Achieving PL/SQL Excellence

Oracle PL/SQL Advanced Techniques
Oracle7 thru Oracle8i
Steven Feuerstein
www.StevenFeuerstein.com www.Quest.com www.OReilly.com
and contributions most excellent from Bill Pribyl and Dick Bolz

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 1

Objective & Outline 

Objective
± Expand your knowledge and awareness of important and new features of the PL/SQL language. 

Outline
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± Building with Packages (Oracle7+) PL/SQL Collections (Oracle7 and Oracle8+) Cursor Variables (Oracle7 and Oracle8+) Dynamic SQL: DBMS_SQL and Native Dynamic SQL (8i) Calling Java from PL/SQL (Oracle8i) and C (Oracle8) Oracle Advanced Queuing with DBMS_AQ (Oracle8) Managing Large Objects with DBMS_LOB (Oracle8) Other Oracle8i New Features
» Autonomous Transactions (Oracle8i) » Invoker Rights Model (Oracle8i) » Row Level Security: DBMS_RLS

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

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Software Used in Training 

PL/Vision: a library of packages installed on top of PL/SQL.
± PL/Vision Lite - use it, copy, change it for free -- unless you build software to be sold commercially. ± Active PL/SQL Knowledge Base: contains PL/Vision Professional, the fully supported and enhanced version. 

Demonstration scripts executed in the training can be found on the RevealNet PL/SQL Pipeline:
± http://www.revealnet.com/Pipelines/PLSQL/index.htm ± Archives surfboard, Miscellaneous, PL/SQL Seminar Files ± See filedesc.doc for a listing of many of the files.
plsql_ides.txt 

The PL/SQL IDE (Integrated Development Environment).
± You no longer have to use SQL*Plus and a crude editor! Choose from among the many listed in plsql_ides.txt.

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Achieving PL/SQL Excellence

Building with PL/SQL Packages 
 

Overview Initialization section Overloading

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What is a Package? 

A collection of code elements, from procedures and functions to TYPE, variable and cursor declarations.
± Single-most important structure within PL/SQL, and almost certainly one of the most under-utilized. ± Conceptually very simple, it can take some time to fully grasp the implications and potential of the package. 

The method of choice by Oracle and other software developers for extending the PL/SQL language.
± You will find packages in the database, in Oracle Developer/2000, in Oracle Application Server. 

Let¶s review some of the benefits of packages.
tmr.pkg dbparm.pkg

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pks te_employee. watch.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Puts more structure and organization in your body of code.When to Build a Package  Join physically logically-related code.pkg  Improve transaction integrity by hiding data structures behind the package interface. custrules. te_employee.pkb  Construct very flexible and usable utilities for developers. you call the packaged procedures and functions instead.page 6 .pkg insga. ± Instead of writing SQL directly in your programs. ± Can lead to performance improvements. package-based "component". ± There's a big difference between a bunch of separate programs and a coherent.

Package Initialization  The initialization section is a block of code at the end of the package body that is executed once per session. no Complete request for packaged element. Does the package have an init section? yes Run initialization code.page 7 . ± The PL/SQL runtime engine determines when and if this code should be run. the first time any package element is referenced. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Program references package element the first time in each session.

most packages you build won't have one. In fact. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein BEGIN after/outside of any program defined in the pkg. ± Confirming that package is properly instantiated. PACKAGE BODY pkg IS PROCEDURE proc IS BEGIN END.Package Initialization Structure  The initialization section: ± Is defined after and outside of any programs in the package. FUNCTION func RETURN BEGIN END. ± Is not required.page 8 . BEGIN END pkg. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Can have its own exception handling section. ± Setting up package data which does not change for the duration of a session.  Useful for: ± Performing complex setting of default or initial values.

Configure Session with Init. show_toolbar. END sessinit.pkg init. defprinter INTO show_lov. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Section  An unusual package! ± Specification contains only variables. init.. */ 'Y'. 'Y'. tb_flag. show_toolbar CHAR(1). END sessinit.  Also a package with many design flaws.tst this user. 'No profile for ' || USER). PACKAGE BODY sessinit IS /* No declared package elements at all! */ BEGIN /* Get user preferences for this user. 'lpt1'. printer VARCHAR2(60).. printer FROM user_config WHERE user_id = USER. WHEN OTHERS THEN RAISE_APPLICATION_ERROR (-20000. */ SELECT lov_flag.page 9 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . ± Body contains only initialization section. EXCEPTION WHEN NO_DATA_FOUND THEN /* No record for show_lov := show_toolbar := printer := PACKAGE sessinit IS show_lov CHAR(1).

pkg file demonstrates the basic technique (and the reliance on an initialization section) used to achieve this flexibility.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . fmts(3) := 'DD-MON'. fmt_count := 12. END dt. ± This increases the flexibility of the date conversion process. ± The datemgr. fmts(9) := 'MM/DD/YYYY'. Initialization section populates a PL/SQL table. PLVdate. fmts(4) := 'MM/DD'. .. fmts(12) := 'RRMMDD'.Populate Collections  The PL/Vision Date package. fmts(11) := 'YYYYMMDD'. employs several PL/SQL tables to convert strings and to perform date arithmetic. fmts(10) := 'MMDDYYYY'. datemgr. BEGIN fmts(1) := 'DD-MON-RR'.pkg dates..page 10 . fmts(2) := 'DD-MON-YYYY'.

you need to make that code as smart and as easy to use as possible. myproc  Overloading is a critical feature when building comprehensive programmatic interfaces (APIs) or components using packages.Program Overloading  When you overload programs. myproc myproc 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 11 . you give two or more programs the same name. ± You can overload modules in any declaration section and in packages. ± If you want others to use your code. ± Overloading transfers the "need to know" from the user to the overloaded program.

± But Oracle couldn't offer that level of convenience without overloading. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 12 . Without overloading. number_string := TO_CHAR (10000). number_string := TO_CHAR_FROM_NUMBER (10000). 'MMDDYY'). date_string := TO_CHAR (SYSDATE. 'MMDDYY').Overloading in PL/SQL Built-ins  PL/SQL uses overloading in many common functions. ± You just probably never gave it a thought. and took functions like TO_CHAR and TO_DATE totally for granted. you would have to deal with something like this: date_string := TO_CHAR_FROM_DATE (SYSDATE.

 Distinguishing characteristics: ± The formal parameters of overloaded modules must differ in number. ± Arguments differ only in their mode (IN. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . IN OUT). the compiler must be able to distinguish between the two calls at compile-time.How Overloading Works  For two or more modules to be overloaded. ± The programs are of different types: procedure and function.page 13 . ± 2. When you compile programs that use the overloaded code. order or datatype family (CHAR vs. ± Their formal parameters differ only in datatype and the datatypes are in the same family. OUT.  Undistinguishing characteristics: ± Functions differ only in their RETURN datatype. VARCHAR2 is not different enough). When you compile the package or block containing the overloaded code. There are two different "compile times": ± 1.

PROCEDURE proc1 (val IN OUT VARCHAR2). Only difference is parameter mode.proc1 (v_value). Only difference is function RETURN type. which one? too_similar. Parameter data types cause conflict. END param_modes. which one? DBMS_OUTPUT. END too_many_cals.Examples of Invalid Overloadings PACKAGE too_similar IS PROCEDURE calc (reg_in IN CHAR).PUT_LINE (only_returns. FUNCTION func1 (val IN VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2.func1 (v_value)). PROCEDURE calc (reg_in IN VARCHAR2). which one? param_modes. PACKAGE only_returns IS FUNCTION func1 (val IN VARCHAR2) RETURN DATE. END only_returns.page 14 .calc ('123'). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . PACKAGE param_modes IS PROCEDURE proc1 (val IN VARCHAR2).

 Fitting the Program to the User ± To make your code as useful as possible. In this case.PUT_LINE procedure illustrates this technique -and the PL/Vision p.page 15 . not Value ± A less common application of overloading.Overload Wherever Possible  Supporting Many Data Combinations ± Apply the same action to different kinds or combinations of data. you may construct different versions of the ³same´ program which correspond to different patterns of use. ± The DBMS_OUTPUT. so much as providing different ways of requesting the same activity. You use the type of data and not its value to determine which of the overloaded programs should be executed.  Overloading by Type.l substitute does an even better job. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . the overloading does not provide a single name for different activities.

boolean_in IN BOOLEAN). p.HH:MI:SS PM'). mask_in IN VARCHAR2 := 'Month DD. YYYY . mask_in IN VARCHAR2 := µMonth DD.HH:MI:SS PM'). allowing the user to pass data to the "display engine" without writing "pre-processing" code. number_in IN NUMBER). PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2. PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2.page 16 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . PROCEDURE l (number_in IN NUMBER). date_in IN DATE.A "Classic" Overloaded Package  Many different datatype combinations.sps p.spb PROCEDURE l (boolean_in IN BOOLEAN). PACKAGE p IS PROCEDURE l (date_in IN DATE. END p. PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2. YYYY . PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Advantage of Extended Overloading ‡ Minimal overloading means lots of extra coding.PUT_LINE ('TRUE'). SQLCODE). ELSE DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE ('So what is different?'). p. DBMS_OUTPUT..l ('So what is different?').PUT_LINE (TO_CHAR (SYSDATE. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 17 .l (SYSDATE). p. END IF. p. IF print_report_fl THEN DBMS_OUTPUT. p..PUT_LINE ('FALSE'). 'MM/DD/YY HH:MI:SS')). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein ‡Extended overloadings are more likely to meet user needs.l (SQLERRM. DBMS_OUTPUT. DBMS_OUTPUT.l (print_report_fl).PUT_LINE (SQLERRM || ': ' || TO_CHAR (SQLCODE)).

appreciated. think about the way it will be used. If you take these different circumstances into account when you design your package specification.page 18   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Your code is a a more natural "fit" under a variety of requirements. few developers are considerate enough of their users to try to anticipate their needs. can be applied or needed under very different circumstances. the user of your package can benefit from writing less code. ± If you want to write software that is admired.. such as "display data" or "create a file".and taken completely for granted.Fitting the Program to the User Writing "unnecessary" code? Time to overload!  A single piece of functionality.. In my experience.

Of course.PUT_LINE (fid.FOPEN ('tmp/flags'.Creating a File for a Quick Touch  Suppose a developer needs to create a file to be used as a "flag" in the operating system. It just needs to be present. right? WRONG! PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . even though you are simply going to close the file immediately after opening it. END. so this is just the way it has to be.FILE_TYPE.flg'. UTL_FILE. sometimes you will want to create a file and then perform additional operations. ± Here is the code required by UTL_FILE: DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.  In other words.FCLOSE (fid).page 19  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . you have to declare the record to hold the file handle. 'W'). ± She doesn't care what's in it. BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE. UTL_FILE. 'blah'). 'exists.

TO_CHAR (SYSDATE)).page 20 .fcreate ('exists.FILE_TYPE.FILE_TYPE.put_line (fid. END PLVfile.fcreate ('temp. PLVfile. line_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL). v_user).Procedure and Function Overloaded  Why not overload a "create file" program so that you can pick the one that most closely fits your situation? Consider the PLVfile package of PL/Vision. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Use as Function DECLARE fid UTL_FILE. line_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) RETURN UTL_FILE. Use as Procedure BEGIN PLVfile. BEGIN fid := PLVfile. END.ini'. custrules.flg').pkg PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . /* Function */ FUNCTION fcreate (file_in IN VARCHAR2.  Overloading of FCreate PACKAGE PLVfile IS /* Procedure */ PROCEDURE fcreate (file_in IN VARCHAR2.

you must call the DEFINE_COLUMN procedure to define the datatype of the Nth column in the cursor. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Pass a piece of data of the right type. when you use DBMS_SQL to set up a dynamic query. ± Pass a string ³name´ of the datatype. but the type of data. Define a different program name for each datatype.  There are three ways to accomplish this: ± Don't overload."By-Type" Overloading  In some situations.page 21 . ± For example. the user does not need to pass data.

. 'STRING'... 30). 1. 2. lotsa names.Options for Specifying Column Type  Don't even bother overloading.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.. DBMS_SQL. 1.. ± DBMS_SQL.  Now let's look at two examples of overloading by datatype. 30). 1). 2. DBMS_SQL. Lotsa typing.  Nasty hard-coding. 'NUMBER').DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. Pass a named constant.... DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN ± PLVgen..DEFINE_INTEGER_COLUMN (cur. BEGIN DBMS_SQL..VARCHAR2_TYPE.NUMBER_TYPE). 2.DEFINE_VARCHAR2_COLUMN (cur.  So many program names to remember! Pass a literal value.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.func 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..DEFINE_COLUMN (cur..page 22 . DBMS_SQL. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. 30). DBMS_SQL. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.

'a'.DEFINE_COLUMN.DEFINE_COLUMN procedure defines the datatype of a column.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. 30). 1.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.GET_TIME).any value -. DBMS_SQL. 30). from the perspective of DBMS_SQL. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. v_ename.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.of the correct type. v_empno). 30). DBMS_UTILITY. DBMS_SQL. 1.Defining Dynamic SQL Columns  The DBMS_SQL. ± The three code blocks below are equivalent.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. ± To make it easier to accomplish this task. DBMS_SQL. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. 1). USER.page 23 . 1. you only need to pass a value -. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. 2. 2. 2. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.

the user indicates the type of function to be generated by providing a value. please! A number function. ± The particular value itself is of no importance.func ('total_salary'. type_in IN NUMBER). PROCEDURE func (name_in IN VARCHAR2.page 24 . please! 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . type_in IN DATE). any Boolean will do.func ('last_date'. Any number. PACKAGE PLVgen IS PROCEDURE func (name_in IN VARCHAR2. PROCEDURE func (name_in IN VARCHAR2. any date.Generating Functions by Value  In PLVgen. any string. 1) A date function. type_in IN VARCHAR2). SQL> exec plvgen. SYSDATE) SQL> exec plvgen.

± When I compile profits. I rely on an anchored type (%TYPE) to establish the datatype of the second calc¶s parameter.comp_id%TYPE). PACKAGE profits IS PROCEDURE calc (comp_id_IN IN NUMBER). but you might later found out that you cannot actually call any of the overloaded programs.page 25 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . PROCEDURE calc (comp_id_IN IN company.  In the above example. PL/SQL does not sense a conflict with above overloading even though comp_id is a numeric column. END.The Frustrations of Overloading  Watch out! An overloading can compile successfully.

how would you do it? (Don't peek at the next page!) BEGIN sales. END sales.calc_total ('NORTHWEST').Quiz! Nuances of Overloading PACKAGE sales IS PROCEDURE calc_total (zone_in IN VARCHAR2).pkg ? 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .calc_total ('ZONE2'). sales. like calc_totals shown above? ± If not. why not? ± If so. PROCEDURE calc_total (reg_in IN VARCHAR2).  Can I overload two programs which have parameters that differ only by name. END. sales.page 26 .

next_date => TRUNC (SYSDATE + 1). interval => 'TRUNC(SYSDATE+1)').sql  Advantages 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .''ESTIMATE''.estimate_percent=>50).submit ( job => v_jobno. of named notation include: ± Code is more "self-documenting". DBMS_JOB.page 27 .null. ± You can skip over (not specify values for) any IN parameters that have default values.Using Named Notation <formal parameter name> => <expression>  Explicit association between the formal parameter (the "name") with the actual parameter (the "value").''TENK''' || '. That way you don't have to know and pass default values. what => 'DBMS_DDL. namednot. This is especially useful when working with infrequently used built-in programs.'.''LOAD1''.ANALYZE_OBJECT ' || '(''TABLE''.

page 28 . Oracle8 and above) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Three types of collections: ± Index-by tables (Oracle7 only. originally called PL/SQL tables) ± Nested tables (Oracle8 and above) ± Variable arrays (VARRAYs.Achieving PL/SQL Excellence PL/SQL Collections   Collections are single-dimensioned lists of information.

which are otherwise not supported in PL/SQL Cache data in session-level memory for faster access.  Emulate bi-directional cursors.page 29     1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . Build hash tables (custom indexing structures). Improve query performance by avoiding joins. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Avoid mutating table errors in database triggers.When to Use Collections  Maintain any kind of list of related information for use in your programs.

± Sparse » Data does not have to be stored in consecutive rows of information. ± Homogeneous » Data in each row has the same structure.647 to 2.483.page 30 .483. Valid row numbers range: -2. emp_copy inmem_emp_t.147. Instead.647 » You will not actually create tables this large. ± Available only in PL/SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Index-By Tables TYPE <table_type> IS TABLE OF <datatype> INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. DECLARE TYPE inmem_emp_t IS TABLE OF emp%ROWTYPE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER.  Characteristics of an index-by table: ± Unbounded » Practically speaking. this broad range allows you to employ the row number as an intelligent key.147.

children (6904) := 'Lisa Nadezhka'. children 6306 6412 6810 6904 µBarbara Anne¶ µGary Richard¶ µAdam Russell¶ µLisa Nadezhka¶ datemgr.Index_by Tables TYPE declaration PACKAGE BODY family IS TYPE child_list_type IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2 (30) INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER.page 31 . Variable declaration children child_list_type. Error: NO_DATA_FOUND 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Component Selection kid := children (4).pkg children 6306 6412 6904 µBarbara Anne¶ µGary Richard¶ µLisa Marie¶ children (6810) := µAdam Russell.

birthdays when_t.  Nested table characteristics ± Homogeneous » Each row contains the same structure of data.647 ± Initially dense. ± Unbounded. but can become sparse if you DELETE inner rows ± Available both in PL/SQL and SQL (as a column in a table) ± The order of elements is not preserved in the database 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . but only with explicit EXTEND requests » Practically speaking. DECLARE TYPE when_t IS TABLE OF DATE. Valid row numbers range: 1 to 2.147.Nested Tables [CREATE OR REPLACE] TYPE <table_type> IS TABLE OF <datatype> [NOT NULL].page 32 .483.

page 33 . CREATE TABLE db_family (surname VARCHAR2 (30). kids child_table_type) NESTED TABLE kids STORE AS kids_ntab.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . For ORACLE's use only db_family surname kids BOLZ BOND Eric Thomas Max Richard Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Marie ntdemo.Nested Tables CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE child_table_type IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2 (30).

