Achieving PL/SQL Excellence

Oracle PL/SQL Advanced Techniques
Oracle7 thru Oracle8i
Steven Feuerstein
www.StevenFeuerstein.com www.Quest.com www.OReilly.com
and contributions most excellent from Bill Pribyl and Dick Bolz

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 1

Objective & Outline 

Objective
± Expand your knowledge and awareness of important and new features of the PL/SQL language. 

Outline
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± Building with Packages (Oracle7+) PL/SQL Collections (Oracle7 and Oracle8+) Cursor Variables (Oracle7 and Oracle8+) Dynamic SQL: DBMS_SQL and Native Dynamic SQL (8i) Calling Java from PL/SQL (Oracle8i) and C (Oracle8) Oracle Advanced Queuing with DBMS_AQ (Oracle8) Managing Large Objects with DBMS_LOB (Oracle8) Other Oracle8i New Features
» Autonomous Transactions (Oracle8i) » Invoker Rights Model (Oracle8i) » Row Level Security: DBMS_RLS

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Software Used in Training 

PL/Vision: a library of packages installed on top of PL/SQL.
± PL/Vision Lite - use it, copy, change it for free -- unless you build software to be sold commercially. ± Active PL/SQL Knowledge Base: contains PL/Vision Professional, the fully supported and enhanced version. 

Demonstration scripts executed in the training can be found on the RevealNet PL/SQL Pipeline:
± http://www.revealnet.com/Pipelines/PLSQL/index.htm ± Archives surfboard, Miscellaneous, PL/SQL Seminar Files ± See filedesc.doc for a listing of many of the files.
plsql_ides.txt 

The PL/SQL IDE (Integrated Development Environment).
± You no longer have to use SQL*Plus and a crude editor! Choose from among the many listed in plsql_ides.txt.

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Achieving PL/SQL Excellence

Building with PL/SQL Packages 
 

Overview Initialization section Overloading

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What is a Package? 

A collection of code elements, from procedures and functions to TYPE, variable and cursor declarations.
± Single-most important structure within PL/SQL, and almost certainly one of the most under-utilized. ± Conceptually very simple, it can take some time to fully grasp the implications and potential of the package. 

The method of choice by Oracle and other software developers for extending the PL/SQL language.
± You will find packages in the database, in Oracle Developer/2000, in Oracle Application Server. 

Let¶s review some of the benefits of packages.
tmr.pkg dbparm.pkg

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± Instead of writing SQL directly in your programs. package-based "component". ± Can lead to performance improvements. ± There's a big difference between a bunch of separate programs and a coherent. te_employee.pks te_employee.When to Build a Package  Join physically logically-related code.pkg  Improve transaction integrity by hiding data structures behind the package interface. watch. custrules. ± Puts more structure and organization in your body of code.pkg insga.page 6 .pkb  Construct very flexible and usable utilities for developers.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . you call the packaged procedures and functions instead.

± The PL/SQL runtime engine determines when and if this code should be run. Does the package have an init section? yes Run initialization code.page 7 . Program references package element the first time in each session.Package Initialization  The initialization section is a block of code at the end of the package body that is executed once per session. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . the first time any package element is referenced. no Complete request for packaged element.

± Is not required.page 8 . most packages you build won't have one.  Useful for: ± Performing complex setting of default or initial values. ± Setting up package data which does not change for the duration of a session. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein BEGIN after/outside of any program defined in the pkg. FUNCTION func RETURN BEGIN END.Package Initialization Structure  The initialization section: ± Is defined after and outside of any programs in the package. In fact. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Can have its own exception handling section. BEGIN END pkg. ± Confirming that package is properly instantiated. PACKAGE BODY pkg IS PROCEDURE proc IS BEGIN END.

'Y'.page 9 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . PACKAGE BODY sessinit IS /* No declared package elements at all! */ BEGIN /* Get user preferences for this user. ± Body contains only initialization section. Section  An unusual package! ± Specification contains only variables. */ SELECT lov_flag. END sessinit. printer FROM user_config WHERE user_id = USER. tb_flag.Configure Session with Init. init. WHEN OTHERS THEN RAISE_APPLICATION_ERROR (-20000. 'lpt1'.pkg init. show_toolbar CHAR(1). defprinter INTO show_lov. */ 'Y'.. 'No profile for ' || USER). show_toolbar. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Also a package with many design flaws.tst this user. END sessinit.. EXCEPTION WHEN NO_DATA_FOUND THEN /* No record for show_lov := show_toolbar := printer := PACKAGE sessinit IS show_lov CHAR(1). printer VARCHAR2(60).

.Populate Collections  The PL/Vision Date package. fmts(2) := 'DD-MON-YYYY'. fmts(12) := 'RRMMDD'.. fmts(4) := 'MM/DD'. PLVdate.pkg file demonstrates the basic technique (and the reliance on an initialization section) used to achieve this flexibility. fmts(3) := 'DD-MON'.page 10 . fmts(11) := 'YYYYMMDD'. BEGIN fmts(1) := 'DD-MON-RR'. Initialization section populates a PL/SQL table. ± The datemgr. fmts(10) := 'MMDDYYYY'. employs several PL/SQL tables to convert strings and to perform date arithmetic.pkg dates. fmt_count := 12. fmts(9) := 'MM/DD/YYYY'. datemgr.. ± This increases the flexibility of the date conversion process.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END dt.

you give two or more programs the same name.page 11 . ± You can overload modules in any declaration section and in packages. you need to make that code as smart and as easy to use as possible. ± If you want others to use your code.Program Overloading  When you overload programs. myproc myproc 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Overloading transfers the "need to know" from the user to the overloaded program. myproc  Overloading is a critical feature when building comprehensive programmatic interfaces (APIs) or components using packages.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . date_string := TO_CHAR (SYSDATE. and took functions like TO_CHAR and TO_DATE totally for granted. you would have to deal with something like this: date_string := TO_CHAR_FROM_DATE (SYSDATE. number_string := TO_CHAR (10000). 'MMDDYY'). number_string := TO_CHAR_FROM_NUMBER (10000).page 12 .Overloading in PL/SQL Built-ins  PL/SQL uses overloading in many common functions. Without overloading. ± You just probably never gave it a thought. ± But Oracle couldn't offer that level of convenience without overloading. 'MMDDYY').

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . VARCHAR2 is not different enough). order or datatype family (CHAR vs.How Overloading Works  For two or more modules to be overloaded. ± 2. OUT. ± The programs are of different types: procedure and function. There are two different "compile times": ± 1.page 13 . the compiler must be able to distinguish between the two calls at compile-time. ± Their formal parameters differ only in datatype and the datatypes are in the same family. When you compile programs that use the overloaded code.  Distinguishing characteristics: ± The formal parameters of overloaded modules must differ in number. IN OUT).  Undistinguishing characteristics: ± Functions differ only in their RETURN datatype. When you compile the package or block containing the overloaded code. ± Arguments differ only in their mode (IN.

END only_returns. Parameter data types cause conflict.PUT_LINE (only_returns. END too_many_cals. PACKAGE param_modes IS PROCEDURE proc1 (val IN VARCHAR2). which one? too_similar.proc1 (v_value). which one? param_modes.calc ('123'). Only difference is function RETURN type. PROCEDURE calc (reg_in IN VARCHAR2). Only difference is parameter mode.func1 (v_value)). PACKAGE only_returns IS FUNCTION func1 (val IN VARCHAR2) RETURN DATE.page 14 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Examples of Invalid Overloadings PACKAGE too_similar IS PROCEDURE calc (reg_in IN CHAR). END param_modes. which one? DBMS_OUTPUT. FUNCTION func1 (val IN VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2. PROCEDURE proc1 (val IN OUT VARCHAR2).

not Value ± A less common application of overloading. the overloading does not provide a single name for different activities.l substitute does an even better job. You use the type of data and not its value to determine which of the overloaded programs should be executed. ± The DBMS_OUTPUT.page 15 .PUT_LINE procedure illustrates this technique -and the PL/Vision p. In this case. so much as providing different ways of requesting the same activity. you may construct different versions of the ³same´ program which correspond to different patterns of use.  Overloading by Type. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Fitting the Program to the User ± To make your code as useful as possible.Overload Wherever Possible  Supporting Many Data Combinations ± Apply the same action to different kinds or combinations of data.

PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .HH:MI:SS PM'). PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2).page 16 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .A "Classic" Overloaded Package  Many different datatype combinations. mask_in IN VARCHAR2 := µMonth DD. PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2. PACKAGE p IS PROCEDURE l (date_in IN DATE. number_in IN NUMBER). mask_in IN VARCHAR2 := 'Month DD. PROCEDURE l (number_in IN NUMBER). YYYY . PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2. boolean_in IN BOOLEAN). END p. YYYY .HH:MI:SS PM').sps p. p. date_in IN DATE. allowing the user to pass data to the "display engine" without writing "pre-processing" code.spb PROCEDURE l (boolean_in IN BOOLEAN).

l (print_report_fl). DBMS_OUTPUT.l (SYSDATE). END IF.. p. p. DBMS_OUTPUT.l (SQLERRM.PUT_LINE ('So what is different?'). ELSE DBMS_OUTPUT. 'MM/DD/YY HH:MI:SS')). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . IF print_report_fl THEN DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE ('TRUE'). p. DBMS_OUTPUT.l ('So what is different?'). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein ‡Extended overloadings are more likely to meet user needs.PUT_LINE ('FALSE').PUT_LINE (TO_CHAR (SYSDATE.page 17 . SQLCODE).. p.Advantage of Extended Overloading ‡ Minimal overloading means lots of extra coding.PUT_LINE (SQLERRM || ': ' || TO_CHAR (SQLCODE)).

± If you want to write software that is admired. think about the way it will be used. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .and taken completely for granted. If you take these different circumstances into account when you design your package specification. the user of your package can benefit from writing less code. such as "display data" or "create a file"..page 18   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . appreciated. In my experience. ± Your code is a a more natural "fit" under a variety of requirements. few developers are considerate enough of their users to try to anticipate their needs. can be applied or needed under very different circumstances.Fitting the Program to the User Writing "unnecessary" code? Time to overload!  A single piece of functionality..

FOPEN ('tmp/flags'.flg'. ± She doesn't care what's in it.FILE_TYPE. END. so this is just the way it has to be.  In other words. Of course. sometimes you will want to create a file and then perform additional operations. 'blah'). UTL_FILE. right? WRONG! PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . UTL_FILE.PUT_LINE (fid. 'exists. ± Here is the code required by UTL_FILE: DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.Creating a File for a Quick Touch  Suppose a developer needs to create a file to be used as a "flag" in the operating system. you have to declare the record to hold the file handle. even though you are simply going to close the file immediately after opening it. It just needs to be present.FCLOSE (fid). BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE.page 19  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . 'W').

END PLVfile. Use as Procedure BEGIN PLVfile.fcreate ('exists. TO_CHAR (SYSDATE)).FILE_TYPE. line_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL). /* Function */ FUNCTION fcreate (file_in IN VARCHAR2.flg').put_line (fid. custrules. PLVfile. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Use as Function DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.page 20 .FILE_TYPE. END.Procedure and Function Overloaded  Why not overload a "create file" program so that you can pick the one that most closely fits your situation? Consider the PLVfile package of PL/Vision.  Overloading of FCreate PACKAGE PLVfile IS /* Procedure */ PROCEDURE fcreate (file_in IN VARCHAR2. v_user).pkg PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .ini'.fcreate ('temp. BEGIN fid := PLVfile. line_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) RETURN UTL_FILE.

Define a different program name for each datatype. you must call the DEFINE_COLUMN procedure to define the datatype of the Nth column in the cursor. but the type of data."By-Type" Overloading  In some situations. when you use DBMS_SQL to set up a dynamic query. ± For example. ± Pass a piece of data of the right type. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Pass a string ³name´ of the datatype.  There are three ways to accomplish this: ± Don't overload. the user does not need to pass data.page 21 .

DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. ± DBMS_SQL.. 1).DEFINE_VARCHAR2_COLUMN (cur.. 30). Pass a named constant. DBMS_SQL.. Lotsa typing.  Nasty hard-coding.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. 1. 2. 'NUMBER'). 'STRING'. DBMS_SQL. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.NUMBER_TYPE). 2.  So many program names to remember! Pass a literal value. DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.... BEGIN DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur..DEFINE_INTEGER_COLUMN (cur. DBMS_SQL.. lotsa names. 30).Options for Specifying Column Type  Don't even bother overloading. DBMS_SQL. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.. 30).func 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 1..page 22 .VARCHAR2_TYPE..DEFINE_COLUMN ± PLVgen. 2..  Now let's look at two examples of overloading by datatype.

v_ename. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. 1).DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. v_empno). 1.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. 2. DBMS_UTILITY.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. ± To make it easier to accomplish this task. 30).DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.of the correct type.DEFINE_COLUMN. USER. 'a'. 30). BEGIN DBMS_SQL.GET_TIME). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . BEGIN DBMS_SQL. from the perspective of DBMS_SQL. 2. DBMS_SQL. ± The three code blocks below are equivalent.page 23 .DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. 1. you only need to pass a value -.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.any value -.DEFINE_COLUMN procedure defines the datatype of a column. 1. 2. DBMS_SQL. 30).Defining Dynamic SQL Columns  The DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL.

page 24 . 1) A date function. PROCEDURE func (name_in IN VARCHAR2.Generating Functions by Value  In PLVgen. any string. PROCEDURE func (name_in IN VARCHAR2. please! 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . type_in IN VARCHAR2). SQL> exec plvgen. PACKAGE PLVgen IS PROCEDURE func (name_in IN VARCHAR2. any date. Any number. please! A number function. type_in IN NUMBER). the user indicates the type of function to be generated by providing a value.func ('total_salary'. any Boolean will do. ± The particular value itself is of no importance. SYSDATE) SQL> exec plvgen.func ('last_date'. type_in IN DATE).

comp_id%TYPE). ± When I compile profits.The Frustrations of Overloading  Watch out! An overloading can compile successfully. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END.  In the above example. PROCEDURE calc (comp_id_IN IN company. but you might later found out that you cannot actually call any of the overloaded programs.page 25 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . I rely on an anchored type (%TYPE) to establish the datatype of the second calc¶s parameter. PL/SQL does not sense a conflict with above overloading even though comp_id is a numeric column. PACKAGE profits IS PROCEDURE calc (comp_id_IN IN NUMBER).

sales. like calc_totals shown above? ± If not. why not? ± If so. PROCEDURE calc_total (reg_in IN VARCHAR2).calc_total ('NORTHWEST'). sales.pkg ? 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . how would you do it? (Don't peek at the next page!) BEGIN sales. END sales.Quiz! Nuances of Overloading PACKAGE sales IS PROCEDURE calc_total (zone_in IN VARCHAR2). END.calc_total ('ZONE2').  Can I overload two programs which have parameters that differ only by name.page 26 .

null. interval => 'TRUNC(SYSDATE+1)'). what => 'DBMS_DDL.estimate_percent=>50).'.submit ( job => v_jobno. That way you don't have to know and pass default values. next_date => TRUNC (SYSDATE + 1).''ESTIMATE''.page 27 . namednot.ANALYZE_OBJECT ' || '(''TABLE''. This is especially useful when working with infrequently used built-in programs.sql  Advantages 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± You can skip over (not specify values for) any IN parameters that have default values. of named notation include: ± Code is more "self-documenting". DBMS_JOB.''LOAD1''.''TENK''' || '.Using Named Notation <formal parameter name> => <expression>  Explicit association between the formal parameter (the "name") with the actual parameter (the "value").

page 28 .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence PL/SQL Collections   Collections are single-dimensioned lists of information. Three types of collections: ± Index-by tables (Oracle7 only. originally called PL/SQL tables) ± Nested tables (Oracle8 and above) ± Variable arrays (VARRAYs. Oracle8 and above) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

which are otherwise not supported in PL/SQL Cache data in session-level memory for faster access. Build hash tables (custom indexing structures).  Emulate bi-directional cursors. Improve query performance by avoiding joins.When to Use Collections  Maintain any kind of list of related information for use in your programs. Avoid mutating table errors in database triggers. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 29     1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .

page 30 .483. ± Homogeneous » Data in each row has the same structure. ± Sparse » Data does not have to be stored in consecutive rows of information. emp_copy inmem_emp_t. DECLARE TYPE inmem_emp_t IS TABLE OF emp%ROWTYPE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER.Index-By Tables TYPE <table_type> IS TABLE OF <datatype> INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER.147. Instead.647 » You will not actually create tables this large. this broad range allows you to employ the row number as an intelligent key.647 to 2. ± Available only in PL/SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .147. Valid row numbers range: -2.483.  Characteristics of an index-by table: ± Unbounded » Practically speaking.

page 31 . Variable declaration children child_list_type.Index_by Tables TYPE declaration PACKAGE BODY family IS TYPE child_list_type IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2 (30) INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. Error: NO_DATA_FOUND 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . children 6306 6412 6810 6904 µBarbara Anne¶ µGary Richard¶ µAdam Russell¶ µLisa Nadezhka¶ datemgr. Component Selection kid := children (4). children (6904) := 'Lisa Nadezhka'.pkg children 6306 6412 6904 µBarbara Anne¶ µGary Richard¶ µLisa Marie¶ children (6810) := µAdam Russell.

birthdays when_t.147.483.  Nested table characteristics ± Homogeneous » Each row contains the same structure of data. Valid row numbers range: 1 to 2.647 ± Initially dense. but can become sparse if you DELETE inner rows ± Available both in PL/SQL and SQL (as a column in a table) ± The order of elements is not preserved in the database 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . DECLARE TYPE when_t IS TABLE OF DATE.Nested Tables [CREATE OR REPLACE] TYPE <table_type> IS TABLE OF <datatype> [NOT NULL]. ± Unbounded. but only with explicit EXTEND requests » Practically speaking.page 32 .

page 33 .Nested Tables CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE child_table_type IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2 (30). For ORACLE's use only db_family surname kids BOLZ BOND Eric Thomas Max Richard Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Marie ntdemo.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . CREATE TABLE db_family (surname VARCHAR2 (30). kids child_table_type) NESTED TABLE kids STORE AS kids_ntab.

