . scalability and reliability all carry over to queues ± Strong history and retention ± Backup and recovery ± Comprehensive journaliing  Rich message content increases usefulness of queueing ± Use object types to define highly structured payloads  New to Oracle8i. ± Rule-based subscribers. the listen feature and notification capabilities.

page 114 .AQ architectural overview Queue Monitor process Queue table Queue ³Producers´ Enqueued messages Message 4 Message 3 Message 2 Message1 ³Consumers´ Dequeued messages Messages include both control information and ³payload´ (content) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

AQ supports: ± ± ± ± ± Multiple queues Resetting order and priority of queued items Queue management using only SQL & PL/SQL Multiple message recipients Propagation of queue to remote servers  Oracle8i adds: ± ± ± ± Rules-based publish & subscribe Listening on multiple queues Easier monitoring Native Java interface PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Oracle AQ Highlights  In 8.0.page 115 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .

AQ Components  The DBMS_AQ package offers enqueue and dequeue capabilities The DBMS_AQADM package provides administrative functionality to manage queues and queue tables.    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 116 . Underlying database tables and views The queue monitor (background process) ± Set # of processes with the AQ_TM_PROCESSES initialization parameter.

DBMS_AQADM Highlights CREATE_QUEUE_TABLE DROP_QUEUE_TABLE CREATE_QUEUE DROP_QUEUE START_QUEUE STOP_QUEUE ADD_SUBSCRIBER Assigns name. sort column. payload type. whether multiple consumers Drops table if all queues in the table have been stopped Associates queue table with queue. assigns retry and retention properties to queue Drops a stopped queue Can also turn on/off enqueue and dequeue operations Stops queue. storage clause. optionally waiting for outstanding transactions Adds an ³agent´ as a subscriber 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 117 .

END. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein aq. queue_table => 'msg'). Define the "payload" Create the queue table DBMS_AQADM.START_QUEUE (queue_name => 'msgqueue').CREATE_QUEUE (queue_name => 'msgqueue'.Creating Queue Tables and Queues CREATE TYPE message_type AS OBJECT (title VARCHAR2(30).pkg Start the queue PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . / BEGIN DBMS_AQADM. Define a queue in the queue table DBMS_AQADM. queue_payload_type => 'message_type').CREATE_QUEUE_TABLE (queue_table => 'msg'.page 118 . text VARCHAR2(2000)).

The "operational package": DBMS_AQ  DBMS_AQ is deceptively simple.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .  ENQUEUE puts a message into a specified queue. and returns a RAW message handle DEQUEUE extracts a message from a specified queue Parameters control message properties such as: ± Visibility (ON_COMMIT or IMMEDIATE) ± ± ± ± Priority Delay Expiration Locking behavior PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . but lots of complexity buried inside the parameters of these procedures. ± Only two procedures.page 119   aq.

my_msg. msgprops DBMS_AQ. msgprops.ENQUEUE_OPTIONS_T.msgid_type. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..ENQUEUE ( 'msgqueue'. queueopts.Simple Enqueue Example DECLARE queueopts DBMS_AQ. aqenq*. DBMS_AQ.').* Place the message on the specified queue and get a msg ID in return. 'May there be many more.page 120 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . msgid). END. Declare records to hold various enqueue and msg properties. my_msg message_type..MESSAGE_PROPERTIES_T. BEGIN my_msg := message_type ( 'First Enqueue'. Set up the payload with an object constructor. msgid aq.

page 121 . BEGIN my_msg := message_type ( 'First Enqueue'. queueopts. DBMS_AQ. Modify the dequeue sequence by changing the deviation field and relative msg ID.'). my_msg := message_type ( 'Second Enqueue'. END. queueopts.More Interesting Enqueue Example DECLARE .. msgprops. my_msg. msgprops. queueopts.ENQUEUE ( 'msgqueue'.. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 'And this one goes first...sequence_deviation := DBMS_AQ.. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Specify a delay before the payload is available. msgid1).'). queueopts.delay := 3 * 60 * 60 * 24.BEFORE. my_msg.relative_msgid := msgid1. 'May there be many more. msgid2).. msgprops. Same setup as previous page . DBMS_AQ...ENQUEUE ('msgqueue'.

* Declare records to hold various dequeue and msg properties.REMOVE). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . getmsg (DBMS_AQ.pkg */ my_msg message_type. queueopts. aqdeq*. /* defined in aq. END. BEGIN getmsg (DBMS_AQ.Dequeue Example DECLARE queueopts DBMS_AQ.page 122 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . Dequeue operation isolated in local module.DEQUEUE ( 'msgqueue'.msgid_type. msgprops. my_msg. END. Demonstrates destructive and non-destructive dequeuing.BROWSE). getmsg (DBMS_AQ.REMOVE). msgprops DBMS_AQ. msgid). PROCEDURE getmsg (mode_in IN INTEGER) IS BEGIN queueopts. DBMS_AQ.dequeue_mode := mode_in.MESSAGE_PROPERTIES_T.DEQUEUE_OPTIONS_T. msgid aq.

item_obj.pkg aqstk2. PROCEDURE push (item IN VARCHAR2) IS queueopts DBMS_AQ.1. msgprops.ENQUEUE_OPTIONS_T. item_obj aqstk_objtype. msgprops.priority := g_priority.page 123 . the higher the priority. BEGIN item_obj := aqstk_objtype (item).MESSAGE_PROPERTIES_T. msgid aq. DBMS_AQ.pkg priority. queueopts.IMMEDIATE. msgid). g_priority := g_priority .* 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  A stack implementation using AQ demonstrates this well. queueopts. msgprops DBMS_AQ.msgid_type.Prioritized Payloads  You can assign priorities to individual payloads and then dequeue according to those priorities.ENQUEUE ( c_queue. ± The lower the numeric priority value.visibility := DBMS_AQ. aqstk. END.

± 2. queue_payload_type => 'student_major_t'. DBMS_AQADM. SYS.CREATE_QUEUE_TABLE ( queue_table => 'major_qtable'.ADD_SUBSCRIBER ( c_queue. NULL.* PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 124 .  Steps to working with a subscriber list: ± 1. Add subscribers for the queue. BEGIN DBMS_AQADM.Defining Message Subscribers  You can specify that a message is to be enqueued for a list of subscribers. NULL)). ± The message is then not removed from the queue until all subscribers have dequeued the message. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein aqmult*. multiple_consumers => TRUE).AQ$_AGENT (name_in. The queue table must be defined to support multiple subscribers or consumers.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Crucial for Oracle to have a message-oriented middleware in order to offer an all-Oracle solution.  Considered by Oracle to be a core component of its overall solution.page 125 . supporting a publish-subscribe model. ± Should be strongly supported "down the road". ± Much more robust that DBMS_PIPE.Summary  Very powerful and flexible architecture. improved security.Oracle AQ . LISTEN capability. ± Significant enhancements in Oracle8i.

Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Managing Large Objects with DBMS_LOB 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 126 .

page 127 . though they will probably not be actually desupported. LOB datatypes are the successor to LONGs. they should no longer be used. etc. sounds.LOB Terms  LOB = Large OBject: a category of datatype allowing storage of ³unstructured´ data up to 4 gigabytes LOB datatype can be: ± Column in table ± Attribute in object type ± Element in nested table   Possible applications include office documents. video. ± Oracle has announced deprecation of LONGs. Images.  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

external do not ± External LOBs are read-only from within Oracle 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . improving performance.  Key programming differences: ± Internal LOBs participate in transactions.page 128 .Types of Large Objects  ³Internal´ LOBs ± BLOB: unstructured binary data ± CLOB: single-byte fixedwidth character data ± NCLOB: multi-byte fixedwidth character data (or varying width in )  ³External´ LOBs ± BFILE: pointer to an operating system file  Temporary LOBs ± Internal LOBs that do not participate in transactions.

trim ± For external LOBs: File existence test. copy.page 129 . open.PL/SQL built-ins for LOBs  Package DBMS_LOB ± Supports for all LOBs: Reading. append. close  Other built-in functions ± LOADFROMFILE (load an external BFILE into a BLOB) ± EMPTY_LOB(). EMPTY_CLOB() ± BFILENAME 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . substring and instring searches. erase. comparison and length checking ± For internal LOBs: Write.

received DATE.Deceptively simple example  BLOB-typed column in a table CREATE TABLE incoming_faxes (fax_id INTEGER. Question: What¶s in the_fax? 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . the_fax BLOB. END. fax BLOB). CLOSE fax_cur.  Retrieve record with BLOB into PL/SQL variable DECLARE CURSOR fax_cur IS SELECT fax FROM incoming_faxes.page 130 . FETCH fax_cur INTO the_fax. BEGIN OPEN fax_cur.