Maximum value: 2. ± Available both in PL/SQL and SQL (as a column in a table) » And the order of elements are preserved in the database.647 ± Dense » Never any gaps between defined rows.147.Variable Arrays [CREATE OR REPLACE] TYPE <table_type> IS VARRAY (N) OF <datatype> [NOT NULL]. DECLARE TYPE numbers_t IS VARRAY (10) OF NUMBER. ± Variable arrays are actually stored in the DB table 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .483. can be EXTENDed or TRIMmed.  Characteristics of variable arrays: ± Homogeneous » Each row contains the same structure of data.page 34 . salaries numbers_t. ± Bounded » Upper limit established when the TYPE is defined.

page 35 .Variable Arrays CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE child_va_type IS VARRAY (8) OF VARCHAR2 (30).sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . CREATE TABLE db_family (surname VARCHAR2 (30). db_family surname kids BOLZ BOND 1 Barbara Anne 2 Gary Richard 3 Lisa Marie 1 Eric Thomas 2 Max Richard vademo. kids child_va_type).

this can only occur in a PL/SQL declaration section. TYPE integer_nt IS TABLE OF INTEGER. ± You can declare multiple collections from that TYPE.page 36 . TYPE integer_vat IS VARRAY(10) OF INTEGER. END tabtypes. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE tabtypes IS TYPE integer_ibt IS TABLE OF INTEGER INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. ± For nested tables and VARRAYs. from the TYPE.  Then you declare an instance of that type.Defining Collections  First. ± For index-by tables. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . you can define the TYPE in the database with a CREATE statement. .. or in a PL/SQL declaration section. Best option: package specification. a collection.. you define the TYPE of the collection.

type_name IN ('NAMES_VT'.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . all_type_attrs A T.page 37 . 'TMRS_VT') T.owner = A. ± The code used to define the collection TYPE  There is no information in the data dictionary available for index-by tables.Obtaining Collection Information SELECT FROM WHERE AND AND AND A.elem_type_name = A.owner T.type_name.' || A. colldd.attr_name || ' .  ALL_COLL_TYPES ± The types you have created (or have access to) in the database  ALL_TYPE_ATTRS ± Attributes of the data type used in the TYPE definition.attr_type_name Attributes all_coll_types T.owner = USER T.

You must initialize them explicitly with a constructor.Initialize the collection. salaries numbers_t := numbers_t (100. 200. BEGIN CREATE TABLE employee_denorm ( employee_id INTEGER. ± Index-by tables are initialized automatically. DECLARE TYPE numbers_t IS VARRAY (10) OF NUMBER. BEGIN CREATE TYPE numbers_t IS VARRAY (10) OF NUMBER. 300). TYPE defined in PL/SQL TYPE defined in the database Collection used in a table PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . empty when declared. salaries numbers_t := numbers_t (100. 300).Initializing Collections  Before you can use a collection. ± Nested tables and VARRAYs are atomically null. 200. / DECLARE -. salary_history numbers_t). it must be initialized.page 38 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .

the ³homogeneous´ contents of an index-by table's row can be a record .page 39 . consider putting TYPEs in database or packages. TYPE comp_tabtype IS TABLE OF comp_rectype INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. ± Can easily create an index-by table with the same structure as a database table by declaring a record with %ROWTYPE. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± But you cannot have nested composite datatypes.  Starting with Oracle8. the datatype for any of the collection types can also be an object. BEGIN comp_tab(1).company_id%TYPE.Collections of Composites  Starting with Oracle 7. Here we have a three step process.comp_id := 1005.3. Again. total_rev NUMBER). comp_tab comp_tabtype. DECLARE TYPE comp_rectype IS RECORD (comp_id company.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Rows do not have to be defined sequentially.Sparse is Nice  The sparse characteristic of index-by tables and nested tables can be put to good use.page 40 . consider using the row value as "smart data" for your application (primary key.). ± You should not fill sequentially. etc.  Especially handy when caching data from relational tables in user memory. your collections will contain a row's worth of information. order by date. it is very similar to a database table. ± In almost every case. In this way. a row exists in the table only when a value is assigned to that row. ± Instead. unless the order in which items are selected is of importance. ± In an index-by table.

Some questions: ± Why would I put this collection table in a package? ± When is the collection loaded with the data? ± What rows in that collection are utilized? psemp. END. emp_tab emp_tabtype. Initialization section of package 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein  This package moves the entire contents of the emp table into its corresponding collection.pkg psemp.tst  PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 41 . END LOOP.empno) := rec. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY psemp IS BEGIN FOR rec IN (SELECT * FROM emp) LOOP emp_tab (rec. END.Transferring DB Table to Collection CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE psemp IS TYPE emp_tabtype IS TABLE OF emp%ROWTYPE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . the row exists. Jordan'. but you must do it for VARRAYs and nested tables. ± Use the EXISTS method to determine if a row existed.  For index-by tables. ± For VARRAYs and nested tables. you must reference existing rows or a NO_DATA_FOUND exception is raised. / DECLARE greedy_ceos names_t := names_t (). once extended. / Error -6533! You've got to EXTEND first!  EXTEND before assigning a value to a row. ± Not necessary for index-by tables.Collection Gotchas CREATE TYPE names_t IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2(30). BEGIN greedy_ceos(1) := 'Hamilton. END. even if you haven't assigned a value explicitly.page 42 .

± Assign a default value with a second.Extend by 10 since I know I will need that many. ± Pre-extending a large number of rows in advance can improve performance.EXISTS (v_employee_id) THEN -.  You can EXTEND one or more rows.PUT_LINE ('Data for employee not available.tst  Include a handler for NO_DATA_FOUND or use the EXISTS method to avoid these exceptions. preextend. -.Set the value of each new row to the contents of the first row.EXTEND (10.'). optional argument. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END IF. salaries(salaries. BEGIN IF salaries. ELSE DBMS_OUTPUT.page 43 .FIRST)).Handling Collection Gotchas BEGIN -.We are OK. salaries.

± LIMIT tells you the max. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . NEXT/PRIOR return the closest defined row after/before the specified row.  The built-in package plitblm (PL/sql Index-TaBLe Methods) defines these methods.page 44 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . ± ± ± ±  Modify the contents of the collection ± DELETE deletes one or more rows from the index-by table. FIRST/LAST return lowest/highest numbers of defined rows.Collection Methods  Obtain information about the collection COUNT returns number of rows currently defined in the table. EXISTS returns TRUE if the specified row is defined. ± TRIM removes rows from a VARRAY. number of elements allowed in a VARRAY. ± EXTEND adds rows to a nested table or VARRAY.

Delete a range of rows myCollection.DELETE. 17255).Delete all rows myCollection. END. DELETE releases memory.LAST).page 45 .DELETE (myCollection. -. -.Delete one (the last) row myCollection. but you may also want to call DBMS_SESSION.The DELETE Method  You can delete one or more rows from a collection using DELETE: BEGIN -.FREE_UNUSED_USER_MEMORY.DELETE (1400. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Navigating Through Collections 


Use FIRST and NEXT to move from beginning to end. Use LAST and PRIOR to move from end to beginning.
rowind PLS_INTEGER := birthdays.FIRST; -- birthdays.LAST BEGIN LOOP EXIT WHEN rowind IS NULL; DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE (birthdays(rowind).best_present); rowind := birthdays.NEXT (rowind); -- birthdays.PRIOR END LOOP; END;

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Using Collections Inside SQL 

Nested tables and VARRAYs can be defined as columns of a table and referenced directly within SQL. You can also apply SQL operations to the contents of nested tables and VARRAYs with these operators:
± THE - Maps a single column value in a single row to a virtual database table ± CAST - Maps a collection of one type to a collection of another type ± MULTISET - Maps a database table to a collection ± TABLE - Maps a collection to a database table  

Index-by tables are programmatic constructs only.
± You cannot make a direct reference to an index-by table in SQL. ± Instead, so do indirectly with a PL/SQL function.

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Using Collections inside SQL
SELECT column_value FROM TABLE (SELECT children FROM db_family WHERE surname = 'BOLZ'); db_family surname children BOLZ BOND Eric Thomas Max Richard UPDATE TABLE (SELECT children FROM db_family WHERE SURNAME = 'BOLZ) SET column_value = 'Lisa Nadezhka' WHERE column_value = 'Lisa Marie'); db_family surname children BOLZ ...
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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 48

Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Marie

column_value Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Marie

Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Nadezhka

Using the THE Operator 

Use THE to manipulate (retrieve, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE) contents of a nested table in a database table.
± Can only use with nested tables, not VARRAYs or index-by tables. ± Only accessible from within SQL statements in PL/SQL.
CREATE TYPE action_list_t IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2(100); / CREATE TABLE inflation_beater ( focus_area VARCHAR2(100), activities action_list_t) NESTED TABLE activities STORE AS activities_tab; SELECT VALUE (act) FROM THE (SELECT activities FROM inflation_beater WHERE focus_area = 'FORTUNE 100') act; UPDATE THE (SELECT activities FROM inflation_beater WHERE focus_area = 'FORTUNE 100') SET COLUMN_VALUE = 'DISBAND OSHA' WHERE COLUMN_VALUE = 'SIDESTEP OSHA';

the.sql

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Using the TABLE and CAST Operators 

Use CAST to convert a collection from one type to another, TABLE to convert a TYPE into a database table.
± Cannot use with index-by tables. ± Useful when you would like to apply SQL operations against a PL/SQL collection (ie, one not stored in a database table).
DECLARE nyc_devolution cutbacks_for_taxcuts := cutbacks_for_taxcuts ('Stop rat extermination programs', 'Fire building inspectors', 'Close public hospitals'); BEGIN DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE ( 'How to Make the NYC Rich Much, Much Richer:'); FOR rec IN (SELECT COLUMN_VALUE ohmy FROM TABLE (CAST (nyc_devolution AS cutbacks_for_taxcuts))) LOOP DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE (rec.ohmy); END LOOP; cast.sql END;

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converting a set of data (table.page 51 . b.genus = b. Retrieves all detail bird_row bird_curs%ROWTYPE. END. ± Cannot use with index-by tables.country FROM bird_habitats bh WHERE bh. information for the BEGIN master in one trip. DECLARE CURSOR bird_curs IS SELECT b.Using the MULTISET Operator  MULTISET is the inverse of TABLE. OPEN bird_curs.species. multiset. query) into a VARRAY or nested table.genus.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .genus AND bh. view. FETCH bird_curs into bird_row. ± You can use MULTISET to emulate or transform relational joins into collections.species = b.species) AS country_tab_t) FROM birds b. CAST(MULTISET(SELECT bh. with potential client-server performance impact.

Make accessible in SQL for Oracle8 and below. call functions that retrieve the table's data. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein ibtab_in_sql.page 52 . Instead. but hide the index-by table structure.sql PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . hiredates date_tab. WNPS. PRAGMA RESTRICT_REFERENCES (rowval. END. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY ibtab IS TYPE date_tab IS TABLE OF DATE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. FUNCTION rowval (indx IN PLS_INTEGER) RETURN DATE IS BEGIN RETURN hiredates (indx). END. WNDS).  CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE ibtab IS FUNCTION rowval (indx IN PLS_INTEGER) RETURN DATE. END.Referencing IB Tables inside SQL  You can't directly reference an index-by table's contents inside SQL.

Examples of Collections in Action  Emulation of bi-directional cursor operations Avoid mutating table problems in database triggers.page 53 .  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

 bidir. deposit your data in a collection and then provide programs to access that data in the necessary fashion.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . PROCEDURE nextRow. FUNCTION getRow RETURN employee_plus%ROWTYPE. ± A talked-about feature for Oracle9i -. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE bidir IS /* Iterate through rows in the result set */ PROCEDURE setRow (nth IN PLS_INTEGER).page 54 . Notice that the collection itself is hidden. PROCEDURE prevRow.Bi-Directional Cursor Emulation  Oracle does not yet support the ability to move back and forth (and at random) through a cursor's result set.pkg bidir. END.nope. didn't make it!  Instead. This is particularly useful (read: efficient) when you need to perform multiple passes against the data.

Statement Level UPDATE emp SET sal = 1000 UPDATE row 1 Row Level  UPDATE row N Row level triggers cannot query from or change the contents of the table to which it is attached. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . So what are you supposed to do when a row-level operation needs to "touch" that table? mutating.page 55 .The Mutating Table Problem  Database triggers can be attached to the SQL statement and/or the individual row operations on a table.sql  Note: in Oracle8i. you can use autonomous transactions to relax restrictions associated with queries. it is "mutating".

Statement Trigger 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 1st row trigger fires Nth row trigger fires Writes to list Writes to list Work List (PL/SQL Table)  Process data in the list.page 56 . you need to defer the action until you get to the statement level. you have to remember what you needed to do. ± an index-by table is an ideal repository for this reminder list.A Solution Based on Index-by Tables  Since you cannot perform the processing desired in the row-level trigger. If you are going to defer the work.

25 65011.page 57 .25 3 1 2 6 "Deferred work" is not only necessary. the rankings must also change to show the new standings for that department only. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± We might update more than one department within a statement so we must be able to retain multiple department numbers. we then know which departments to re-rank. but preferable.An Example: Ranking Salespeople  A table holds the rankings based on the amount of annual sales of salespeople within a department.88 144533. Department ID Salesperson ID Sales Amount Rank 1055 1055 1055 1047  64333 65709 65706 70904 74055. ± As the sales amount is updated in this table. ± By storing the salesperson¶s department ids as they change.91 109000.

pkg All details of the ranking are hidden in the package body.sales_amt) BEGIN rank. Statement Level Trigger CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER Rank_Sales_Strg AFTER INSERT OR UPDATE OR DELETE ON rank_sales BEGIN rank.page 58 .sales_amt != NEW. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .add_dept (:new. ranking. Doesn't fire unless the sales_amt is actually changed.dept_id).Trigger Logic Required Row Level Trigger CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER Rank_Sales_Rtrg AFTER insert OR update OF sales_amt ON rank_sales FOR EACH ROW WHEN (OLD.rank_depts. END. END.

END rank. END add_dept 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Create row to indicate department to be ranked.The Ranking Package PACKAGE rank IS PROCEDURE add_dept (dept_id_in IN INTEGER). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 59 . TYPE dept_tabtype IS TABLE OF BOOLEAN INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. END IF. Table holds indicator that department needs re-ranking. PACKAGE BODY rank IS in_process BOOLEAN := FALSE. PROCEDURE add_dept (dept_id_in IN INTEGER) IS BEGIN IF NOT in_process THEN dept_tab (dept_id_in) := TRUE. PROCEDURE rank_depts. dept_tab dept_tabtype.

page 60 . Clean up for next time.DELETE. END rank_dept.NEXT (v_deptid). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Avoid recursive execution of logic Row number is department number.FIRST. dept_tab. v_deptid := dept_tab. BEGIN IF NOT in_process THEN in_process := TRUE. END IF.The Ranking Package. in_process := FALSE. Continued PROCEDURE rank_depts IS v_deptid PLS_INTEGER := dept_tab. perform_ranking (v_deptid). END rank. END LOOP. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . LOOP EXIT WHEN v_deptid IS NULL.

You want to use inside SQL. ± You want to use inside SQL.  VARRAYs ± ± ± ± You want to preserve the order in which elements are stored. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . You don't want to have to worry about sparseness.  Nested tables ± You want to store large amounts of persistent data in a column.Which Collection Type Should I Use?  Index-by tables ± Need to use in both Oracle7 and Oracle8 applications ± Want to take advantage of sparse nature for "intelligent keys".page 61 . Set of data is relatively small (avoid row chaining).

Tips for Using Collections 

Wrap access to your collections.
± In many cases, you will want to avoid direct access to (assigning and retrieving) rows in your collections. ± This will give you the flexibility to change your implementation. ± You can also hide complex rules for setting the row number. 

Get creative!
± Don't always fill and use the index-by table sequentially. ± If you can somehow translate your application data to an integer, it can be used as a row number, and therefore offers indexed access. ± Julian date formats and DBMS_UTILITY.GET_HASH_VALUE offer two different methods.

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Achieving PL/SQL Excellence

Cursor Variables

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 63

Architecture of Cursor Variables
With Hard-Coded Cursors
Hard-Coded Cursor

With Cursor Variables

PGA

Cursor Variable

Cursor Variable

Result Set

Shared Global Area

Cursor Object

Result Set 

A cursor variable points to an underlying cursor object in the database.
± The cursor object in turns points to (and keeps its place in) a result set. 