147. ± Bounded » Upper limit established when the TYPE is defined. ± Variable arrays are actually stored in the DB table 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 34 . DECLARE TYPE numbers_t IS VARRAY (10) OF NUMBER.483. Maximum value: 2. salaries numbers_t. can be EXTENDed or TRIMmed.  Characteristics of variable arrays: ± Homogeneous » Each row contains the same structure of data.647 ± Dense » Never any gaps between defined rows.Variable Arrays [CREATE OR REPLACE] TYPE <table_type> IS VARRAY (N) OF <datatype> [NOT NULL]. ± Available both in PL/SQL and SQL (as a column in a table) » And the order of elements are preserved in the database.

sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . db_family surname kids BOLZ BOND 1 Barbara Anne 2 Gary Richard 3 Lisa Marie 1 Eric Thomas 2 Max Richard vademo.Variable Arrays CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE child_va_type IS VARRAY (8) OF VARCHAR2 (30).page 35 . CREATE TABLE db_family (surname VARCHAR2 (30). kids child_va_type).

. this can only occur in a PL/SQL declaration section. END tabtypes. from the TYPE. ± For index-by tables. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE tabtypes IS TYPE integer_ibt IS TABLE OF INTEGER INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . TYPE integer_nt IS TABLE OF INTEGER. you can define the TYPE in the database with a CREATE statement. . you define the TYPE of the collection.page 36 . TYPE integer_vat IS VARRAY(10) OF INTEGER. ± For nested tables and VARRAYs. Best option: package specification.  Then you declare an instance of that type. or in a PL/SQL declaration section. ± You can declare multiple collections from that TYPE. a collection..Defining Collections  First.

attr_type_name Attributes all_coll_types T.  ALL_COLL_TYPES ± The types you have created (or have access to) in the database  ALL_TYPE_ATTRS ± Attributes of the data type used in the TYPE definition.owner = USER T.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .attr_name || ' .type_name IN ('NAMES_VT'. ± The code used to define the collection TYPE  There is no information in the data dictionary available for index-by tables. 'TMRS_VT') T.' || A.owner T.page 37 . all_type_attrs A T.owner = A.Obtaining Collection Information SELECT FROM WHERE AND AND AND A.elem_type_name = A.type_name. colldd.

it must be initialized. salaries numbers_t := numbers_t (100. ± Nested tables and VARRAYs are atomically null. salary_history numbers_t). BEGIN CREATE TABLE employee_denorm ( employee_id INTEGER. DECLARE TYPE numbers_t IS VARRAY (10) OF NUMBER. You must initialize them explicitly with a constructor.page 38 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .Initialize the collection. / DECLARE -. salaries numbers_t := numbers_t (100. BEGIN CREATE TYPE numbers_t IS VARRAY (10) OF NUMBER. 300). 200. 200. empty when declared. ± Index-by tables are initialized automatically. TYPE defined in PL/SQL TYPE defined in the database Collection used in a table PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Initializing Collections  Before you can use a collection. 300).

company_id%TYPE.  Starting with Oracle8. the datatype for any of the collection types can also be an object. comp_tab comp_tabtype.page 39 . BEGIN comp_tab(1). DECLARE TYPE comp_rectype IS RECORD (comp_id company.3.Collections of Composites  Starting with Oracle 7. total_rev NUMBER). ± But you cannot have nested composite datatypes. Here we have a three step process. Again. the ³homogeneous´ contents of an index-by table's row can be a record . ± Can easily create an index-by table with the same structure as a database table by declaring a record with %ROWTYPE.comp_id := 1005. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . consider putting TYPEs in database or packages. TYPE comp_tabtype IS TABLE OF comp_rectype INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER.

Sparse is Nice  The sparse characteristic of index-by tables and nested tables can be put to good use. your collections will contain a row's worth of information. ± In almost every case. ± In an index-by table. ± You should not fill sequentially. order by date. consider using the row value as "smart data" for your application (primary key. etc. it is very similar to a database table.  Especially handy when caching data from relational tables in user memory. ± Instead. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Rows do not have to be defined sequentially. In this way. unless the order in which items are selected is of importance.). a row exists in the table only when a value is assigned to that row.page 40 .

END LOOP.Transferring DB Table to Collection CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE psemp IS TYPE emp_tabtype IS TABLE OF emp%ROWTYPE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. Some questions: ± Why would I put this collection table in a package? ± When is the collection loaded with the data? ± What rows in that collection are utilized? psemp.pkg psemp.empno) := rec.page 41 .tst  PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END. END. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY psemp IS BEGIN FOR rec IN (SELECT * FROM emp) LOOP emp_tab (rec. emp_tab emp_tabtype. Initialization section of package 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein  This package moves the entire contents of the emp table into its corresponding collection.

/ Error -6533! You've got to EXTEND first!  EXTEND before assigning a value to a row. BEGIN greedy_ceos(1) := 'Hamilton. ± Not necessary for index-by tables. Jordan'. but you must do it for VARRAYs and nested tables. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . you must reference existing rows or a NO_DATA_FOUND exception is raised. / DECLARE greedy_ceos names_t := names_t (). once extended. the row exists.  For index-by tables. ± For VARRAYs and nested tables. even if you haven't assigned a value explicitly.Collection Gotchas CREATE TYPE names_t IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2(30). END.page 42 . ± Use the EXISTS method to determine if a row existed.

± Pre-extending a large number of rows in advance can improve performance.FIRST)). ± Assign a default value with a second. ELSE DBMS_OUTPUT. salaries.EXISTS (v_employee_id) THEN -.  You can EXTEND one or more rows.Set the value of each new row to the contents of the first row.Extend by 10 since I know I will need that many. -. preextend. salaries(salaries.page 43 .We are OK.'). BEGIN IF salaries.Handling Collection Gotchas BEGIN -. END IF. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .PUT_LINE ('Data for employee not available. optional argument.EXTEND (10.tst  Include a handler for NO_DATA_FOUND or use the EXISTS method to avoid these exceptions.

± TRIM removes rows from a VARRAY. EXISTS returns TRUE if the specified row is defined. ± ± ± ±  Modify the contents of the collection ± DELETE deletes one or more rows from the index-by table.page 44 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . FIRST/LAST return lowest/highest numbers of defined rows. number of elements allowed in a VARRAY. ± EXTEND adds rows to a nested table or VARRAY.Collection Methods  Obtain information about the collection COUNT returns number of rows currently defined in the table. NEXT/PRIOR return the closest defined row after/before the specified row. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± LIMIT tells you the max.  The built-in package plitblm (PL/sql Index-TaBLe Methods) defines these methods.

FREE_UNUSED_USER_MEMORY. 17255).Delete one (the last) row myCollection.Delete a range of rows myCollection.The DELETE Method  You can delete one or more rows from a collection using DELETE: BEGIN -.DELETE. but you may also want to call DBMS_SESSION. -.DELETE (myCollection.DELETE (1400. END. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . -.LAST).page 45 . DELETE releases memory.Delete all rows myCollection.

Navigating Through Collections 


Use FIRST and NEXT to move from beginning to end. Use LAST and PRIOR to move from end to beginning.
rowind PLS_INTEGER := birthdays.FIRST; -- birthdays.LAST BEGIN LOOP EXIT WHEN rowind IS NULL; DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE (birthdays(rowind).best_present); rowind := birthdays.NEXT (rowind); -- birthdays.PRIOR END LOOP; END;

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Using Collections Inside SQL 

Nested tables and VARRAYs can be defined as columns of a table and referenced directly within SQL. You can also apply SQL operations to the contents of nested tables and VARRAYs with these operators:
± THE - Maps a single column value in a single row to a virtual database table ± CAST - Maps a collection of one type to a collection of another type ± MULTISET - Maps a database table to a collection ± TABLE - Maps a collection to a database table  

Index-by tables are programmatic constructs only.
± You cannot make a direct reference to an index-by table in SQL. ± Instead, so do indirectly with a PL/SQL function.

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Using Collections inside SQL
SELECT column_value FROM TABLE (SELECT children FROM db_family WHERE surname = 'BOLZ'); db_family surname children BOLZ BOND Eric Thomas Max Richard UPDATE TABLE (SELECT children FROM db_family WHERE SURNAME = 'BOLZ) SET column_value = 'Lisa Nadezhka' WHERE column_value = 'Lisa Marie'); db_family surname children BOLZ ...
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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 48

Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Marie

column_value Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Marie

Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Nadezhka

Using the THE Operator 

Use THE to manipulate (retrieve, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE) contents of a nested table in a database table.
± Can only use with nested tables, not VARRAYs or index-by tables. ± Only accessible from within SQL statements in PL/SQL.
CREATE TYPE action_list_t IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2(100); / CREATE TABLE inflation_beater ( focus_area VARCHAR2(100), activities action_list_t) NESTED TABLE activities STORE AS activities_tab; SELECT VALUE (act) FROM THE (SELECT activities FROM inflation_beater WHERE focus_area = 'FORTUNE 100') act; UPDATE THE (SELECT activities FROM inflation_beater WHERE focus_area = 'FORTUNE 100') SET COLUMN_VALUE = 'DISBAND OSHA' WHERE COLUMN_VALUE = 'SIDESTEP OSHA';

the.sql

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 49

Using the TABLE and CAST Operators 

Use CAST to convert a collection from one type to another, TABLE to convert a TYPE into a database table.
± Cannot use with index-by tables. ± Useful when you would like to apply SQL operations against a PL/SQL collection (ie, one not stored in a database table).
DECLARE nyc_devolution cutbacks_for_taxcuts := cutbacks_for_taxcuts ('Stop rat extermination programs', 'Fire building inspectors', 'Close public hospitals'); BEGIN DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE ( 'How to Make the NYC Rich Much, Much Richer:'); FOR rec IN (SELECT COLUMN_VALUE ohmy FROM TABLE (CAST (nyc_devolution AS cutbacks_for_taxcuts))) LOOP DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE (rec.ohmy); END LOOP; cast.sql END;

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genus.species.genus AND bh.Using the MULTISET Operator  MULTISET is the inverse of TABLE.species = b.species) AS country_tab_t) FROM birds b. multiset. query) into a VARRAY or nested table. information for the BEGIN master in one trip. ± You can use MULTISET to emulate or transform relational joins into collections. b.genus = b. view. FETCH bird_curs into bird_row. CAST(MULTISET(SELECT bh. END.page 51 .country FROM bird_habitats bh WHERE bh.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . converting a set of data (table. with potential client-server performance impact. DECLARE CURSOR bird_curs IS SELECT b. ± Cannot use with index-by tables. OPEN bird_curs. Retrieves all detail bird_row bird_curs%ROWTYPE.

page 52 . END. Instead.sql PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . WNDS). hiredates date_tab.  CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE ibtab IS FUNCTION rowval (indx IN PLS_INTEGER) RETURN DATE. but hide the index-by table structure.Referencing IB Tables inside SQL  You can't directly reference an index-by table's contents inside SQL. END. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein ibtab_in_sql. PRAGMA RESTRICT_REFERENCES (rowval. call functions that retrieve the table's data. WNPS. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY ibtab IS TYPE date_tab IS TABLE OF DATE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. END. Make accessible in SQL for Oracle8 and below. FUNCTION rowval (indx IN PLS_INTEGER) RETURN DATE IS BEGIN RETURN hiredates (indx).

page 53 .Examples of Collections in Action  Emulation of bi-directional cursor operations Avoid mutating table problems in database triggers.  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

± A talked-about feature for Oracle9i -.page 54 . deposit your data in a collection and then provide programs to access that data in the necessary fashion.pkg bidir.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . FUNCTION getRow RETURN employee_plus%ROWTYPE. Notice that the collection itself is hidden. didn't make it!  Instead. PROCEDURE nextRow.nope. This is particularly useful (read: efficient) when you need to perform multiple passes against the data. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE bidir IS /* Iterate through rows in the result set */ PROCEDURE setRow (nth IN PLS_INTEGER).  bidir. PROCEDURE prevRow.Bi-Directional Cursor Emulation  Oracle does not yet support the ability to move back and forth (and at random) through a cursor's result set. END.

page 55 .The Mutating Table Problem  Database triggers can be attached to the SQL statement and/or the individual row operations on a table. So what are you supposed to do when a row-level operation needs to "touch" that table? mutating. it is "mutating". 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .sql  Note: in Oracle8i. you can use autonomous transactions to relax restrictions associated with queries. Statement Level UPDATE emp SET sal = 1000 UPDATE row 1 Row Level  UPDATE row N Row level triggers cannot query from or change the contents of the table to which it is attached.

Statement Trigger 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 1st row trigger fires Nth row trigger fires Writes to list Writes to list Work List (PL/SQL Table)  Process data in the list. you have to remember what you needed to do.page 56 . you need to defer the action until you get to the statement level. If you are going to defer the work.A Solution Based on Index-by Tables  Since you cannot perform the processing desired in the row-level trigger. ± an index-by table is an ideal repository for this reminder list.

but preferable. we then know which departments to re-rank. Department ID Salesperson ID Sales Amount Rank 1055 1055 1055 1047  64333 65709 65706 70904 74055.88 144533.An Example: Ranking Salespeople  A table holds the rankings based on the amount of annual sales of salespeople within a department.25 3 1 2 6 "Deferred work" is not only necessary. ± We might update more than one department within a statement so we must be able to retain multiple department numbers. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 57 . ± As the sales amount is updated in this table.25 65011. ± By storing the salesperson¶s department ids as they change.91 109000. the rankings must also change to show the new standings for that department only.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .pkg All details of the ranking are hidden in the package body. Doesn't fire unless the sales_amt is actually changed.sales_amt != NEW. END.Trigger Logic Required Row Level Trigger CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER Rank_Sales_Rtrg AFTER insert OR update OF sales_amt ON rank_sales FOR EACH ROW WHEN (OLD.page 58 .rank_depts. Statement Level Trigger CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER Rank_Sales_Strg AFTER INSERT OR UPDATE OR DELETE ON rank_sales BEGIN rank. ranking.add_dept (:new.dept_id). END.sales_amt) BEGIN rank.

PROCEDURE add_dept (dept_id_in IN INTEGER) IS BEGIN IF NOT in_process THEN dept_tab (dept_id_in) := TRUE. Table holds indicator that department needs re-ranking. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .The Ranking Package PACKAGE rank IS PROCEDURE add_dept (dept_id_in IN INTEGER). PACKAGE BODY rank IS in_process BOOLEAN := FALSE. dept_tab dept_tabtype. TYPE dept_tabtype IS TABLE OF BOOLEAN INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER.page 59 . PROCEDURE rank_depts. END IF. END add_dept 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Create row to indicate department to be ranked. END rank.

The Ranking Package.DELETE. END LOOP. dept_tab. Continued PROCEDURE rank_depts IS v_deptid PLS_INTEGER := dept_tab. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Clean up for next time. perform_ranking (v_deptid). END IF. v_deptid := dept_tab. LOOP EXIT WHEN v_deptid IS NULL. END rank_dept.page 60 .FIRST. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Avoid recursive execution of logic Row number is department number. END rank. in_process := FALSE. BEGIN IF NOT in_process THEN in_process := TRUE.NEXT (v_deptid).

page 61 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Nested tables ± You want to store large amounts of persistent data in a column. You want to use inside SQL. You don't want to have to worry about sparseness. Set of data is relatively small (avoid row chaining).Which Collection Type Should I Use?  Index-by tables ± Need to use in both Oracle7 and Oracle8 applications ± Want to take advantage of sparse nature for "intelligent keys".  VARRAYs ± ± ± ± You want to preserve the order in which elements are stored. ± You want to use inside SQL.

Tips for Using Collections 

Wrap access to your collections.
± In many cases, you will want to avoid direct access to (assigning and retrieving) rows in your collections. ± This will give you the flexibility to change your implementation. ± You can also hide complex rules for setting the row number. 

Get creative!
± Don't always fill and use the index-by table sequentially. ± If you can somehow translate your application data to an integer, it can be used as a row number, and therefore offers indexed access. ± Julian date formats and DBMS_UTILITY.GET_HASH_VALUE offer two different methods.

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Achieving PL/SQL Excellence

Cursor Variables

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 63

Architecture of Cursor Variables
With Hard-Coded Cursors
Hard-Coded Cursor

With Cursor Variables

PGA

Cursor Variable

Cursor Variable

Result Set

Shared Global Area

Cursor Object

Result Set 

A cursor variable points to an underlying cursor object in the database.
± The cursor object in turns points to (and keeps its place in) a result set. 