The ³LOB locator´ LOB t l sel es [ ll ] t i i t r .page 131 . tt LOBs <lob segment> fax_id 281937 received 12-JAN-98 fax <lob locator> Updati  t e LOB anges t e pointer is ompli ates se of LOBs ± LOB locators cannot span transactions ± Programs must lock records containing LOBs efore updating ± Programs performing L must accommodate dynamic LOB locator alues 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

htmlloc CLOB).oodb.Example: Piecewise CLOB programmatic insert  Create a table CREATE TABLE web_pages ( url VARCHAR2(512) PRIMARY KEY.. .url%TYPE := 'http://www. EMPTY_CLOB()) RETURNING htmlloc INTO the_loc. 1 of 2  Must get a new LOB locator before writing into the LOB: DECLARE the_url web_pages.page 132 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . BEGIN INSERT INTO web_pages VALUES (the_url.. the_loc CLOB.com'.

html_tab UTL_HTTP.com'. This block retrieves INSERT INTO web_pages VALUES (the_url.Example: Piecewise CLOB programmatic insert DECLARE the_url web_pages. END LOOP.REQUEST_PIECES(url => the_url).COUNT LOOP piece_length := LENGTH(html_tab(the_piece_no)). END.oodb. running_total PLS_INTEGER := 1. the_loc CLOB. piece_length PLS_INTEGER.url%TYPE := 'http://www. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .. DBMS_LOB. EMPTY_CLOB()) and loads a web page RETURNING htmlloc INTO the_loc. running_total := running_total + piece_length. several likely exceptions offset => running_total.page 133 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein BEGIN . buffer => html_tab(the_piece_no)).html_tab. into a CLOB column html_tab := UTL_HTTP. FOR the_piece_no IN 1. Note: We are ignoring amount => piece_length.WRITE(lob_loc => the_loc.HTML_PIECES.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . amount => 4. the_loc CLOB. str_offset := DBMS_LOB.oodb.INSTR(lob_loc => the_loc. CLOSE hcur. pattern => 'oodb'). buffer => 'cool').com' FOR UPDATE. END. offset => str_offset. str_offset INTEGER.WRITE(lob_loc => the_loc.page 134 .Example: Piecewise CLOB programmatic update DECLARE Program must lock the record explicitly CURSOR hcur IS SELECT htmlloc FROM web_pages WHERE url = 'http://www. FETCH hcur INTO the_loc. IF str_offset != 0 THEN DBMS_LOB. END IF. BEGIN OPEN hcur.

Preparing to use BFILEs  You must first create an Oracle I ORY´ ± Creates logical alias for full directory pat ± imilar to LIBRARY (used for C "external procedures").  Example: CREATE DIRECTORY web_pix AS 'D:\bill\training\pix'.page 135 . ut IRECTORY namespace is global  Syntax: CREATE OR REPLACE DIRECTORY <directory name> AS '<full path to directory>'. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

.Using BFILE datatype in DDL  In a table. image BFILE).. CREATE TYPE Business_card_t AS OBJECT ( name Name_t. scanned_card_image BFILE ).page 136 .  In an object type. CREATE TABLE web_graphics ( image_id INTEGER.. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . phones Phone_tab_t.. addresses Address_tab_t.

END. file_exprn) RETURN BFILE. BEGIN INSERT INTO web_graphics VALUES (100015.gif').  Example: DECLARE picture BFILE := BFILENAME('WEB_PIX'.page 137 . 'prodicon. picture). /  Notes: ± No automatic file checking or synchronization ± No participation in transactions 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Spec: FUNCTION BFILENAME(directory_exprn.The built-in BFILENAME function  Returns value of datatype BFILE.

page 138 .FILECLOSE(pic_file). image BLOB). amount => DBMS_LOB. DECLARE pic_file BFILE := BFILENAME('WEB_PIX'.FILE_READONLY). DBMS_LOB. BEGIN INSERT INTO web_graphic_blobs VALUES (1. pic_blob_loc BLOB := EMPTY_BLOB().FILEOPEN(pic_file.gif'). 'prodicon. DBMS_LOB. END. pic_blob_loc) RETURNING image INTO pic_blob_loc.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . DBMS_LOB.GETLENGTH(pic_file)). src_lob => pic_file.Loading File into Database BLOB CREATE TABLE web_graphic_blobs ( image_id INTEGER.LOADFROMFILE(dest_lob => pic_blob_loc. / loadblob. DBMS_LOB.

that can mean less I/O » Trigger will not fire until CLOSE » Indexes will not update until CLOSE ± ISOPEN 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . or transaction  Ability to retrieve LOB ³chunk size´ ± Allows programmer to tune READs and WRITEs  For all internal LOBs ± OPEN & CLOSE allow control over timing. call.New DBMS_LOB APIs in 8i  Support for temporary LOBs ± No logging or rollback faster! ± Lifespan: session.page 139 .

. ± LOB locator behavior slightly abstruse ± Inability to modify BFILEs directly from within PL/SQL.page 140 . COLD 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Summary  LOB support in Oracle is now significantly improved. ± Complete support in PL/SQL (and other APIs) ± Much better performance and control than with LONGs ± Usable in object types HOT  Some weaknesses.Large Object ..

Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Leveraging Java Inside PL/SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 141 .

functions.. or server Not covered in this seminar  PL/SQL can call Java inside 8i server ± ± ± ± Command-line tools load Java classes DDL extensions publish Java classes Writing stored procedures. triggers in Java Distinct Java & PL/SQL namespaces  But first.Overview of Java interoperability  Java inside or outside 8i server can call PL/SQL ± Standard JDBC and SQLJ calls with Oracle extensions ± Same Java on client.. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . mid-tier.page 142 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein ..a BRIEF introduction to Java..

. fastest.. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± The end of programming history as we know it? ± The easiest.Question 1: What is Java?  Could it be. ± We just need to keep a firm grip on common sense and stay focused on delivering solutions.page 143 . slickest piece of software ever designed by human beings? ± Just the latest in a series of "silver bullets" promoted by software vendors in order to prop up quarterly sales? ± The first and only successful O-O language? ± None of the above?  We don't really need to take a vote.

 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . it is very unlikely and totally unthinkable for years to come. ± Supported and improved by Oracle -. to boot.and very aggressively.page 144 . ± A language in which hundreds of thousands of developers are trained.Question 2: Will Java Replace PL/SQL?  While that scenario is certainly possible. PL/SQL will still be: ± Faster and more productive than Java for database operations. ± Ubiquitous in thousands of production applications and millions of lines of code.

 Everything is a class (or an object instantiated from a class).. ± string is definitely not the same as String.  You don't have to know how to do everything with Java to get lots of value out of it... ± Before you can call a (non-static) class method.. ± Well... you have to instantiate an object from that class.page 145 . everything exception the primitive datatypes. ± Don't get overwhelmed by all the classes and all the strange quirks.Some Important Things to Remember  Java is a case sensitive language. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

no methods.out. Oh. END. except the "special" main method..println ("Hello world!"). by the way: the PL/SQL version 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . } }  No members. ± Used to test or run stand-alone a class.PUT_LINE ('Hello world!'). public class Hello { public static void main (String[] args) { System.. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE hello IS BEGIN DBMS_OUTPUT.Building a Java Class  Let's start from the very beginning.page 146 .

e:\jdk1.7b\lib\classes.class file. ± This will convert the .zip.java -classpath d:\java 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . you must compile it with the javac command.zip.Compiling Classes  Before you can use a class. ± It will also automatically recompile any classes used by your class that has not been compiled since last change.page 147 . ± You must also either have set the CLASSPATH or include it in your javac call.d:\java D:> javac Hello. SET CLASSPATH = d:\Oracle\Ora81\jdbc\lib\classes111.1.java file to a .

Running a Class  Run a class? What does that mean? It means that if your class contains a method with this header: public static void main (String[] args)  then you can "run" the main method with the java command: d:\java> java Hello  You can also pass one or more arguments on the command line: d:\java> java Hello mom Hello2.page 148 .java 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

you will use a class by instantiating objects from the class and then invoking class methods on the object.page 149 . Let's build a performance analyzer class to explore these ideas. however.Using a Class  The main method is handy for providing a built-in test mechanism of your class. Usually.   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

l ("Elapsed time ".page 150 .currentTimeMillis() .Gstart).currentTimeMillis().java InFile. } public void showElapsed (String context) { p.Compare Performance of Methods  Use System.l ("Elapsed time for " + context. elapsed()).java 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . System.currentTimeMillis to calculate elapsed time to nearest thousandth of a second. } } p. class Tmr { private long Gstart = 0.currentTimeMillis() . public void capture () { Gstart = System. } public void showElapsed () { p.Gstart).java Tmr. } public long elapsed () { return (System.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..  Abstract class ± The class can contain members and methods.  Inner class ± Classes that are defined inside other classes. besides the "regular" kind we just saw.  Interface class ± The class only contains unimplemented methods. but at least one method remains unimplemented.page 151 .Types of Classes  There are several different kinds of classes in Java..

page 152 . ± Dynamic polymorphism: form is determined at run-time.java A Class Hierarchy Management NonManagement Corporation 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .And Now for Some Scary Buzzwords!  Inheritance ± Subclasses inherit methods and variables from extended superclasses. supertype/"wider" Citizen Person Employee Hourly Worker Salaried Worker subtype/"narrower" War Criminal Person.  Polymorphism ± An object of a class can have "multiple" forms. either as its own class or as any superclass. ± Static polymorphism: form is chosen at compile-time (PL/SQL overloading).

Language Basics  Comments // Single line comment /* Block comment */ /** Documentation comment */  Primitive datatypes ± So I lied. myName = "Feuerstein". String myName. you are actually allocating a new object. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 153 . these are not objects instantiated from classes.equals(YourName)) foundFamily(). boolean char byte short int long float double  Strings ± A String object is a read-only. myName = "Steven". if you assign a new value to it. ± Can't do a direct == comparison. if (myName.

for (initialize.page 154 .nextElement()) } } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .out.println ( (String)enum. indx++) System.out. expression. System. step) { lotsaStuff } while (expression) { lostsaStuff } do { lostsaStuff } while (expression). static void processAll (Enumeration enum) { while (enum.Writing Loops in Java  Three kinds of loops: while.println (args[indx]). indx < args. do-while and for ± Note: you need squiggly brackets only if there is more than one statement in the loop body.length.hasMoreElements ()) { processIt (enum.NextElement()). Examples: for (indx indx=0.

public PuterLingo (String name) { mname = name. ± Only positional notation is supported. } } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± No default values for arguments.Passing Parameters  Some important differences from PL/SQL. you still include the open and close parentheses. ± If a method has no arguments.page 155 . } public String name () { return mname.println (Java.. System. class PuterLingo { private String mname..name()). you must supply a value for each parameter. } } class LotsALingos { public static void main (String args[]) { PuterLingo Java = new PuterLingo("Java").out.