The cursor variable can be passed between programs (even between, say, a Java servlet and a PL/SQL stored procedure).
± Static SQL only -- until Oracle8i.
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Benefits of Cursor Variables 

Share cursor management between programs, even across the client-server divide.
± You don't have to pass the result sets of a cursor in order to allow the client-side program to have direct access to the data in the result set. ± Oracle Developer 2.1 utilizes cursor variables when you choose to construct a "base table block" around stored procedures instead of a database table. 

Share the same code across multiple, different queries.
± Since the cursor name is no longer hard-coded, you can use a single block of code (say, a reporting program) against different queries. ± We will try out this technique at the end of the section.

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Cursor Variable Example
DECLARE TYPE company_curtype IS REF CURSOR RETURN company%ROWTYPE;
Declare a variable cursor TYPE.

company_curvar company_curtype;

Declare cursor variable based on that type. Declare a record from cursor variable. OPEN cursor variable, specifying the query. FETCH from the cursor variable.

company_rec company_curvar%ROWTYPE; BEGIN OPEN company_curvar FOR SELECT * FROM company;

FETCH company_curvar INTO company_rec;
Close the cursor variable.

CLOSE company_curvar; END;
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Explicit Cursors and Cursor Variables 

Both hard-coded cursors and cursor variables work with static SQL.
± The SQL is fixed at compile-time. ± The difference is that with cursor variables, you get to decide which static query is opened. 

Many cursor operations are the same:
± Close a variable cursor with the same syntax as that for static cursors. ± Use cursor attributes (%ISOPEN, %FOUND, %NOTFOUND, %ROWCOUNT) with cursor variables (as of Release 2.3). ± Fetch data from the cursor result set through a cursor variable with the same syntax as that of static cursors. 

Let¶s focus on the new and different capabilities of cursor variables.
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Declaring Cursor Types and Variables 

Cursors are declared in two steps, just like programmerdefined records and PL/SQL tables.
± 1. Define a cursor TYPE -- either "weak" or "strong". ± 2. Define a cursor variable.
DECLARE TYPE weak_curtype IS REF CURSOR; TYPE comp_curtype IS REF CURSOR RETURN company%ROWTYPE; curcmp_new comp_curtype; cur_any weak_curtype; BEGIN
Declare cursor variables from the TYPEs. Declare a STRONG referenced cursor TYPE. Declare a WEAK referenced cursor TYPE.

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Strong vs. Weak Cursor Types 

A strong (or constrained) cursor type has a defined return data specification.
± Can only reference cursor objects which return the same data specification, which can be any single SQL datatype or any previously defined record structure. ± Datatype mismatches are identified at compile time.

TYPE cur_typ_name IS REF CURSOR [ RETURN return_type ]; TYPE cur_typ_name IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE; /* Strong */ 

The weak (or unconstrained) cursor type does not have a RETURN clause.
± It can reference any cursor object, be opened FOR any query. ± Datatype mismatches can only be identified at runtime.

TYPE cur_typ_name IS REF CURSOR; /* Weak */
1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein
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Opening with the Cursor Variable
OPEN cursor_name FOR select_statement; 

When you open a cursor variable (whether of the weak or strong variety), you must provide the SQL query that identifies the result set.
± If the variable has not yet been assigned to cursor object, the OPEN FOR statement implicitly creates an object for the variable. ± If the variable is already pointing to a cursor object, the OPEN FOR reuses the existing object and attaches the new query to that cursor object. 

Remember, the cursor object is nothing more than a memory location.
± It is maintained independently of the query itself.
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. a cursor or a programmer-defined record. END.Opening with Strong Cursor Types DECLARE TYPE emp_curtype IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE. Match Needed BEGIN OPEN emp_curvar FOR SELECT * from emp. ± You can establish the return type based on a database table.page 71 . . emp_curvar emp_curtype. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  STRONG cursor data specifications must match or be compatible with the structure of the SELECT statement..

page 72 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . END. RETURN retval. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END. THEN OPEN retval FOR SELECT * FROM dept. FUNCTION open_emp_or_dept (get_type_in IN VARCHAR2) RETURN pkg. REF TYPE placed in package so that it is "globally" available.cv_type. Verification will take ELSIF get_type_in = µDEPT¶ place at the FETCH.  A weak cursor TYPE doesn't define the RETURN structure. BEGIN IF get_type_in = µEMP¶ THEN Either query will "do". you can associate any SELECT statement with a weak cursor variable. OPEN retval FOR SELECT * FROM emp.cv_type IS retval pkg.Opening with Weak Cursor Types PACKAGE pkg IS TYPE cv_type IS REF CURSOR. END IF.

± The ROWTYPE_MISMATCH exception is raised on failure.   Compatibility checks are performed prior to fetching row.. .Fetching from the Cursor Variable FETCH cursor_var_name INTO record_name.page 73 . it match the cursor type data specification. The INTO structure must match in number and datatype to: ± FOR STRONG cursor types.. mismatch.  Fetching with cursor variables follows the same rules as those with static cursors. it match the OPEN FOR statement structure. ± Fetching can continue with a different INTO clause.. ± FOR WEAK cursor types. FETCH cursor_var_name INTO var_name. var_name.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

since cursor names are "hard coded". Use a single block of code to manipulate multiple queries.When to Use Cursor Variables  Make it easier for calling programs (especially non-PL/SQL programs) to manipulate result sets. you have to repeat the code for each cursor. ± JDBC recognizes cursor variables. ± With explicit cursors.  Define a base table block in Forms Builder (formerly Oracle Forms) on stored procedures rather than a table directly.  hccursor. ± You could use dynamic SQL to achieve this effect.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 74 . but static cursors are more efficient than dynamic SQL and cursor variables are less complicated than DBMS_SQL.

TYPE int_rt IS RECORD (key INTEGER). CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE allcurs IS bydept CONSTANT INTEGER := 1.page 75 . / allcurrs. END. TYPE cv_t IS REF CURSOR RETURN int_rt. ± It also creates the data structures you will need to call the function. bysal CONSTANT INTEGER := 2.tst explcv.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Consolidating Different Cursors  The following package specification hides the SQL behind a single open function. FUNCTION open (type_in IN INTEGER) RETURN cv_t.pkg allcurs.

Consolidating Different Cursors  The open function simply opens FOR a different SELECT based on the criteria passed to it.page 76 . RETURN retval. END IF. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY allcurs IS FUNCTION open (type_in IN INTEGER) RETURN cv_t IS retval cv_t. BEGIN IF type_in = bydept THEN OPEN retval FOR SELECT empno FROM emp ORDER BY deptno. END. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END. ELSIF type_in = bysal THEN OPEN retval FOR SELECT empno FROM emp ORDER BY SAL.

v_empno emp. BEGIN cv := allcurs. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END.Hiding SQL Variations in Resulting Code  The following block demonstrates that you can alter which SQL statement to query -. END LOOP. EXIT WHEN cv%NOTFOUND.empno%TYPE.l (v_empno). CLOSE cv.in this case. change the ORDER BY clause -without having to change the code you write. DECLARE cv allcurs. p. LOOP FETCH cv INTO v_empno.cv_t.page 77 "Report processor" is independent of the particular SELECT .open (&1).

or a more general. unconstrained type.  Hide Variations in Underlying SQL ± You no longer have to repeat the same code for different cursors. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 78 . you can build screens that access data using a cursor variable-based procedural API.1.  Improve Client-Side Access to Data ± At least in Oracle Developer 2.Cursor Variables Let's summarize  Flexibility ± Choose which static SQL statement is executed at run-time.  Strong and Weak Types ± Create REF CURSORs for specific queries.

Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Dynamic SQL  Dynamic SQL and dynamic PL/SQL: ± The DBMS_SQL package ± Native dynamic SQL in Oracle8i 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 79 .

± One example: implement indirect referencing in PL/SQL. you no longer have to write SQL to generate SQL to get your job done. ± Available in PL/SQL since Release 2. ± Also supported with "native dynamic SQL" in Oracle8i. What can you do with Dynamic SQL?  Build ad-hoc query and update applications.  Execute dynamically-constructed PL/SQL programs.Dynamic SQL and PL/SQL Execution  "Dynamic SQL" mean that you construct the SQL statement or PL/SQL block at runtime and then execute it. ± Very common requirement on the Web.1 and DBMS_SQL.  Execute DDL inside PL/SQL programs. ± Construct powerful DBA utilities. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 80 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .

± NDS does not support method 4.Four Methods of Dynamic SQL   Method 1: non-queries without host variables.    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . These methods are in increasing order of complexity.page 81 . If you can recognize the types. executed a single time. Method 3: queries with a fixed number of items in the SELECT list and a fixed number of host variables. Method 2: non-queries with a fixed number of host variables. execute one or more times. ± Different methods require the use of different programs in DBMS_SQL. you can more quickly figure out how to code your solution. Method 4: queries with a variable number of items in the SELECT list and/or non-queries with a variable number of host variables.

± But this package is very complex. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  The new "native dynamic SQL" or NDS of Oracle8i offers two native statements in the PL/SQL language to implement most of your dynamic SQL requirements: ± EXECUTE IMMEDIATE <sql string>. used for DDL. ± OPEN FOR <sql string>. difficult to use.Native Dynamic SQL  Prior to Oracle8i. used for multi-row queries. you would use the DBMS_SQL built-in package to execute dynamic SQL.page 82 . and relatively slow (performance did improve significantly as of Oracle8). DML and single row fetches.

The USING clause allows you to specify bind arguments or variables to be passed into the SQL string before execution.  Use this statement to execute any dynamic SQL statement (including a PL/SQL block) except for multi-row queries. The INTO clause allows you to pass values from the select list of a single row query into local variables.].page 83   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein ... collections and records. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . | record }] [USING {IN | OUT | IN OUT] bind argument [. including objects. {IN | OUT | IN OUT] bind argument]. define_variables]..EXECUTE IMMEDIATE EXECUTE IMMEDIATE sql-string [INTO {define_variable[..

RETURN retval.. IF tabCount ('citizens'. whr IN VARCHAR2 := NULL.COUNT(*) For Any Table  Here's a handy and simple utility based on NDS: CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION tabCount ( tab IN VARCHAR2. 'insured = ''NO''') > 40. '1=1') INTO retval.000.. table and retval INTEGER.page 84 . USER) || '.' || tab || ' WHERE ' || NVL (whr.000 THEN DBMS_OUTPUT.. and not much of a democracy either!'). BEGIN EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'SELECT COUNT(*) FROM ' || NVL (sch. WHERE clause..sf PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END IF. sch IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) RETURN INTEGER IS Specify schema. END.sf compare with: tabcount. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein tabcount81.PUT_LINE ( 'Not the best health care system in the world.

END. col_in IN VARCHAR2. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Execute a stored procedure.. Pass in bind variables with USING clause.. end_in. BEGIN v_str := 'BEGIN ' || pkg_in || '. end_in IN DATE.Other Execute Immediate Examples  Perform an update. start_in IN DATE... END.page 85 . PROCEDURE runprog (pkg_in IN VARCHAR2. name_in IN VARCHAR2) IS v_str VARCHAR2 (100). start_in. val_in IN NUMBER) IS BEGIN EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'UPDATE ' || tab_in || ' SET ' || col_in || ' = :val WHERE hiredate BETWEEN :lodate AND :hidate' USING val_in. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN pl ('Compile Error "' || SQLERRM || '" on: ' || v_str).'.' || name_in || '. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE updnumval ( tab_in IN VARCHAR2. EXECUTE IMMEDIATE v_str. END.

END. the USING clause allows me to pass an object and nested table to an INSERT statement with a variable table name.. pers IN Person. PROCEDURE add_profit_source ( hosp_name IN VARCHAR2.pkg PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . :revenue_inhibitors)' USING pers. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein health$. cond IN preexisting_conditions) IS BEGIN EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'INSERT INTO ' || tabname (hosp_name) || ' VALUES (:revenue_generator.page 86 .Using Objects and Collections in NDS  One of the key advantages to NDS over DBMS_SQL is that it works with Oracle8 datatypes. ± No special syntax needed. cond.. including objects and collections. ± In the following example.

'1 = 1'). CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE showcol ( tab IN VARCHAR2. LOOP Familiar cursor FETCH cv INTO val. col IN VARCHAR2.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .sp END. val VARCHAR2(32767). showcol.PUT_LINE (val). ndsutil. number or string column in any table. variable syntax! EXIT WHEN cv%NOTFOUND. BEGIN OPEN cv FOR 'SELECT ' || col || ' FROM ' || tab || ' WHERE ' || NVL (whr.Multiple Row Queries and NDS  Oracle extends the cursor variable feature of Oracle7 to support multi-row dynamic queries. cv cv_type. CLOSE cv. ± Here is a simple utility the displays the values of any date.page 87 . END LOOP. whr IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) IS TYPE cv_type IS REF CURSOR. DBMS_OUTPUT.

then you provide a value for each placeholder (by position). etc. pass a variable with a NULL value. ± If dynamic SQL. The USING clause for a query can only have IN bind arguments.) through the USING clause.pkg    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 88 . str2list. column names. You cannot pass the NULL literal directly in the USING clause. provide a value for each distinct placeholder (by name). You can have duplicate placeholders (for bind arguments).Some Fine Print for NDS  You cannot pass schema elements (table names. Instead. ± If dynamic PL/SQL.

in particular method 4.Dynamic SQL using DBMS_SQL  Prior to Oracle8i. The overhead for using DBMS_SQL has decreased significantly in Oracle8 and again in Oracle8i. the only way to perform dynamic SQL was with the DBMS_SQL package. You should only use DBMS_SQL when you cannot use NDS.     1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Supports all four methods of dynamic SQL.page 89 . DBMS_SQL is a very large and complex package. with many rules to follow and lots of code to write.

Learning Through Examples  DDL ± Create an index from within PL/SQL  DML ± Update rows in a table  DML with binding ± Update rows using bind variables  Queries ± Method 3 and a dynamic WHERE clause  PL/SQL Version of "SELECT *" ± Example of Method 4  PL/SQL ± Create a generic calculation program 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 90 .

DDL with Dynamic SQL PROCEDURE create_index (index_in IN VARCHAR2. DBMS_SQL.sp Creates an index on any column(s) in any table in your schema. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . fdbk INTEGER. which will be used to execute the DDL statement. END. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. tab_in IN VARCHAR2. DDL_statement. ± Open a cursor. DBMS_SQL. DDL_statement VARCHAR2(200) := 'CREATE INDEX ' || index_in || ' ON ' || tab_in || ' ( ' || col_in || ')'.OPEN_CURSOR. fdbk := DBMS_SQL.EXECUTE (cur).CLOSE_CURSOR (cur).  creind.PARSE (cur. ± Construct the DDL statement as a string.NATIVE). col_in IN VARCHAR2) IS cur INTEGER := DBMS_SQL.page 91 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . ± Parse and execute that DDL statement.

Updates with Dynamic SQL  Update numeric column for specified employees. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE updnumval ( col_in IN VARCHAR2. fdbk := DBMS_SQL. END.PARSE (cur.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . DBMS_OUTPUT. ename_in IN emp. val_in IN NUMBER) IS cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL.NATIVE).CLOSE_CURSOR (cur). fdbk PLS_INTEGER.page 92 . BEGIN DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL.EXECUTE (cur).OPEN_CURSOR. 'UPDATE emp SET ' || col_in || ' = ' || val_in || ' WHERE ename LIKE UPPER (''' || ename_in || ''')'. updnval1.PUT_LINE ('Rows updated: ' || TO_CHAR (fdbk)).ename%TYPE. DBMS_SQL.

OPEN_CURSOR.PARSE (cur. DBMS_SQL.Updates with Bind Variables  Update salaries for date range using binding. end_in IN DATE. fdbk PLS_INTEGER.CLOSE_CURSOR (cur).sp updnval3. end_in).BIND_VARIABLE (cur. END.NATIVE). DBMS_OUTPUT. start_in IN DATE.page 93 . DBMS_SQL.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . val_in IN NUMBER) IS cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE updnumval ( col_in IN VARCHAR2. start_in). updnval2.PUT_LINE ('Rows updated: ' || TO_CHAR (fdbk)).EXECUTE (cur). 'hidate'. DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL. 'lodate'. 'UPDATE emp SET ' || col_in || ' = ' || val_in || ' WHERE hiredate BETWEEN :lodate AND :hidate'. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.BIND_VARIABLE (cur. fdbk := DBMS_SQL.

page 94 .Processing Flow for a Dynamic Query Allocate cursor memory (OPEN_CURSOR) Fill cursor with data (EXECUTE) Make sure SELECT is well formed (PARSE) Fill buffer with data (FETCH_ROWS) (EXECUTE_AND_FETCH) Bind any variables (BIND_VARIABLE) (BIND_ARRAY) Retrieve the data (COLUMN_VALUE) Give cursor structure (DEFINE_COLUMN) (DEFINE_ARRAY) Release cursor memory (CLOSE_CURSOR) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

ename).sp showemp2.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.Queries with Dynamic SQL  Show employees using a dynamic WHERE clause. fdbk := DBMS_SQL. 1. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein showemps.COLUMN_VALUE (cur.. DBMS_SQL. END LOOP. DBMS_SQL.. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE showemps (where_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) IS cur INTEGER := DBMS_SQL. rec emp%ROWTYPE. rec. 'SELECT empno.EXECUTE (cur). 1). DBMS_SQL.ename).empno) || '=' || rec.OPEN_CURSOR. 2.COLUMN_VALUE (cur.PARSE (cur. DBMS_SQL. LOOP EXIT WHEN DBMS_SQL. ename FROM emp ' || ' WHERE ' || NVL (where_in.PUT_LINE (TO_CHAR (rec.CLOSE_CURSOR (cur).page 95 . fdbk INTEGER. 'a'.FETCH_ROWS (cur) = 0. DBMS_OUTPUT. 60). 2. 1. END. DBMS_SQL.NATIVE).tst PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . rec. DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. '1=1'). BEGIN DBMS_SQL.sp showemps.empno).