The cursor variable can be passed between programs (even between, say, a Java servlet and a PL/SQL stored procedure).
± Static SQL only -- until Oracle8i.
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1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

Benefits of Cursor Variables 

Share cursor management between programs, even across the client-server divide.
± You don't have to pass the result sets of a cursor in order to allow the client-side program to have direct access to the data in the result set. ± Oracle Developer 2.1 utilizes cursor variables when you choose to construct a "base table block" around stored procedures instead of a database table. 

Share the same code across multiple, different queries.
± Since the cursor name is no longer hard-coded, you can use a single block of code (say, a reporting program) against different queries. ± We will try out this technique at the end of the section.

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Cursor Variable Example
DECLARE TYPE company_curtype IS REF CURSOR RETURN company%ROWTYPE;
Declare a variable cursor TYPE.

company_curvar company_curtype;

Declare cursor variable based on that type. Declare a record from cursor variable. OPEN cursor variable, specifying the query. FETCH from the cursor variable.

company_rec company_curvar%ROWTYPE; BEGIN OPEN company_curvar FOR SELECT * FROM company;

FETCH company_curvar INTO company_rec;
Close the cursor variable.

CLOSE company_curvar; END;
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Explicit Cursors and Cursor Variables 

Both hard-coded cursors and cursor variables work with static SQL.
± The SQL is fixed at compile-time. ± The difference is that with cursor variables, you get to decide which static query is opened. 

Many cursor operations are the same:
± Close a variable cursor with the same syntax as that for static cursors. ± Use cursor attributes (%ISOPEN, %FOUND, %NOTFOUND, %ROWCOUNT) with cursor variables (as of Release 2.3). ± Fetch data from the cursor result set through a cursor variable with the same syntax as that of static cursors. 

Let¶s focus on the new and different capabilities of cursor variables.
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1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

Declaring Cursor Types and Variables 

Cursors are declared in two steps, just like programmerdefined records and PL/SQL tables.
± 1. Define a cursor TYPE -- either "weak" or "strong". ± 2. Define a cursor variable.
DECLARE TYPE weak_curtype IS REF CURSOR; TYPE comp_curtype IS REF CURSOR RETURN company%ROWTYPE; curcmp_new comp_curtype; cur_any weak_curtype; BEGIN
Declare cursor variables from the TYPEs. Declare a STRONG referenced cursor TYPE. Declare a WEAK referenced cursor TYPE.

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Strong vs. Weak Cursor Types 

A strong (or constrained) cursor type has a defined return data specification.
± Can only reference cursor objects which return the same data specification, which can be any single SQL datatype or any previously defined record structure. ± Datatype mismatches are identified at compile time.

TYPE cur_typ_name IS REF CURSOR [ RETURN return_type ]; TYPE cur_typ_name IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE; /* Strong */ 

The weak (or unconstrained) cursor type does not have a RETURN clause.
± It can reference any cursor object, be opened FOR any query. ± Datatype mismatches can only be identified at runtime.

TYPE cur_typ_name IS REF CURSOR; /* Weak */
1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein
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Opening with the Cursor Variable
OPEN cursor_name FOR select_statement; 

When you open a cursor variable (whether of the weak or strong variety), you must provide the SQL query that identifies the result set.
± If the variable has not yet been assigned to cursor object, the OPEN FOR statement implicitly creates an object for the variable. ± If the variable is already pointing to a cursor object, the OPEN FOR reuses the existing object and attaches the new query to that cursor object. 

Remember, the cursor object is nothing more than a memory location.
± It is maintained independently of the query itself.
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1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

 STRONG cursor data specifications must match or be compatible with the structure of the SELECT statement. ..Opening with Strong Cursor Types DECLARE TYPE emp_curtype IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . a cursor or a programmer-defined record.page 71 . Match Needed BEGIN OPEN emp_curvar FOR SELECT * from emp. emp_curvar emp_curtype.. ± You can establish the return type based on a database table. END.

Opening with Weak Cursor Types PACKAGE pkg IS TYPE cv_type IS REF CURSOR.cv_type IS retval pkg. THEN OPEN retval FOR SELECT * FROM dept. BEGIN IF get_type_in = µEMP¶ THEN Either query will "do". FUNCTION open_emp_or_dept (get_type_in IN VARCHAR2) RETURN pkg. Verification will take ELSIF get_type_in = µDEPT¶ place at the FETCH.  A weak cursor TYPE doesn't define the RETURN structure. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . REF TYPE placed in package so that it is "globally" available.page 72 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . OPEN retval FOR SELECT * FROM emp.cv_type. END. END. RETURN retval. END IF. you can associate any SELECT statement with a weak cursor variable.

var_name. FETCH cursor_var_name INTO var_name. it match the cursor type data specification.Fetching from the Cursor Variable FETCH cursor_var_name INTO record_name.. . ± The ROWTYPE_MISMATCH exception is raised on failure.  Fetching with cursor variables follows the same rules as those with static cursors.. The INTO structure must match in number and datatype to: ± FOR STRONG cursor types.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . it match the OPEN FOR statement structure. ± Fetching can continue with a different INTO clause.. ± FOR WEAK cursor types.   Compatibility checks are performed prior to fetching row.page 73 . mismatch.

± JDBC recognizes cursor variables. ± You could use dynamic SQL to achieve this effect.page 74 .When to Use Cursor Variables  Make it easier for calling programs (especially non-PL/SQL programs) to manipulate result sets. Use a single block of code to manipulate multiple queries.  hccursor. you have to repeat the code for each cursor. ± With explicit cursors.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . but static cursors are more efficient than dynamic SQL and cursor variables are less complicated than DBMS_SQL. since cursor names are "hard coded".  Define a base table block in Forms Builder (formerly Oracle Forms) on stored procedures rather than a table directly.

/ allcurrs. FUNCTION open (type_in IN INTEGER) RETURN cv_t.pkg allcurs.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . TYPE cv_t IS REF CURSOR RETURN int_rt.Consolidating Different Cursors  The following package specification hides the SQL behind a single open function.page 75 . ± It also creates the data structures you will need to call the function. TYPE int_rt IS RECORD (key INTEGER). END.tst explcv. bysal CONSTANT INTEGER := 2. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE allcurs IS bydept CONSTANT INTEGER := 1.

RETURN retval. BEGIN IF type_in = bydept THEN OPEN retval FOR SELECT empno FROM emp ORDER BY deptno. END IF. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY allcurs IS FUNCTION open (type_in IN INTEGER) RETURN cv_t IS retval cv_t. END.Consolidating Different Cursors  The open function simply opens FOR a different SELECT based on the criteria passed to it.page 76 . END. ELSIF type_in = bysal THEN OPEN retval FOR SELECT empno FROM emp ORDER BY SAL. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

LOOP FETCH cv INTO v_empno. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END LOOP.l (v_empno). change the ORDER BY clause -without having to change the code you write. v_empno emp.cv_t. DECLARE cv allcurs. EXIT WHEN cv%NOTFOUND.Hiding SQL Variations in Resulting Code  The following block demonstrates that you can alter which SQL statement to query -.empno%TYPE.page 77 "Report processor" is independent of the particular SELECT . BEGIN cv := allcurs.open (&1). CLOSE cv.in this case. p. END.

unconstrained type.page 78 .Cursor Variables Let's summarize  Flexibility ± Choose which static SQL statement is executed at run-time. or a more general.1. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Strong and Weak Types ± Create REF CURSORs for specific queries.  Improve Client-Side Access to Data ± At least in Oracle Developer 2.  Hide Variations in Underlying SQL ± You no longer have to repeat the same code for different cursors. you can build screens that access data using a cursor variable-based procedural API.

page 79 .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Dynamic SQL  Dynamic SQL and dynamic PL/SQL: ± The DBMS_SQL package ± Native dynamic SQL in Oracle8i 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

± One example: implement indirect referencing in PL/SQL. ± Very common requirement on the Web.Dynamic SQL and PL/SQL Execution  "Dynamic SQL" mean that you construct the SQL statement or PL/SQL block at runtime and then execute it.page 80 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .1 and DBMS_SQL. ± Also supported with "native dynamic SQL" in Oracle8i.  Execute DDL inside PL/SQL programs. you no longer have to write SQL to generate SQL to get your job done.  Execute dynamically-constructed PL/SQL programs. ± Construct powerful DBA utilities. What can you do with Dynamic SQL?  Build ad-hoc query and update applications. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Available in PL/SQL since Release 2.

± NDS does not support method 4. ± Different methods require the use of different programs in DBMS_SQL. execute one or more times.    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Method 4: queries with a variable number of items in the SELECT list and/or non-queries with a variable number of host variables.Four Methods of Dynamic SQL   Method 1: non-queries without host variables. If you can recognize the types. These methods are in increasing order of complexity. executed a single time.page 81 . Method 2: non-queries with a fixed number of host variables. you can more quickly figure out how to code your solution. Method 3: queries with a fixed number of items in the SELECT list and a fixed number of host variables.

difficult to use.Native Dynamic SQL  Prior to Oracle8i. DML and single row fetches.  The new "native dynamic SQL" or NDS of Oracle8i offers two native statements in the PL/SQL language to implement most of your dynamic SQL requirements: ± EXECUTE IMMEDIATE <sql string>.page 82 . and relatively slow (performance did improve significantly as of Oracle8). you would use the DBMS_SQL built-in package to execute dynamic SQL. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . used for DDL. ± OPEN FOR <sql string>. used for multi-row queries. ± But this package is very complex.

The INTO clause allows you to pass values from the select list of a single row query into local variables.  Use this statement to execute any dynamic SQL statement (including a PL/SQL block) except for multi-row queries.. {IN | OUT | IN OUT] bind argument].]. define_variables]. collections and records..EXECUTE IMMEDIATE EXECUTE IMMEDIATE sql-string [INTO {define_variable[. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . including objects..page 83   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . The USING clause allows you to specify bind arguments or variables to be passed into the SQL string before execution. | record }] [USING {IN | OUT | IN OUT] bind argument [..

. and not much of a democracy either!'). RETURN retval..sf compare with: tabcount. USER) || '. 'insured = ''NO''') > 40. table and retval INTEGER.' || tab || ' WHERE ' || NVL (whr. '1=1') INTO retval. WHERE clause. END.page 84 .000. whr IN VARCHAR2 := NULL..COUNT(*) For Any Table  Here's a handy and simple utility based on NDS: CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION tabCount ( tab IN VARCHAR2.000 THEN DBMS_OUTPUT. BEGIN EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'SELECT COUNT(*) FROM ' || NVL (sch. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein tabcount81. IF tabCount ('citizens'. sch IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) RETURN INTEGER IS Specify schema.. END IF.sf PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .PUT_LINE ( 'Not the best health care system in the world.

PROCEDURE runprog (pkg_in IN VARCHAR2..Other Execute Immediate Examples  Perform an update.' || name_in || '. col_in IN VARCHAR2. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN pl ('Compile Error "' || SQLERRM || '" on: ' || v_str). start_in.'. end_in IN DATE.  Execute a stored procedure... END. val_in IN NUMBER) IS BEGIN EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'UPDATE ' || tab_in || ' SET ' || col_in || ' = :val WHERE hiredate BETWEEN :lodate AND :hidate' USING val_in.. END. name_in IN VARCHAR2) IS v_str VARCHAR2 (100). Pass in bind variables with USING clause. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE updnumval ( tab_in IN VARCHAR2. end_in. EXECUTE IMMEDIATE v_str. END.page 85 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . BEGIN v_str := 'BEGIN ' || pkg_in || '. start_in IN DATE.

page 86 . pers IN Person. including objects and collections. cond. cond IN preexisting_conditions) IS BEGIN EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'INSERT INTO ' || tabname (hosp_name) || ' VALUES (:revenue_generator. ± No special syntax needed.pkg PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . :revenue_inhibitors)' USING pers. END.Using Objects and Collections in NDS  One of the key advantages to NDS over DBMS_SQL is that it works with Oracle8 datatypes. ± In the following example. PROCEDURE add_profit_source ( hosp_name IN VARCHAR2... the USING clause allows me to pass an object and nested table to an INSERT statement with a variable table name. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein health$.

variable syntax! EXIT WHEN cv%NOTFOUND. whr IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) IS TYPE cv_type IS REF CURSOR.Multiple Row Queries and NDS  Oracle extends the cursor variable feature of Oracle7 to support multi-row dynamic queries. DBMS_OUTPUT. col IN VARCHAR2. number or string column in any table. ± Here is a simple utility the displays the values of any date. showcol. val VARCHAR2(32767). cv cv_type.PUT_LINE (val). '1 = 1'). LOOP Familiar cursor FETCH cv INTO val. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE showcol ( tab IN VARCHAR2. BEGIN OPEN cv FOR 'SELECT ' || col || ' FROM ' || tab || ' WHERE ' || NVL (whr. END LOOP.sp END.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 87 . CLOSE cv. ndsutil.

Some Fine Print for NDS  You cannot pass schema elements (table names. etc.) through the USING clause. ± If dynamic SQL. column names. provide a value for each distinct placeholder (by name). ± If dynamic PL/SQL. You cannot pass the NULL literal directly in the USING clause. then you provide a value for each placeholder (by position).pkg    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . The USING clause for a query can only have IN bind arguments.page 88 . pass a variable with a NULL value. You can have duplicate placeholders (for bind arguments). str2list. Instead.

DBMS_SQL is a very large and complex package. with many rules to follow and lots of code to write.Dynamic SQL using DBMS_SQL  Prior to Oracle8i.page 89 . Supports all four methods of dynamic SQL.     1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . in particular method 4. the only way to perform dynamic SQL was with the DBMS_SQL package. The overhead for using DBMS_SQL has decreased significantly in Oracle8 and again in Oracle8i. You should only use DBMS_SQL when you cannot use NDS.

page 90 .Learning Through Examples  DDL ± Create an index from within PL/SQL  DML ± Update rows in a table  DML with binding ± Update rows using bind variables  Queries ± Method 3 and a dynamic WHERE clause  PL/SQL Version of "SELECT *" ± Example of Method 4  PL/SQL ± Create a generic calculation program 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Construct the DDL statement as a string.OPEN_CURSOR. ± Parse and execute that DDL statement. DBMS_SQL.CLOSE_CURSOR (cur).page 91 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . tab_in IN VARCHAR2.EXECUTE (cur). DDL_statement VARCHAR2(200) := 'CREATE INDEX ' || index_in || ' ON ' || tab_in || ' ( ' || col_in || ')'. fdbk INTEGER.PARSE (cur. fdbk := DBMS_SQL. which will be used to execute the DDL statement.DDL with Dynamic SQL PROCEDURE create_index (index_in IN VARCHAR2.sp Creates an index on any column(s) in any table in your schema. END. DBMS_SQL. ± Open a cursor. col_in IN VARCHAR2) IS cur INTEGER := DBMS_SQL.  creind.NATIVE). BEGIN DBMS_SQL. DDL_statement.

ename_in IN emp.EXECUTE (cur). DBMS_SQL.ename%TYPE. DBMS_SQL.Updates with Dynamic SQL  Update numeric column for specified employees.OPEN_CURSOR. fdbk := DBMS_SQL. val_in IN NUMBER) IS cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL.CLOSE_CURSOR (cur).page 92 . DBMS_OUTPUT.PARSE (cur.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .NATIVE). fdbk PLS_INTEGER. END.PUT_LINE ('Rows updated: ' || TO_CHAR (fdbk)). CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE updnumval ( col_in IN VARCHAR2. 'UPDATE emp SET ' || col_in || ' = ' || val_in || ' WHERE ename LIKE UPPER (''' || ename_in || ''')'. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. updnval1.

val_in IN NUMBER) IS cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL.page 93 .BIND_VARIABLE (cur. updnval2.EXECUTE (cur). 'hidate'. fdbk := DBMS_SQL. 'UPDATE emp SET ' || col_in || ' = ' || val_in || ' WHERE hiredate BETWEEN :lodate AND :hidate'.sp updnval3. DBMS_SQL. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.PUT_LINE ('Rows updated: ' || TO_CHAR (fdbk)). start_in).OPEN_CURSOR. start_in IN DATE. 'lodate'. end_in IN DATE. end_in). DBMS_SQL.PARSE (cur.CLOSE_CURSOR (cur). END. DBMS_SQL. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE updnumval ( col_in IN VARCHAR2. DBMS_SQL.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . fdbk PLS_INTEGER.Updates with Bind Variables  Update salaries for date range using binding.BIND_VARIABLE (cur. DBMS_OUTPUT.NATIVE).