Throwing my own public static int numBytes (String filename) { exception try { if (filename.Exception Handling in Java  Very similar to PL/SQL.out.length(). return myFile. Put inside try clause File myFile = new File (filename). "WHEN OTHERS" } in Java } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .println (e.equals("")) throw new Exception ("Filename is NULL"). } catch (Exception e) { System. } File-related catch (SecurityException e) { exceptions return -1. you "throw" and "catch" exceptions.page 156 .toString()). rather than raise and handle.

± Use the throws clause in your specification.page 157 .. } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Differences Between Java & PL/SQL  Exceptions are objects derived directly or indirectly from the Exception class. as in: public static int numBytes (String filename) throws SecurityException. ± So you can pass them as arguments and do anything and everything else you can do with objects. NoSuchFile { ..  You must inform users of your method of which exceptions may be thrown.

 Now let's explore how you can put Java to work for you inside PL/SQL programs. ± Object oriented development (Java) is very different from procedural coding (PL/SQL). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 158 .Java's Not So Tough!  You can learn enough Java in less than a week to: ± Build simple classes ± Leverage Java inside PL/SQL  Moving to the next level of expertise will be more of a challenge.

page 159 . using JDBC or SQLJ Oracle 8i server PL/SQL cover for Java method Java virtual machine running Java method Oracle Developer client (PL/SQL) Net8 OCI or Pro*C client VB or C++ via OO4O or ODBC 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Java Stored Procedures (JSPs) Java applet or app.

JSPs: Some sample uses PL/SQL extender ± For example.page 160 . network communication in/out PL/SQL replacement ± More standard language ± Good performer for numeric processing tasks ± Beware database I/O & string manipulation performance Scaleable deployment of third party code ± Vertical application ± Web server ± XML parser/generator 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . better file I/O ± RMI callouts.

page 161 . rather than BEGIN. Publish PL/SQL cover using AS LANGUAGE JAVA. Grant privileges as desired 5.Creating JSP to call from PL/SQL   1. Load into server using ³loadjava´ command-line tool 3. Create Java classes in your favorite IDE 2..END 4.. Call from PL/SQL (or SQL) as if calling PL/SQL    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ...

} public String toString () { return name + " is a transnational entity with " + layoffs + " laid-off employees. layoffs = Playoffs. long Playoffs.page 162 PL/SQL . long CEOCompensation.Create Java class(es) class Corporation extends Person { long layoffs. } public static void main (String[] args) { // A very scary company Corporation TheGlobalMonster = new Corporation ( "Northrup-Ford-Mattel-Yahoo-ATT". CEOCompensation = PceoComp. public Corporation ( String Pname. long PceoComp) { name = Pname. 5000000.out. Entry points must be public static in most cases Classes may call other classes Avoid GUI calls     person.out. }} 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Notes on Java classes  toString method automatically used by System. 50000000).java Advanced Techniques . System.println (TheGlobalMonster).println main method is used to test the class. paying its" + " Chief Executive Officer " + CEOCompensation.

class file .class options (abbreviated) -oci8 -resolve loadjava will connect using OCI driver Resolves external class references at compile time -resolver (shown later) Search path like CLASSPATH 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Upload using ³loadjava´ utility .page 163 .jar file Oracle 8i server Java class Java source Java resource loadjava Example: loadjava loadjava -user scott/tiger -oci8 -resolve datacraft/bill/Hello.java file Java resource file .

Hello. .String'... /  Syntax (simplified) CREATE [ OR REPLACE PROCE URE FUNCTION <name> <sqlt pe> ] [ [ <ar s> ) ] [ AUTHID { DEFINER | CURRENT_USER } ] AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME '<met fullname> (<Ja a t pe fullname>.Emp(int) return java.Publish  Example (top-level call spec) CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION hello_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2 AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.lang. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .) [ return <Ja a t pe fullname> ]'.page 164 .bill.

for example.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Call the wrapped method  Method 1: Call as if PL/SQL module BEGIN DBMS_OUTPUT. END. from SQL*Plus: VARIABLE thename VARCHAR2(12) CALL hello_emp(7499) INTO :thename.  Method 2: Use 8i SQL CALL statement.page 165 . PRINT :thename ± CALL avoids overhead of SELECT fn FROM DUAL jsp.PUT_LINE(hello_emp(7499)).

page 166 .more concepts Shape mapping ± Java methods declared ³void´ become PL/SQL procedures ± Signature mismatches detected only at runtime Type mapping (typical) VARCHAR2 DATE NUMBER user-defined object type user-defined object type object REFerence user-defined collection type java.sql.sql.BigDecimal oracle.Publishing -.lang.REF oracle.math.STRUCT <named type> oracle.Timestamp java.sql.ARRAY 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .sql.String java.

.Hello. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE hello_pkg AS FUNCTION hi_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2 AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.Emp(int) return java.lang.String'.Publish in PL/SQL Package Spec  Designate Java module in PL/SQL package spec.page 167 ..util. / (No package body required in this case) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END.

END.. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Publish as module in package body  .String'.util. END.page 168 .Emp(int) return java.Hello. / CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY hello_pkg2 AS FUNCTION hi_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2 IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.lang..or in package body CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE hello_pkg2 AS FUNCTION hi_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2.

util.Hello.Emp(int) return java.lang.Hello. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END.util.String'. MEMBER FUNCTION hello_emp RETURN VARCHAR2).Publish as object type method  Either in spec: CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE foo_t AS OBJECT ( bar VARCHAR2(30). / CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE BODY foo_t AS MEMBER FUNCTION hello_emp RETURN VARCHAR2 IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft. / or in the body: CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE foo_t AS OBJECT ( bar VARCHAR2(30).page 169 . MEMBER FUNCTION hello_emp RETURN VARCHAR2 IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.String').Emp(int) return java.lang.

resolves Java class references. JAVADEBUGPRIV ± You can also grant specific privileges. JAVASYSPRIV (needed for file IO operations). class. JAVAIDPRIV. JAVA_ADMIN. DROP JAVA: drops a named Java library unit Several roles available for Java operations: ± JAVAUSERPRIV.New DDL Statements and Roles  CREATE JAVA ± Alternative to ³loadjava´ utility ± Creates or replaces an Oracle ³library unit´ from Java source.   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 170 . or resource ± Can read file designated with BFILE() function  ALTER JAVA: compiles Java source.

page 171 .sql.CustomDatum ± oracle.SQLData 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .STRUCT ± oracle.Passing Oracle8 objects Oracle8i server Object in O-R table Java application Java object   Harder than you¶d think Three different interfacing techniques ± oracle.sql.jdbc2.

page 172 .JPublisher utility Database server Definition of type or REF in data dictionary User-supplied JPublisher input file What does it do? ± Generates Java that encapsulates type and REF types of mapping supported for methods JPublisher ± ³Oracle mapping´ ± ³JDBC mapping´ ± ³Object JDBC mapping´ Three Generated Java file(s) for use in Java programs 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

bill. they become available to use in mapping Example of passing an Account_t object: CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE account_save (new_acct IN Account_t) IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.Account_t)'.Passing object using JPub-generated Java  After generating and uploading classes with JPub. /  jspobj.save (datacraft.bill.page 173 .sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .AccountRuntime.

Let's see how we can make that great Java stuff available from within PL/SQL.   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . but that package is very limited.Example: Improving File I/O  You can read/write files in PL/SQL with UTL_FILE. Java offers many file-related classes with much greater capabilities.page 174 .

 Let's start with something simple.page 175 . ± Instead build a static method that instantiates a Java object from the class and then invokes the relevant method against that object. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .. ± This is not available through UTL_FILE (though you can get it through DBMS_LOB).Encapsulate Java Classes  You won't generally access native Java methods in your PL/SQL wrapper. ± The File class offers a length method that returns the number of bytes in a file..

page 176 . ± Call the method of choice against that object and return the value. import java.java  Take each of these steps: ± Import the File class to resolve reference.My Own Java Class for File Manipulation  Accept the name of a file and return its length. } } JFile2. public class JFile2 { public static long length (String fileName) { File myFile = new File (fileName). return myFile.File. ± Instantiate a File object for the specified name. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .length().io.

END. we will certainly want to add more functionality over time.lang.page 177 . END. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE xfile IS FUNCTION length (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN NUMBER. / xfile2. / CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY xfile IS FUNCTION length (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN NUMBER AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'JFile.Build a Package over Java Method  Let's put it in a package.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .length (java. ± I translate the Java long to a PL/SQL NUMBER.String) return long'.

 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 178 . Write a "public" PL/SQL wrapper function to convert that number to a true PL/SQL Boolean. so you'd expect smooth sailing. you will need to take these steps: ± 1. Write a "hidden" PL/SQL wrapper function that returns the string or number. ± 3. Not so! To pass a Boolean back from Java to PL/SQL.Mapping the Boolean Datatype  Both Java and PL/SQL support a native Boolean datatype. Convert the Java boolean to a String or number and return that value. ± 2.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . import java.java  Translate TRUE to 1 and FALSE to 0. boolean retval = myFile. else return 0.Translate Boolean to Number  Accept the name of a file and return its length.canRead(). if (retval) return 1. public class JFile3 { public static int canRead (String fileName) { File myFile = new File (fileName).io. } } JFile3.File.page 179 . ± And don't forget: this is a boolean primitive. not a Boolean class.