COLUMN_VALUE (cur. FOR each-column-in-table LOOP DBMS_SQL. val).Dynamic SELECT * FROM Any Table  Method 4 example: the number of columns queried changes with each table.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . select_string.NATIVE). END.page 96 Very simplified pseudo-code intab. BEGIN FOR each-column-in-table LOOP add-column-to-select-list. END LOOP. DBMS_SQL. FOR each-column-in-table LOOP DBMS_SQL. END LOOP. DBMS_SQL. datatype). nth_col. ± The resulting code is much more complicated. nth_col. END LOOP.PARSE (cur. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . LOOP fetch-a-row. END LOOP.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.

raises NO_DATA_FOUND or raises the TOO_MANY_ROWS exception.Using EXECUTE_AND_FETCH FUNCTION execute_and_fetch (cursor_in IN INTEGER. numrows := DBMS_SQL.EXECUTE_AND_FETCH (cur). ± Very similar to the implicit SELECT cursor in native PL/SQL. the first row will still be fetched and available. numrows := DBMS_SQL.EXECUTE_AND_FETCH (cur. then EXECUTE_AND_FETCH will raise the TOO_MANY_ROWS exception if more than one row is fetched by the SELECT. ± Even if the exception is raised. ± If exact_match is TRUE. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . TRUE). exact_match IN BOOLEAN DEFAULT FALSE) RETURN INTEGER.page 97 .  Makes it easy to execute and fetch a single row from a query. which returns a single row.

NULL.sf dyncalc. FUNCTION dyncalc ( oper_in IN VARCHAR2. a single function will do the trick. arg8_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. arg2_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL.Dynamic Formula Execution  Suppose I am building a user interface that allows a user to select a formula for execution. ± With DBMS_SQL. arg6_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. NULL. arg4_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. NULL. nargs_in IN INTEGER := arg1_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg3_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg5_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg7_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg9_in IN VARCHAR2 := ) RETURN VARCHAR2. 0. and enter the arguments. I would have to modify my screen every time a new formula was added. ± Using static PL/SQL. NULL.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 98 . NULL. arg10_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL dyncalc.

BIND_VARIABLE (cur. Possibilities inherent in dynamic PL/SQL are mind-boggling! dynplsql.tst    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END. :salout).even OUT arguments which are not being bound to any values. Use VARIABLE_VALUE to extract a value from any variable you have bound. You must have a BEGIN-END around the code. DBMS_SQL.page 99 . µsalout¶. my_salary).sql dynplsql.  Use BIND_VARIABLE to bind any placeholders in the string -.sp dynplsql.BIND_VARIABLE (cur.').VARIABLE_VALUE (cur. END. µdeptin¶.More on Dynamic PL/SQL BEGIN cur := open_and_parse ('BEGIN get_max_sal (:deptin.EXECUTE (cur). my_salary). v_deptin). DBMS_SQL. fdbk := DBMS_SQL. µsalout¶. DBMS_SQL.

retval PLV. 'val'. END. Here is an example of a "PL/SQL NAME_IN": FUNCTION valbyname (nm IN VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2 IS v_cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL.OPEN_CURSOR.CLOSE_CURSOR (v_cur). 2000). fdbk := DBMS_SQL. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . but you can accomplish much of the same thing with dynamic PL/SQL execution.EXECUTE (v_cur).page 100  dynvar. fdbk PLS_INTEGER. DBMS_SQL.BIND_VARIABLE (v_cur. PL/SQL does not support indirect referencing.dbmaxvc2.PARSE (v_cur.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . 'val'. END.Indirect Referencing with Dyn PL/SQL  Oracle Forms offers support for indirect referencing with the NAME_IN and COPY built-ins.pkg dynvar.NATIVE). RETURN retval. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL.VARIABLE_VALUE (v_cur. DBMS_SQL. 'a'.'. 'BEGIN :val := ' || nm || '. DBMS_SQL. retval).

 IS_OPEN ± Is the cursor already open?  LAST_ERROR_POSITION ± Returns relative column position in cursor of text causing error condition. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  LAST_ROW_COUNT ± Returns the cumulative count of rows fetched from the cursor.page 101 .  LAST_ROW_ID ± Returns the ROWID of last row processed. ± Call these immediately after your usage to make sure they refer to your cursor.  LAST_SQL_FUNCTION_CODE ± Returns SQL function code of cursor.DBMS_SQL Status Built-ins  The package offers a set of modules to return information about the lastoperated cursor in your session.

± DBMS_SQL. dumplong.DEFINE_COLUMN_LONG ± DBMS_SQL. ± Transfer the LONG contents into an index-by table so that you can transfer a value of more than 32K bytes into your PL/SQL program. you define the column as a LONG.COLUMN_VALUE_LONG   First.pkg dumplong.page 102 . Then you retrieve the column using the special COLUMN_VALUE_LONG variant.Working with LONG Values  DBMS_SQL provides special procedures so that you can extract values from a LONG column in a table.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

New DBMS_SQL Features PL/SQL8 Extensions to DBMS_SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 103 .

± Support for RETURNING clause to avoid unnecessary queries.page 104 .New Features in DBMS_SQL  The functionality of DBMS_SQL has been extended in Oracle8 in several ways: ± Parse very long SQL strings ± Describe cursor columns ± Use "array processing" to perform bulk updates. inserts. deletes and fetches. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Describing Cursor Columns PROCEDURE DBMS_SQL. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Returns all of the column information in an index table of records. ± The record TYPE is also defined in DBMS_SQL.DESC_TAB).DESCRIBE_COLUMNS (c IN INTEGER. col_cnt OUT INTEGER.DESCRIBE_COLUMNS. desc_t OUT DBMS_SQL.page 105 .  Before PL/SQL8. ± Now you can call the DBMS_SQL. it was not possible to determine the datatypes of the columns defined in a cursor.

NATIVE).col_name). DBMS_SQL. 'SELECT hiredate. desccols. cols DBMS_SQL. ncols. empno FROM emp'.DESCRIBE_COLUMNS (cur.CLOSE_CURSOR (cur).PARSE (cur.DESC_TAB.tst showcols. DBMS_SQL. ncols LOOP DBMS_OUTPUT. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL. cols).. END LOOP.PUT_LINE (cols(colind).Basic Steps to Describe Columns  The following script shows the individual steps you will need to perform in order to use this feature.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END. FOR colind IN 1 .OPEN_CURSOR. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE show_columns IS cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL.page 106 . ncols PLS_INTEGER.pkg desccols.

you specify an index table. DBMS_SQL then repeats your action for every row in the table. deletes and fetches. index tables. where N is the number of rows in the table.page 107 . however. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Instead of providing a scalar value for an operation. can offer a significant performance boost over Oracle7 dynamic SQL.    This technique still. inserts. ± In actuality. It really isn't "array processing". DBMS_SQL is executing the specified SQL statement N times.e. when you perform updates. i.."Array Processing" in DBMS_SQL  PL/SQL8 now allows you to specify the use of "arrays".

Recommendations for Dynamic SQL  Bind (vs. not the invoker of the code.pkg whichsch.) through the USING clause. ± Encapsulate DBMS_SQL. only possible for statements that do not need USING and INTO clauses.  Use the Oracle8i invoker rights model whenever you want to share your dynamic SQL programs among multiple schemas. ± Otherwise that SQL will be executed under the authority of the owner of the code.PARSE so that you include the trace in that program. ± With NDS. column names. though you could write variations for those as well. ± Increased chance of reusing parsed SQL. ± But remember: you cannot pass schema elements (table names.  Encapsulate statements to improve error handling.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 108 . effdsql. concatenate) whenever possible. etc.sql openprse. and easier code to write.

you have upgraded to Oracle8i!  Major Advantages of NDS: ± Ease of use ± Performance ± Works with all SQL datatypes (including userdefined object and collection types) ± Fetch into records  When You'd Use DBMS_SQL: ± ± ± ± ± ± ± Method 4 Dynamic SQL DESCRIBE columns of cursor SQL statements larger than 32K RETURNING into an array Reuse of parsed SQL statements Bulk dynamic SQL Available from client-side PL/SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± If.page 109 . Both implementations will still come in handy.NDS or DBMS_SQL: Which is Best?  Dynamic SQL and PL/SQL is very useful.. but DBMS_SQL is hard to use.. of course.

page 110 . persistent messaging subsytem of Oracle 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Oracle Advanced Queuing  The high performance. asynchronous.

page 111 . Distribution Center Coffee Beans Producer Shipping Service Retailer Consumer 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . systems are now heavily reliant on the ability of components to communicate with each other in a dependable.Who Needs Messaging? Everyone!  In the distributed world of the Internet. consistent manner.

Applications Relying on Messaging     Stock trading system Airline reservation system Auction portals Any e-commerce application 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 112 .

± Rule-based subscribers.page 113 . AQ now offers a publish/subscribe style of messaging between applications. message propagation. scalability and reliability all carry over to queues ± Strong history and retention ± Backup and recovery ± Comprehensive journaliing  Rich message content increases usefulness of queueing ± Use object types to define highly structured payloads  New to Oracle8i. the listen feature and notification capabilities.Key Features of Oracle AQ  Leverage full power of SQL ± Messages are stored in database tables  Database high availability. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

AQ architectural overview Queue Monitor process Queue table Queue ³Producers´ Enqueued messages Message 4 Message 3 Message 2 Message1 ³Consumers´ Dequeued messages Messages include both control information and ³payload´ (content) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 114 .

AQ supports: ± ± ± ± ± Multiple queues Resetting order and priority of queued items Queue management using only SQL & PL/SQL Multiple message recipients Propagation of queue to remote servers  Oracle8i adds: ± ± ± ± Rules-based publish & subscribe Listening on multiple queues Easier monitoring Native Java interface PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Oracle AQ Highlights  In 8.page 115 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .0.

Underlying database tables and views The queue monitor (background process) ± Set # of processes with the AQ_TM_PROCESSES initialization parameter.AQ Components  The DBMS_AQ package offers enqueue and dequeue capabilities The DBMS_AQADM package provides administrative functionality to manage queues and queue tables.    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 116 .

whether multiple consumers Drops table if all queues in the table have been stopped Associates queue table with queue.DBMS_AQADM Highlights CREATE_QUEUE_TABLE DROP_QUEUE_TABLE CREATE_QUEUE DROP_QUEUE START_QUEUE STOP_QUEUE ADD_SUBSCRIBER Assigns name. optionally waiting for outstanding transactions Adds an ³agent´ as a subscriber 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . payload type. storage clause.page 117 . assigns retry and retention properties to queue Drops a stopped queue Can also turn on/off enqueue and dequeue operations Stops queue. sort column.

END.pkg Start the queue PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .CREATE_QUEUE (queue_name => 'msgqueue'. Define a queue in the queue table DBMS_AQADM.Creating Queue Tables and Queues CREATE TYPE message_type AS OBJECT (title VARCHAR2(30).START_QUEUE (queue_name => 'msgqueue').page 118 . text VARCHAR2(2000)). / BEGIN DBMS_AQADM. queue_table => 'msg'). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein aq. Define the "payload" Create the queue table DBMS_AQADM.CREATE_QUEUE_TABLE (queue_table => 'msg'. queue_payload_type => 'message_type').

and returns a RAW message handle DEQUEUE extracts a message from a specified queue Parameters control message properties such as: ± Visibility (ON_COMMIT or IMMEDIATE) ± ± ± ± Priority Delay Expiration Locking behavior PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Only two procedures.The "operational package": DBMS_AQ  DBMS_AQ is deceptively simple.  ENQUEUE puts a message into a specified queue.page 119   aq. but lots of complexity buried inside the parameters of these procedures.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .

* Place the message on the specified queue and get a msg ID in return.page 120 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . queueopts. my_msg message_type.ENQUEUE_OPTIONS_T..ENQUEUE ( 'msgqueue'. DBMS_AQ. msgid aq. msgprops.MESSAGE_PROPERTIES_T.'). msgid). END.msgid_type. my_msg.Simple Enqueue Example DECLARE queueopts DBMS_AQ. Set up the payload with an object constructor. msgprops DBMS_AQ.. 'May there be many more. Declare records to hold various enqueue and msg properties. aqenq*. BEGIN my_msg := message_type ( 'First Enqueue'. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

sequence_deviation := DBMS_AQ. BEGIN my_msg := message_type ( 'First Enqueue'. msgprops. Modify the dequeue sequence by changing the deviation field and relative msg ID. queueopts. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . queueopts. 'May there be many more. my_msg.BEFORE. my_msg..page 121 ..ENQUEUE ( 'msgqueue'.ENQUEUE ('msgqueue'. queueopts. Same setup as previous page .. msgid2).').. END.relative_msgid := msgid1. queueopts.. my_msg := message_type ( 'Second Enqueue'.delay := 3 * 60 * 60 * 24... msgprops.More Interesting Enqueue Example DECLARE .'). msgprops. DBMS_AQ. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Specify a delay before the payload is available. 'And this one goes first. msgid1). DBMS_AQ..

REMOVE).* Declare records to hold various dequeue and msg properties. msgprops DBMS_AQ.dequeue_mode := mode_in. BEGIN getmsg (DBMS_AQ. getmsg (DBMS_AQ.Dequeue Example DECLARE queueopts DBMS_AQ.DEQUEUE_OPTIONS_T. msgid aq. getmsg (DBMS_AQ. Demonstrates destructive and non-destructive dequeuing.msgid_type. my_msg. DBMS_AQ.pkg */ my_msg message_type. msgid).DEQUEUE ( 'msgqueue'. Dequeue operation isolated in local module. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .REMOVE).BROWSE). queueopts. PROCEDURE getmsg (mode_in IN INTEGER) IS BEGIN queueopts. /* defined in aq. aqdeq*. END.page 122 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . END. msgprops.MESSAGE_PROPERTIES_T.

aqstk. msgprops.pkg aqstk2.IMMEDIATE.pkg priority. queueopts. msgprops DBMS_AQ.1.* 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . queueopts. BEGIN item_obj := aqstk_objtype (item). PROCEDURE push (item IN VARCHAR2) IS queueopts DBMS_AQ. item_obj aqstk_objtype. msgprops. g_priority := g_priority .MESSAGE_PROPERTIES_T. DBMS_AQ. msgid aq.  A stack implementation using AQ demonstrates this well. msgid). item_obj. ± The lower the numeric priority value. END. the higher the priority.ENQUEUE_OPTIONS_T.visibility := DBMS_AQ.Prioritized Payloads  You can assign priorities to individual payloads and then dequeue according to those priorities.ENQUEUE ( c_queue.msgid_type.page 123 .priority := g_priority.

The queue table must be defined to support multiple subscribers or consumers. NULL.ADD_SUBSCRIBER ( c_queue.Defining Message Subscribers  You can specify that a message is to be enqueued for a list of subscribers.page 124 .AQ$_AGENT (name_in. ± The message is then not removed from the queue until all subscribers have dequeued the message. BEGIN DBMS_AQADM. NULL)). Add subscribers for the queue. ± 2. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein aqmult*. queue_payload_type => 'student_major_t'. multiple_consumers => TRUE).  Steps to working with a subscriber list: ± 1. DBMS_AQADM.* PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .CREATE_QUEUE_TABLE ( queue_table => 'major_qtable'. SYS.

LISTEN capability. supporting a publish-subscribe model. improved security. ± Should be strongly supported "down the road".Summary  Very powerful and flexible architecture. ± Significant enhancements in Oracle8i.page 125 . ± Much more robust that DBMS_PIPE. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Considered by Oracle to be a core component of its overall solution.Oracle AQ . ± Crucial for Oracle to have a message-oriented middleware in order to offer an all-Oracle solution.

page 126 .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Managing Large Objects with DBMS_LOB 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

page 127 .LOB Terms  LOB = Large OBject: a category of datatype allowing storage of ³unstructured´ data up to 4 gigabytes LOB datatype can be: ± Column in table ± Attribute in object type ± Element in nested table   Possible applications include office documents. they should no longer be used. Images. LOB datatypes are the successor to LONGs. etc. ± Oracle has announced deprecation of LONGs. sounds.  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . video. though they will probably not be actually desupported.

improving performance.page 128 .  Key programming differences: ± Internal LOBs participate in transactions. external do not ± External LOBs are read-only from within Oracle 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Types of Large Objects  ³Internal´ LOBs ± BLOB: unstructured binary data ± CLOB: single-byte fixedwidth character data ± NCLOB: multi-byte fixedwidth character data (or varying width in )  ³External´ LOBs ± BFILE: pointer to an operating system file  Temporary LOBs ± Internal LOBs that do not participate in transactions.

copy. trim ± For external LOBs: File existence test. comparison and length checking ± For internal LOBs: Write. substring and instring searches. erase. EMPTY_CLOB() ± BFILENAME 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . close  Other built-in functions ± LOADFROMFILE (load an external BFILE into a BLOB) ± EMPTY_LOB().PL/SQL built-ins for LOBs  Package DBMS_LOB ± Supports for all LOBs: Reading. append.page 129 . open.