Processing Flow for a Dynamic Query Allocate cursor memory (OPEN_CURSOR) Fill cursor with data (EXECUTE) Make sure SELECT is well formed (PARSE) Fill buffer with data (FETCH_ROWS) (EXECUTE_AND_FETCH) Bind any variables (BIND_VARIABLE) (BIND_ARRAY) Retrieve the data (COLUMN_VALUE) Give cursor structure (DEFINE_COLUMN) (DEFINE_ARRAY) Release cursor memory (CLOSE_CURSOR) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 94 .

ename FROM emp ' || ' WHERE ' || NVL (where_in. fdbk INTEGER.FETCH_ROWS (cur) = 0. 'a'. DBMS_SQL. 2.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. 'SELECT empno.tst PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .sp showemp2.PUT_LINE (TO_CHAR (rec. LOOP EXIT WHEN DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.NATIVE). CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE showemps (where_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) IS cur INTEGER := DBMS_SQL.sp showemps. '1=1').empno).PARSE (cur.OPEN_CURSOR.empno) || '=' || rec.page 95 . DBMS_OUTPUT.COLUMN_VALUE (cur.COLUMN_VALUE (cur.. END. rec.EXECUTE (cur). 1). rec. 60). DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL.Queries with Dynamic SQL  Show employees using a dynamic WHERE clause. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein showemps.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.ename).. 1.CLOSE_CURSOR (cur). 1. rec emp%ROWTYPE. 2. DBMS_SQL. fdbk := DBMS_SQL. END LOOP.ename).

NATIVE). LOOP fetch-a-row. DBMS_SQL. END LOOP. nth_col. END LOOP.COLUMN_VALUE (cur.page 96 Very simplified pseudo-code intab. val).sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . select_string. datatype). FOR each-column-in-table LOOP DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. ± The resulting code is much more complicated. FOR each-column-in-table LOOP DBMS_SQL.PARSE (cur. END LOOP. END. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Dynamic SELECT * FROM Any Table  Method 4 example: the number of columns queried changes with each table. END LOOP. DBMS_SQL. nth_col. BEGIN FOR each-column-in-table LOOP add-column-to-select-list.

exact_match IN BOOLEAN DEFAULT FALSE) RETURN INTEGER. the first row will still be fetched and available. ± Even if the exception is raised. raises NO_DATA_FOUND or raises the TOO_MANY_ROWS exception.  Makes it easy to execute and fetch a single row from a query. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .EXECUTE_AND_FETCH (cur). then EXECUTE_AND_FETCH will raise the TOO_MANY_ROWS exception if more than one row is fetched by the SELECT. numrows := DBMS_SQL.EXECUTE_AND_FETCH (cur. ± Very similar to the implicit SELECT cursor in native PL/SQL.Using EXECUTE_AND_FETCH FUNCTION execute_and_fetch (cursor_in IN INTEGER. TRUE). numrows := DBMS_SQL.page 97 . which returns a single row. ± If exact_match is TRUE.

arg4_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. ± With DBMS_SQL.page 98 . NULL. NULL. NULL. arg8_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. arg6_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. a single function will do the trick. ± Using static PL/SQL. 0. I would have to modify my screen every time a new formula was added. FUNCTION dyncalc ( oper_in IN VARCHAR2.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . nargs_in IN INTEGER := arg1_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg3_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg5_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg7_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg9_in IN VARCHAR2 := ) RETURN VARCHAR2. arg2_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. NULL.Dynamic Formula Execution  Suppose I am building a user interface that allows a user to select a formula for execution. NULL.sf dyncalc. and enter the arguments. arg10_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL dyncalc.

BIND_VARIABLE (cur.'). DBMS_SQL. v_deptin).VARIABLE_VALUE (cur. DBMS_SQL.sp dynplsql.page 99 . my_salary). :salout).More on Dynamic PL/SQL BEGIN cur := open_and_parse ('BEGIN get_max_sal (:deptin. You must have a BEGIN-END around the code.EXECUTE (cur). µsalout¶. END. fdbk := DBMS_SQL. µdeptin¶.BIND_VARIABLE (cur. END. Possibilities inherent in dynamic PL/SQL are mind-boggling! dynplsql. my_salary). µsalout¶.even OUT arguments which are not being bound to any values. DBMS_SQL.sql dynplsql.  Use BIND_VARIABLE to bind any placeholders in the string -. Use VARIABLE_VALUE to extract a value from any variable you have bound.tst    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

CLOSE_CURSOR (v_cur). DBMS_SQL.OPEN_CURSOR. DBMS_SQL. retval PLV. 'BEGIN :val := ' || nm || '. 2000). Here is an example of a "PL/SQL NAME_IN": FUNCTION valbyname (nm IN VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2 IS v_cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.NATIVE).page 100  dynvar.pkg dynvar. DBMS_SQL.dbmaxvc2.PARSE (v_cur. PL/SQL does not support indirect referencing. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .EXECUTE (v_cur). DBMS_SQL.Indirect Referencing with Dyn PL/SQL  Oracle Forms offers support for indirect referencing with the NAME_IN and COPY built-ins. fdbk := DBMS_SQL. 'val'. but you can accomplish much of the same thing with dynamic PL/SQL execution. RETURN retval. 'a'.VARIABLE_VALUE (v_cur. 'val'. END.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .BIND_VARIABLE (v_cur.'. fdbk PLS_INTEGER. retval). END.

DBMS_SQL Status Built-ins  The package offers a set of modules to return information about the lastoperated cursor in your session.  IS_OPEN ± Is the cursor already open?  LAST_ERROR_POSITION ± Returns relative column position in cursor of text causing error condition.  LAST_ROW_COUNT ± Returns the cumulative count of rows fetched from the cursor.  LAST_SQL_FUNCTION_CODE ± Returns SQL function code of cursor. ± Call these immediately after your usage to make sure they refer to your cursor. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  LAST_ROW_ID ± Returns the ROWID of last row processed.page 101 .

you define the column as a LONG.pkg dumplong.page 102 . dumplong. ± DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN_LONG ± DBMS_SQL. Then you retrieve the column using the special COLUMN_VALUE_LONG variant. ± Transfer the LONG contents into an index-by table so that you can transfer a value of more than 32K bytes into your PL/SQL program.COLUMN_VALUE_LONG   First.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Working with LONG Values  DBMS_SQL provides special procedures so that you can extract values from a LONG column in a table.

page 103 .New DBMS_SQL Features PL/SQL8 Extensions to DBMS_SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

± Support for RETURNING clause to avoid unnecessary queries.page 104 . deletes and fetches.New Features in DBMS_SQL  The functionality of DBMS_SQL has been extended in Oracle8 in several ways: ± Parse very long SQL strings ± Describe cursor columns ± Use "array processing" to perform bulk updates. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . inserts.

DESC_TAB). it was not possible to determine the datatypes of the columns defined in a cursor. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± The record TYPE is also defined in DBMS_SQL.  Before PL/SQL8. ± Now you can call the DBMS_SQL.  Returns all of the column information in an index table of records.page 105 .DESCRIBE_COLUMNS. desc_t OUT DBMS_SQL. col_cnt OUT INTEGER.DESCRIBE_COLUMNS (c IN INTEGER.Describing Cursor Columns PROCEDURE DBMS_SQL.

END.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . desccols. DBMS_SQL. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE show_columns IS cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL.PARSE (cur. empno FROM emp'.pkg desccols.OPEN_CURSOR. cols DBMS_SQL. ncols LOOP DBMS_OUTPUT.Basic Steps to Describe Columns  The following script shows the individual steps you will need to perform in order to use this feature. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.col_name). ncols. DBMS_SQL. END LOOP.PUT_LINE (cols(colind). DBMS_SQL. cols).DESC_TAB.CLOSE_CURSOR (cur).tst showcols.page 106 .. ncols PLS_INTEGER.NATIVE). 'SELECT hiredate.DESCRIBE_COLUMNS (cur. FOR colind IN 1 .

inserts. It really isn't "array processing". i. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ."Array Processing" in DBMS_SQL  PL/SQL8 now allows you to specify the use of "arrays". where N is the number of rows in the table. index tables.e.    This technique still.. ± In actuality. Instead of providing a scalar value for an operation. DBMS_SQL then repeats your action for every row in the table. deletes and fetches. however.page 107 . when you perform updates. can offer a significant performance boost over Oracle7 dynamic SQL. you specify an index table. DBMS_SQL is executing the specified SQL statement N times.

± But remember: you cannot pass schema elements (table names.  Encapsulate statements to improve error handling. column names.pkg whichsch. only possible for statements that do not need USING and INTO clauses. etc. though you could write variations for those as well. not the invoker of the code.Recommendations for Dynamic SQL  Bind (vs. ± With NDS.PARSE so that you include the trace in that program.page 108 . and easier code to write.  Use the Oracle8i invoker rights model whenever you want to share your dynamic SQL programs among multiple schemas. effdsql. ± Otherwise that SQL will be executed under the authority of the owner of the code.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Encapsulate DBMS_SQL.) through the USING clause.sql openprse. concatenate) whenever possible. ± Increased chance of reusing parsed SQL.

. you have upgraded to Oracle8i!  Major Advantages of NDS: ± Ease of use ± Performance ± Works with all SQL datatypes (including userdefined object and collection types) ± Fetch into records  When You'd Use DBMS_SQL: ± ± ± ± ± ± ± Method 4 Dynamic SQL DESCRIBE columns of cursor SQL statements larger than 32K RETURNING into an array Reuse of parsed SQL statements Bulk dynamic SQL Available from client-side PL/SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . of course.page 109 . Both implementations will still come in handy. but DBMS_SQL is hard to use..NDS or DBMS_SQL: Which is Best?  Dynamic SQL and PL/SQL is very useful. ± If.

page 110 . asynchronous.Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Oracle Advanced Queuing  The high performance. persistent messaging subsytem of Oracle 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

page 111 .Who Needs Messaging? Everyone!  In the distributed world of the Internet. consistent manner. systems are now heavily reliant on the ability of components to communicate with each other in a dependable. Distribution Center Coffee Beans Producer Shipping Service Retailer Consumer 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

page 112 .Applications Relying on Messaging     Stock trading system Airline reservation system Auction portals Any e-commerce application 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Key Features of Oracle AQ  Leverage full power of SQL ± Messages are stored in database tables  Database high availability. scalability and reliability all carry over to queues ± Strong history and retention ± Backup and recovery ± Comprehensive journaliing  Rich message content increases usefulness of queueing ± Use object types to define highly structured payloads  New to Oracle8i. the listen feature and notification capabilities. ± Rule-based subscribers.page 113 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . message propagation. AQ now offers a publish/subscribe style of messaging between applications.

AQ architectural overview Queue Monitor process Queue table Queue ³Producers´ Enqueued messages Message 4 Message 3 Message 2 Message1 ³Consumers´ Dequeued messages Messages include both control information and ³payload´ (content) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 114 .

page 115 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . AQ supports: ± ± ± ± ± Multiple queues Resetting order and priority of queued items Queue management using only SQL & PL/SQL Multiple message recipients Propagation of queue to remote servers  Oracle8i adds: ± ± ± ± Rules-based publish & subscribe Listening on multiple queues Easier monitoring Native Java interface PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Oracle AQ Highlights  In 8.0.

Underlying database tables and views The queue monitor (background process) ± Set # of processes with the AQ_TM_PROCESSES initialization parameter.page 116 .    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .AQ Components  The DBMS_AQ package offers enqueue and dequeue capabilities The DBMS_AQADM package provides administrative functionality to manage queues and queue tables.

storage clause. assigns retry and retention properties to queue Drops a stopped queue Can also turn on/off enqueue and dequeue operations Stops queue. sort column. payload type.DBMS_AQADM Highlights CREATE_QUEUE_TABLE DROP_QUEUE_TABLE CREATE_QUEUE DROP_QUEUE START_QUEUE STOP_QUEUE ADD_SUBSCRIBER Assigns name. optionally waiting for outstanding transactions Adds an ³agent´ as a subscriber 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . whether multiple consumers Drops table if all queues in the table have been stopped Associates queue table with queue.page 117 .

page 118 .CREATE_QUEUE (queue_name => 'msgqueue'. / BEGIN DBMS_AQADM.pkg Start the queue PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Define the "payload" Create the queue table DBMS_AQADM. text VARCHAR2(2000)). queue_table => 'msg'). END. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein aq.Creating Queue Tables and Queues CREATE TYPE message_type AS OBJECT (title VARCHAR2(30).CREATE_QUEUE_TABLE (queue_table => 'msg'.START_QUEUE (queue_name => 'msgqueue'). queue_payload_type => 'message_type'). Define a queue in the queue table DBMS_AQADM.

page 119   aq. but lots of complexity buried inside the parameters of these procedures.  ENQUEUE puts a message into a specified queue.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .The "operational package": DBMS_AQ  DBMS_AQ is deceptively simple. ± Only two procedures. and returns a RAW message handle DEQUEUE extracts a message from a specified queue Parameters control message properties such as: ± Visibility (ON_COMMIT or IMMEDIATE) ± ± ± ± Priority Delay Expiration Locking behavior PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

.ENQUEUE_OPTIONS_T. my_msg.'). BEGIN my_msg := message_type ( 'First Enqueue'. my_msg message_type.Simple Enqueue Example DECLARE queueopts DBMS_AQ. msgid).msgid_type.ENQUEUE ( 'msgqueue'. msgprops. msgid aq.* Place the message on the specified queue and get a msg ID in return. queueopts.page 120 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .. END. Declare records to hold various enqueue and msg properties.MESSAGE_PROPERTIES_T. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 'May there be many more. msgprops DBMS_AQ. aqenq*. Set up the payload with an object constructor. DBMS_AQ.

my_msg := message_type ( 'Second Enqueue'. msgprops.. Same setup as previous page .delay := 3 * 60 * 60 * 24.page 121 . Modify the dequeue sequence by changing the deviation field and relative msg ID. DBMS_AQ. 'And this one goes first..ENQUEUE ( 'msgqueue'.'). 'May there be many more..BEFORE..sequence_deviation := DBMS_AQ.. DBMS_AQ. msgprops.relative_msgid := msgid1. queueopts. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . msgid2). BEGIN my_msg := message_type ( 'First Enqueue'. queueopts. msgprops. msgid1). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Specify a delay before the payload is available. queueopts. END. my_msg. my_msg.. queueopts.ENQUEUE ('msgqueue'..')..More Interesting Enqueue Example DECLARE .

msgid aq.msgid_type.pkg */ my_msg message_type. BEGIN getmsg (DBMS_AQ. msgprops.MESSAGE_PROPERTIES_T. msgprops DBMS_AQ.REMOVE).page 122 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . my_msg.Dequeue Example DECLARE queueopts DBMS_AQ. /* defined in aq. Demonstrates destructive and non-destructive dequeuing. getmsg (DBMS_AQ. Dequeue operation isolated in local module.* Declare records to hold various dequeue and msg properties.dequeue_mode := mode_in. msgid). aqdeq*. PROCEDURE getmsg (mode_in IN INTEGER) IS BEGIN queueopts. queueopts.REMOVE).DEQUEUE_OPTIONS_T. END.BROWSE). END.DEQUEUE ( 'msgqueue'. DBMS_AQ. getmsg (DBMS_AQ.

ENQUEUE ( c_queue. msgid aq.Prioritized Payloads  You can assign priorities to individual payloads and then dequeue according to those priorities.1. ± The lower the numeric priority value. item_obj. msgprops. msgid).* 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .msgid_type.pkg priority.priority := g_priority. END. queueopts.IMMEDIATE. PROCEDURE push (item IN VARCHAR2) IS queueopts DBMS_AQ.ENQUEUE_OPTIONS_T.visibility := DBMS_AQ. aqstk. BEGIN item_obj := aqstk_objtype (item). msgprops DBMS_AQ.pkg aqstk2.  A stack implementation using AQ demonstrates this well. msgprops. g_priority := g_priority .page 123 .MESSAGE_PROPERTIES_T. DBMS_AQ. queueopts. item_obj aqstk_objtype. the higher the priority.

CREATE_QUEUE_TABLE ( queue_table => 'major_qtable'. NULL. SYS. The queue table must be defined to support multiple subscribers or consumers. NULL)). queue_payload_type => 'student_major_t'. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein aqmult*.page 124 . DBMS_AQADM. ± The message is then not removed from the queue until all subscribers have dequeued the message.ADD_SUBSCRIBER ( c_queue.AQ$_AGENT (name_in.Defining Message Subscribers  You can specify that a message is to be enqueued for a list of subscribers.* PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . multiple_consumers => TRUE). Add subscribers for the queue. ± 2. BEGIN DBMS_AQADM.  Steps to working with a subscriber list: ± 1.

improved security. LISTEN capability. supporting a publish-subscribe model.page 125 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Significant enhancements in Oracle8i. ± Much more robust that DBMS_PIPE.Summary  Very powerful and flexible architecture. ± Crucial for Oracle to have a message-oriented middleware in order to offer an all-Oracle solution.  Considered by Oracle to be a core component of its overall solution.Oracle AQ . ± Should be strongly supported "down the road".

Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Managing Large Objects with DBMS_LOB 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 126 .

LOB datatypes are the successor to LONGs. ± Oracle has announced deprecation of LONGs. though they will probably not be actually desupported. they should no longer be used. etc. Images. sounds.LOB Terms  LOB = Large OBject: a category of datatype allowing storage of ³unstructured´ data up to 4 gigabytes LOB datatype can be: ± Column in table ± Attribute in object type ± Element in nested table   Possible applications include office documents.  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . video.page 127 .

page 128 . improving performance. external do not ± External LOBs are read-only from within Oracle 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Types of Large Objects  ³Internal´ LOBs ± BLOB: unstructured binary data ± CLOB: single-byte fixedwidth character data ± NCLOB: multi-byte fixedwidth character data (or varying width in )  ³External´ LOBs ± BFILE: pointer to an operating system file  Temporary LOBs ± Internal LOBs that do not participate in transactions.  Key programming differences: ± Internal LOBs participate in transactions.