.page 180 .String) return int'. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE xfile IS FUNCTION canRead (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN BOOLEAN.java END. FUNCTION canRead (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN BOOLEAN AS BEGIN xfile3.java / xfile. END. ± Avoid the hard-codings with named constants.pkg END. / CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY xfile IS FUNCTION IcanRead (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN NUMBER AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'JFile3.lang. JFile. xfile4. JFile4..pkg RETURN IcanRead (file) = 1.Wrapper for Pseudo-Boolean function  Simple translation back to PL/SQL Boolean.canRead (java.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

tst PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .sql.page 181 .println ( "Pay " + laborType + " $" + hourly_rate + " per hour"). } } Extract individual attribute values from the array.getAttributes().java passobj.SQLException { // Get the attributes of the labor_source object. // Access individual attributes by array index. // starting with 0 String laborType = (String)(attribs[0]).out. System. Object[] attribs = e. throws java. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein UnionBuster. public class UnionBuster { Obtain attributes of public static void wageStrategy (STRUCT e) the Oracle object.Passing Objects to Java with STRUCT  You can pass Oracle object information to Java without relying on JPub by using the STRUCT class. BigDecimal hourly_rate = (BigDecimal)(attribs[1]).

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Fully specify the STRUCT class in parameter list. END.page 182 . / BEGIN bust_em_with ( labor_source ('Workfare'. / CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE bust_em_with ( labor_source_in IN labor_source_t) AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'UnionBuster. bust_em_with ( labor_source ('Prisoners'. '5')).sql.Wrapping a STRUCT-based Method  You can pass Oracle object information to Java without relying on JPub by using the STRUCT class.wageStrategy (oracle.STRUCT)'. The Oracle object type definition CREATE TYPE labor_source_t AS OBJECT ( labor_type VARCHAR2(30). 0)). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . hourly_rate NUMBER).

± Here is a good nucleus for a login.println ( "Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello All!"). HelloAll.SET_OUTPUT (1000000). i < count.PUT_LINE: System.Viewing Output from Java Methods  Java provides a "print line" method similar to DBMS_OUTPUT. ± Call it within methods and output will display in your Java environment.page 183 . }}}  When called within a PL/SQL wrapper.out.out.println. i++) { System.java HelloAll. public class HelloAll { public static void lotsaText ( int count) { for (int i = 0.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .sql file: SET SERVEROUTPUT ON SIZE 1000000 CALL DBMS_JAVA. you can redirect the output to the DBMS_OUTPUT buffer.

page 184 . getErrorCode() and getMessage() to obtain information about the error thrown. but more robust error handling mechanism than PL/SQL.SQLException. ± Use two methods. such as java. ± Instead of raising and handling.Error Handling with Java-PL/SQL  Java offers a very similar. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .sql. ± Exceptions are objects instantiated from the Exception class or a subclass of it.1.  Any error not caught by the JVM (Java virtual machine) will be thrown back to the PL/SQL block or SQL statement. ± And also spew out the entire Java error stack! (at least through 8.5). you "throw" and "catch".

jdbc.KprbDBAccess.java) at oracle. END.doExecuteWithBatch(OracleStatement.jdbc.jdbc.page 185 .kprb.java) at oracle.OracleStatement.OracleStatement.sql.Trapping and Identifying Errors  Currently.tst ORA-29532: Java call terminated by uncaught Java exception: java.java) at oracle.check_error(KprbDBAccess.driver.OracleStatement.driver.java) at DropAny.jdbc.PUT_LINE (SQLCODE).sql.OracleStatement.java -29532 dropany.PUT_LINE (SQLERRM).parseExecuteFetch(KprbDBAccess. the entire Java stack is displayed on your screen.doExecuteWithTimeout(OracleStatement.jdbc.KprbDBAccess.java:14) DropAny.driver. / SQL> 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 java.driver. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN DBMS_OUTPUT. and you have to do some digging to extract the Oracle error information.java) at oracle.jdbc.SQLException: ORA-00942: table or view does not exist at oracle.OracleStatement.java) at oracle. 'blip').kprb.sp dropany2.doExecuteOther(OracleStatement.tst ORA-00942: table or view does not exist 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .jdbc. DBMS_OUTPUT.SQLException: getErrInfo.java) at oracle.executeUpdate(OracleStatement.doExecute(OracleStatement. BEGIN dropany ('TABLE'.object(DropAny.driver.

or method.Achieving PL/SQL Excellence External Procedures  An external procedure is a 3GL routine that can serve as the ³body´ of a PL/SQL function. ± Must be a shared object library on Unix or a dynamically linked library (DLL) on Windows.  An Oracle8 feature that allowed relatively "native" callouts to C from PL/SQL for the first time. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . procedure.page 186 .

DLL or .Process & data flow Application Makes request Net8 External Procedure Listener spawns External Shared Library Calls PL/SQL Runtime Engine PL/SQL body Client or server-side application returns results calls routine from Routine in .page 187 .so file extproc returns results returns results 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

sql diskspace.External procedures: Sample uses      Send email Invoke operating system command Invoke custom or legacy application Call C runtime library function Perform admin tasks email.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 188 .

this function returns: » » » » » sectors per cluster bytes per sector number of free clusters total number of clusters ³return code´ indicating success or failure  First.dll'.page 189 . / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Determine free disk space on NT (1/4)  Use pre-existing routine: ± GetDiskFreeSpaceA in kernel32. create an Oracle8 ³library´: CREATE OR REPLACE LIBRARY nt_kernel AS 'c:\winnt\system32\kernel32.dll ± For given drive letter.

number_of_free_clusters OUT PLS_INTEGER.page 190 . / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . total_number_of_clusters OUT PLS_INTEGER) RETURN PLS_INTEGER. END disk_util.Package spec (2/4)  Nothing unexpected here: CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE disk_util AS FUNCTION get_disk_free_space (root_path IN VARCHAR2. sectors_per_cluster OUT PLS_INTEGER. bytes_per_sector OUT PLS_INTEGER.

bytes_per_sector OUT PLS_INTEGER.page 191  All the magic is in the EXTERNAL section 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . number_of_free_clusters OUT pls_integer. RETURN LONG). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . sectors_per_cluster OUT PLS_INTEGER. END disk_util. bytes_per_sector BY REFERENCE LONG.Package body in Oracle 8. sectors_per_cluster BY REFERENCE LONG.0 (3/4) CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY disk_util AS FUNCTION get_disk_free_space (root_path IN VARCHAR2. number_of_free_clusters BY REFERENCE LONG. total_number_of_clusters BY REFERENCE LONG. total_number_of_clusters OUT PLS_INTEGER) RETURN PLS_INTEGER IS EXTERNAL LIBRARY nt_kernel NAME "GetDiskFreeSpaceA" LANGUAGE C CALLING STANDARD PASCAL PARAMETERS (root_path STRING.

Usage (4/4)
DECLARE lroot_path VARCHAR2(3) := 'C:\'; lsectors_per_cluster PLS_INTEGER; lbytes_per_sector PLS_INTEGER; lnumber_of_free_clusters PLS_INTEGER; ltotal_number_of_clusters PLS_INTEGER; return_code PLS_INTEGER; free_meg REAL; BEGIN return_code := disk_util.get_disk_free_space (lroot_path, lsectors_per_cluster, lbytes_per_sector, lnumber_of_free_clusters, ltotal_number_of_clusters); free_meg := lsectors_per_cluster * lbytes_per_sector * lnumber_of_free_clusters / 1024 / 1024; DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('free disk space, Mb = ' || free_meg); diskspace.sql END;
1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein
PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 192

Creating your own external procedure 

1. Identify or create shared library 2. Identify or CREATE LIBRARY within Oracle 3. Map the parameters using:
± EXTERNAL clause (Oracle8) or ± LANGUAGE clause (Oracle8i)  

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 193

1. Identify/create external routine 


Prerequisite: O/S must support shared libraries Some useful routines are pre-built in C runtime library
± On Unix: /lib/libc.so ± On NT: <systemroot>\system32\crtdll.dll 

Building a shared library of your own requires knowledge of:
± Appropriate language (typically C) ± Compiler & linker

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 194

2. Create the Oracle library 

Syntax:
CREATE OR REPLACE LIBRARY <library name> AS '<full path to file>'; 

Assigns a programmer-defined alias to a specific shared library file Notes
± Requires CREATE LIBRARY pri ilege ± Does not alidate directory ± Can¶t use symbolic link 

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 195

3. Map the parameters
This can get complicated, because«
± Must pass extra parameters to designate:
» NULL/NOT NULL state » String length » Maximum allocated length

± Six choices of parameter mode
» » » » » » IN RETURN IN BY REFERENCE RETURN BY REFERENCE OUT IN OUT

These details are better suited for close reading«
PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 196

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Oracle8i New Features Autonomous Transactions Invoker Rights Model Row Level Security 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 197 .