 Retrieve record with BLOB into PL/SQL variable DECLARE CURSOR fax_cur IS SELECT fax FROM incoming_faxes.page 130 .Deceptively simple example  BLOB-typed column in a table CREATE TABLE incoming_faxes (fax_id INTEGER. BEGIN OPEN fax_cur. CLOSE fax_cur. Question: What¶s in the_fax? 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END. fax BLOB). FETCH fax_cur INTO the_fax. the_fax BLOB. received DATE.

The ³LOB locator´ LOB t l sel es [ ll ] t i i t r . tt LOBs <lob segment> fax_id 281937 received 12-JAN-98 fax <lob locator> Updati  t e LOB anges t e pointer is ompli ates se of LOBs ± LOB locators cannot span transactions ± Programs must lock records containing LOBs efore updating ± Programs performing L must accommodate dynamic LOB locator alues 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 131 .

url%TYPE := 'http://www. the_loc CLOB.page 132 . htmlloc CLOB). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .. 1 of 2  Must get a new LOB locator before writing into the LOB: DECLARE the_url web_pages. EMPTY_CLOB()) RETURNING htmlloc INTO the_loc.Example: Piecewise CLOB programmatic insert  Create a table CREATE TABLE web_pages ( url VARCHAR2(512) PRIMARY KEY.oodb..com'. BEGIN INSERT INTO web_pages VALUES (the_url. .

buffer => html_tab(the_piece_no)). into a CLOB column html_tab := UTL_HTTP. EMPTY_CLOB()) and loads a web page RETURNING htmlloc INTO the_loc.REQUEST_PIECES(url => the_url).html_tab. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 133 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein BEGIN . running_total PLS_INTEGER := 1. This block retrieves INSERT INTO web_pages VALUES (the_url. Note: We are ignoring amount => piece_length.Example: Piecewise CLOB programmatic insert DECLARE the_url web_pages.COUNT LOOP piece_length := LENGTH(html_tab(the_piece_no)). piece_length PLS_INTEGER. DBMS_LOB. END. the_loc CLOB. END LOOP.oodb. html_tab UTL_HTTP. several likely exceptions offset => running_total.url%TYPE := 'http://www.com'.HTML_PIECES.WRITE(lob_loc => the_loc.. running_total := running_total + piece_length. FOR the_piece_no IN 1.

page 134 .WRITE(lob_loc => the_loc. str_offset := DBMS_LOB. pattern => 'oodb'). FETCH hcur INTO the_loc. END.com' FOR UPDATE.Example: Piecewise CLOB programmatic update DECLARE Program must lock the record explicitly CURSOR hcur IS SELECT htmlloc FROM web_pages WHERE url = 'http://www. END IF. BEGIN OPEN hcur. str_offset INTEGER. CLOSE hcur.oodb.INSTR(lob_loc => the_loc. offset => str_offset. the_loc CLOB. amount => 4. IF str_offset != 0 THEN DBMS_LOB. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . buffer => 'cool').

 Example: CREATE DIRECTORY web_pix AS 'D:\bill\training\pix'. ut IRECTORY namespace is global  Syntax: CREATE OR REPLACE DIRECTORY <directory name> AS '<full path to directory>'.Preparing to use BFILEs  You must first create an Oracle I ORY´ ± Creates logical alias for full directory pat ± imilar to LIBRARY (used for C "external procedures"). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 135 .

CREATE TYPE Business_card_t AS OBJECT ( name Name_t... scanned_card_image BFILE ).  In an object type. addresses Address_tab_t.Using BFILE datatype in DDL  In a table. phones Phone_tab_t. CREATE TABLE web_graphics ( image_id INTEGER..page 136 . image BFILE). / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..

picture). BEGIN INSERT INTO web_graphics VALUES (100015. 'prodicon.The built-in BFILENAME function  Returns value of datatype BFILE.  Example: DECLARE picture BFILE := BFILENAME('WEB_PIX'.gif').page 137 . /  Notes: ± No automatic file checking or synchronization ± No participation in transactions 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . file_exprn) RETURN BFILE. END. Spec: FUNCTION BFILENAME(directory_exprn.

DECLARE pic_file BFILE := BFILENAME('WEB_PIX'.FILEOPEN(pic_file. 'prodicon.page 138 .GETLENGTH(pic_file)). BEGIN INSERT INTO web_graphic_blobs VALUES (1.gif'). amount => DBMS_LOB. END. DBMS_LOB.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . DBMS_LOB.FILE_READONLY). pic_blob_loc) RETURNING image INTO pic_blob_loc. / loadblob.Loading File into Database BLOB CREATE TABLE web_graphic_blobs ( image_id INTEGER.FILECLOSE(pic_file). image BLOB). pic_blob_loc BLOB := EMPTY_BLOB(). src_lob => pic_file. DBMS_LOB. DBMS_LOB.LOADFROMFILE(dest_lob => pic_blob_loc.

that can mean less I/O » Trigger will not fire until CLOSE » Indexes will not update until CLOSE ± ISOPEN 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .New DBMS_LOB APIs in 8i  Support for temporary LOBs ± No logging or rollback faster! ± Lifespan: session. call.page 139 . or transaction  Ability to retrieve LOB ³chunk size´ ± Allows programmer to tune READs and WRITEs  For all internal LOBs ± OPEN & CLOSE allow control over timing.

Large Object . ± Complete support in PL/SQL (and other APIs) ± Much better performance and control than with LONGs ± Usable in object types HOT  Some weaknesses.Summary  LOB support in Oracle is now significantly improved.page 140 .. ± LOB locator behavior slightly abstruse ± Inability to modify BFILEs directly from within PL/SQL.. COLD 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

page 141 .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Leveraging Java Inside PL/SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

.Overview of Java interoperability  Java inside or outside 8i server can call PL/SQL ± Standard JDBC and SQLJ calls with Oracle extensions ± Same Java on client. triggers in Java Distinct Java & PL/SQL namespaces  But first.. functions. mid-tier... or server Not covered in this seminar  PL/SQL can call Java inside 8i server ± ± ± ± Command-line tools load Java classes DDL extensions publish Java classes Writing stored procedures. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 142 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .a BRIEF introduction to Java.

. slickest piece of software ever designed by human beings? ± Just the latest in a series of "silver bullets" promoted by software vendors in order to prop up quarterly sales? ± The first and only successful O-O language? ± None of the above?  We don't really need to take a vote.Question 1: What is Java?  Could it be. ± We just need to keep a firm grip on common sense and stay focused on delivering solutions. fastest.. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± The end of programming history as we know it? ± The easiest.page 143 .

 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . PL/SQL will still be: ± Faster and more productive than Java for database operations.page 144 . ± Supported and improved by Oracle -. to boot. ± Ubiquitous in thousands of production applications and millions of lines of code. it is very unlikely and totally unthinkable for years to come.and very aggressively. ± A language in which hundreds of thousands of developers are trained.Question 2: Will Java Replace PL/SQL?  While that scenario is certainly possible.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Before you can call a (non-static) class method..  You don't have to know how to do everything with Java to get lots of value out of it.Some Important Things to Remember  Java is a case sensitive language.. ± Well.  Everything is a class (or an object instantiated from a class).. everything exception the primitive datatypes.. ± Don't get overwhelmed by all the classes and all the strange quirks. you have to instantiate an object from that class...page 145 . ± string is definitely not the same as String.

PUT_LINE ('Hello world!').Building a Java Class  Let's start from the very beginning.out. Oh. public class Hello { public static void main (String[] args) { System. END... ± Used to test or run stand-alone a class. no methods.page 146 . CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE hello IS BEGIN DBMS_OUTPUT. except the "special" main method. by the way: the PL/SQL version 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .println ("Hello world!"). } }  No members.

1.Compiling Classes  Before you can use a class.7b\lib\classes.d:\java D:> javac Hello. SET CLASSPATH = d:\Oracle\Ora81\jdbc\lib\classes111. ± It will also automatically recompile any classes used by your class that has not been compiled since last change. ± This will convert the .zip.java file to a .page 147 .class file. you must compile it with the javac command.zip.java -classpath d:\java 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . e:\jdk1. ± You must also either have set the CLASSPATH or include it in your javac call.

java 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Running a Class  Run a class? What does that mean? It means that if your class contains a method with this header: public static void main (String[] args)  then you can "run" the main method with the java command: d:\java> java Hello  You can also pass one or more arguments on the command line: d:\java> java Hello mom Hello2.page 148 .

Using a Class  The main method is handy for providing a built-in test mechanism of your class. however. Usually.   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Let's build a performance analyzer class to explore these ideas.page 149 . you will use a class by instantiating objects from the class and then invoking class methods on the object.

public void capture () { Gstart = System. elapsed()). } public long elapsed () { return (System.currentTimeMillis() .Gstart).Compare Performance of Methods  Use System.currentTimeMillis(). } public void showElapsed () { p.currentTimeMillis() .l ("Elapsed time ". System.Gstart).page 150 . } public void showElapsed (String context) { p.l ("Elapsed time for " + context.currentTimeMillis to calculate elapsed time to nearest thousandth of a second. class Tmr { private long Gstart = 0.java InFile.java Tmr. } } p.java 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

. besides the "regular" kind we just saw.  Abstract class ± The class can contain members and methods. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Inner class ± Classes that are defined inside other classes.page 151 . but at least one method remains unimplemented..  Interface class ± The class only contains unimplemented methods.Types of Classes  There are several different kinds of classes in Java.

java A Class Hierarchy Management NonManagement Corporation 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . either as its own class or as any superclass. supertype/"wider" Citizen Person Employee Hourly Worker Salaried Worker subtype/"narrower" War Criminal Person.And Now for Some Scary Buzzwords!  Inheritance ± Subclasses inherit methods and variables from extended superclasses.page 152 . ± Dynamic polymorphism: form is determined at run-time. ± Static polymorphism: form is chosen at compile-time (PL/SQL overloading).  Polymorphism ± An object of a class can have "multiple" forms.

these are not objects instantiated from classes. myName = "Steven". boolean char byte short int long float double  Strings ± A String object is a read-only. if you assign a new value to it. you are actually allocating a new object. String myName.equals(YourName)) foundFamily(). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Language Basics  Comments // Single line comment /* Block comment */ /** Documentation comment */  Primitive datatypes ± So I lied.page 153 . if (myName. myName = "Feuerstein". ± Can't do a direct == comparison.

out.length.println ( (String)enum.nextElement()) } } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Examples: for (indx indx=0. step) { lotsaStuff } while (expression) { lostsaStuff } do { lostsaStuff } while (expression). indx++) System. expression. static void processAll (Enumeration enum) { while (enum. for (initialize.Writing Loops in Java  Three kinds of loops: while. System.page 154 . indx < args. do-while and for ± Note: you need squiggly brackets only if there is more than one statement in the loop body.out.hasMoreElements ()) { processIt (enum.NextElement()).println (args[indx]).

page 155 . System. ± Only positional notation is supported. ± No default values for arguments.. ± If a method has no arguments.Passing Parameters  Some important differences from PL/SQL. you must supply a value for each parameter. class PuterLingo { private String mname. } } class LotsALingos { public static void main (String args[]) { PuterLingo Java = new PuterLingo("Java")..println (Java. } } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . public PuterLingo (String name) { mname = name. you still include the open and close parentheses.out. } public String name () { return mname.name()).

page 156 .println (e.toString()). you "throw" and "catch" exceptions. "WHEN OTHERS" } in Java } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Put inside try clause File myFile = new File (filename). } File-related catch (SecurityException e) { exceptions return -1.equals("")) throw new Exception ("Filename is NULL"). } catch (Exception e) { System. Throwing my own public static int numBytes (String filename) { exception try { if (filename. return myFile.Exception Handling in Java  Very similar to PL/SQL. rather than raise and handle.length().out.

page 157 ..Differences Between Java & PL/SQL  Exceptions are objects derived directly or indirectly from the Exception class.  You must inform users of your method of which exceptions may be thrown. NoSuchFile { . } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Use the throws clause in your specification. as in: public static int numBytes (String filename) throws SecurityException. ± So you can pass them as arguments and do anything and everything else you can do with objects..

 Now let's explore how you can put Java to work for you inside PL/SQL programs.Java's Not So Tough!  You can learn enough Java in less than a week to: ± Build simple classes ± Leverage Java inside PL/SQL  Moving to the next level of expertise will be more of a challenge. ± Object oriented development (Java) is very different from procedural coding (PL/SQL).page 158 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Java Stored Procedures (JSPs) Java applet or app.page 159 . using JDBC or SQLJ Oracle 8i server PL/SQL cover for Java method Java virtual machine running Java method Oracle Developer client (PL/SQL) Net8 OCI or Pro*C client VB or C++ via OO4O or ODBC 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

network communication in/out PL/SQL replacement ± More standard language ± Good performer for numeric processing tasks ± Beware database I/O & string manipulation performance Scaleable deployment of third party code ± Vertical application ± Web server ± XML parser/generator 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .JSPs: Some sample uses PL/SQL extender ± For example. better file I/O ± RMI callouts.page 160 .

page 161 . Load into server using ³loadjava´ command-line tool 3... Create Java classes in your favorite IDE 2. Publish PL/SQL cover using AS LANGUAGE JAVA..Creating JSP to call from PL/SQL   1.END 4. Call from PL/SQL (or SQL) as if calling PL/SQL    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Grant privileges as desired 5. rather than BEGIN..

long Playoffs.println (TheGlobalMonster). 5000000. }} 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Notes on Java classes  toString method automatically used by System. public Corporation ( String Pname. } public static void main (String[] args) { // A very scary company Corporation TheGlobalMonster = new Corporation ( "Northrup-Ford-Mattel-Yahoo-ATT". layoffs = Playoffs.out. 50000000).page 162 PL/SQL . CEOCompensation = PceoComp. paying its" + " Chief Executive Officer " + CEOCompensation.Create Java class(es) class Corporation extends Person { long layoffs.java Advanced Techniques .println main method is used to test the class. } public String toString () { return name + " is a transnational entity with " + layoffs + " laid-off employees. long PceoComp) { name = Pname. Entry points must be public static in most cases Classes may call other classes Avoid GUI calls     person. long CEOCompensation. System.out.

class file .page 163 .java file Java resource file .jar file Oracle 8i server Java class Java source Java resource loadjava Example: loadjava loadjava -user scott/tiger -oci8 -resolve datacraft/bill/Hello.class options (abbreviated) -oci8 -resolve loadjava will connect using OCI driver Resolves external class references at compile time -resolver (shown later) Search path like CLASSPATH 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Upload using ³loadjava´ utility .

Publish  Example (top-level call spec) CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION hello_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2 AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.bill..Emp(int) return java..lang. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . .Hello.page 164 .String'.) [ return <Ja a t pe fullname> ]'. /  Syntax (simplified) CREATE [ OR REPLACE PROCE URE FUNCTION <name> <sqlt pe> ] [ [ <ar s> ) ] [ AUTHID { DEFINER | CURRENT_USER } ] AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME '<met fullname> (<Ja a t pe fullname>.

for example.page 165 .  Method 2: Use 8i SQL CALL statement. from SQL*Plus: VARIABLE thename VARCHAR2(12) CALL hello_emp(7499) INTO :thename. END. PRINT :thename ± CALL avoids overhead of SELECT fn FROM DUAL jsp.PUT_LINE(hello_emp(7499)).Call the wrapped method  Method 1: Call as if PL/SQL module BEGIN DBMS_OUTPUT.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Publishing -.more concepts Shape mapping ± Java methods declared ³void´ become PL/SQL procedures ± Signature mismatches detected only at runtime Type mapping (typical) VARCHAR2 DATE NUMBER user-defined object type user-defined object type object REFerence user-defined collection type java.sql.sql.ARRAY 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Timestamp java.sql.BigDecimal oracle.String java.STRUCT <named type> oracle.sql.page 166 .lang.math.REF oracle.

Hello. / (No package body required in this case) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Emp(int) return java.util.String'... CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE hello_pkg AS FUNCTION hi_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2 AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.Publish in PL/SQL Package Spec  Designate Java module in PL/SQL package spec. END.lang.page 167 .

Publish as module in package body  .. / CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY hello_pkg2 AS FUNCTION hi_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2 IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.String'.or in package body CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE hello_pkg2 AS FUNCTION hi_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2.util.page 168 .Emp(int) return java.Hello.. END. END. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .lang.

Hello.lang.util. / CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE BODY foo_t AS MEMBER FUNCTION hello_emp RETURN VARCHAR2 IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft. END.Publish as object type method  Either in spec: CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE foo_t AS OBJECT ( bar VARCHAR2(30). / or in the body: CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE foo_t AS OBJECT ( bar VARCHAR2(30). / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .util.Emp(int) return java.String').Hello.Emp(int) return java.lang. MEMBER FUNCTION hello_emp RETURN VARCHAR2 IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.String'. MEMBER FUNCTION hello_emp RETURN VARCHAR2).page 169 .

class. DROP JAVA: drops a named Java library unit Several roles available for Java operations: ± JAVAUSERPRIV. JAVASYSPRIV (needed for file IO operations).   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . or resource ± Can read file designated with BFILE() function  ALTER JAVA: compiles Java source. JAVADEBUGPRIV ± You can also grant specific privileges. JAVA_ADMIN.page 170 .New DDL Statements and Roles  CREATE JAVA ± Alternative to ³loadjava´ utility ± Creates or replaces an Oracle ³library unit´ from Java source. resolves Java class references. JAVAIDPRIV.