EMPTY_CLOB() ± BFILENAME 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . append. open. comparison and length checking ± For internal LOBs: Write.PL/SQL built-ins for LOBs  Package DBMS_LOB ± Supports for all LOBs: Reading. copy. substring and instring searches. erase. close  Other built-in functions ± LOADFROMFILE (load an external BFILE into a BLOB) ± EMPTY_LOB().page 129 . trim ± For external LOBs: File existence test.

fax BLOB).  Retrieve record with BLOB into PL/SQL variable DECLARE CURSOR fax_cur IS SELECT fax FROM incoming_faxes. FETCH fax_cur INTO the_fax. Question: What¶s in the_fax? 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 130 . received DATE. END.Deceptively simple example  BLOB-typed column in a table CREATE TABLE incoming_faxes (fax_id INTEGER. the_fax BLOB. CLOSE fax_cur. BEGIN OPEN fax_cur.

page 131 . tt LOBs <lob segment> fax_id 281937 received 12-JAN-98 fax <lob locator> Updati  t e LOB anges t e pointer is ompli ates se of LOBs ± LOB locators cannot span transactions ± Programs must lock records containing LOBs efore updating ± Programs performing L must accommodate dynamic LOB locator alues 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .The ³LOB locator´ LOB t l sel es [ ll ] t i i t r .

EMPTY_CLOB()) RETURNING htmlloc INTO the_loc.url%TYPE := 'http://www.Example: Piecewise CLOB programmatic insert  Create a table CREATE TABLE web_pages ( url VARCHAR2(512) PRIMARY KEY.. BEGIN INSERT INTO web_pages VALUES (the_url.page 132 .. htmlloc CLOB). 1 of 2  Must get a new LOB locator before writing into the LOB: DECLARE the_url web_pages.com'. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . the_loc CLOB.oodb. .

Note: We are ignoring amount => piece_length. EMPTY_CLOB()) and loads a web page RETURNING htmlloc INTO the_loc.HTML_PIECES.page 133 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein BEGIN .COUNT LOOP piece_length := LENGTH(html_tab(the_piece_no)). the_loc CLOB. running_total PLS_INTEGER := 1.com'.oodb. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END. This block retrieves INSERT INTO web_pages VALUES (the_url. html_tab UTL_HTTP. buffer => html_tab(the_piece_no)).Example: Piecewise CLOB programmatic insert DECLARE the_url web_pages. into a CLOB column html_tab := UTL_HTTP.html_tab. END LOOP.WRITE(lob_loc => the_loc.url%TYPE := 'http://www. FOR the_piece_no IN 1. DBMS_LOB. several likely exceptions offset => running_total. piece_length PLS_INTEGER.. running_total := running_total + piece_length.REQUEST_PIECES(url => the_url).

INSTR(lob_loc => the_loc.page 134 . pattern => 'oodb'). buffer => 'cool'). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . str_offset INTEGER.oodb. BEGIN OPEN hcur. END. str_offset := DBMS_LOB. END IF.com' FOR UPDATE. IF str_offset != 0 THEN DBMS_LOB. the_loc CLOB. offset => str_offset.Example: Piecewise CLOB programmatic update DECLARE Program must lock the record explicitly CURSOR hcur IS SELECT htmlloc FROM web_pages WHERE url = 'http://www. amount => 4.WRITE(lob_loc => the_loc. CLOSE hcur. FETCH hcur INTO the_loc.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 135 .Preparing to use BFILEs  You must first create an Oracle I ORY´ ± Creates logical alias for full directory pat ± imilar to LIBRARY (used for C "external procedures"). ut IRECTORY namespace is global  Syntax: CREATE OR REPLACE DIRECTORY <directory name> AS '<full path to directory>'.  Example: CREATE DIRECTORY web_pix AS 'D:\bill\training\pix'.

scanned_card_image BFILE ). image BFILE).page 136 .. CREATE TYPE Business_card_t AS OBJECT ( name Name_t. phones Phone_tab_t...  In an object type. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..Using BFILE datatype in DDL  In a table. CREATE TABLE web_graphics ( image_id INTEGER. addresses Address_tab_t.

The built-in BFILENAME function  Returns value of datatype BFILE. BEGIN INSERT INTO web_graphics VALUES (100015. file_exprn) RETURN BFILE. 'prodicon. Spec: FUNCTION BFILENAME(directory_exprn. picture).  Example: DECLARE picture BFILE := BFILENAME('WEB_PIX'.gif').page 137 . END. /  Notes: ± No automatic file checking or synchronization ± No participation in transactions 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

'prodicon. src_lob => pic_file.gif'). DBMS_LOB. amount => DBMS_LOB.FILECLOSE(pic_file). pic_blob_loc BLOB := EMPTY_BLOB(). DECLARE pic_file BFILE := BFILENAME('WEB_PIX'.Loading File into Database BLOB CREATE TABLE web_graphic_blobs ( image_id INTEGER. image BLOB).FILE_READONLY). pic_blob_loc) RETURNING image INTO pic_blob_loc. DBMS_LOB.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . DBMS_LOB. DBMS_LOB.LOADFROMFILE(dest_lob => pic_blob_loc. / loadblob.FILEOPEN(pic_file.GETLENGTH(pic_file)).page 138 . END. BEGIN INSERT INTO web_graphic_blobs VALUES (1.

New DBMS_LOB APIs in 8i  Support for temporary LOBs ± No logging or rollback faster! ± Lifespan: session. or transaction  Ability to retrieve LOB ³chunk size´ ± Allows programmer to tune READs and WRITEs  For all internal LOBs ± OPEN & CLOSE allow control over timing.page 139 . that can mean less I/O » Trigger will not fire until CLOSE » Indexes will not update until CLOSE ± ISOPEN 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . call.

± Complete support in PL/SQL (and other APIs) ± Much better performance and control than with LONGs ± Usable in object types HOT  Some weaknesses.page 140 .. COLD 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± LOB locator behavior slightly abstruse ± Inability to modify BFILEs directly from within PL/SQL.Summary  LOB support in Oracle is now significantly improved..Large Object .

Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Leveraging Java Inside PL/SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 141 .

. triggers in Java Distinct Java & PL/SQL namespaces  But first.Overview of Java interoperability  Java inside or outside 8i server can call PL/SQL ± Standard JDBC and SQLJ calls with Oracle extensions ± Same Java on client. functions..a BRIEF introduction to Java. or server Not covered in this seminar  PL/SQL can call Java inside 8i server ± ± ± ± Command-line tools load Java classes DDL extensions publish Java classes Writing stored procedures.page 142 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . mid-tier.. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..

fastest.. ± The end of programming history as we know it? ± The easiest.Question 1: What is Java?  Could it be.page 143 .. slickest piece of software ever designed by human beings? ± Just the latest in a series of "silver bullets" promoted by software vendors in order to prop up quarterly sales? ± The first and only successful O-O language? ± None of the above?  We don't really need to take a vote. ± We just need to keep a firm grip on common sense and stay focused on delivering solutions. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

it is very unlikely and totally unthinkable for years to come. ± A language in which hundreds of thousands of developers are trained. to boot. PL/SQL will still be: ± Faster and more productive than Java for database operations.page 144 .Question 2: Will Java Replace PL/SQL?  While that scenario is certainly possible. ± Ubiquitous in thousands of production applications and millions of lines of code.  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Supported and improved by Oracle -.and very aggressively.

you have to instantiate an object from that class. everything exception the primitive datatypes..Some Important Things to Remember  Java is a case sensitive language.. ± Before you can call a (non-static) class method. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ...page 145 . ± string is definitely not the same as String.  You don't have to know how to do everything with Java to get lots of value out of it. ± Don't get overwhelmed by all the classes and all the strange quirks.. ± Well.  Everything is a class (or an object instantiated from a class)..

out.println ("Hello world!"). END. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE hello IS BEGIN DBMS_OUTPUT. ± Used to test or run stand-alone a class.. public class Hello { public static void main (String[] args) { System.. Oh.Building a Java Class  Let's start from the very beginning. } }  No members. by the way: the PL/SQL version 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . no methods.PUT_LINE ('Hello world!').page 146 . except the "special" main method.

1. ± It will also automatically recompile any classes used by your class that has not been compiled since last change.page 147 .zip.java file to a .class file. e:\jdk1. SET CLASSPATH = d:\Oracle\Ora81\jdbc\lib\classes111.Compiling Classes  Before you can use a class. ± You must also either have set the CLASSPATH or include it in your javac call.d:\java D:> javac Hello.zip.7b\lib\classes.java -classpath d:\java 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . you must compile it with the javac command. ± This will convert the .

Running a Class  Run a class? What does that mean? It means that if your class contains a method with this header: public static void main (String[] args)  then you can "run" the main method with the java command: d:\java> java Hello  You can also pass one or more arguments on the command line: d:\java> java Hello mom Hello2.page 148 .java 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Let's build a performance analyzer class to explore these ideas. you will use a class by instantiating objects from the class and then invoking class methods on the object.Using a Class  The main method is handy for providing a built-in test mechanism of your class. Usually.page 149 . however.

currentTimeMillis() .Gstart).Compare Performance of Methods  Use System. public void capture () { Gstart = System.java 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 150 . elapsed()). System.l ("Elapsed time for " + context.currentTimeMillis to calculate elapsed time to nearest thousandth of a second.currentTimeMillis() . } public void showElapsed () { p.currentTimeMillis(). } public long elapsed () { return (System.java InFile.java Tmr.l ("Elapsed time ". class Tmr { private long Gstart = 0.Gstart). } public void showElapsed (String context) { p. } } p.

 Inner class ± Classes that are defined inside other classes.  Interface class ± The class only contains unimplemented methods.  Abstract class ± The class can contain members and methods. besides the "regular" kind we just saw.page 151 .. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Types of Classes  There are several different kinds of classes in Java.. but at least one method remains unimplemented.

supertype/"wider" Citizen Person Employee Hourly Worker Salaried Worker subtype/"narrower" War Criminal Person.And Now for Some Scary Buzzwords!  Inheritance ± Subclasses inherit methods and variables from extended superclasses.java A Class Hierarchy Management NonManagement Corporation 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Polymorphism ± An object of a class can have "multiple" forms. either as its own class or as any superclass.page 152 . ± Static polymorphism: form is chosen at compile-time (PL/SQL overloading). ± Dynamic polymorphism: form is determined at run-time.

boolean char byte short int long float double  Strings ± A String object is a read-only. if you assign a new value to it. if (myName. these are not objects instantiated from classes. myName = "Steven".Language Basics  Comments // Single line comment /* Block comment */ /** Documentation comment */  Primitive datatypes ± So I lied. ± Can't do a direct == comparison.page 153 . myName = "Feuerstein". you are actually allocating a new object. String myName.equals(YourName)) foundFamily(). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

nextElement()) } } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .println (args[indx]). static void processAll (Enumeration enum) { while (enum.hasMoreElements ()) { processIt (enum.NextElement()). step) { lotsaStuff } while (expression) { lostsaStuff } do { lostsaStuff } while (expression). System. expression.out. indx++) System.length.Writing Loops in Java  Three kinds of loops: while. Examples: for (indx indx=0.out. for (initialize. indx < args.page 154 . do-while and for ± Note: you need squiggly brackets only if there is more than one statement in the loop body.println ( (String)enum.

} public String name () { return mname.Passing Parameters  Some important differences from PL/SQL. class PuterLingo { private String mname. you must supply a value for each parameter.println (Java. public PuterLingo (String name) { mname = name. ± If a method has no arguments..page 155 . System. } } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .. } } class LotsALingos { public static void main (String args[]) { PuterLingo Java = new PuterLingo("Java"). ± Only positional notation is supported.out. ± No default values for arguments.name()). you still include the open and close parentheses.

"WHEN OTHERS" } in Java } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . rather than raise and handle.equals("")) throw new Exception ("Filename is NULL"). } catch (Exception e) { System. Put inside try clause File myFile = new File (filename). return myFile.println (e.Exception Handling in Java  Very similar to PL/SQL.toString()).page 156 . Throwing my own public static int numBytes (String filename) { exception try { if (filename. } File-related catch (SecurityException e) { exceptions return -1.out.length(). you "throw" and "catch" exceptions.

Differences Between Java & PL/SQL  Exceptions are objects derived directly or indirectly from the Exception class. NoSuchFile { . as in: public static int numBytes (String filename) throws SecurityException...  You must inform users of your method of which exceptions may be thrown. ± So you can pass them as arguments and do anything and everything else you can do with objects. } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 157 . ± Use the throws clause in your specification.

page 158 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Object oriented development (Java) is very different from procedural coding (PL/SQL).Java's Not So Tough!  You can learn enough Java in less than a week to: ± Build simple classes ± Leverage Java inside PL/SQL  Moving to the next level of expertise will be more of a challenge.  Now let's explore how you can put Java to work for you inside PL/SQL programs.

page 159 .Java Stored Procedures (JSPs) Java applet or app. using JDBC or SQLJ Oracle 8i server PL/SQL cover for Java method Java virtual machine running Java method Oracle Developer client (PL/SQL) Net8 OCI or Pro*C client VB or C++ via OO4O or ODBC 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

page 160 . better file I/O ± RMI callouts. network communication in/out PL/SQL replacement ± More standard language ± Good performer for numeric processing tasks ± Beware database I/O & string manipulation performance Scaleable deployment of third party code ± Vertical application ± Web server ± XML parser/generator 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .JSPs: Some sample uses PL/SQL extender ± For example.

Create Java classes in your favorite IDE 2.page 161 . Grant privileges as desired 5.. Call from PL/SQL (or SQL) as if calling PL/SQL    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..END 4. Load into server using ³loadjava´ command-line tool 3..Creating JSP to call from PL/SQL   1.. Publish PL/SQL cover using AS LANGUAGE JAVA. rather than BEGIN.

}} 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Notes on Java classes  toString method automatically used by System. Entry points must be public static in most cases Classes may call other classes Avoid GUI calls     person. CEOCompensation = PceoComp. System.Create Java class(es) class Corporation extends Person { long layoffs.java Advanced Techniques .out.println main method is used to test the class.page 162 PL/SQL . 50000000). } public String toString () { return name + " is a transnational entity with " + layoffs + " laid-off employees. 5000000.println (TheGlobalMonster). } public static void main (String[] args) { // A very scary company Corporation TheGlobalMonster = new Corporation ( "Northrup-Ford-Mattel-Yahoo-ATT". public Corporation ( String Pname. long CEOCompensation.out. long Playoffs. layoffs = Playoffs. paying its" + " Chief Executive Officer " + CEOCompensation. long PceoComp) { name = Pname.

java file Java resource file .Upload using ³loadjava´ utility .page 163 .class file .class options (abbreviated) -oci8 -resolve loadjava will connect using OCI driver Resolves external class references at compile time -resolver (shown later) Search path like CLASSPATH 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .jar file Oracle 8i server Java class Java source Java resource loadjava Example: loadjava loadjava -user scott/tiger -oci8 -resolve datacraft/bill/Hello.

lang..page 164 . . /  Syntax (simplified) CREATE [ OR REPLACE PROCE URE FUNCTION <name> <sqlt pe> ] [ [ <ar s> ) ] [ AUTHID { DEFINER | CURRENT_USER } ] AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME '<met fullname> (<Ja a t pe fullname>. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Hello.) [ return <Ja a t pe fullname> ]'..String'.bill.Emp(int) return java.Publish  Example (top-level call spec) CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION hello_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2 AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.

END. from SQL*Plus: VARIABLE thename VARCHAR2(12) CALL hello_emp(7499) INTO :thename.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Method 2: Use 8i SQL CALL statement.page 165 .Call the wrapped method  Method 1: Call as if PL/SQL module BEGIN DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE(hello_emp(7499)). for example. PRINT :thename ± CALL avoids overhead of SELECT fn FROM DUAL jsp.

sql.lang.REF oracle.BigDecimal oracle.page 166 .ARRAY 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .sql.String java.Publishing -.STRUCT <named type> oracle.sql.more concepts Shape mapping ± Java methods declared ³void´ become PL/SQL procedures ± Signature mismatches detected only at runtime Type mapping (typical) VARCHAR2 DATE NUMBER user-defined object type user-defined object type object REFerence user-defined collection type java.Timestamp java.math.sql.

String'.Hello.page 167 .Emp(int) return java. END. / (No package body required in this case) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .lang. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE hello_pkg AS FUNCTION hi_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2 AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.util..Publish in PL/SQL Package Spec  Designate Java module in PL/SQL package spec..

.String'.Publish as module in package body  .Hello. END..lang.or in package body CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE hello_pkg2 AS FUNCTION hi_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2.Emp(int) return java. END. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .util.page 168 . / CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY hello_pkg2 AS FUNCTION hi_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2 IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.

/ 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .util.Hello.String'). / or in the body: CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE foo_t AS OBJECT ( bar VARCHAR2(30).String'.Publish as object type method  Either in spec: CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE foo_t AS OBJECT ( bar VARCHAR2(30). MEMBER FUNCTION hello_emp RETURN VARCHAR2). END. MEMBER FUNCTION hello_emp RETURN VARCHAR2 IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.Emp(int) return java.lang.page 169 .Hello.util. / CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE BODY foo_t AS MEMBER FUNCTION hello_emp RETURN VARCHAR2 IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.lang.Emp(int) return java.