± And the learning curve to take advantage of these features is generally not too steep.page 198 .Oracle8i New Features  Oracle8i offers a number of PL/SQL-specific features that give you tremendous additional flexibility and capability.    Autonomous Transactions The Invoker Rights Model Row level security 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

a COMMIT or ROLLBACK in any program in your session committed or rolled back all changes in your session.  With Oracle8i. ± Any changes made within that block can be saved or reversed without affecting the outer or main transaction. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . msg IN VARCHAR2) AS PRAGMA AUTONOMOUS_TRANSACTION.page 199 . CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE loginfo ( code IN PLS_INTEGER. you can now define a PL/SQL block to execute as an "autonomous transaction".Autonomous Transactions  Prior to Oracle8i. ± There was only one transaction allowed per connection.

page 200 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .  Tracing Code Usage ± Build retry mechanisms. software usage meter. which can cause all sorts of complications: your log entry becomes a part of your transaction.  Call functions within SQL that change the database. something like a COMMIT) on other components. ± Now you can avoid the complexities (need for ROLLBACK TO savepoints and so on).When to Use Autonomous Transactions  Reusable Application Components ± ATs are more or less required in the new distributed application architecture of the Internet.  Logging Mechanism ± Commonly developers lot to database tables. ± One component should not have any impact (esp. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . etc.

page 201 . END.Logging with ATs  Don't forget that ROLLBACK in the exception section! CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY log IS PROCEDURE putline ( code_in IN INTEGER.machine. BEGIN INSERT INTO logtab VALUES (code_in. END.pkg log81*. While we're at it. COMMIT. rec.program ).tst PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . text_in. SYSDATE. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Avoid interdependencies with the main transaction.pkg retry.sp log81. USER. let's add some session information. text_in IN VARCHAR2 ) IS PRAGMA AUTONOMOUS_TRANSACTION. rec. logger. SYSDATE. USER.tst retry. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN ROLLBACK.

or an error is raised. autonserial. ± You cannot define an entire package as an AT.sql auton_in_sql.   The AT PRAGMA goes in the body of packages. ± You cannot tell by looking at the package spec if you are calling ATs or not -and this info is not available in the data dictionary. ± You cannot define a nested anonymous block to be an AT.Tips and Gotchas with ATs  An AT program must COMMIT or ROLLBACK before terminating.sql autontrigger*. ± You can use the SET TRANSACTION ISOLATION LEVEL SERIALIZABLE to indicate that you do not want the changes visible until the outer transaction commits.  Any changes committed in an AT are visible in the outer transaction.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . The AT PRAGMA can be used only with individual programs and toplevel anonymous blocks. ± Place the SET TRANSACTION statement in the outer transaction.page 202 .

you can now decide at compilation time whether your program or package will execute in the definer's schema (the default) or the schema of the invoker of the code. ± This is called the « Definer Rights Model  With Oracle8i. whenever you executed a stored program. it ran under the privileges of the account in which the program was defined.The Invoker Rights Model  Prior to Oracle8i.page 203 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . ± This is called the « Invoker Rights Model PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

About Definer Rights  Allows you to centralize access to and control of underlying data structures. Ignores roles and relies on directly-granted privileges. OE Code Order_Mgt Place Cancel Sam_Sales Close Old Orders  OE Data X  Orders Cannot alter table directly. But it can be a source of confusion and architectural problems.page 204 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Note: Oracle built-in packages have long had the capability of running under the invoker's authority.

and now you do! 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .. each user has own copy of table(s).it's all or nothing. ± Can bypass 8i¶s ³fine-grained´ access features (see the DBMS_RLS package) ± Difficult to audit privileges  Sure would be nice to have a choice..Problems with Definer Rights  Deployment & maintenance ± Must install module in all remote databases where needed ± In some databases. requiring copy of stored module  Security ± No declarative way to restrict privileges on certain modules in a package -. unless you write code in the package to essentially recreate roles programmatically.page 205 .

do what it takes to get the code to compile. AUTHID goes only in spec.Oracle8i Invoker Rights Syntax  For top level modules: CREATE [ OR REPLACE ] <module type> [ AUTHID { DEFINER | CURRENT_USER } ] AS .page 206 . You could also create local. and must be at the package level. the objects referenced may well be different from those against which it compiled. ± In other words.  For modules with separate spec and body. ± At run-time. Synonyms may be necessary if modules use object names not qualified by schema. "dummy" objects..  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..

.FROM accounts WHERE. yet have all references to data structures "reflect back" into your own schema..). code.."Reflection" Capability of Invoker Rights  With invoker rights. END..page 207 .acct_mgr... accounts table 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .. you can execute code owned by another schema. modify destroy .. Central Code schema PACKAGE acct_mgr make AUTHID CURRENT_USER User/Data schema PROCEDURE mng_account IS BEGIN .destroy(.

 Once a definer rights program is called. oneversion. all other calls in stack are resolved according to definer rights.  Information about the rights model is not available in the data dictionary What if you want to maintain a single version of your code for both pre-Oracle8i and Oracle8i installations. taking advantage of the invoker rights model whenever possible? ± A creative use of SQL*Plus substitution variables comes in very invdefinv.sql  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± AUTHID CURRENT_USER is ignored.sql handy.Tips and Gotchas for Invoker Rights  Does not apply to code objects. only data ± When your stored code references another stored code element. Note: cannot use with wrapped code.page 208 . the definer rights model is always applied to resolve the reference. ± Both static and dynamic SQL is supported.

When to Invoke Invoker Rights  You want to reuse the same code among many users. National HQ Check City Statistics New York Schema stolenlives Chicago Schema stolenlives  Especially handy with dynamic SQL. but you want their own directly-granted privileges to determine access. authid.page 209 .sql whichsch*. ± Share a program that uses dynamic SQL (whether DBMS_SQL or the new native implementation) and you end up taking the most unexpected DDL and DML detours.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Combining Invoker & Definer Rights  Rely on invoker rights to allow centralized code to work with schema-specific data.page 210 .sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . HQ Chicago Check City Statistics  New York stolenlives Analyze Pattern stolenlives perpetrators perp. Rely on definer rights to access centralized data from any schema.

page 211 .Row Level Security DBMS_RLS Row-Level Security 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

with which to implement automated row-level security (also referred to as "fine grained access control"). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 212   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . Prior to Oracle8i. The DBMS_RLS package (along with "system contexts") now allow you to do so in a foolproof manner. you could achieve this only partially through the use of views. Row Level Security  The establishment of security policies on (restricted access to) individual rows of a table. DBMS_RLS.Row-Level Security with DBMS_RLS  Oracle8i offers a new package.

 DBMS_RLS ± Use programs in DBMS_RLS to associate your security policies with tables.  Security Policy Packages ± You will need to write a package containing functions that establish the security policies to be applied to a particular table.  Database Logon Triggers ± I want to make sure that when a person logs in.Components Needed for RLS  System Contexts ± A new feature in Oracle8i.page 213 .  Let's step through a simple example to see how all these pieces tie together. their context information is set properly. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . the system context is a named set of attributevalue pairs global to your session.

popular uprising in the United States has forced the establishment of a national healthcare system. No more for-profit hospitals pulling billions of dollars out of the system. all children are vaccinated. doctor. ± Patients can only see information about themselves.A National Health Care System  The year is 2010. Here are some rules: ± Doctors can only see patients who are assigned to their clinic. clinic and regulator. ± Regulators can only see patients who reside in the same state. no more private insurance companies soaking up 30 cents on the dollar.page 214 .sql  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . all pregnant women receive excellent prenatal care. The main tables are patient. highly secure database for NHCS.  We need a top-notch. fgac. ± A massive.

See CURSOR doc_cur IS fgac. BEGIN OPEN doc_cur. sets the context accordingly. DBMS_SESSION. FETCH doc_cur INTO doc_rec. DBMS_SESSION. and create a procedure that will set the context attributes (type and ID) upon login.page 215 .SET_CONTEXT ( 'patient_restriction'.Set the Context  Define a context in the database. c_person_type_attr. PROCEDURE set_context IS This is a simplification.sql for logic that identifies SELECT doctor_id FROM doctor different types of people and WHERE schema_name = USER.doctor_id). END.SET_CONTEXT ( 'patient_restriction'. 'DOCTOR'). CREATE CONTEXT patient_restriction USING nhc_pkg. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . doc_rec. doc_rec doc_cur%ROWTYPE. c_person_id_attr.

Define the Predicate  A predicate is a string that will be appended to the WHERE clause of the table to which this security policy is associated (see next page). information for this retval VARCHAR2(2000). ''' || clause for each type of c_person_id_attr || '''))'. connection. BEGIN IF l_context = 'DOCTOR' THEN retval := 'home_clinic_id IN (SELECT home_clinic_id FROM doctor We need a different string WHERE doctor_id = SYS_CONTEXT (''' || to modify the WHERE c_context || '''. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . FUNCTION person_predicate ( schema_in VARCHAR2. name_in VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2 IS l_context VARCHAR2(100) := Extract the context SYS_CONTEXT (c_context.page 216 . person. c_person_type_attr).

'patient'.DELETE').UPDATE. BEGIN DBMS_RLS.nhc_pkg package.Create the Security Policy  Use the DBMS_RLS.person_predicate'. 'patient_privacy'. ± The following procedure call specifies that the WHERE clause of any query. 'SELECT.page 217 . ( => => => => => => 'SCOTT'.ADD_POLICY OBJECT_SCHEMA OBJECT_NAME POLICY_NAME FUNCTION_SCHEMA POLICY_FUNCTION STATEMENT_TYPES END. 'SCOTT'. update or delete against the SCOTT.ADD_POLICY procedure. 'nhc_pkg.PATIENT table will be modified by the string returned by the person_predicate function of the SCOTT. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Setting Context  By setting the context in the logon trigger.page 218 . fgac. CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER set_id_on_logon AFTER LOGON ON DATABASE BEGIN nhc_pkg. END.sql Exception handling in trigger is critical! If you allow an exception to go unhandled.Create Logon Trigger. logon is disabled.PUT_LINE ( 'Error ' || SQLCODE || ' setting context for ' || USER'). we guarantee that the context is set (and the predicate applied) no matter which product is the entry point to Oracle. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN DBMS_OUTPUT.set_context.

page 219 .IL Context Information for "CSILVA": Type: PATIENT ID: Predicate: schema_name = 'CSILVA' Patients Visible to "CSILVA": CSILVA .Veva Silva .Chris Silva .Chris Silva .Queries Transparently Filtered  What you see is determined automatically by who you are. Predicate: home_clinic_id IN (SELECT home_clinic_id FROM doctor WHERE doctor_id = SYS_CONTEXT ('patient_restriction'. Context Information for "SWALLACE": Type: DOCTOR Doctor sees only her ID: 1060 patients. 'person_id')) Patients Visible to "SWALLACE": CSILVA .IL VSILVA .IL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Patient sees only himself. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

page 220 .and play a new tune with PL/SQL! 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .. and you use only what you know.. February.... March.  ± You learn what you need to get the job done. May... Jump out of your rut .. April..Take Full Advantage of PL/SQL! January.. It's so easy to fall into a rut with a programming language.