Passing Oracle8 objects Oracle8i server Object in O-R table Java application Java object   Harder than you¶d think Three different interfacing techniques ± oracle.sql.sql.SQLData 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .CustomDatum ± oracle.jdbc2.STRUCT ± oracle.page 171 .

JPublisher utility Database server Definition of type or REF in data dictionary User-supplied JPublisher input file What does it do? ± Generates Java that encapsulates type and REF types of mapping supported for methods JPublisher ± ³Oracle mapping´ ± ³JDBC mapping´ ± ³Object JDBC mapping´ Three Generated Java file(s) for use in Java programs 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 172 .

save (datacraft. /  jspobj.bill.AccountRuntime.page 173 .Passing object using JPub-generated Java  After generating and uploading classes with JPub.Account_t)'. they become available to use in mapping Example of passing an Account_t object: CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE account_save (new_acct IN Account_t) IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .bill.

Example: Improving File I/O  You can read/write files in PL/SQL with UTL_FILE. but that package is very limited.page 174 . Java offers many file-related classes with much greater capabilities. Let's see how we can make that great Java stuff available from within PL/SQL.   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

page 175 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Instead build a static method that instantiates a Java object from the class and then invokes the relevant method against that object..  Let's start with something simple.Encapsulate Java Classes  You won't generally access native Java methods in your PL/SQL wrapper. ± The File class offers a length method that returns the number of bytes in a file. ± This is not available through UTL_FILE (though you can get it through DBMS_LOB)..

} } JFile2. ± Instantiate a File object for the specified name.page 176 . public class JFile2 { public static long length (String fileName) { File myFile = new File (fileName). import java.My Own Java Class for File Manipulation  Accept the name of a file and return its length.io.length(). ± Call the method of choice against that object and return the value.java  Take each of these steps: ± Import the File class to resolve reference.File. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . return myFile.

/ xfile2. ± I translate the Java long to a PL/SQL NUMBER.lang.length (java.page 177 . we will certainly want to add more functionality over time.String) return long'. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE xfile IS FUNCTION length (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN NUMBER. END. / CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY xfile IS FUNCTION length (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN NUMBER AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'JFile.Build a Package over Java Method  Let's put it in a package.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END.

you will need to take these steps: ± 1.page 178 . Write a "public" PL/SQL wrapper function to convert that number to a true PL/SQL Boolean. Convert the Java boolean to a String or number and return that value. ± 2. so you'd expect smooth sailing. Write a "hidden" PL/SQL wrapper function that returns the string or number.  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± 3.Mapping the Boolean Datatype  Both Java and PL/SQL support a native Boolean datatype. Not so! To pass a Boolean back from Java to PL/SQL.

if (retval) return 1. ± And don't forget: this is a boolean primitive. else return 0. } } JFile3.Translate Boolean to Number  Accept the name of a file and return its length.java  Translate TRUE to 1 and FALSE to 0. public class JFile3 { public static int canRead (String fileName) { File myFile = new File (fileName).io. import java.page 179 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .canRead(). not a Boolean class. boolean retval = myFile.File.

CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE xfile IS FUNCTION canRead (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN BOOLEAN. JFile4.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . xfile4.Wrapper for Pseudo-Boolean function  Simple translation back to PL/SQL Boolean. FUNCTION canRead (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN BOOLEAN AS BEGIN xfile3.pkg RETURN IcanRead (file) = 1. ± Avoid the hard-codings with named constants.String) return int'.java END.page 180 .canRead (java... JFile.pkg END. END.lang.java / xfile. / CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY xfile IS FUNCTION IcanRead (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN NUMBER AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'JFile3.

println ( "Pay " + laborType + " $" + hourly_rate + " per hour"). // Access individual attributes by array index. BigDecimal hourly_rate = (BigDecimal)(attribs[1]).out. System.sql.getAttributes().Passing Objects to Java with STRUCT  You can pass Oracle object information to Java without relying on JPub by using the STRUCT class. public class UnionBuster { Obtain attributes of public static void wageStrategy (STRUCT e) the Oracle object. throws java. // starting with 0 String laborType = (String)(attribs[0]). } } Extract individual attribute values from the array.tst PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .SQLException { // Get the attributes of the labor_source object. Object[] attribs = e.java passobj. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein UnionBuster.page 181 .

wageStrategy (oracle. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .STRUCT)'. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Fully specify the STRUCT class in parameter list. / BEGIN bust_em_with ( labor_source ('Workfare'. END. '5')). hourly_rate NUMBER).page 182 . / CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE bust_em_with ( labor_source_in IN labor_source_t) AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'UnionBuster. bust_em_with ( labor_source ('Prisoners'. The Oracle object type definition CREATE TYPE labor_source_t AS OBJECT ( labor_type VARCHAR2(30). 0)).Wrapping a STRUCT-based Method  You can pass Oracle object information to Java without relying on JPub by using the STRUCT class.sql.

HelloAll.PUT_LINE: System.Viewing Output from Java Methods  Java provides a "print line" method similar to DBMS_OUTPUT.println ( "Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello All!"). public class HelloAll { public static void lotsaText ( int count) { for (int i = 0.SET_OUTPUT (1000000). you can redirect the output to the DBMS_OUTPUT buffer. }}}  When called within a PL/SQL wrapper.page 183 . ± Here is a good nucleus for a login.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .java HelloAll.out.sql file: SET SERVEROUTPUT ON SIZE 1000000 CALL DBMS_JAVA. ± Call it within methods and output will display in your Java environment. i < count. i++) { System.out.println.

SQLException. you "throw" and "catch".sql. ± Instead of raising and handling.5). ± Exceptions are objects instantiated from the Exception class or a subclass of it.1. getErrorCode() and getMessage() to obtain information about the error thrown. such as java. ± And also spew out the entire Java error stack! (at least through 8.page 184 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Any error not caught by the JVM (Java virtual machine) will be thrown back to the PL/SQL block or SQL statement.Error Handling with Java-PL/SQL  Java offers a very similar. but more robust error handling mechanism than PL/SQL. ± Use two methods.

driver. and you have to do some digging to extract the Oracle error information.driver.java) at oracle.OracleStatement.java) at oracle.java) at oracle.tst ORA-00942: table or view does not exist 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .doExecuteWithBatch(OracleStatement.java -29532 dropany.doExecute(OracleStatement.kprb.sql. 'blip').doExecuteWithTimeout(OracleStatement.driver. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN DBMS_OUTPUT.driver.SQLException: getErrInfo.driver.executeUpdate(OracleStatement.PUT_LINE (SQLERRM).sp dropany2. BEGIN dropany ('TABLE'.doExecuteOther(OracleStatement.java) at oracle.jdbc.java:14) DropAny.KprbDBAccess.SQLException: ORA-00942: table or view does not exist at oracle.jdbc. DBMS_OUTPUT.jdbc.jdbc.jdbc.tst ORA-29532: Java call terminated by uncaught Java exception: java. END.jdbc.java) at oracle. / SQL> 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 java.OracleStatement.sql.check_error(KprbDBAccess.OracleStatement.parseExecuteFetch(KprbDBAccess.OracleStatement.Trapping and Identifying Errors  Currently.kprb.java) at DropAny.KprbDBAccess.OracleStatement. the entire Java stack is displayed on your screen.page 185 .object(DropAny.java) at oracle.jdbc.PUT_LINE (SQLCODE).

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . procedure. ± Must be a shared object library on Unix or a dynamically linked library (DLL) on Windows.  An Oracle8 feature that allowed relatively "native" callouts to C from PL/SQL for the first time. or method.page 186 .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence External Procedures  An external procedure is a 3GL routine that can serve as the ³body´ of a PL/SQL function.

Process & data flow Application Makes request Net8 External Procedure Listener spawns External Shared Library Calls PL/SQL Runtime Engine PL/SQL body Client or server-side application returns results calls routine from Routine in .so file extproc returns results returns results 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .DLL or .page 187 .

page 188 .sql diskspace.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .External procedures: Sample uses      Send email Invoke operating system command Invoke custom or legacy application Call C runtime library function Perform admin tasks email.

Determine free disk space on NT (1/4)  Use pre-existing routine: ± GetDiskFreeSpaceA in kernel32.dll'.dll ± For given drive letter. this function returns: » » » » » sectors per cluster bytes per sector number of free clusters total number of clusters ³return code´ indicating success or failure  First.page 189 . / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . create an Oracle8 ³library´: CREATE OR REPLACE LIBRARY nt_kernel AS 'c:\winnt\system32\kernel32.

sectors_per_cluster OUT PLS_INTEGER. END disk_util.page 190 . / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . bytes_per_sector OUT PLS_INTEGER. total_number_of_clusters OUT PLS_INTEGER) RETURN PLS_INTEGER. number_of_free_clusters OUT PLS_INTEGER.Package spec (2/4)  Nothing unexpected here: CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE disk_util AS FUNCTION get_disk_free_space (root_path IN VARCHAR2.

sectors_per_cluster BY REFERENCE LONG. END disk_util. total_number_of_clusters OUT PLS_INTEGER) RETURN PLS_INTEGER IS EXTERNAL LIBRARY nt_kernel NAME "GetDiskFreeSpaceA" LANGUAGE C CALLING STANDARD PASCAL PARAMETERS (root_path STRING. number_of_free_clusters BY REFERENCE LONG. RETURN LONG). sectors_per_cluster OUT PLS_INTEGER. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Package body in Oracle 8. total_number_of_clusters BY REFERENCE LONG. bytes_per_sector OUT PLS_INTEGER.page 191  All the magic is in the EXTERNAL section 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . bytes_per_sector BY REFERENCE LONG. number_of_free_clusters OUT pls_integer.0 (3/4) CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY disk_util AS FUNCTION get_disk_free_space (root_path IN VARCHAR2.

Usage (4/4)
DECLARE lroot_path VARCHAR2(3) := 'C:\'; lsectors_per_cluster PLS_INTEGER; lbytes_per_sector PLS_INTEGER; lnumber_of_free_clusters PLS_INTEGER; ltotal_number_of_clusters PLS_INTEGER; return_code PLS_INTEGER; free_meg REAL; BEGIN return_code := disk_util.get_disk_free_space (lroot_path, lsectors_per_cluster, lbytes_per_sector, lnumber_of_free_clusters, ltotal_number_of_clusters); free_meg := lsectors_per_cluster * lbytes_per_sector * lnumber_of_free_clusters / 1024 / 1024; DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('free disk space, Mb = ' || free_meg); diskspace.sql END;
1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein
PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 192

Creating your own external procedure 

1. Identify or create shared library 2. Identify or CREATE LIBRARY within Oracle 3. Map the parameters using:
± EXTERNAL clause (Oracle8) or ± LANGUAGE clause (Oracle8i)  

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 193

1. Identify/create external routine 


Prerequisite: O/S must support shared libraries Some useful routines are pre-built in C runtime library
± On Unix: /lib/libc.so ± On NT: <systemroot>\system32\crtdll.dll 

Building a shared library of your own requires knowledge of:
± Appropriate language (typically C) ± Compiler & linker

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 194

2. Create the Oracle library 

Syntax:
CREATE OR REPLACE LIBRARY <library name> AS '<full path to file>'; 

Assigns a programmer-defined alias to a specific shared library file Notes
± Requires CREATE LIBRARY pri ilege ± Does not alidate directory ± Can¶t use symbolic link 

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 195

3. Map the parameters
This can get complicated, because«
± Must pass extra parameters to designate:
» NULL/NOT NULL state » String length » Maximum allocated length

± Six choices of parameter mode
» » » » » » IN RETURN IN BY REFERENCE RETURN BY REFERENCE OUT IN OUT

These details are better suited for close reading«
PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 196

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

page 197 .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Oracle8i New Features Autonomous Transactions Invoker Rights Model Row Level Security 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

± And the learning curve to take advantage of these features is generally not too steep.page 198 .Oracle8i New Features  Oracle8i offers a number of PL/SQL-specific features that give you tremendous additional flexibility and capability.    Autonomous Transactions The Invoker Rights Model Row level security 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Autonomous Transactions  Prior to Oracle8i. a COMMIT or ROLLBACK in any program in your session committed or rolled back all changes in your session. ± There was only one transaction allowed per connection. ± Any changes made within that block can be saved or reversed without affecting the outer or main transaction. you can now define a PL/SQL block to execute as an "autonomous transaction". 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . msg IN VARCHAR2) AS PRAGMA AUTONOMOUS_TRANSACTION.page 199 . CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE loginfo ( code IN PLS_INTEGER.  With Oracle8i.

software usage meter. ± Now you can avoid the complexities (need for ROLLBACK TO savepoints and so on).When to Use Autonomous Transactions  Reusable Application Components ± ATs are more or less required in the new distributed application architecture of the Internet.page 200 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .  Logging Mechanism ± Commonly developers lot to database tables. etc.  Tracing Code Usage ± Build retry mechanisms.  Call functions within SQL that change the database. something like a COMMIT) on other components. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . which can cause all sorts of complications: your log entry becomes a part of your transaction. ± One component should not have any impact (esp.

program ). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Avoid interdependencies with the main transaction.Logging with ATs  Don't forget that ROLLBACK in the exception section! CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY log IS PROCEDURE putline ( code_in IN INTEGER. text_in IN VARCHAR2 ) IS PRAGMA AUTONOMOUS_TRANSACTION. USER. rec.pkg log81*. USER. END.machine. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN ROLLBACK. END. text_in. logger. While we're at it. COMMIT.sp log81.tst retry. let's add some session information. rec. SYSDATE. BEGIN INSERT INTO logtab VALUES (code_in.tst PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .pkg retry. SYSDATE.page 201 .

± You cannot define a nested anonymous block to be an AT. ± You cannot tell by looking at the package spec if you are calling ATs or not -and this info is not available in the data dictionary.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .   The AT PRAGMA goes in the body of packages. ± You can use the SET TRANSACTION ISOLATION LEVEL SERIALIZABLE to indicate that you do not want the changes visible until the outer transaction commits.  Any changes committed in an AT are visible in the outer transaction. ± Place the SET TRANSACTION statement in the outer transaction.Tips and Gotchas with ATs  An AT program must COMMIT or ROLLBACK before terminating.page 202 . autonserial. ± You cannot define an entire package as an AT. or an error is raised. The AT PRAGMA can be used only with individual programs and toplevel anonymous blocks.sql autontrigger*.sql auton_in_sql.

you can now decide at compilation time whether your program or package will execute in the definer's schema (the default) or the schema of the invoker of the code.page 203 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . ± This is called the « Invoker Rights Model PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .The Invoker Rights Model  Prior to Oracle8i. ± This is called the « Definer Rights Model  With Oracle8i. it ran under the privileges of the account in which the program was defined. whenever you executed a stored program.

Ignores roles and relies on directly-granted privileges.About Definer Rights  Allows you to centralize access to and control of underlying data structures. But it can be a source of confusion and architectural problems. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Note: Oracle built-in packages have long had the capability of running under the invoker's authority.page 204 . OE Code Order_Mgt Place Cancel Sam_Sales Close Old Orders  OE Data X  Orders Cannot alter table directly.

.. unless you write code in the package to essentially recreate roles programmatically.it's all or nothing. ± Can bypass 8i¶s ³fine-grained´ access features (see the DBMS_RLS package) ± Difficult to audit privileges  Sure would be nice to have a choice.and now you do! 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 205 . requiring copy of stored module  Security ± No declarative way to restrict privileges on certain modules in a package -. each user has own copy of table(s).Problems with Definer Rights  Deployment & maintenance ± Must install module in all remote databases where needed ± In some databases.

AUTHID goes only in spec. "dummy" objects..page 206 .  For modules with separate spec and body.. Synonyms may be necessary if modules use object names not qualified by schema. You could also create local.Oracle8i Invoker Rights Syntax  For top level modules: CREATE [ OR REPLACE ] <module type> [ AUTHID { DEFINER | CURRENT_USER } ] AS . do what it takes to get the code to compile. ± At run-time.  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . and must be at the package level. ± In other words. the objects referenced may well be different from those against which it compiled.

destroy(.acct_mgr.page 207 .). code."Reflection" Capability of Invoker Rights  With invoker rights.... END. accounts table 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . yet have all references to data structures "reflect back" into your own schema.. you can execute code owned by another schema.. Central Code schema PACKAGE acct_mgr make AUTHID CURRENT_USER User/Data schema PROCEDURE mng_account IS BEGIN ..FROM accounts WHERE. modify destroy ...

sql  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Note: cannot use with wrapped code.sql handy.  Information about the rights model is not available in the data dictionary What if you want to maintain a single version of your code for both pre-Oracle8i and Oracle8i installations. ± Both static and dynamic SQL is supported.page 208 . all other calls in stack are resolved according to definer rights. oneversion. ± AUTHID CURRENT_USER is ignored. taking advantage of the invoker rights model whenever possible? ± A creative use of SQL*Plus substitution variables comes in very invdefinv.  Once a definer rights program is called.Tips and Gotchas for Invoker Rights  Does not apply to code objects. the definer rights model is always applied to resolve the reference. only data ± When your stored code references another stored code element.