New DDL Statements and Roles  CREATE JAVA ± Alternative to ³loadjava´ utility ± Creates or replaces an Oracle ³library unit´ from Java source.page 170 . or resource ± Can read file designated with BFILE() function  ALTER JAVA: compiles Java source. JAVADEBUGPRIV ± You can also grant specific privileges. DROP JAVA: drops a named Java library unit Several roles available for Java operations: ± JAVAUSERPRIV. JAVAIDPRIV. JAVA_ADMIN. class. JAVASYSPRIV (needed for file IO operations). resolves Java class references.   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

sql.sql.jdbc2.CustomDatum ± oracle.SQLData 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .STRUCT ± oracle.page 171 .Passing Oracle8 objects Oracle8i server Object in O-R table Java application Java object   Harder than you¶d think Three different interfacing techniques ± oracle.

page 172 .JPublisher utility Database server Definition of type or REF in data dictionary User-supplied JPublisher input file What does it do? ± Generates Java that encapsulates type and REF types of mapping supported for methods JPublisher ± ³Oracle mapping´ ± ³JDBC mapping´ ± ³Object JDBC mapping´ Three Generated Java file(s) for use in Java programs 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .bill.Account_t)'.Passing object using JPub-generated Java  After generating and uploading classes with JPub.page 173 .bill.AccountRuntime. they become available to use in mapping Example of passing an Account_t object: CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE account_save (new_acct IN Account_t) IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.save (datacraft. /  jspobj.

Let's see how we can make that great Java stuff available from within PL/SQL. but that package is very limited.   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 174 .Example: Improving File I/O  You can read/write files in PL/SQL with UTL_FILE. Java offers many file-related classes with much greater capabilities.

 Let's start with something simple.. ± The File class offers a length method that returns the number of bytes in a file. ± Instead build a static method that instantiates a Java object from the class and then invokes the relevant method against that object.. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Encapsulate Java Classes  You won't generally access native Java methods in your PL/SQL wrapper. ± This is not available through UTL_FILE (though you can get it through DBMS_LOB).page 175 .

length(). import java. return myFile. public class JFile2 { public static long length (String fileName) { File myFile = new File (fileName). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .File.My Own Java Class for File Manipulation  Accept the name of a file and return its length. ± Call the method of choice against that object and return the value.io.java  Take each of these steps: ± Import the File class to resolve reference. } } JFile2.page 176 . ± Instantiate a File object for the specified name.

String) return long'. END. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE xfile IS FUNCTION length (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN NUMBER.page 177 .Build a Package over Java Method  Let's put it in a package.length (java.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . we will certainly want to add more functionality over time. / xfile2. / CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY xfile IS FUNCTION length (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN NUMBER AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'JFile. ± I translate the Java long to a PL/SQL NUMBER. END.lang.

you will need to take these steps: ± 1.  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Convert the Java boolean to a String or number and return that value. so you'd expect smooth sailing.page 178 . Not so! To pass a Boolean back from Java to PL/SQL.Mapping the Boolean Datatype  Both Java and PL/SQL support a native Boolean datatype. Write a "hidden" PL/SQL wrapper function that returns the string or number. ± 3. ± 2. Write a "public" PL/SQL wrapper function to convert that number to a true PL/SQL Boolean.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . } } JFile3. boolean retval = myFile. not a Boolean class. public class JFile3 { public static int canRead (String fileName) { File myFile = new File (fileName).File.java  Translate TRUE to 1 and FALSE to 0.Translate Boolean to Number  Accept the name of a file and return its length. if (retval) return 1. import java. else return 0. ± And don't forget: this is a boolean primitive.canRead().io.page 179 .

pkg RETURN IcanRead (file) = 1.canRead (java. JFile. xfile4.java END. / CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY xfile IS FUNCTION IcanRead (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN NUMBER AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'JFile3.page 180 .pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE xfile IS FUNCTION canRead (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN BOOLEAN.pkg END.java / xfile... END.String) return int'.lang. JFile4. ± Avoid the hard-codings with named constants.Wrapper for Pseudo-Boolean function  Simple translation back to PL/SQL Boolean. FUNCTION canRead (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN BOOLEAN AS BEGIN xfile3.

out. // starting with 0 String laborType = (String)(attribs[0]).tst PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . public class UnionBuster { Obtain attributes of public static void wageStrategy (STRUCT e) the Oracle object. throws java.getAttributes().println ( "Pay " + laborType + " $" + hourly_rate + " per hour"). } } Extract individual attribute values from the array.Passing Objects to Java with STRUCT  You can pass Oracle object information to Java without relying on JPub by using the STRUCT class.java passobj.SQLException { // Get the attributes of the labor_source object. // Access individual attributes by array index.page 181 . BigDecimal hourly_rate = (BigDecimal)(attribs[1]). Object[] attribs = e. System. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein UnionBuster.sql.

The Oracle object type definition CREATE TYPE labor_source_t AS OBJECT ( labor_type VARCHAR2(30).sql. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Fully specify the STRUCT class in parameter list. END.wageStrategy (oracle. '5')). / BEGIN bust_em_with ( labor_source ('Workfare'. / CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE bust_em_with ( labor_source_in IN labor_source_t) AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'UnionBuster.Wrapping a STRUCT-based Method  You can pass Oracle object information to Java without relying on JPub by using the STRUCT class.STRUCT)'.page 182 . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . bust_em_with ( labor_source ('Prisoners'. hourly_rate NUMBER). 0)).

java HelloAll.Viewing Output from Java Methods  Java provides a "print line" method similar to DBMS_OUTPUT. you can redirect the output to the DBMS_OUTPUT buffer.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .out.out.println.SET_OUTPUT (1000000). i++) { System. HelloAll.sql file: SET SERVEROUTPUT ON SIZE 1000000 CALL DBMS_JAVA. }}}  When called within a PL/SQL wrapper. ± Call it within methods and output will display in your Java environment.println ( "Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello All!"). public class HelloAll { public static void lotsaText ( int count) { for (int i = 0. i < count.PUT_LINE: System.page 183 . ± Here is a good nucleus for a login.

 Any error not caught by the JVM (Java virtual machine) will be thrown back to the PL/SQL block or SQL statement. ± Use two methods.1. but more robust error handling mechanism than PL/SQL. you "throw" and "catch". getErrorCode() and getMessage() to obtain information about the error thrown.5).page 184 . ± And also spew out the entire Java error stack! (at least through 8.Error Handling with Java-PL/SQL  Java offers a very similar.SQLException.sql. ± Instead of raising and handling. ± Exceptions are objects instantiated from the Exception class or a subclass of it. such as java. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

PUT_LINE (SQLERRM). and you have to do some digging to extract the Oracle error information.java) at DropAny.tst ORA-00942: table or view does not exist 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 185 .driver.doExecute(OracleStatement.java) at oracle.jdbc.doExecuteWithTimeout(OracleStatement. END.Trapping and Identifying Errors  Currently.jdbc.OracleStatement.java) at oracle. BEGIN dropany ('TABLE'.sql.tst ORA-29532: Java call terminated by uncaught Java exception: java.java) at oracle.KprbDBAccess.sp dropany2.jdbc.parseExecuteFetch(KprbDBAccess.executeUpdate(OracleStatement.OracleStatement.SQLException: ORA-00942: table or view does not exist at oracle. the entire Java stack is displayed on your screen.java) at oracle.driver.jdbc.sql.doExecuteWithBatch(OracleStatement.check_error(KprbDBAccess.driver.object(DropAny.KprbDBAccess.jdbc.OracleStatement.jdbc.driver.jdbc.kprb.SQLException: getErrInfo.java -29532 dropany.java:14) DropAny.java) at oracle.driver.OracleStatement.doExecuteOther(OracleStatement. / SQL> 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 java.kprb. 'blip').PUT_LINE (SQLCODE).java) at oracle. DBMS_OUTPUT. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN DBMS_OUTPUT.OracleStatement.

or method. ± Must be a shared object library on Unix or a dynamically linked library (DLL) on Windows.page 186 .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence External Procedures  An external procedure is a 3GL routine that can serve as the ³body´ of a PL/SQL function. procedure. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  An Oracle8 feature that allowed relatively "native" callouts to C from PL/SQL for the first time.

Process & data flow Application Makes request Net8 External Procedure Listener spawns External Shared Library Calls PL/SQL Runtime Engine PL/SQL body Client or server-side application returns results calls routine from Routine in .so file extproc returns results returns results 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 187 .DLL or .

External procedures: Sample uses      Send email Invoke operating system command Invoke custom or legacy application Call C runtime library function Perform admin tasks email.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 188 .sql diskspace.

dll'.page 189 . this function returns: » » » » » sectors per cluster bytes per sector number of free clusters total number of clusters ³return code´ indicating success or failure  First.dll ± For given drive letter.Determine free disk space on NT (1/4)  Use pre-existing routine: ± GetDiskFreeSpaceA in kernel32. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . create an Oracle8 ³library´: CREATE OR REPLACE LIBRARY nt_kernel AS 'c:\winnt\system32\kernel32.

END disk_util. bytes_per_sector OUT PLS_INTEGER. total_number_of_clusters OUT PLS_INTEGER) RETURN PLS_INTEGER. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 190 . sectors_per_cluster OUT PLS_INTEGER. number_of_free_clusters OUT PLS_INTEGER.Package spec (2/4)  Nothing unexpected here: CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE disk_util AS FUNCTION get_disk_free_space (root_path IN VARCHAR2.

number_of_free_clusters OUT pls_integer. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .0 (3/4) CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY disk_util AS FUNCTION get_disk_free_space (root_path IN VARCHAR2. END disk_util. number_of_free_clusters BY REFERENCE LONG.page 191  All the magic is in the EXTERNAL section 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . bytes_per_sector BY REFERENCE LONG. total_number_of_clusters BY REFERENCE LONG.Package body in Oracle 8. total_number_of_clusters OUT PLS_INTEGER) RETURN PLS_INTEGER IS EXTERNAL LIBRARY nt_kernel NAME "GetDiskFreeSpaceA" LANGUAGE C CALLING STANDARD PASCAL PARAMETERS (root_path STRING. RETURN LONG). sectors_per_cluster BY REFERENCE LONG. bytes_per_sector OUT PLS_INTEGER. sectors_per_cluster OUT PLS_INTEGER.

Usage (4/4)
DECLARE lroot_path VARCHAR2(3) := 'C:\'; lsectors_per_cluster PLS_INTEGER; lbytes_per_sector PLS_INTEGER; lnumber_of_free_clusters PLS_INTEGER; ltotal_number_of_clusters PLS_INTEGER; return_code PLS_INTEGER; free_meg REAL; BEGIN return_code := disk_util.get_disk_free_space (lroot_path, lsectors_per_cluster, lbytes_per_sector, lnumber_of_free_clusters, ltotal_number_of_clusters); free_meg := lsectors_per_cluster * lbytes_per_sector * lnumber_of_free_clusters / 1024 / 1024; DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('free disk space, Mb = ' || free_meg); diskspace.sql END;
1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein
PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 192

Creating your own external procedure 

1. Identify or create shared library 2. Identify or CREATE LIBRARY within Oracle 3. Map the parameters using:
± EXTERNAL clause (Oracle8) or ± LANGUAGE clause (Oracle8i)  

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 193

1. Identify/create external routine 


Prerequisite: O/S must support shared libraries Some useful routines are pre-built in C runtime library
± On Unix: /lib/libc.so ± On NT: <systemroot>\system32\crtdll.dll 

Building a shared library of your own requires knowledge of:
± Appropriate language (typically C) ± Compiler & linker

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 194

2. Create the Oracle library 

Syntax:
CREATE OR REPLACE LIBRARY <library name> AS '<full path to file>'; 

Assigns a programmer-defined alias to a specific shared library file Notes
± Requires CREATE LIBRARY pri ilege ± Does not alidate directory ± Can¶t use symbolic link 

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 195

3. Map the parameters
This can get complicated, because«
± Must pass extra parameters to designate:
» NULL/NOT NULL state » String length » Maximum allocated length

± Six choices of parameter mode
» » » » » » IN RETURN IN BY REFERENCE RETURN BY REFERENCE OUT IN OUT

These details are better suited for close reading«
PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 196

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

page 197 .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Oracle8i New Features Autonomous Transactions Invoker Rights Model Row Level Security 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

page 198 . ± And the learning curve to take advantage of these features is generally not too steep.Oracle8i New Features  Oracle8i offers a number of PL/SQL-specific features that give you tremendous additional flexibility and capability.    Autonomous Transactions The Invoker Rights Model Row level security 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Autonomous Transactions  Prior to Oracle8i. ± Any changes made within that block can be saved or reversed without affecting the outer or main transaction. ± There was only one transaction allowed per connection. msg IN VARCHAR2) AS PRAGMA AUTONOMOUS_TRANSACTION. you can now define a PL/SQL block to execute as an "autonomous transaction". a COMMIT or ROLLBACK in any program in your session committed or rolled back all changes in your session. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE loginfo ( code IN PLS_INTEGER.page 199 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  With Oracle8i.

which can cause all sorts of complications: your log entry becomes a part of your transaction.  Logging Mechanism ± Commonly developers lot to database tables.page 200 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .  Tracing Code Usage ± Build retry mechanisms.When to Use Autonomous Transactions  Reusable Application Components ± ATs are more or less required in the new distributed application architecture of the Internet. etc. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Now you can avoid the complexities (need for ROLLBACK TO savepoints and so on).  Call functions within SQL that change the database. software usage meter. something like a COMMIT) on other components. ± One component should not have any impact (esp.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Avoid interdependencies with the main transaction. text_in IN VARCHAR2 ) IS PRAGMA AUTONOMOUS_TRANSACTION. While we're at it.tst retry.page 201 . SYSDATE. SYSDATE. logger.machine.tst PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN ROLLBACK. rec.program ). USER. BEGIN INSERT INTO logtab VALUES (code_in. COMMIT. rec. END.Logging with ATs  Don't forget that ROLLBACK in the exception section! CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY log IS PROCEDURE putline ( code_in IN INTEGER.pkg log81*.sp log81. END. text_in. USER.pkg retry. let's add some session information.

page 202 . The AT PRAGMA can be used only with individual programs and toplevel anonymous blocks.sql auton_in_sql.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± You cannot define an entire package as an AT. ± You can use the SET TRANSACTION ISOLATION LEVEL SERIALIZABLE to indicate that you do not want the changes visible until the outer transaction commits. ± You cannot define a nested anonymous block to be an AT. ± Place the SET TRANSACTION statement in the outer transaction.sql autontrigger*. autonserial.Tips and Gotchas with ATs  An AT program must COMMIT or ROLLBACK before terminating. ± You cannot tell by looking at the package spec if you are calling ATs or not -and this info is not available in the data dictionary. or an error is raised.  Any changes committed in an AT are visible in the outer transaction.   The AT PRAGMA goes in the body of packages.

whenever you executed a stored program. you can now decide at compilation time whether your program or package will execute in the definer's schema (the default) or the schema of the invoker of the code. ± This is called the « Invoker Rights Model PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .The Invoker Rights Model  Prior to Oracle8i. it ran under the privileges of the account in which the program was defined.page 203 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . ± This is called the « Definer Rights Model  With Oracle8i.

About Definer Rights  Allows you to centralize access to and control of underlying data structures. But it can be a source of confusion and architectural problems. Ignores roles and relies on directly-granted privileges. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . OE Code Order_Mgt Place Cancel Sam_Sales Close Old Orders  OE Data X  Orders Cannot alter table directly.page 204 . Note: Oracle built-in packages have long had the capability of running under the invoker's authority.

. ± Can bypass 8i¶s ³fine-grained´ access features (see the DBMS_RLS package) ± Difficult to audit privileges  Sure would be nice to have a choice.Problems with Definer Rights  Deployment & maintenance ± Must install module in all remote databases where needed ± In some databases. unless you write code in the package to essentially recreate roles programmatically.and now you do! 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .it's all or nothing.page 205 . each user has own copy of table(s). requiring copy of stored module  Security ± No declarative way to restrict privileges on certain modules in a package -..

. "dummy" objects. ± At run-time. Synonyms may be necessary if modules use object names not qualified by schema.  For modules with separate spec and body.Oracle8i Invoker Rights Syntax  For top level modules: CREATE [ OR REPLACE ] <module type> [ AUTHID { DEFINER | CURRENT_USER } ] AS .. do what it takes to get the code to compile. the objects referenced may well be different from those against which it compiled.page 206 . You could also create local. AUTHID goes only in spec. ± In other words.  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . and must be at the package level.

FROM accounts WHERE. you can execute code owned by another schema.acct_mgr. code..)."Reflection" Capability of Invoker Rights  With invoker rights. END... yet have all references to data structures "reflect back" into your own schema. Central Code schema PACKAGE acct_mgr make AUTHID CURRENT_USER User/Data schema PROCEDURE mng_account IS BEGIN ...page 207 ...destroy(. modify destroy .. accounts table 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

sql handy.page 208 .Tips and Gotchas for Invoker Rights  Does not apply to code objects. all other calls in stack are resolved according to definer rights. only data ± When your stored code references another stored code element. Note: cannot use with wrapped code.  Information about the rights model is not available in the data dictionary What if you want to maintain a single version of your code for both pre-Oracle8i and Oracle8i installations. the definer rights model is always applied to resolve the reference. ± Both static and dynamic SQL is supported. ± AUTHID CURRENT_USER is ignored.sql  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . oneversion.  Once a definer rights program is called. taking advantage of the invoker rights model whenever possible? ± A creative use of SQL*Plus substitution variables comes in very invdefinv.