If time permits«)     UTL_FILE ± file IO DBMS_JOB ± Job scheduling DBMS_PIPE ± Pipe-based communication DBMS_UTILITY ± the kitchen sink package 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .a..page 221 .k.Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Appendices (a.

..Built-in Packages: UTL_FILE UTL_FILE Server-side File I/O Application FOPEN GET_LINE PUT_LINE .page 222 . Physical Files 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . delete.0. random access to contents).   But you can read lines from a file and write lines to a file. no use of environmental variables). A "version 1" (fairly primitive) utility. when it jumps to 32K. ± No higher-level file operations supported (change privileges.page 223 .UTL_FILE: Server-side I/O  Allows you to read from and write to operating system files on the database server. ± Limitations on files you can access (no mapped files.5... copy. ± Maximum of 1023 bytes per line (read or write) until Oracle 8.

Puts formatted text into the buffer PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 224 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .UTL_FILE Module Outline FCLOSE FCLOSE_ALL FFLUSH FOPEN GET_LINE IS_OPEN NEW_LINE PUT PUT_LINE PUTF Close the specified file Close all open files in your session Flush all data from the UTL_FILE buffer to your file Open a file Get the next line from a file Returns TRUE if the file is open (sort of) Insert a new line character in file at the end of current line Puts text into the UTL_FILE buffer Puts text and new line character into UTL_FILE buffer.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . utl_file_dir = * Allows read & write for any directory.  Follow these rules to avoid many headaches.Authorizing Directory Access  Oracle requires you to list explicitly those directories you wish to be able to read/write with UTL_FILE. ± No single or double quotes around directory.page 225 Allows read & write for current directory. there is no subdirectory recursion). no trailing delimiter. utl_file_dir = /tmp utl_file_dir = /accounts/newdev  And don't do either of the following: utl_file_dir = . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± You do this by adding lines to the instance parameter file. ± Use a separate entry for each directory (and subdirectory.

page 226 . restart your database.tst  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . and then run the following test script (it can't get much simpler than this): DECLARE fid UTL_FILE. UTL_FILE. 'test. 'hello'). / utlfile.FOPEN ('c:\temp'.PUT_LINE (fid. UTL_FILE. BEGIN /* Change the directory name to one to which you at least || THINK you have read/write access.FILE_TYPE. END. */ fid := UTL_FILE. modify your initialization file. 'W'). So before you write anything fancy.txt'.Test UTL_FILE Access  About the hardest part to working with UTL_FILE is simply getting started.FCLOSE (fid).

END.   Maximum of 10 files may be opened in each user session. ± In actuality. name and operation type. 'W' for Write and 'A' for Append.FILE_TYPE. this function simply returns TRUE if the file handle's id field is NOT NULL.txt'. Test to see if file is open with the IS_OPEN function.  Specify file location. ± Currently contains a single ID field. 'test. BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE. 'W')..  The FOPEN function returns a record ("file handle") based on the UTL_FILE.Opening a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.FOPEN ('c:\temp'. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..FILE_TYPE.page 227 . Not much of a test. ± Types are 'R' for Read.

END. BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE.FOPEN ('c:\temp'.5 and above.  The NO_DATA_FOUND exception is raised if you read past the end of the file.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± In Oracle8 Release 8.page 228 .   Can only read from a file opened with the "R" mode.txt'. UTL_FILE. getnext. myline). ± You might want to build your own GET_LINE which handles the exception and returns an EOF Boolean status flag. UTL_FILE. 'test. 'R').GET_LINE (fid. the ceiling is raised to 32K. Lines in the file cannot be longer than 1023 bytes in length.Reading from a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.0.FILE_TYPE.FCLOSE (fid).

'test.FCLOSE (fid). BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE. allowing for some formatting. UTL_FILE. 'W'). 'is so much fun').FOPEN ('c:\temp'. PUT_LINE or PUTF.PUT_LINE (fid.  Call FFLUSH to make sure that everything you have written to the buffer is flushed out to the file.Writing to a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.FILE_TYPE.PUT (fid. UTL_FILE. END. ± The file buffers are automatically flushed when you close a file or exit your session. UTL_FILE. UTL_FILE is so much fun that I never want to stop Resulting Text  You can use PUT.txt'. '&1').PUTF (fid. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . UTL_FILE. 'UTL_FILE').page 229 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . ± PUTF is like the C printf program. ' that I never\nwant to %s'.

myline).READ_ERROR THEN UTL_FILE. UTL_FILE. You can close a single file with FCLOSE or all open files with FCLOSE_ALL. UTL_FILE. 'test.txt'.FCLOSE (fid).FILE_TYPE. You should close files in exception handlers to make sure that files are not left "hanging" open. END. 'R').GET_LINE (fid.Closing a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.FOPEN ('c:\temp'. EXCEPTION WHEN UTL_FILE. you will not see the data you have (supposedly) written to that file.  If you do not close the file. BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 230   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .FCLOSE (fid).

EXCEPTION. EXCEPTION.  UTL_FILE relies on a combination of user-defined exceptions and STANDARD exceptions to communicate errors.  You have to take special care to trap and handle the named exceptions. EXCEPTION. EXCEPTION. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . EXCEPTION. ± They all share a common SQLCODE of 1.Error Handling in UTL_FILE PACKAGE UTL_FILE IS invalid_path invalid_mode invalid_filehandle invalid_operation read_error write_error internal_error END. ± NO_DATA_FOUND when you try to read past the end of the file. EXCEPTION. EXCEPTION.page 231 . ± UTL_FILE-named exceptions in other cases.

INTERNAL_ERROR THEN recNgo (PLVfile.c_read_error).INVALID_MODE THEN recNgo (PLVfile.INVALID_PATH THEN recNgo (PLVfile. WHEN UTL_FILE. WHEN UTL_FILE. WHEN UTL_FILE.c_invalid_filehandle).sql  Trap locally by name. RAISE. END. RAISE. WHEN UTL_FILE. RAISE. RAISE. RAISE. utlflexc.c_write_error). record the error. RAISE.INVALID_FILEHANDLE THEN recNgo (PLVfile. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 232  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .Recommended Exception Section EXCEPTION WHEN UTL_FILE. RAISE. translating the generic user-defined exception into an understandable message.c_internal_error).INVALID_OPERATION THEN recNgo (PLVfile. WHEN UTL_FILE.c_invalid_mode).c_invalid_operation).WRITE_ERROR THEN recNgo (PLVfile. Re-raise exception if you want it to propagate from that block.c_invalid_path).READ_ERROR THEN recNgo (PLVfile. WHEN UTL_FILE.

.page 233 . Background Process DBA_JOBS Oracle Job Queue Subsystem 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..Built-in Packages: DBMS_JOB DBMS_JOB Scheduled Execution of Stored Procedures Application SUBMIT RUN REMOVE .

Schedule regular maintenance on instances.2. which in turn offers job scheduling capabilities within the Oracle Server. Schedule large batch jobs to run on "off hours". but only ³publicly available´ and supported in PL/SQL Release 2. ± ± ± ±    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Overview of DBMS_JOB  DBMS_JOB provides an API to the Oracle job queues. Create a listener program to poll the contents of a pipe and take action.1. You can use DBMS_JOB to: Replicate data between different database instances. ± Spawn background processes to avoid blocking client process. Made its debut in PL/SQL Release 2. Built by Oracle to support snapshots and replication.page 234 .

Changes the job string of a job. Returns the job string for a job number. Removes the job from the queue.DBMS_JOB Module Outline BROKEN Marks the job as either FIXED or BROKEN. Submits a job to the queue returning a unique job number. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Changes the interval between executions of a job. Forces immediate execution of the specified job number. Changes one or all attributes of a job. Broken jobs will not run as scheduled. Changes when a queued job will run. Submits a job to the queue using a predefined job number.page 235 CHANGE INTERVAL ISUBMIT NEXT_DATE REMOVE RUN SUBMIT USER_EXPORT WHAT 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .

SYSDATE. END. and then the job¶s execution interval (frequency of execution). I run calculate_totals immediately and then on a daily basis thereafter. ± In the above example.'. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . while the interval is a string (this is dynamic PL/SQL!)  You can also call DBMS_JOB. instead of having DBMS_JOB generate one for you.  A job is a call to a stored procedure or an anonymous block ± It must end with a semi-colon and can contain ³hard-coded´ arguments.Submitting a Job DECLARE job# BINARY_INTEGER.SUBMIT (job#.  When you submit a job. BEGIN DBMS_JOB. 'SYSDATE + 1').page 236 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . you specify the date on which it should next execute. Notice that the start time is a DATE expression. 'calculate_totals.ISUBMIT and supply the job number.

/  This block submits a job that uses a built-in procedure. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .null.estimate_percent=>50). BEGIN DBMS_JOB.page 237 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . next_date => TRUNC (SYSDATE + 1). to analyze a specific table every evening at midnight. interval => 'TRUNC(SYSDATE+1)' ).'. DBMS_DDL.ANALYZE_OBJECT ' || '(''TABLE''.l (v_jobno). p.Submit Job Example DECLARE v_jobno INTEGER. what => 'DBMS_DDL.submit ( job => v_jobno.ANALYZE_OBJECT.''LOAD1''.''TENK''' || '.''ESTIMATE''. END.

null). runs it in one hour and executes every day thereafter.page 238 . /  This block submits three jobs to the job queue.next_date => SYSDATE + 1/24 .ISubmit Job Example BEGIN DBMS_JOB. ± Job 2 passes a date into procedure MY_JOB2.'BEGIN null.ISUBMIT (job => 1 .SYSDATE+1. DBMS_JOB. executes for the first time tomorrow and every 10 minutes thereafter. DBMS_JOB.ISUBMIT (2.2.interval => 'SYSDATE +1'). numbered 1. ± Job 3 is a PL/SQL block which does nothing.'SYSDATE+10/1440'). ± Job 1 passes a string and number into procedure MY_JOB1. END.' .'. executes immediately. 'my_job2(date_IN=>SYSDATE). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .DBMS_JOB.SYSDATE. and 3. END.what => 'my_job1(''string_parm_value''. and will be removed from the queue automatically.' .120).ISUBMIT(3.