± Share a program that uses dynamic SQL (whether DBMS_SQL or the new native implementation) and you end up taking the most unexpected DDL and DML detours.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . authid.When to Invoke Invoker Rights  You want to reuse the same code among many users.page 209 . National HQ Check City Statistics New York Schema stolenlives Chicago Schema stolenlives  Especially handy with dynamic SQL. but you want their own directly-granted privileges to determine access.sql whichsch*.

sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Combining Invoker & Definer Rights  Rely on invoker rights to allow centralized code to work with schema-specific data.page 210 . HQ Chicago Check City Statistics  New York stolenlives Analyze Pattern stolenlives perpetrators perp. Rely on definer rights to access centralized data from any schema.

Row Level Security DBMS_RLS Row-Level Security 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 211 .

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . with which to implement automated row-level security (also referred to as "fine grained access control").page 212   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . Row Level Security  The establishment of security policies on (restricted access to) individual rows of a table. The DBMS_RLS package (along with "system contexts") now allow you to do so in a foolproof manner. Prior to Oracle8i. DBMS_RLS. you could achieve this only partially through the use of views.Row-Level Security with DBMS_RLS  Oracle8i offers a new package.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 213 . the system context is a named set of attributevalue pairs global to your session.  Let's step through a simple example to see how all these pieces tie together.  Security Policy Packages ± You will need to write a package containing functions that establish the security policies to be applied to a particular table.  DBMS_RLS ± Use programs in DBMS_RLS to associate your security policies with tables.Components Needed for RLS  System Contexts ± A new feature in Oracle8i.  Database Logon Triggers ± I want to make sure that when a person logs in. their context information is set properly.

 We need a top-notch. all children are vaccinated. popular uprising in the United States has forced the establishment of a national healthcare system. The main tables are patient.A National Health Care System  The year is 2010.sql  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Patients can only see information about themselves. no more private insurance companies soaking up 30 cents on the dollar. fgac. doctor. Here are some rules: ± Doctors can only see patients who are assigned to their clinic.page 214 . all pregnant women receive excellent prenatal care. ± Regulators can only see patients who reside in the same state. ± A massive. clinic and regulator. highly secure database for NHCS. No more for-profit hospitals pulling billions of dollars out of the system.

c_person_type_attr. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . DBMS_SESSION.sql for logic that identifies SELECT doctor_id FROM doctor different types of people and WHERE schema_name = USER. BEGIN OPEN doc_cur.doctor_id). c_person_id_attr. PROCEDURE set_context IS This is a simplification.Set the Context  Define a context in the database.SET_CONTEXT ( 'patient_restriction'.SET_CONTEXT ( 'patient_restriction'. DBMS_SESSION.page 215 . 'DOCTOR'). FETCH doc_cur INTO doc_rec. END. sets the context accordingly. CREATE CONTEXT patient_restriction USING nhc_pkg. doc_rec doc_cur%ROWTYPE. and create a procedure that will set the context attributes (type and ID) upon login. doc_rec. See CURSOR doc_cur IS fgac.

Define the Predicate  A predicate is a string that will be appended to the WHERE clause of the table to which this security policy is associated (see next page). connection. c_person_type_attr). information for this retval VARCHAR2(2000). ''' || clause for each type of c_person_id_attr || '''))'. person.page 216 . name_in VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2 IS l_context VARCHAR2(100) := Extract the context SYS_CONTEXT (c_context. BEGIN IF l_context = 'DOCTOR' THEN retval := 'home_clinic_id IN (SELECT home_clinic_id FROM doctor We need a different string WHERE doctor_id = SYS_CONTEXT (''' || to modify the WHERE c_context || '''. FUNCTION person_predicate ( schema_in VARCHAR2. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Create the Security Policy  Use the DBMS_RLS.page 217 . 'SCOTT'.DELETE'). 'patient_privacy'. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 'patient'. ( => => => => => => 'SCOTT'.ADD_POLICY procedure. 'SELECT.person_predicate'. ± The following procedure call specifies that the WHERE clause of any query.ADD_POLICY OBJECT_SCHEMA OBJECT_NAME POLICY_NAME FUNCTION_SCHEMA POLICY_FUNCTION STATEMENT_TYPES END. BEGIN DBMS_RLS. 'nhc_pkg.nhc_pkg package.UPDATE. update or delete against the SCOTT.PATIENT table will be modified by the string returned by the person_predicate function of the SCOTT.

set_context. Setting Context  By setting the context in the logon trigger.Create Logon Trigger. fgac.page 218 . EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN DBMS_OUTPUT. END. logon is disabled.PUT_LINE ( 'Error ' || SQLCODE || ' setting context for ' || USER'). we guarantee that the context is set (and the predicate applied) no matter which product is the entry point to Oracle. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .sql Exception handling in trigger is critical! If you allow an exception to go unhandled. CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER set_id_on_logon AFTER LOGON ON DATABASE BEGIN nhc_pkg.

IL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Patient sees only himself.Veva Silva .IL Context Information for "CSILVA": Type: PATIENT ID: Predicate: schema_name = 'CSILVA' Patients Visible to "CSILVA": CSILVA . 'person_id')) Patients Visible to "SWALLACE": CSILVA .IL VSILVA .page 219 .Queries Transparently Filtered  What you see is determined automatically by who you are.Chris Silva . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Predicate: home_clinic_id IN (SELECT home_clinic_id FROM doctor WHERE doctor_id = SYS_CONTEXT ('patient_restriction'.Chris Silva . Context Information for "SWALLACE": Type: DOCTOR Doctor sees only her ID: 1060 patients.

Jump out of your rut .. and you use only what you know.....  ± You learn what you need to get the job done. May...Take Full Advantage of PL/SQL! January.page 220 . April. It's so easy to fall into a rut with a programming language. February..and play a new tune with PL/SQL! 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ... March.

page 221 .k.Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Appendices (a..a. If time permits«)     UTL_FILE ± file IO DBMS_JOB ± Job scheduling DBMS_PIPE ± Pipe-based communication DBMS_UTILITY ± the kitchen sink package 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Built-in Packages: UTL_FILE UTL_FILE Server-side File I/O Application FOPEN GET_LINE PUT_LINE .. Physical Files 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 222 ..

. random access to contents). when it jumps to 32K. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± No higher-level file operations supported (change privileges.0.5. delete. ± Limitations on files you can access (no mapped files. ± Maximum of 1023 bytes per line (read or write) until Oracle 8.UTL_FILE: Server-side I/O  Allows you to read from and write to operating system files on the database server.page 223 . A "version 1" (fairly primitive) utility.   But you can read lines from a file and write lines to a file. no use of environmental variables). copy..

page 224 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . Puts formatted text into the buffer PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .UTL_FILE Module Outline FCLOSE FCLOSE_ALL FFLUSH FOPEN GET_LINE IS_OPEN NEW_LINE PUT PUT_LINE PUTF Close the specified file Close all open files in your session Flush all data from the UTL_FILE buffer to your file Open a file Get the next line from a file Returns TRUE if the file is open (sort of) Insert a new line character in file at the end of current line Puts text into the UTL_FILE buffer Puts text and new line character into UTL_FILE buffer.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± You do this by adding lines to the instance parameter file. ± No single or double quotes around directory. utl_file_dir = * Allows read & write for any directory.Authorizing Directory Access  Oracle requires you to list explicitly those directories you wish to be able to read/write with UTL_FILE. ± Use a separate entry for each directory (and subdirectory.  Follow these rules to avoid many headaches.page 225 Allows read & write for current directory. no trailing delimiter. utl_file_dir = /tmp utl_file_dir = /accounts/newdev  And don't do either of the following: utl_file_dir = . there is no subdirectory recursion).

modify your initialization file. and then run the following test script (it can't get much simpler than this): DECLARE fid UTL_FILE. restart your database. So before you write anything fancy. END.FOPEN ('c:\temp'.txt'. UTL_FILE.page 226 . UTL_FILE. / utlfile.FILE_TYPE.FCLOSE (fid). */ fid := UTL_FILE.Test UTL_FILE Access  About the hardest part to working with UTL_FILE is simply getting started. BEGIN /* Change the directory name to one to which you at least || THINK you have read/write access.tst  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 'W'). 'hello'). 'test.PUT_LINE (fid.

FOPEN ('c:\temp'. name and operation type. ± Currently contains a single ID field. 'W'). this function simply returns TRUE if the file handle's id field is NOT NULL. 'W' for Write and 'A' for Append.FILE_TYPE. END.  The FOPEN function returns a record ("file handle") based on the UTL_FILE. BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE. Test to see if file is open with the IS_OPEN function.  Specify file location. ± In actuality.page 227 .Opening a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.txt'..   Maximum of 10 files may be opened in each user session.. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 'test.FILE_TYPE. Not much of a test. ± Types are 'R' for Read.

myline). getnext.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE. 'test.FILE_TYPE.  The NO_DATA_FOUND exception is raised if you read past the end of the file.0.Reading from a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.   Can only read from a file opened with the "R" mode. UTL_FILE. 'R').FOPEN ('c:\temp'.txt'. END. Lines in the file cannot be longer than 1023 bytes in length. UTL_FILE.page 228 .5 and above.GET_LINE (fid. the ceiling is raised to 32K. ± You might want to build your own GET_LINE which handles the exception and returns an EOF Boolean status flag.FCLOSE (fid). ± In Oracle8 Release 8.

PUTF (fid.page 229 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .FOPEN ('c:\temp'. UTL_FILE. 'is so much fun').PUT (fid. PUT_LINE or PUTF. BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE. UTL_FILE. '&1'). ± The file buffers are automatically flushed when you close a file or exit your session.Writing to a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE. 'test. UTL_FILE. UTL_FILE.PUT_LINE (fid. UTL_FILE is so much fun that I never want to stop Resulting Text  You can use PUT. 'W'). 'UTL_FILE').txt'. allowing for some formatting.  Call FFLUSH to make sure that everything you have written to the buffer is flushed out to the file.FCLOSE (fid).FILE_TYPE. ' that I never\nwant to %s'. ± PUTF is like the C printf program. END.

Closing a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE. 'test.FCLOSE (fid).  If you do not close the file. myline).FILE_TYPE.FCLOSE (fid).GET_LINE (fid. EXCEPTION WHEN UTL_FILE. You can close a single file with FCLOSE or all open files with FCLOSE_ALL. END. You should close files in exception handlers to make sure that files are not left "hanging" open. BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE.READ_ERROR THEN UTL_FILE.page 230   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . 'R').FOPEN ('c:\temp'.txt'. UTL_FILE. UTL_FILE. you will not see the data you have (supposedly) written to that file. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

 UTL_FILE relies on a combination of user-defined exceptions and STANDARD exceptions to communicate errors. ± They all share a common SQLCODE of 1.  You have to take special care to trap and handle the named exceptions. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 231 .Error Handling in UTL_FILE PACKAGE UTL_FILE IS invalid_path invalid_mode invalid_filehandle invalid_operation read_error write_error internal_error END. ± NO_DATA_FOUND when you try to read past the end of the file. EXCEPTION. EXCEPTION. EXCEPTION. EXCEPTION. EXCEPTION. EXCEPTION. EXCEPTION. ± UTL_FILE-named exceptions in other cases.

c_invalid_mode).WRITE_ERROR THEN recNgo (PLVfile. WHEN UTL_FILE.c_invalid_operation).INTERNAL_ERROR THEN recNgo (PLVfile. translating the generic user-defined exception into an understandable message. RAISE. RAISE. WHEN UTL_FILE. RAISE. END.sql  Trap locally by name.INVALID_OPERATION THEN recNgo (PLVfile. record the error. RAISE.c_write_error). WHEN UTL_FILE.Recommended Exception Section EXCEPTION WHEN UTL_FILE.INVALID_PATH THEN recNgo (PLVfile. WHEN UTL_FILE. Re-raise exception if you want it to propagate from that block.READ_ERROR THEN recNgo (PLVfile. WHEN UTL_FILE.c_internal_error).c_invalid_filehandle).INVALID_FILEHANDLE THEN recNgo (PLVfile. RAISE.INVALID_MODE THEN recNgo (PLVfile.c_invalid_path). utlflexc.page 232  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . RAISE.c_read_error). RAISE. WHEN UTL_FILE. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

.Built-in Packages: DBMS_JOB DBMS_JOB Scheduled Execution of Stored Procedures Application SUBMIT RUN REMOVE .. Background Process DBA_JOBS Oracle Job Queue Subsystem 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 233 .

but only ³publicly available´ and supported in PL/SQL Release 2. ± Spawn background processes to avoid blocking client process. Built by Oracle to support snapshots and replication. Schedule large batch jobs to run on "off hours". Made its debut in PL/SQL Release 2.page 234 . You can use DBMS_JOB to: Replicate data between different database instances. which in turn offers job scheduling capabilities within the Oracle Server. Create a listener program to poll the contents of a pipe and take action.Overview of DBMS_JOB  DBMS_JOB provides an API to the Oracle job queues.1.2. ± ± ± ±    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Schedule regular maintenance on instances.

Changes one or all attributes of a job.page 235 CHANGE INTERVAL ISUBMIT NEXT_DATE REMOVE RUN SUBMIT USER_EXPORT WHAT 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . Broken jobs will not run as scheduled. Returns the job string for a job number. Forces immediate execution of the specified job number. Removes the job from the queue. Changes when a queued job will run. Changes the interval between executions of a job. Submits a job to the queue using a predefined job number. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Changes the job string of a job.DBMS_JOB Module Outline BROKEN Marks the job as either FIXED or BROKEN. Submits a job to the queue returning a unique job number.

'SYSDATE + 1'). 'calculate_totals. BEGIN DBMS_JOB.page 236 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Notice that the start time is a DATE expression. ± In the above example. instead of having DBMS_JOB generate one for you. I run calculate_totals immediately and then on a daily basis thereafter. you specify the date on which it should next execute.  When you submit a job. END.Submitting a Job DECLARE job# BINARY_INTEGER.  A job is a call to a stored procedure or an anonymous block ± It must end with a semi-colon and can contain ³hard-coded´ arguments. SYSDATE.ISUBMIT and supply the job number. and then the job¶s execution interval (frequency of execution).SUBMIT (job#.'. while the interval is a string (this is dynamic PL/SQL!)  You can also call DBMS_JOB.

END. DBMS_DDL. BEGIN DBMS_JOB.submit ( job => v_jobno.''TENK''' || '. interval => 'TRUNC(SYSDATE+1)' ). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .'.''LOAD1''. /  This block submits a job that uses a built-in procedure.null. to analyze a specific table every evening at midnight.l (v_jobno). what => 'DBMS_DDL.page 237 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .''ESTIMATE''.Submit Job Example DECLARE v_jobno INTEGER. next_date => TRUNC (SYSDATE + 1).estimate_percent=>50).ANALYZE_OBJECT.ANALYZE_OBJECT ' || '(''TABLE''. p.

DBMS_JOB. executes for the first time tomorrow and every 10 minutes thereafter.page 238 . runs it in one hour and executes every day thereafter. ± Job 3 is a PL/SQL block which does nothing.'.ISUBMIT (2.SYSDATE+1.ISUBMIT (job => 1 . ± Job 2 passes a date into procedure MY_JOB2.what => 'my_job1(''string_parm_value''.next_date => SYSDATE + 1/24 .ISubmit Job Example BEGIN DBMS_JOB. END.120).null). 'my_job2(date_IN=>SYSDATE).interval => 'SYSDATE +1'). and will be removed from the queue automatically.'BEGIN null.ISUBMIT(3. executes immediately. END.2. and 3. DBMS_JOB.'SYSDATE+10/1440'). ± Job 1 passes a string and number into procedure MY_JOB1.' .DBMS_JOB. /  This block submits three jobs to the job queue.SYSDATE. numbered 1.' . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

''MONDAY'') + 9/24' 'TRUNC (LEAST ( NEXT_DAY (SYSDATE. ± Since it's a string. ''MONDAY''). 3). ''SATURDAY'') 2/24' 'NEXT_DAY ( ADD_MONTHS (TRUNC (SYSDATE. NEXT_DAY (SYSDATE. at 9 AM Every Monday. Wednesday and Friday at 6 PM 'SYSDATE + 1/24' 'NEXT_DAY (TRUNC (SYSDATE). Every hour Every Sunday at 2 AM First Monday of each quarter. you must use 2 single quotes to embed strings. ''WEDNESDAY''). NEXT_DAY (SYSDATE. ± Use date arithmetic to request intervals smaller than a day. ''Q'').page 239 + 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . ''FRIDAY''))) + 18/24' PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Specifying Job Times & Frequencies  Probably the most complicated part of using DBMS_JOB is to get the string expression of the job interval right.

page 240 .REMOVE (rec.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Uses DBMS_JOB. expjob.Other Job Queue Operations  Remove a job from the queue. DBMS_JOB. ± Produces a string that can be used to recreate an existing job in the job queue. END LOOP. ± Only if the job was submitted from same schema BEGIN FOR rec IN (SELECT * FROM USER_JOBS) LOOP DBMS_JOB. retaining current job number.  Run a job immediately.  Export jobs from the queue.job). ± Performs an implicit COMMIT in current session. Remove all jobs for current schema.RUN (my_job#).ISUBMIT.