National HQ Check City Statistics New York Schema stolenlives Chicago Schema stolenlives  Especially handy with dynamic SQL.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Share a program that uses dynamic SQL (whether DBMS_SQL or the new native implementation) and you end up taking the most unexpected DDL and DML detours. but you want their own directly-granted privileges to determine access.sql whichsch*.When to Invoke Invoker Rights  You want to reuse the same code among many users. authid.page 209 .

page 210 . Rely on definer rights to access centralized data from any schema.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Combining Invoker & Definer Rights  Rely on invoker rights to allow centralized code to work with schema-specific data. HQ Chicago Check City Statistics  New York stolenlives Analyze Pattern stolenlives perpetrators perp.

Row Level Security DBMS_RLS Row-Level Security 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 211 .

The DBMS_RLS package (along with "system contexts") now allow you to do so in a foolproof manner.page 212   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . you could achieve this only partially through the use of views.Row-Level Security with DBMS_RLS  Oracle8i offers a new package. Prior to Oracle8i. Row Level Security  The establishment of security policies on (restricted access to) individual rows of a table. DBMS_RLS. with which to implement automated row-level security (also referred to as "fine grained access control").

 Database Logon Triggers ± I want to make sure that when a person logs in. the system context is a named set of attributevalue pairs global to your session. their context information is set properly.  Let's step through a simple example to see how all these pieces tie together.  DBMS_RLS ± Use programs in DBMS_RLS to associate your security policies with tables. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Components Needed for RLS  System Contexts ± A new feature in Oracle8i.  Security Policy Packages ± You will need to write a package containing functions that establish the security policies to be applied to a particular table.page 213 .

all pregnant women receive excellent prenatal care.  We need a top-notch. Here are some rules: ± Doctors can only see patients who are assigned to their clinic. The main tables are patient. ± Patients can only see information about themselves. fgac. popular uprising in the United States has forced the establishment of a national healthcare system. highly secure database for NHCS. ± Regulators can only see patients who reside in the same state. all children are vaccinated.sql  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . doctor. No more for-profit hospitals pulling billions of dollars out of the system. clinic and regulator.A National Health Care System  The year is 2010. no more private insurance companies soaking up 30 cents on the dollar.page 214 . ± A massive.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . c_person_id_attr.SET_CONTEXT ( 'patient_restriction'. doc_rec doc_cur%ROWTYPE. See CURSOR doc_cur IS fgac. sets the context accordingly.Set the Context  Define a context in the database. FETCH doc_cur INTO doc_rec. and create a procedure that will set the context attributes (type and ID) upon login. BEGIN OPEN doc_cur.SET_CONTEXT ( 'patient_restriction'. DBMS_SESSION. 'DOCTOR'). c_person_type_attr. DBMS_SESSION. PROCEDURE set_context IS This is a simplification.sql for logic that identifies SELECT doctor_id FROM doctor different types of people and WHERE schema_name = USER.page 215 .doctor_id). doc_rec. END. CREATE CONTEXT patient_restriction USING nhc_pkg.

Define the Predicate  A predicate is a string that will be appended to the WHERE clause of the table to which this security policy is associated (see next page). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . name_in VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2 IS l_context VARCHAR2(100) := Extract the context SYS_CONTEXT (c_context. information for this retval VARCHAR2(2000).page 216 . FUNCTION person_predicate ( schema_in VARCHAR2. connection. person. BEGIN IF l_context = 'DOCTOR' THEN retval := 'home_clinic_id IN (SELECT home_clinic_id FROM doctor We need a different string WHERE doctor_id = SYS_CONTEXT (''' || to modify the WHERE c_context || '''. c_person_type_attr). ''' || clause for each type of c_person_id_attr || '''))'.

person_predicate'.page 217 . 'SELECT. 'SCOTT'.UPDATE. 'patient'. ( => => => => => => 'SCOTT'.ADD_POLICY procedure. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . BEGIN DBMS_RLS. update or delete against the SCOTT. ± The following procedure call specifies that the WHERE clause of any query.DELETE').ADD_POLICY OBJECT_SCHEMA OBJECT_NAME POLICY_NAME FUNCTION_SCHEMA POLICY_FUNCTION STATEMENT_TYPES END.nhc_pkg package. 'patient_privacy'.PATIENT table will be modified by the string returned by the person_predicate function of the SCOTT.Create the Security Policy  Use the DBMS_RLS. 'nhc_pkg.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Create Logon Trigger. logon is disabled.set_context. END. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN DBMS_OUTPUT. we guarantee that the context is set (and the predicate applied) no matter which product is the entry point to Oracle. CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER set_id_on_logon AFTER LOGON ON DATABASE BEGIN nhc_pkg. Setting Context  By setting the context in the logon trigger. fgac.page 218 .PUT_LINE ( 'Error ' || SQLCODE || ' setting context for ' || USER').sql Exception handling in trigger is critical! If you allow an exception to go unhandled.

IL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Patient sees only himself.page 219 . Context Information for "SWALLACE": Type: DOCTOR Doctor sees only her ID: 1060 patients.IL Context Information for "CSILVA": Type: PATIENT ID: Predicate: schema_name = 'CSILVA' Patients Visible to "CSILVA": CSILVA . 'person_id')) Patients Visible to "SWALLACE": CSILVA .Veva Silva . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Chris Silva .Queries Transparently Filtered  What you see is determined automatically by who you are.Chris Silva .IL VSILVA . Predicate: home_clinic_id IN (SELECT home_clinic_id FROM doctor WHERE doctor_id = SYS_CONTEXT ('patient_restriction'.

and you use only what you know..page 220 ..and play a new tune with PL/SQL! 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . May. February.  ± You learn what you need to get the job done... It's so easy to fall into a rut with a programming language... April.. Jump out of your rut . March.Take Full Advantage of PL/SQL! January....

a..k. If time permits«)     UTL_FILE ± file IO DBMS_JOB ± Job scheduling DBMS_PIPE ± Pipe-based communication DBMS_UTILITY ± the kitchen sink package 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 221 .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Appendices (a.

Built-in Packages: UTL_FILE UTL_FILE Server-side File I/O Application FOPEN GET_LINE PUT_LINE ... Physical Files 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 222 .

0. ± No higher-level file operations supported (change privileges. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .UTL_FILE: Server-side I/O  Allows you to read from and write to operating system files on the database server.5. random access to contents). copy.. A "version 1" (fairly primitive) utility. when it jumps to 32K.page 223 . ± Maximum of 1023 bytes per line (read or write) until Oracle 8. delete. ± Limitations on files you can access (no mapped files.   But you can read lines from a file and write lines to a file. no use of environmental variables)..

page 224 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . Puts formatted text into the buffer PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .UTL_FILE Module Outline FCLOSE FCLOSE_ALL FFLUSH FOPEN GET_LINE IS_OPEN NEW_LINE PUT PUT_LINE PUTF Close the specified file Close all open files in your session Flush all data from the UTL_FILE buffer to your file Open a file Get the next line from a file Returns TRUE if the file is open (sort of) Insert a new line character in file at the end of current line Puts text into the UTL_FILE buffer Puts text and new line character into UTL_FILE buffer.

utl_file_dir = * Allows read & write for any directory. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Follow these rules to avoid many headaches. utl_file_dir = /tmp utl_file_dir = /accounts/newdev  And don't do either of the following: utl_file_dir = .page 225 Allows read & write for current directory. ± You do this by adding lines to the instance parameter file.Authorizing Directory Access  Oracle requires you to list explicitly those directories you wish to be able to read/write with UTL_FILE. there is no subdirectory recursion). ± Use a separate entry for each directory (and subdirectory. no trailing delimiter. ± No single or double quotes around directory.

/ utlfile.page 226 .Test UTL_FILE Access  About the hardest part to working with UTL_FILE is simply getting started. BEGIN /* Change the directory name to one to which you at least || THINK you have read/write access.tst  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . restart your database. So before you write anything fancy.txt'. 'hello').FILE_TYPE. 'W').FCLOSE (fid). UTL_FILE. END. 'test.FOPEN ('c:\temp'. and then run the following test script (it can't get much simpler than this): DECLARE fid UTL_FILE. modify your initialization file. */ fid := UTL_FILE.PUT_LINE (fid. UTL_FILE.

Test to see if file is open with the IS_OPEN function.FILE_TYPE. ± Currently contains a single ID field.. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Types are 'R' for Read.FOPEN ('c:\temp'.. 'test. BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE. 'W' for Write and 'A' for Append. END.Opening a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE. ± In actuality.page 227 .FILE_TYPE.   Maximum of 10 files may be opened in each user session. Not much of a test.  The FOPEN function returns a record ("file handle") based on the UTL_FILE.txt'. 'W'). name and operation type.  Specify file location. this function simply returns TRUE if the file handle's id field is NOT NULL.

the ceiling is raised to 32K. 'test. 'R').FCLOSE (fid). Lines in the file cannot be longer than 1023 bytes in length. myline).   Can only read from a file opened with the "R" mode. UTL_FILE.txt'.Reading from a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.page 228 .FILE_TYPE. ± You might want to build your own GET_LINE which handles the exception and returns an EOF Boolean status flag. getnext. ± In Oracle8 Release 8.0. BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE.FOPEN ('c:\temp'.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END.GET_LINE (fid.5 and above. UTL_FILE.  The NO_DATA_FOUND exception is raised if you read past the end of the file.

± PUTF is like the C printf program. UTL_FILE is so much fun that I never want to stop Resulting Text  You can use PUT. UTL_FILE. allowing for some formatting. UTL_FILE. PUT_LINE or PUTF.Writing to a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.FOPEN ('c:\temp'. END. ' that I never\nwant to %s'.FCLOSE (fid).  Call FFLUSH to make sure that everything you have written to the buffer is flushed out to the file.page 229 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . ± The file buffers are automatically flushed when you close a file or exit your session. '&1'). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .PUT (fid. 'test.PUTF (fid. 'is so much fun'). 'W'). BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE. UTL_FILE.txt'. 'UTL_FILE').PUT_LINE (fid.FILE_TYPE. UTL_FILE.

EXCEPTION WHEN UTL_FILE.Closing a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.FCLOSE (fid).FOPEN ('c:\temp'.FCLOSE (fid). UTL_FILE.READ_ERROR THEN UTL_FILE.page 230   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE.FILE_TYPE.  If you do not close the file.txt'. You can close a single file with FCLOSE or all open files with FCLOSE_ALL.GET_LINE (fid. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 'R'). myline). UTL_FILE. 'test. You should close files in exception handlers to make sure that files are not left "hanging" open. you will not see the data you have (supposedly) written to that file. END.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . EXCEPTION. ± UTL_FILE-named exceptions in other cases. ± NO_DATA_FOUND when you try to read past the end of the file.Error Handling in UTL_FILE PACKAGE UTL_FILE IS invalid_path invalid_mode invalid_filehandle invalid_operation read_error write_error internal_error END. EXCEPTION.page 231 . EXCEPTION. ± They all share a common SQLCODE of 1. EXCEPTION. EXCEPTION. EXCEPTION. EXCEPTION.  UTL_FILE relies on a combination of user-defined exceptions and STANDARD exceptions to communicate errors.  You have to take special care to trap and handle the named exceptions.

RAISE.INTERNAL_ERROR THEN recNgo (PLVfile.Recommended Exception Section EXCEPTION WHEN UTL_FILE. RAISE. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 232  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .WRITE_ERROR THEN recNgo (PLVfile. WHEN UTL_FILE.INVALID_OPERATION THEN recNgo (PLVfile. WHEN UTL_FILE. record the error.c_invalid_filehandle). RAISE. RAISE. RAISE.INVALID_FILEHANDLE THEN recNgo (PLVfile. RAISE. Re-raise exception if you want it to propagate from that block. utlflexc. WHEN UTL_FILE.c_internal_error). WHEN UTL_FILE.c_invalid_mode). END.sql  Trap locally by name.c_invalid_operation). RAISE.c_write_error). WHEN UTL_FILE. WHEN UTL_FILE. translating the generic user-defined exception into an understandable message.READ_ERROR THEN recNgo (PLVfile.INVALID_MODE THEN recNgo (PLVfile.c_invalid_path).c_read_error).INVALID_PATH THEN recNgo (PLVfile.

page 233 ..Built-in Packages: DBMS_JOB DBMS_JOB Scheduled Execution of Stored Procedures Application SUBMIT RUN REMOVE .. Background Process DBA_JOBS Oracle Job Queue Subsystem 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

± ± ± ±    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .2. Made its debut in PL/SQL Release 2.page 234 . but only ³publicly available´ and supported in PL/SQL Release 2.Overview of DBMS_JOB  DBMS_JOB provides an API to the Oracle job queues. ± Spawn background processes to avoid blocking client process. Built by Oracle to support snapshots and replication. Schedule large batch jobs to run on "off hours". Create a listener program to poll the contents of a pipe and take action. You can use DBMS_JOB to: Replicate data between different database instances.1. Schedule regular maintenance on instances. which in turn offers job scheduling capabilities within the Oracle Server.

Submits a job to the queue returning a unique job number. Changes the job string of a job. Forces immediate execution of the specified job number. Removes the job from the queue. Broken jobs will not run as scheduled.DBMS_JOB Module Outline BROKEN Marks the job as either FIXED or BROKEN. Returns the job string for a job number. Changes the interval between executions of a job. Changes one or all attributes of a job. Changes when a queued job will run.page 235 CHANGE INTERVAL ISUBMIT NEXT_DATE REMOVE RUN SUBMIT USER_EXPORT WHAT 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Submits a job to the queue using a predefined job number.

 A job is a call to a stored procedure or an anonymous block ± It must end with a semi-colon and can contain ³hard-coded´ arguments. you specify the date on which it should next execute.Submitting a Job DECLARE job# BINARY_INTEGER. BEGIN DBMS_JOB. instead of having DBMS_JOB generate one for you.'. SYSDATE. I run calculate_totals immediately and then on a daily basis thereafter. and then the job¶s execution interval (frequency of execution). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± In the above example.ISUBMIT and supply the job number. 'calculate_totals. END.SUBMIT (job#. while the interval is a string (this is dynamic PL/SQL!)  You can also call DBMS_JOB.  When you submit a job.page 236 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . Notice that the start time is a DATE expression. 'SYSDATE + 1').

interval => 'TRUNC(SYSDATE+1)' ).ANALYZE_OBJECT ' || '(''TABLE''. BEGIN DBMS_JOB.submit ( job => v_jobno.estimate_percent=>50).''ESTIMATE''. to analyze a specific table every evening at midnight. next_date => TRUNC (SYSDATE + 1).null. DBMS_DDL. p.page 237 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . what => 'DBMS_DDL.l (v_jobno).''LOAD1''.''TENK''' || '. END. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .'.Submit Job Example DECLARE v_jobno INTEGER.ANALYZE_OBJECT. /  This block submits a job that uses a built-in procedure.

' . DBMS_JOB. executes immediately.120). and 3.ISUBMIT(3.page 238 .ISubmit Job Example BEGIN DBMS_JOB.ISUBMIT (2.what => 'my_job1(''string_parm_value''.'.' . /  This block submits three jobs to the job queue. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .null).'BEGIN null. DBMS_JOB.'SYSDATE+10/1440'). executes for the first time tomorrow and every 10 minutes thereafter. 'my_job2(date_IN=>SYSDATE).SYSDATE+1. and will be removed from the queue automatically. ± Job 3 is a PL/SQL block which does nothing. END. runs it in one hour and executes every day thereafter. END.next_date => SYSDATE + 1/24 .ISUBMIT (job => 1 . ± Job 2 passes a date into procedure MY_JOB2. numbered 1.DBMS_JOB. ± Job 1 passes a string and number into procedure MY_JOB1.SYSDATE.2.interval => 'SYSDATE +1').

you must use 2 single quotes to embed strings. Wednesday and Friday at 6 PM 'SYSDATE + 1/24' 'NEXT_DAY (TRUNC (SYSDATE). ''SATURDAY'') 2/24' 'NEXT_DAY ( ADD_MONTHS (TRUNC (SYSDATE. NEXT_DAY (SYSDATE. ± Use date arithmetic to request intervals smaller than a day. Every hour Every Sunday at 2 AM First Monday of each quarter. ''MONDAY'') + 9/24' 'TRUNC (LEAST ( NEXT_DAY (SYSDATE. ''MONDAY''). ''Q''). ''WEDNESDAY''). at 9 AM Every Monday.Specifying Job Times & Frequencies  Probably the most complicated part of using DBMS_JOB is to get the string expression of the job interval right. NEXT_DAY (SYSDATE. ± Since it's a string. ''FRIDAY''))) + 18/24' PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 3).page 239 + 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .

Remove all jobs for current schema.Other Job Queue Operations  Remove a job from the queue. ± Only if the job was submitted from same schema BEGIN FOR rec IN (SELECT * FROM USER_JOBS) LOOP DBMS_JOB.RUN (my_job#).sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 240 .  Run a job immediately. ± Performs an implicit COMMIT in current session. DBMS_JOB. END LOOP.REMOVE (rec.  Export jobs from the queue.ISUBMIT. ± Produces a string that can be used to recreate an existing job in the job queue. ± Uses DBMS_JOB.job). expjob. retaining current job number.

job = j.jr. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .V$SESSION WHERE s.DBA_JOBS .Job Queue Views  You can also view the job queue by looking at the DBA_JOBS_RUNNING. who owns them and when they began.job . DBA_JOBS and USER_JOBS views.username .what job_id username start_date job_definition jr j s showjobs.job ORDER BY jr.this_date.this_date .sql FROM DBA_JOBS_RUNNING .sid = jr.page 241 .sid AND jr. ± The following query blends job information with session information to display currently-executing jobs. SELECT jr.

of one hour).Setting up the Job Facility  Make sure that the correct access is set up for the DBMS_JOB package. therefore. The valid range is 1 to 3600 (a maximum.  You will need to set three parameters in the init.page 242 . ± The default is PUBLIC access. ± job_queue_interval=N where N is the interval in seconds to check the job queue.ora (initialization) file for your database instance: ± job_queue_processes=N where n is the number of concurrent background processes permitted. The valid range is 0 through 36. You will have to take special DBA action if you want to restrict who can run jobs. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Then you can go ahead and submit it.  To avoid unexpected and unhandled failures of scheduled jobs: ± Always use the RUN built-in to execute your job in a ³test´ mode. ± Do you want it to try 16 times? ± In addition.page 243 .Error Handling with DBMS_JOB  What if your stored procedure fails? ± After 16 attempts. the job facility will mark your job as broken. if your failure raises an unhandled exception. ± Always include a WHEN OTHERS exception handler in your job program which traps any and all problems and automatically sets the job status to broken. it may cause the background processes to fail and no longer run any jobs at all.

BROKEN (job#.log (µcalc_totals¶. ± Obtains the job number from a packaged function by passing the name of the procedure.job (µcalc_totals¶) DBMS_JOB. ± Now the job facility will not try to run this program again. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN job# := job_pkg.Stopping the Job When It Fails PROCEDURE calc_totals IS BEGIN .page 244 .sql  The WHEN OTHERS exception handler of the calc_totals procedure traps any kind of failure. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..sql showspc. TRUE). ± Calls log program of package to record that failure took place. END. spacelog. µFAIL¶). job_pkg. You can go in and fix the problem.. ± Uses a call to BROKEN to set the status of the job to ³broken´.

When a job runs. ± DBMS_JOB only allows you to modify characteristics and behavior of jobs submitted by the current schema.  You will need to fully-qualify all database links (with user name and password) to get them to work properly."Good to Knows" for DBMS_JOB  You may find it useful to always wrap your stored procedure call (the what) inside a BEGIN-END block.page 245 . If you find that you submit a job to run immediately and it does not start. difficult to reproduce behavior at times with "straight" procedure calls. ± We've noticed some aberrant. You can use the DBMS_IJOB to manage the jobs of other users. it picks up the current execution environment for the user.    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . perform a COMMIT after your submit.

Built-in Packages: DBMS_PIPE DBMS_PIPE Inter-session Communication 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 246 .

± Perform and commit DML in a separate transaction space from your main transaction. ± Interface PL/SQL-database activities with operating system functions and programs written in other languages.page 247 .  Uses for DBMS_PIPE include: ± Parallelization of program execution. ± Operates outside of database transaction limitations. You can parallelize your own code. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± More sophisticated debugging inside PL/SQL programs (work around fundamental limitations of DBMS_OUTPUT). Oracle uses database pipes to parallelize database operations.DBMS_PIPE Overview  Allows communication between different Oracle sessions through a pipe in the RDBMS Shared Global Area.

using a maximum of 4096 bytes. They are reserved for Oracle use). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 248 . ± Names can be up to 128 chars long (do not use names beginning with ³ORA$´. which can be composed of one or more separate packets. ± The pipe sends/receives a message.Architecture of DBMS_PIPE Shared Global Area ³Sue´ ³Bob´ Message Buffer Message Buffer Session A  Session B A pipe is a named object that uses the System Global Area to provide a non-transaction based conduit of information.

sql pipex2.  Unpack the message packets and take action. ± This is the default. ± You can wait for up to 1000 days for a message. so you should always specify a timeout period. ROWID or RAW. ± Each packet can be a string.  Receive a message from that pipe. number. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein pipex1. ± Separate out the individual packets in the message (again: string.page 249 . ± There is just one message buffer per session.Processing Flow of DBMS_PIPE  Construct a message from packets of information. ± If there isn¶t currently room in the pipe. you can wait for up to 1000 days (or 86400000 seconds) for the pipe to be cleared. date or number).sql PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . date.  Send the message to a named pipe.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . making it a candidate for removal with a LRU algorithm. UNIQUE_SESSION_NAME Returns name that is unique among all sessions in the database. PURGE Empties the contents of a pipe into your local buffer freeing it for removal. Clears your buffer so that PACK_MESSAGE and UNPACK_MESSAGE can work from the first item. UNPACK_MESSAGE Unpacks the next item from the local message buffer and deposits it into the specified local variable. PACK_MESSAGE Packs an item into the message buffer for your session. SEND_MESSAGE Sends contents of message buffer to the specified pipe. NEXT_ITEM_TYPE Returns the datatype of the next item in the piped message. REMOVE_PIPE RESET_BUFFER Removes a pipe explicitly created via CREATE_PIPE.DBMS_PIPE Module Outline Module Name CREATE_PIPE Description Creates a PUBLIC or PRIVATE pipe.page 250 . RECEIVE_MESSAGE Receives a message from pipe and copies to local buffer.

maxpipesize => 20000.CREATE_PIPE ( pipename => 'bbs'.  An explicit pipe can be private (accessible only to sessions with matching userID or SYSDBA privileges). ± Use CREATE_PIPE to create a pipe explicitly. BEGIN stat := DBMS_PIPE. private => TRUE). ± Specify TRUE for private argument of CREATE_PIPE. PROCEDURE newpipe IS stat INTEGER.Creating Public and Private Pipes  There are two ways to create pipes: implicitly and explicitly.  A public pipe is accessible as long as you know its name. ± Send messages to non-existent pipe implicitly create it.page 251 . ± Implicitly-created pipes are always public. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

IF pipe_stat != 0 THEN RAISE could_not_send. FUNCTION send_message (pipename IN VARCHAR2.Sending a Message Provide pipe name. waiting up to 1 minute. FOR month_num IN 1 . 10 * 4096).PACK_MESSAGE ( total_sales (month_num)). Status of 0 means message was sent. 12 LOOP DBMS_PIPE. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Fill your message buffer with packets of data. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . expanding pipe size to 40 Kbytes. and new max pipe size (you can make it bigger. END LOOP. Send to "monthly" pipe. but not smaller). maxpipesize IN INTEGER DEFAULT 8192) RETURN INTEGER. 60. timeout IN INTEGER DEFAULT maxwait.SEND_MESSAGE ( µmonthly¶. seconds you will wait.page 252 . pipe_stat := DBMS_PIPE..

page 253 . timeout IN INTEGER DEFAULT maxwait) RETURN INTEGER. PROCEDURE unpack_message (item OUT VARCHAR2). ± Specify pipe and number of seconds you will wait before you time out. ± You need to know the datatype of packet or check it using NEXT_ITEM_TYPE.Receiving and Unpack a Message FUNCTION receive_message (pipename IN VARCHAR2. PROCEDURE unpack_message (item OUT DATE).  First you pull the message from the pipe and place it in buffer with RECEIVE_MESSAGE.  Then you call UNPACK_MESSAGE to extract individual packets from the message. PROCEDURE unpack_message (item OUT NUMBER). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Pipe status of 0 means the message was read successfully.

').page 254 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . prod_total). seconds for the BEGIN next report.RECEIVE_MESSAGE ( 'production'. data not received. analyze_production (SYSDATE.A Pipe-based Listener Program  Program wakes up every N seconds to read the data from the pipe and analyze results from assembly line (an intentional "infinite loop"!). If I got something. every_n_secs). DBMS_PIPE. pass it on to the IF pipe_status = 0 computation THEN program. Wait up to N prod_total NUMBER. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .UNPACK_MESSAGE (prod_total). 'Production data unavailable. END. ELSE RAISE_APPLICATION_ERROR ( Stop process if -20000. END IF. LOOP pipe_status := DBMS_PIPE. PROCEDURE analyze_assembly_data (every_n_secs IN INTEGER) IS pipe_status INTEGER. END LOOP.

tst  Since a message can be composed of packets of different datatypes.Unpacking the Message FUNCTION next_item_type RETURN INTEGER. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Or you use the built-in NEXT_ITEM_TYPE to tell you in advance the datatype of the next packet in the message and take appropriate action.page 255 . you have to make sure that you unpack a packet into the right kind of variable. Returns one of the following values: Value 0 6 9 11 12 23 Description or Data type No more items in buffer NUMBER VARCHAR2 ROWID DATE RAW dbpipe. Either: ± You know the datatype and therefore can ³hard-code´ the correct variable into the call to UNPACK_MESSAGE.sql dbpipe.

but are not dependent on each other. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Parallelizing Your Code with Pipes  Oracle uses DBMS_PIPE to improve RDBMS performance.page 256 .  Suppose I want to calculate my net profit. ± The CEO is decidedly unhappy about the delay. ± These programs each take 15 minutes. ± You have processes which can run in parallel. total office expenses and total compensation. you can do the same for your application if: ± You have multiple CPUs available. In order to do so I must first compute total sales.  Without pipes. I must execute them sequentially and incur an elapsed time of 45 minutes before I calculate the profits.

Sequential vs.page 257 . Parallel Execution Sequential Execution: Maximum Elapsed Time S t a r t E n d Process A Process B Process C Parallel Execution: Minimum Elapsed Time Start Process A Process B Process C End 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

it puts a message (perhaps even a value) into the pipe.  The ³kick off´ programs pass their messages to separate pipes.in a muchdecreased elapsed time.  The ³wait´ program waits till it receives a message from each program. ± Other programs running in the background grab the messages and start their corresponding calculation program. wait_for_confirmation. calculate_net_profits. ± When each program is complete.Parallelizing PL/SQL Execution BEGIN kick_off_sales_calc. END.page 258 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . kick_off_totcomp_calc. Then net profits can be computed -. kick_off_exp_calc.

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . PROCEDURE calculate_sales IS stat INTEGER.PACK_MESSAGE (1995).SEND_MESSAGE (µsales¶).PACK_MESSAGE (NULL).SEND_MESSAGE (µsales¶).Code to Kick Off and Calculate PROCEDURE kick_off_sales_calc IS stat INTEGER.page 259 .RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µsales¶). calculate sales. DBMS_PIPE. IF stat = 0 THEN lots_of_number_crunching. BEGIN DBMS_PIPE.SEND_MESSAGE (µsales¶). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Send message to start calculations. stat := DBMS_PIPE. stat := DBMS_PIPE. END. END. BEGIN stat := DBMS_PIPE. stat := DBMS_PIPE. ELSE DBMS_PIPE. and send back the results. Receive the year.PACK_MESSAGE (sales$). END IF.

page 260 . stat := DBMS_PIPE. DBMS_PIPE.RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µoffexp¶). Perform final calculation. BEGIN stat := DBMS_PIPE. parallel. stat := DBMS_PIPE.UNPACK_MESSAGE (offexp$). The order in which you wait is insignificant. END. END.UNPACK_MESSAGE (comp$).RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µsales¶).UNPACK_MESSAGE (sales$).offexp$ .comp$. DBMS_PIPE. DBMS_PIPE. PROCEDURE calculate_net_profits IS BEGIN net_profits := sales$ .RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µcomp¶).sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Wait for all calculations to finish.Waiting for Confirmation PROCEDURE wait_for_confirmation IS stat INTEGER.

pkg  Implementation of a system-wide.Other DBMS_PIPE Examples  Simple trace package that sends it output either to screen or to pipe. ± The requester reads the information from the pipe. in-memory cache. watch.pkg syscache. ± A request for data is passed to a "central" pipe. ± A listener program grabs the request (including the return pipe name). syscache. and sends it to the pipe. obtains the data.pkg p_and_l.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Demonstrates the use of toggles and switches in packages.page 261 .

.Built-in Packages: DBMS_UTILITY DBMS_UTILITY Application GET_TIME GET_HASH_VALUE FORMAT_CALL_STACK .page 262 . A µgrab-bag¶ of miscellaneous operations SCHEMA 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..

Returns hash value for string.page 263 dbver. Returns execution call stack. Returns database version (Oracle8) Executes DDL statement (Oracle8). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Parses comma-delimited list to index-by table. Gets file number part of data block address.pkg dbparm. Returns error stack.DBMS_UTILITY Module Outline ANALYZE_DATABASE ANALYZE_PART_OBJECT Analyze objects in database Runs ANALYZE TABLE or ANALYZE INDEX for each partition of the object (Oracle8). Gets block number part of data block address. Recompile INVALID objects in specified schema.pkg COMMA_TO_TABLE COMPILE_SCHEMA DATA_BLOCK_ADDRESS_BLOCK DATA_BLOCK_ADDRESS_FILE DB_VERSION EXEC_DDL_STATEMENT FORMAT_CALL_STACK FORMAT_ERROR_STACK GET_HASH_VALUE 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .

page 264 . cont. Creates data block address from block & file numbers. Resolves name of object into component parts. Returns TRUE if in parallel server mode. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Returns "current time" down to hundredth of second. Parses string object designator into components. GET_PARAMETER_VALUE GET_TIME IS_PARALLEL_SERVER MAKE_DATA_BLOCK_ADDRESS NAME_RESOLVE NAME_TOKENIZE PORT_STRING TABLE_TO_COMMA Retrieves value of database parameter (Oracle8). Converts list (in index-by-table) of elements into a comma-delimited list (string).DBMS_UTILITY Module Outline. Returns platform and version of database.

page 265 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .  Compare results from consecutive calls to GET_TIME to determine the elapsed time of PL/SQL code execution. END. ± SYSDATE only reflects times down to the nearest second.v_start).PUT_LINE (DBMS_UTILITY.Sub-Second Timings with GET_TIME  GET_TIME returns the number of 100ths of seconds that have elapsed since an arbitrary point in time. calc_totals. especially those that run in sub-second time. ± Useful when analyzing individual PL/SQL programs.GET_TIME . DECLARE v_start BINARY_INTEGER. DBMS_OUTPUT.GET_TIME. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . so GET_TIME offers significant additional granularity. BEGIN v_start := DBMS_UTILITY. Basic steps necessary to convert GET_TIME into a performance analysis tool.

PLVtmr. reset_in IN BOOLEAN := TRUE).show_elapsed. adjust_in IN NUMBER := 0.capture. PROCEDURE capture ( context_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) PROCEDURE show_elapsed (prefix_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. Clean and lean timing code ovrhead. PROCEDURE set_factor (factor_in IN NUMBER). END PLVtmr. calc_totals.page 266 . END. PROCEDURE turn_off.sps plvtmr. BEGIN PLVtmr.Building a Layer Over GET_TIME Partial package specification PACKAGE PLVtmr IS PROCEDURE turn_on.sql plvtmr.spb 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN DBMS_OUTPUT.CALC_NET_WORTH anonymous block  "Little known facts" about FORMAT_CALL_STACK: ± Contains embedded new-line characters.COMPANY_TYPE procedure STEVEN.Accessing the Execution Call Stack Use in the exception section to show context of error.PL/SQL Call Stack ----object line object handle number name 88ce3f74 88e49fc4 88e49390 88e2bd20 8 2 1 1 package STEVEN. ----. only the package name. ± Most recent program at beginning of "report". equivalent to CHR(10). END.FORMAT_CALL_STACK). ± Does not show package elements.PUT_LINE ( DBMS_UTILITY. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .VALIDATE_REQUEST function STEVEN.page 267 .

next_newline . CHR(10).Accessing Call Stack Contents  The call stack length can easily exceed 255 bytes. BEGIN stk := DBMS_UTILITY. startpos := next_newline + 1. startpos. END LOOP. startpos. EXIT WHEN next_newline = 0. dispcs. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE dispcs IS stk VARCHAR2(10000). next_line VARCHAR2(255).pkg plvcs.startpos + 1).sps DBMS_OUTPUT.sp dispcs. startpos INTEGER := 1.FORMAT_CALL_STACK || CHR(10). LOOP next_newline := INSTR (stk. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Instead.PUT_LINE (next_line).tst callstack. use a loop to read through the stack. 1). next_line := SUBSTR ( stk. END. which means you cannot pass it to DBMS_OUTPUT directly.page 268 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . next_newline INTEGER.

see it as an opportunity.. part2 OUT VARCHAR2. PROCEDURE DBMS_UTILITY..but don't see it as a problem.Resolving Names of Stored Code  Code names have many components.  Possible "Part 1" Types 5 7 8 9 Synonym Procedure Function Package What a chore! All those arguments. part1 OUT VARCHAR2. ± Use NAME_RESOLVE to break down an identifier string into its components easily. dblink OUT VARCHAR2.page 269 .. object_number OUT NUMBER). context IN NUMBER..sp snc.for encapsulation! showcomp.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . part1_type OUT NUMBER.NAME_RESOLVE (name IN VARCHAR2. schema OUT VARCHAR2. the way they are attached also follows a complicated syntax.

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