''WEDNESDAY'').Specifying Job Times & Frequencies  Probably the most complicated part of using DBMS_JOB is to get the string expression of the job interval right. ''FRIDAY''))) + 18/24' PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ''SATURDAY'') 2/24' 'NEXT_DAY ( ADD_MONTHS (TRUNC (SYSDATE. ''MONDAY'') + 9/24' 'TRUNC (LEAST ( NEXT_DAY (SYSDATE. 3). you must use 2 single quotes to embed strings. ± Since it's a string. ''Q''). NEXT_DAY (SYSDATE. Every hour Every Sunday at 2 AM First Monday of each quarter. Wednesday and Friday at 6 PM 'SYSDATE + 1/24' 'NEXT_DAY (TRUNC (SYSDATE). at 9 AM Every Monday.page 239 + 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . ''MONDAY''). NEXT_DAY (SYSDATE. ± Use date arithmetic to request intervals smaller than a day.

page 240 . ± Only if the job was submitted from same schema BEGIN FOR rec IN (SELECT * FROM USER_JOBS) LOOP DBMS_JOB.RUN (my_job#).REMOVE (rec. ± Uses DBMS_JOB. DBMS_JOB. Remove all jobs for current schema.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Run a job immediately. END LOOP. retaining current job number.Other Job Queue Operations  Remove a job from the queue.  Export jobs from the queue. expjob.ISUBMIT.job). ± Performs an implicit COMMIT in current session. ± Produces a string that can be used to recreate an existing job in the job queue.

DBA_JOBS and USER_JOBS views. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .job = j.this_date .DBA_JOBS .page 241 .Job Queue Views  You can also view the job queue by looking at the DBA_JOBS_RUNNING.this_date. ± The following query blends job information with session information to display currently-executing jobs. SELECT jr.V$SESSION WHERE s.what job_id username start_date job_definition jr j s showjobs.sql FROM DBA_JOBS_RUNNING . who owns them and when they began.sid AND jr.sid = jr.username .job ORDER BY jr.job .jr.

The valid range is 1 to 3600 (a maximum. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .ora (initialization) file for your database instance: ± job_queue_processes=N where n is the number of concurrent background processes permitted.Setting up the Job Facility  Make sure that the correct access is set up for the DBMS_JOB package. of one hour). ± The default is PUBLIC access. therefore.page 242 . The valid range is 0 through 36. ± job_queue_interval=N where N is the interval in seconds to check the job queue.  You will need to set three parameters in the init. You will have to take special DBA action if you want to restrict who can run jobs.

Then you can go ahead and submit it. ± Do you want it to try 16 times? ± In addition. if your failure raises an unhandled exception. the job facility will mark your job as broken.  To avoid unexpected and unhandled failures of scheduled jobs: ± Always use the RUN built-in to execute your job in a ³test´ mode. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Always include a WHEN OTHERS exception handler in your job program which traps any and all problems and automatically sets the job status to broken.Error Handling with DBMS_JOB  What if your stored procedure fails? ± After 16 attempts.page 243 . it may cause the background processes to fail and no longer run any jobs at all.

job (µcalc_totals¶) DBMS_JOB. job_pkg..log (µcalc_totals¶. spacelog. ± Now the job facility will not try to run this program again.sql  The WHEN OTHERS exception handler of the calc_totals procedure traps any kind of failure.page 244 .BROKEN (job#. You can go in and fix the problem.. TRUE). µFAIL¶). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Obtains the job number from a packaged function by passing the name of the procedure.sql showspc. END. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN job# := job_pkg. ± Calls log program of package to record that failure took place.Stopping the Job When It Fails PROCEDURE calc_totals IS BEGIN . ± Uses a call to BROKEN to set the status of the job to ³broken´.

You can use the DBMS_IJOB to manage the jobs of other users.page 245 . it picks up the current execution environment for the user. ± DBMS_JOB only allows you to modify characteristics and behavior of jobs submitted by the current schema.  You will need to fully-qualify all database links (with user name and password) to get them to work properly. If you find that you submit a job to run immediately and it does not start."Good to Knows" for DBMS_JOB  You may find it useful to always wrap your stored procedure call (the what) inside a BEGIN-END block. difficult to reproduce behavior at times with "straight" procedure calls. When a job runs. perform a COMMIT after your submit.    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± We've noticed some aberrant.

Built-in Packages: DBMS_PIPE DBMS_PIPE Inter-session Communication 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 246 .

± Operates outside of database transaction limitations.page 247 . ± More sophisticated debugging inside PL/SQL programs (work around fundamental limitations of DBMS_OUTPUT). Oracle uses database pipes to parallelize database operations.  Uses for DBMS_PIPE include: ± Parallelization of program execution.DBMS_PIPE Overview  Allows communication between different Oracle sessions through a pipe in the RDBMS Shared Global Area. You can parallelize your own code. ± Interface PL/SQL-database activities with operating system functions and programs written in other languages. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Perform and commit DML in a separate transaction space from your main transaction.

± The pipe sends/receives a message. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Names can be up to 128 chars long (do not use names beginning with ³ORA$´.page 248 . which can be composed of one or more separate packets. using a maximum of 4096 bytes.Architecture of DBMS_PIPE Shared Global Area ³Sue´ ³Bob´ Message Buffer Message Buffer Session A  Session B A pipe is a named object that uses the System Global Area to provide a non-transaction based conduit of information. They are reserved for Oracle use).

ROWID or RAW. ± If there isn¶t currently room in the pipe.sql pipex2.page 249 .  Unpack the message packets and take action. ± You can wait for up to 1000 days for a message. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein pipex1.sql PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . date.  Receive a message from that pipe. ± Each packet can be a string.Processing Flow of DBMS_PIPE  Construct a message from packets of information. ± Separate out the individual packets in the message (again: string.  Send the message to a named pipe. you can wait for up to 1000 days (or 86400000 seconds) for the pipe to be cleared. ± This is the default. ± There is just one message buffer per session. so you should always specify a timeout period. date or number). number.

REMOVE_PIPE RESET_BUFFER Removes a pipe explicitly created via CREATE_PIPE. Clears your buffer so that PACK_MESSAGE and UNPACK_MESSAGE can work from the first item. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . UNPACK_MESSAGE Unpacks the next item from the local message buffer and deposits it into the specified local variable. PURGE Empties the contents of a pipe into your local buffer freeing it for removal. making it a candidate for removal with a LRU algorithm. UNIQUE_SESSION_NAME Returns name that is unique among all sessions in the database. RECEIVE_MESSAGE Receives a message from pipe and copies to local buffer.page 250 . PACK_MESSAGE Packs an item into the message buffer for your session. NEXT_ITEM_TYPE Returns the datatype of the next item in the piped message.DBMS_PIPE Module Outline Module Name CREATE_PIPE Description Creates a PUBLIC or PRIVATE pipe. SEND_MESSAGE Sends contents of message buffer to the specified pipe.

BEGIN stat := DBMS_PIPE. private => TRUE). ± Implicitly-created pipes are always public. PROCEDURE newpipe IS stat INTEGER. ± Specify TRUE for private argument of CREATE_PIPE. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Use CREATE_PIPE to create a pipe explicitly. ± Send messages to non-existent pipe implicitly create it. maxpipesize => 20000.  An explicit pipe can be private (accessible only to sessions with matching userID or SYSDBA privileges).page 251 .  A public pipe is accessible as long as you know its name.CREATE_PIPE ( pipename => 'bbs'.Creating Public and Private Pipes  There are two ways to create pipes: implicitly and explicitly.

IF pipe_stat != 0 THEN RAISE could_not_send. waiting up to 1 minute. maxpipesize IN INTEGER DEFAULT 8192) RETURN INTEGER. 60. FUNCTION send_message (pipename IN VARCHAR2.Sending a Message Provide pipe name. END LOOP.page 252 . expanding pipe size to 40 Kbytes. 12 LOOP DBMS_PIPE. Status of 0 means message was sent.. Send to "monthly" pipe. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Fill your message buffer with packets of data.PACK_MESSAGE ( total_sales (month_num)).SEND_MESSAGE ( µmonthly¶. 10 * 4096). seconds you will wait. pipe_stat := DBMS_PIPE. but not smaller). FOR month_num IN 1 . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . timeout IN INTEGER DEFAULT maxwait. and new max pipe size (you can make it bigger.

page 253 . ± You need to know the datatype of packet or check it using NEXT_ITEM_TYPE. PROCEDURE unpack_message (item OUT VARCHAR2). PROCEDURE unpack_message (item OUT DATE). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Then you call UNPACK_MESSAGE to extract individual packets from the message. ± Pipe status of 0 means the message was read successfully. ± Specify pipe and number of seconds you will wait before you time out.Receiving and Unpack a Message FUNCTION receive_message (pipename IN VARCHAR2. timeout IN INTEGER DEFAULT maxwait) RETURN INTEGER. PROCEDURE unpack_message (item OUT NUMBER).  First you pull the message from the pipe and place it in buffer with RECEIVE_MESSAGE.