V$SESSION WHERE s.sql FROM DBA_JOBS_RUNNING .DBA_JOBS .this_date.job .this_date .job ORDER BY jr.page 241 .username .jr. SELECT jr. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .job = j.Job Queue Views  You can also view the job queue by looking at the DBA_JOBS_RUNNING.what job_id username start_date job_definition jr j s showjobs. ± The following query blends job information with session information to display currently-executing jobs. DBA_JOBS and USER_JOBS views.sid = jr. who owns them and when they began.sid AND jr.

± job_queue_interval=N where N is the interval in seconds to check the job queue.ora (initialization) file for your database instance: ± job_queue_processes=N where n is the number of concurrent background processes permitted. of one hour).  You will need to set three parameters in the init. The valid range is 1 to 3600 (a maximum. therefore.page 242 . ± The default is PUBLIC access. You will have to take special DBA action if you want to restrict who can run jobs.Setting up the Job Facility  Make sure that the correct access is set up for the DBMS_JOB package. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . The valid range is 0 through 36.

± Do you want it to try 16 times? ± In addition. if your failure raises an unhandled exception.Error Handling with DBMS_JOB  What if your stored procedure fails? ± After 16 attempts. the job facility will mark your job as broken.page 243 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Always include a WHEN OTHERS exception handler in your job program which traps any and all problems and automatically sets the job status to broken.  To avoid unexpected and unhandled failures of scheduled jobs: ± Always use the RUN built-in to execute your job in a ³test´ mode. it may cause the background processes to fail and no longer run any jobs at all. Then you can go ahead and submit it.

job_pkg.sql  The WHEN OTHERS exception handler of the calc_totals procedure traps any kind of failure.sql showspc. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .log (µcalc_totals¶.. ± Calls log program of package to record that failure took place.job (µcalc_totals¶) DBMS_JOB.BROKEN (job#.Stopping the Job When It Fails PROCEDURE calc_totals IS BEGIN . ± Now the job facility will not try to run this program again. You can go in and fix the problem. END. ± Obtains the job number from a packaged function by passing the name of the procedure.. ± Uses a call to BROKEN to set the status of the job to ³broken´. spacelog.page 244 . µFAIL¶). TRUE). EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN job# := job_pkg.

When a job runs. If you find that you submit a job to run immediately and it does not start.    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . it picks up the current execution environment for the user. difficult to reproduce behavior at times with "straight" procedure calls. ± DBMS_JOB only allows you to modify characteristics and behavior of jobs submitted by the current schema.  You will need to fully-qualify all database links (with user name and password) to get them to work properly. perform a COMMIT after your submit. ± We've noticed some aberrant."Good to Knows" for DBMS_JOB  You may find it useful to always wrap your stored procedure call (the what) inside a BEGIN-END block.page 245 . You can use the DBMS_IJOB to manage the jobs of other users.

Built-in Packages: DBMS_PIPE DBMS_PIPE Inter-session Communication 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 246 .

Oracle uses database pipes to parallelize database operations.DBMS_PIPE Overview  Allows communication between different Oracle sessions through a pipe in the RDBMS Shared Global Area.  Uses for DBMS_PIPE include: ± Parallelization of program execution. ± Operates outside of database transaction limitations. ± More sophisticated debugging inside PL/SQL programs (work around fundamental limitations of DBMS_OUTPUT). ± Perform and commit DML in a separate transaction space from your main transaction. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Interface PL/SQL-database activities with operating system functions and programs written in other languages. You can parallelize your own code.page 247 .

page 248 . They are reserved for Oracle use).Architecture of DBMS_PIPE Shared Global Area ³Sue´ ³Bob´ Message Buffer Message Buffer Session A  Session B A pipe is a named object that uses the System Global Area to provide a non-transaction based conduit of information. which can be composed of one or more separate packets. ± The pipe sends/receives a message. using a maximum of 4096 bytes. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Names can be up to 128 chars long (do not use names beginning with ³ORA$´.

± Each packet can be a string. so you should always specify a timeout period. ± There is just one message buffer per session. date or number). date. ROWID or RAW. ± If there isn¶t currently room in the pipe.  Receive a message from that pipe. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein pipex1. you can wait for up to 1000 days (or 86400000 seconds) for the pipe to be cleared.page 249 . ± This is the default.sql PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . number.  Unpack the message packets and take action. ± You can wait for up to 1000 days for a message.sql pipex2.  Send the message to a named pipe.Processing Flow of DBMS_PIPE  Construct a message from packets of information. ± Separate out the individual packets in the message (again: string.

REMOVE_PIPE RESET_BUFFER Removes a pipe explicitly created via CREATE_PIPE. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . making it a candidate for removal with a LRU algorithm. UNPACK_MESSAGE Unpacks the next item from the local message buffer and deposits it into the specified local variable. PURGE Empties the contents of a pipe into your local buffer freeing it for removal.page 250 . Clears your buffer so that PACK_MESSAGE and UNPACK_MESSAGE can work from the first item. UNIQUE_SESSION_NAME Returns name that is unique among all sessions in the database. SEND_MESSAGE Sends contents of message buffer to the specified pipe. PACK_MESSAGE Packs an item into the message buffer for your session.DBMS_PIPE Module Outline Module Name CREATE_PIPE Description Creates a PUBLIC or PRIVATE pipe. RECEIVE_MESSAGE Receives a message from pipe and copies to local buffer. NEXT_ITEM_TYPE Returns the datatype of the next item in the piped message.

CREATE_PIPE ( pipename => 'bbs'. ± Use CREATE_PIPE to create a pipe explicitly. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . PROCEDURE newpipe IS stat INTEGER. BEGIN stat := DBMS_PIPE.Creating Public and Private Pipes  There are two ways to create pipes: implicitly and explicitly. ± Send messages to non-existent pipe implicitly create it. ± Specify TRUE for private argument of CREATE_PIPE. ± Implicitly-created pipes are always public.  A public pipe is accessible as long as you know its name.page 251 . private => TRUE).  An explicit pipe can be private (accessible only to sessions with matching userID or SYSDBA privileges). maxpipesize => 20000.

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . FOR month_num IN 1 .PACK_MESSAGE ( total_sales (month_num)). END LOOP.SEND_MESSAGE ( µmonthly¶. seconds you will wait. 10 * 4096). expanding pipe size to 40 Kbytes. Status of 0 means message was sent. 12 LOOP DBMS_PIPE. IF pipe_stat != 0 THEN RAISE could_not_send.page 252 . timeout IN INTEGER DEFAULT maxwait. and new max pipe size (you can make it bigger. but not smaller).. maxpipesize IN INTEGER DEFAULT 8192) RETURN INTEGER. Send to "monthly" pipe. pipe_stat := DBMS_PIPE. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Fill your message buffer with packets of data. 60. waiting up to 1 minute.Sending a Message Provide pipe name. FUNCTION send_message (pipename IN VARCHAR2.

timeout IN INTEGER DEFAULT maxwait) RETURN INTEGER. ± Pipe status of 0 means the message was read successfully. PROCEDURE unpack_message (item OUT NUMBER). ± You need to know the datatype of packet or check it using NEXT_ITEM_TYPE. ± Specify pipe and number of seconds you will wait before you time out. PROCEDURE unpack_message (item OUT VARCHAR2). PROCEDURE unpack_message (item OUT DATE). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Receiving and Unpack a Message FUNCTION receive_message (pipename IN VARCHAR2.  First you pull the message from the pipe and place it in buffer with RECEIVE_MESSAGE.page 253 .  Then you call UNPACK_MESSAGE to extract individual packets from the message.

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . data not received.page 254 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . LOOP pipe_status := DBMS_PIPE.'). every_n_secs). analyze_production (SYSDATE.UNPACK_MESSAGE (prod_total).RECEIVE_MESSAGE ( 'production'. END.A Pipe-based Listener Program  Program wakes up every N seconds to read the data from the pipe and analyze results from assembly line (an intentional "infinite loop"!). seconds for the BEGIN next report. ELSE RAISE_APPLICATION_ERROR ( Stop process if -20000. PROCEDURE analyze_assembly_data (every_n_secs IN INTEGER) IS pipe_status INTEGER. If I got something. END IF. pass it on to the IF pipe_status = 0 computation THEN program. Wait up to N prod_total NUMBER. 'Production data unavailable. END LOOP. DBMS_PIPE. prod_total).

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Returns one of the following values: Value 0 6 9 11 12 23 Description or Data type No more items in buffer NUMBER VARCHAR2 ROWID DATE RAW dbpipe.page 255 . ± Or you use the built-in NEXT_ITEM_TYPE to tell you in advance the datatype of the next packet in the message and take appropriate action.sql dbpipe.tst  Since a message can be composed of packets of different datatypes. you have to make sure that you unpack a packet into the right kind of variable. Either: ± You know the datatype and therefore can ³hard-code´ the correct variable into the call to UNPACK_MESSAGE.Unpacking the Message FUNCTION next_item_type RETURN INTEGER.

page 256 .  Without pipes. total office expenses and total compensation.Parallelizing Your Code with Pipes  Oracle uses DBMS_PIPE to improve RDBMS performance. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Suppose I want to calculate my net profit. I must execute them sequentially and incur an elapsed time of 45 minutes before I calculate the profits. ± The CEO is decidedly unhappy about the delay. you can do the same for your application if: ± You have multiple CPUs available. ± These programs each take 15 minutes. ± You have processes which can run in parallel. In order to do so I must first compute total sales. but are not dependent on each other.

Parallel Execution Sequential Execution: Maximum Elapsed Time S t a r t E n d Process A Process B Process C Parallel Execution: Minimum Elapsed Time Start Process A Process B Process C End 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Sequential vs.page 257 .

in a muchdecreased elapsed time. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . kick_off_exp_calc. ± When each program is complete. Then net profits can be computed -.  The ³kick off´ programs pass their messages to separate pipes. END.page 258 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . calculate_net_profits. kick_off_totcomp_calc. it puts a message (perhaps even a value) into the pipe.  The ³wait´ program waits till it receives a message from each program.Parallelizing PL/SQL Execution BEGIN kick_off_sales_calc. wait_for_confirmation. ± Other programs running in the background grab the messages and start their corresponding calculation program.

PACK_MESSAGE (NULL).SEND_MESSAGE (µsales¶). DBMS_PIPE. calculate sales. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . IF stat = 0 THEN lots_of_number_crunching.page 259 . stat := DBMS_PIPE. Receive the year.Code to Kick Off and Calculate PROCEDURE kick_off_sales_calc IS stat INTEGER. PROCEDURE calculate_sales IS stat INTEGER. BEGIN stat := DBMS_PIPE.SEND_MESSAGE (µsales¶). ELSE DBMS_PIPE. END.PACK_MESSAGE (sales$).SEND_MESSAGE (µsales¶).PACK_MESSAGE (1995). BEGIN DBMS_PIPE. and send back the results. END IF. stat := DBMS_PIPE.RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µsales¶). stat := DBMS_PIPE. END. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Send message to start calculations.

RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µoffexp¶). PROCEDURE calculate_net_profits IS BEGIN net_profits := sales$ .UNPACK_MESSAGE (sales$). Wait for all calculations to finish. DBMS_PIPE.RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µsales¶). stat := DBMS_PIPE. END. DBMS_PIPE. parallel.comp$. The order in which you wait is insignificant. stat := DBMS_PIPE.Waiting for Confirmation PROCEDURE wait_for_confirmation IS stat INTEGER. BEGIN stat := DBMS_PIPE.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .UNPACK_MESSAGE (comp$). END. Perform final calculation.UNPACK_MESSAGE (offexp$).page 260 .RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µcomp¶). DBMS_PIPE.offexp$ .

Other DBMS_PIPE Examples  Simple trace package that sends it output either to screen or to pipe.page 261 . syscache. ± A listener program grabs the request (including the return pipe name). in-memory cache.pkg syscache. ± Demonstrates the use of toggles and switches in packages. ± A request for data is passed to a "central" pipe.pkg  Implementation of a system-wide. ± The requester reads the information from the pipe.pkg p_and_l.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . obtains the data. and sends it to the pipe. watch.

Built-in Packages: DBMS_UTILITY DBMS_UTILITY Application GET_TIME GET_HASH_VALUE FORMAT_CALL_STACK ...page 262 . A µgrab-bag¶ of miscellaneous operations SCHEMA 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Returns hash value for string.pkg dbparm. Gets block number part of data block address. Recompile INVALID objects in specified schema.DBMS_UTILITY Module Outline ANALYZE_DATABASE ANALYZE_PART_OBJECT Analyze objects in database Runs ANALYZE TABLE or ANALYZE INDEX for each partition of the object (Oracle8).pkg COMMA_TO_TABLE COMPILE_SCHEMA DATA_BLOCK_ADDRESS_BLOCK DATA_BLOCK_ADDRESS_FILE DB_VERSION EXEC_DDL_STATEMENT FORMAT_CALL_STACK FORMAT_ERROR_STACK GET_HASH_VALUE 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . Returns execution call stack. Parses comma-delimited list to index-by table. Gets file number part of data block address. Returns error stack. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Returns database version (Oracle8) Executes DDL statement (Oracle8).page 263 dbver.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Resolves name of object into component parts.page 264 . Returns "current time" down to hundredth of second. GET_PARAMETER_VALUE GET_TIME IS_PARALLEL_SERVER MAKE_DATA_BLOCK_ADDRESS NAME_RESOLVE NAME_TOKENIZE PORT_STRING TABLE_TO_COMMA Retrieves value of database parameter (Oracle8). Converts list (in index-by-table) of elements into a comma-delimited list (string). cont. Parses string object designator into components. Creates data block address from block & file numbers.DBMS_UTILITY Module Outline. Returns TRUE if in parallel server mode. Returns platform and version of database.

so GET_TIME offers significant additional granularity. BEGIN v_start := DBMS_UTILITY. DECLARE v_start BINARY_INTEGER.Sub-Second Timings with GET_TIME  GET_TIME returns the number of 100ths of seconds that have elapsed since an arbitrary point in time. especially those that run in sub-second time. DBMS_OUTPUT.v_start).PUT_LINE (DBMS_UTILITY. calc_totals. ± SYSDATE only reflects times down to the nearest second.page 265 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END.  Compare results from consecutive calls to GET_TIME to determine the elapsed time of PL/SQL code execution.GET_TIME . Basic steps necessary to convert GET_TIME into a performance analysis tool.GET_TIME. ± Useful when analyzing individual PL/SQL programs.

page 266 .capture. PROCEDURE set_factor (factor_in IN NUMBER).spb 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .show_elapsed.Building a Layer Over GET_TIME Partial package specification PACKAGE PLVtmr IS PROCEDURE turn_on. PROCEDURE capture ( context_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) PROCEDURE show_elapsed (prefix_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. reset_in IN BOOLEAN := TRUE).sps plvtmr. PLVtmr. END PLVtmr. adjust_in IN NUMBER := 0. END.sql plvtmr. Clean and lean timing code ovrhead. calc_totals. BEGIN PLVtmr. PROCEDURE turn_off.

± Does not show package elements.VALIDATE_REQUEST function STEVEN. only the package name.Accessing the Execution Call Stack Use in the exception section to show context of error.PUT_LINE ( DBMS_UTILITY.PL/SQL Call Stack ----object line object handle number name 88ce3f74 88e49fc4 88e49390 88e2bd20 8 2 1 1 package STEVEN. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Most recent program at beginning of "report".COMPANY_TYPE procedure STEVEN. END. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN DBMS_OUTPUT. ----.FORMAT_CALL_STACK). equivalent to CHR(10).page 267 .CALC_NET_WORTH anonymous block  "Little known facts" about FORMAT_CALL_STACK: ± Contains embedded new-line characters.

startpos + 1). LOOP next_newline := INSTR (stk. startpos. next_line VARCHAR2(255).page 268 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .FORMAT_CALL_STACK || CHR(10). CHR(10).Accessing Call Stack Contents  The call stack length can easily exceed 255 bytes. next_newline . dispcs. startpos INTEGER := 1. EXIT WHEN next_newline = 0.PUT_LINE (next_line). which means you cannot pass it to DBMS_OUTPUT directly. BEGIN stk := DBMS_UTILITY. use a loop to read through the stack. END LOOP. Instead. next_line := SUBSTR ( stk. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END.tst callstack. startpos := next_newline + 1. next_newline INTEGER.sps DBMS_OUTPUT. startpos.sp dispcs. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE dispcs IS stk VARCHAR2(10000).pkg plvcs. 1).

schema OUT VARCHAR2.Resolving Names of Stored Code  Code names have many components.. PROCEDURE DBMS_UTILITY.. see it as an opportunity.  Possible "Part 1" Types 5 7 8 9 Synonym Procedure Function Package What a chore! All those arguments. part2 OUT VARCHAR2. dblink OUT VARCHAR2. part1_type OUT NUMBER.sp snc.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..NAME_RESOLVE (name IN VARCHAR2. the way they are attached also follows a complicated syntax. context IN NUMBER.page 269 .for encapsulation! showcomp. object_number OUT NUMBER). part1 OUT VARCHAR2. ± Use NAME_RESOLVE to break down an identifier string into its components easily..but don't see it as a problem.