ELSE RAISE_APPLICATION_ERROR ( Stop process if -20000. Wait up to N prod_total NUMBER.RECEIVE_MESSAGE ( 'production'. END. data not received. DBMS_PIPE.A Pipe-based Listener Program  Program wakes up every N seconds to read the data from the pipe and analyze results from assembly line (an intentional "infinite loop"!). every_n_secs). 'Production data unavailable.page 254 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . PROCEDURE analyze_assembly_data (every_n_secs IN INTEGER) IS pipe_status INTEGER. If I got something. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .').UNPACK_MESSAGE (prod_total). analyze_production (SYSDATE. END IF. END LOOP. pass it on to the IF pipe_status = 0 computation THEN program. seconds for the BEGIN next report. LOOP pipe_status := DBMS_PIPE. prod_total).

sql dbpipe. ± Or you use the built-in NEXT_ITEM_TYPE to tell you in advance the datatype of the next packet in the message and take appropriate action. you have to make sure that you unpack a packet into the right kind of variable. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .tst  Since a message can be composed of packets of different datatypes.Unpacking the Message FUNCTION next_item_type RETURN INTEGER.page 255 . Returns one of the following values: Value 0 6 9 11 12 23 Description or Data type No more items in buffer NUMBER VARCHAR2 ROWID DATE RAW dbpipe. Either: ± You know the datatype and therefore can ³hard-code´ the correct variable into the call to UNPACK_MESSAGE.

 Suppose I want to calculate my net profit. you can do the same for your application if: ± You have multiple CPUs available. but are not dependent on each other. I must execute them sequentially and incur an elapsed time of 45 minutes before I calculate the profits. ± You have processes which can run in parallel. total office expenses and total compensation.Parallelizing Your Code with Pipes  Oracle uses DBMS_PIPE to improve RDBMS performance.  Without pipes. ± These programs each take 15 minutes. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± The CEO is decidedly unhappy about the delay.page 256 . In order to do so I must first compute total sales.

page 257 . Parallel Execution Sequential Execution: Maximum Elapsed Time S t a r t E n d Process A Process B Process C Parallel Execution: Minimum Elapsed Time Start Process A Process B Process C End 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Sequential vs.

 The ³kick off´ programs pass their messages to separate pipes. wait_for_confirmation. kick_off_totcomp_calc. calculate_net_profits. END. ± Other programs running in the background grab the messages and start their corresponding calculation program.  The ³wait´ program waits till it receives a message from each program. it puts a message (perhaps even a value) into the pipe. kick_off_exp_calc. ± When each program is complete. Then net profits can be computed -.page 258 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .in a muchdecreased elapsed time. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Parallelizing PL/SQL Execution BEGIN kick_off_sales_calc.

calculate sales. PROCEDURE calculate_sales IS stat INTEGER. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Send message to start calculations.SEND_MESSAGE (µsales¶). DBMS_PIPE. and send back the results. Receive the year. stat := DBMS_PIPE. IF stat = 0 THEN lots_of_number_crunching.PACK_MESSAGE (1995).PACK_MESSAGE (sales$). BEGIN stat := DBMS_PIPE.SEND_MESSAGE (µsales¶).page 259 . END.Code to Kick Off and Calculate PROCEDURE kick_off_sales_calc IS stat INTEGER.RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µsales¶). stat := DBMS_PIPE. END IF. BEGIN DBMS_PIPE.PACK_MESSAGE (NULL).SEND_MESSAGE (µsales¶). END. stat := DBMS_PIPE. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ELSE DBMS_PIPE.

RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µcomp¶).sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END.UNPACK_MESSAGE (sales$). DBMS_PIPE.Waiting for Confirmation PROCEDURE wait_for_confirmation IS stat INTEGER. stat := DBMS_PIPE. parallel.RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µoffexp¶). Perform final calculation. DBMS_PIPE.page 260 .UNPACK_MESSAGE (comp$).UNPACK_MESSAGE (offexp$). END. DBMS_PIPE. PROCEDURE calculate_net_profits IS BEGIN net_profits := sales$ . Wait for all calculations to finish. BEGIN stat := DBMS_PIPE.offexp$ .comp$.RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µsales¶). stat := DBMS_PIPE. The order in which you wait is insignificant.

and sends it to the pipe.pkg p_and_l. ± Demonstrates the use of toggles and switches in packages. watch. ± A request for data is passed to a "central" pipe.Other DBMS_PIPE Examples  Simple trace package that sends it output either to screen or to pipe. in-memory cache.page 261 . ± The requester reads the information from the pipe. obtains the data.pkg  Implementation of a system-wide.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .pkg syscache. ± A listener program grabs the request (including the return pipe name). syscache.

page 262 .Built-in Packages: DBMS_UTILITY DBMS_UTILITY Application GET_TIME GET_HASH_VALUE FORMAT_CALL_STACK ... A µgrab-bag¶ of miscellaneous operations SCHEMA 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Returns error stack. Returns execution call stack. Returns hash value for string. Returns database version (Oracle8) Executes DDL statement (Oracle8).DBMS_UTILITY Module Outline ANALYZE_DATABASE ANALYZE_PART_OBJECT Analyze objects in database Runs ANALYZE TABLE or ANALYZE INDEX for each partition of the object (Oracle8).pkg dbparm. Parses comma-delimited list to index-by table. Recompile INVALID objects in specified schema.pkg COMMA_TO_TABLE COMPILE_SCHEMA DATA_BLOCK_ADDRESS_BLOCK DATA_BLOCK_ADDRESS_FILE DB_VERSION EXEC_DDL_STATEMENT FORMAT_CALL_STACK FORMAT_ERROR_STACK GET_HASH_VALUE 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .page 263 dbver. Gets block number part of data block address. Gets file number part of data block address. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Creates data block address from block & file numbers. GET_PARAMETER_VALUE GET_TIME IS_PARALLEL_SERVER MAKE_DATA_BLOCK_ADDRESS NAME_RESOLVE NAME_TOKENIZE PORT_STRING TABLE_TO_COMMA Retrieves value of database parameter (Oracle8). Converts list (in index-by-table) of elements into a comma-delimited list (string). Parses string object designator into components. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Returns "current time" down to hundredth of second.page 264 . cont. Resolves name of object into component parts. Returns platform and version of database.DBMS_UTILITY Module Outline. Returns TRUE if in parallel server mode.

v_start). so GET_TIME offers significant additional granularity.page 265 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Sub-Second Timings with GET_TIME  GET_TIME returns the number of 100ths of seconds that have elapsed since an arbitrary point in time. BEGIN v_start := DBMS_UTILITY. calc_totals.GET_TIME .PUT_LINE (DBMS_UTILITY. ± Useful when analyzing individual PL/SQL programs.  Compare results from consecutive calls to GET_TIME to determine the elapsed time of PL/SQL code execution. ± SYSDATE only reflects times down to the nearest second. especially those that run in sub-second time. Basic steps necessary to convert GET_TIME into a performance analysis tool. DBMS_OUTPUT.GET_TIME. END. DECLARE v_start BINARY_INTEGER.

reset_in IN BOOLEAN := TRUE).sps plvtmr.Building a Layer Over GET_TIME Partial package specification PACKAGE PLVtmr IS PROCEDURE turn_on.capture. PROCEDURE capture ( context_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) PROCEDURE show_elapsed (prefix_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. Clean and lean timing code ovrhead.sql plvtmr. END PLVtmr.spb 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END. BEGIN PLVtmr. PROCEDURE turn_off. adjust_in IN NUMBER := 0. PLVtmr.show_elapsed.page 266 . PROCEDURE set_factor (factor_in IN NUMBER). calc_totals.

EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN DBMS_OUTPUT.VALIDATE_REQUEST function STEVEN. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 267 . equivalent to CHR(10). ± Most recent program at beginning of "report".Accessing the Execution Call Stack Use in the exception section to show context of error. ----. ± Does not show package elements.FORMAT_CALL_STACK).CALC_NET_WORTH anonymous block  "Little known facts" about FORMAT_CALL_STACK: ± Contains embedded new-line characters. END. only the package name.PUT_LINE ( DBMS_UTILITY.PL/SQL Call Stack ----object line object handle number name 88ce3f74 88e49fc4 88e49390 88e2bd20 8 2 1 1 package STEVEN.COMPANY_TYPE procedure STEVEN.

BEGIN stk := DBMS_UTILITY. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . next_newline . use a loop to read through the stack. startpos. next_line := SUBSTR ( stk.Accessing Call Stack Contents  The call stack length can easily exceed 255 bytes. CHR(10). EXIT WHEN next_newline = 0. next_line VARCHAR2(255). Instead. startpos INTEGER := 1. END. startpos.sp dispcs.PUT_LINE (next_line).tst callstack.page 268 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .startpos + 1).pkg plvcs. next_newline INTEGER.FORMAT_CALL_STACK || CHR(10). startpos := next_newline + 1. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE dispcs IS stk VARCHAR2(10000). END LOOP. LOOP next_newline := INSTR (stk. which means you cannot pass it to DBMS_OUTPUT directly.sps DBMS_OUTPUT. 1). dispcs.

sp snc. context IN NUMBER.  Possible "Part 1" Types 5 7 8 9 Synonym Procedure Function Package What a chore! All those arguments.NAME_RESOLVE (name IN VARCHAR2.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . part1_type OUT NUMBER. object_number OUT NUMBER). schema OUT VARCHAR2.for encapsulation! showcomp.. PROCEDURE DBMS_UTILITY. part1 OUT VARCHAR2. dblink OUT VARCHAR2.page 269 .. part2 OUT VARCHAR2. see it as an opportunity.Resolving Names of Stored Code  Code names have many components. ± Use NAME_RESOLVE to break down an identifier string into its components easily.but don't see it as a problem.. the way they are attached also follows a complicated syntax..