Achieving PL/SQL Excellence

Oracle PL/SQL Advanced Techniques
Oracle7 thru Oracle8i
Steven Feuerstein
www.StevenFeuerstein.com www.Quest.com www.OReilly.com
and contributions most excellent from Bill Pribyl and Dick Bolz

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 1

Objective & Outline 

Objective
± Expand your knowledge and awareness of important and new features of the PL/SQL language. 

Outline
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± Building with Packages (Oracle7+) PL/SQL Collections (Oracle7 and Oracle8+) Cursor Variables (Oracle7 and Oracle8+) Dynamic SQL: DBMS_SQL and Native Dynamic SQL (8i) Calling Java from PL/SQL (Oracle8i) and C (Oracle8) Oracle Advanced Queuing with DBMS_AQ (Oracle8) Managing Large Objects with DBMS_LOB (Oracle8) Other Oracle8i New Features
» Autonomous Transactions (Oracle8i) » Invoker Rights Model (Oracle8i) » Row Level Security: DBMS_RLS

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

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Software Used in Training 

PL/Vision: a library of packages installed on top of PL/SQL.
± PL/Vision Lite - use it, copy, change it for free -- unless you build software to be sold commercially. ± Active PL/SQL Knowledge Base: contains PL/Vision Professional, the fully supported and enhanced version. 

Demonstration scripts executed in the training can be found on the RevealNet PL/SQL Pipeline:
± http://www.revealnet.com/Pipelines/PLSQL/index.htm ± Archives surfboard, Miscellaneous, PL/SQL Seminar Files ± See filedesc.doc for a listing of many of the files.
plsql_ides.txt 

The PL/SQL IDE (Integrated Development Environment).
± You no longer have to use SQL*Plus and a crude editor! Choose from among the many listed in plsql_ides.txt.

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Achieving PL/SQL Excellence

Building with PL/SQL Packages 
 

Overview Initialization section Overloading

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What is a Package? 

A collection of code elements, from procedures and functions to TYPE, variable and cursor declarations.
± Single-most important structure within PL/SQL, and almost certainly one of the most under-utilized. ± Conceptually very simple, it can take some time to fully grasp the implications and potential of the package. 

The method of choice by Oracle and other software developers for extending the PL/SQL language.
± You will find packages in the database, in Oracle Developer/2000, in Oracle Application Server. 

Let¶s review some of the benefits of packages.
tmr.pkg dbparm.pkg

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When to Build a Package  Join physically logically-related code. package-based "component".pks te_employee.pkg insga. watch.page 6 . ± There's a big difference between a bunch of separate programs and a coherent. te_employee.pkb  Construct very flexible and usable utilities for developers. ± Puts more structure and organization in your body of code. you call the packaged procedures and functions instead. custrules. ± Instead of writing SQL directly in your programs.pkg  Improve transaction integrity by hiding data structures behind the package interface.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Can lead to performance improvements.

Package Initialization  The initialization section is a block of code at the end of the package body that is executed once per session. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . no Complete request for packaged element. the first time any package element is referenced. ± The PL/SQL runtime engine determines when and if this code should be run.page 7 . Program references package element the first time in each session. Does the package have an init section? yes Run initialization code.

page 8 . BEGIN END pkg. ± Can have its own exception handling section.Package Initialization Structure  The initialization section: ± Is defined after and outside of any programs in the package. FUNCTION func RETURN BEGIN END. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Setting up package data which does not change for the duration of a session. PACKAGE BODY pkg IS PROCEDURE proc IS BEGIN END. most packages you build won't have one.  Useful for: ± Performing complex setting of default or initial values. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein BEGIN after/outside of any program defined in the pkg. ± Is not required. ± Confirming that package is properly instantiated. In fact.

 Also a package with many design flaws. */ SELECT lov_flag. WHEN OTHERS THEN RAISE_APPLICATION_ERROR (-20000. Section  An unusual package! ± Specification contains only variables. END sessinit. show_toolbar CHAR(1). 'No profile for ' || USER).. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .tst this user. 'lpt1'. printer FROM user_config WHERE user_id = USER. PACKAGE BODY sessinit IS /* No declared package elements at all! */ BEGIN /* Get user preferences for this user. init. EXCEPTION WHEN NO_DATA_FOUND THEN /* No record for show_lov := show_toolbar := printer := PACKAGE sessinit IS show_lov CHAR(1)..Configure Session with Init. ± Body contains only initialization section. printer VARCHAR2(60). */ 'Y'. show_toolbar. defprinter INTO show_lov.pkg init. tb_flag. 'Y'. END sessinit.page 9 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .

employs several PL/SQL tables to convert strings and to perform date arithmetic. fmts(4) := 'MM/DD'. PLVdate. END dt. ± This increases the flexibility of the date conversion process.pkg file demonstrates the basic technique (and the reliance on an initialization section) used to achieve this flexibility.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Initialization section populates a PL/SQL table.page 10 . BEGIN fmts(1) := 'DD-MON-RR'. fmts(10) := 'MMDDYYYY'. fmts(3) := 'DD-MON'.pkg dates. ± The datemgr. fmts(2) := 'DD-MON-YYYY'. datemgr. fmts(11) := 'YYYYMMDD'.Populate Collections  The PL/Vision Date package.. fmt_count := 12. .. fmts(9) := 'MM/DD/YYYY'. fmts(12) := 'RRMMDD'.

page 11 . you give two or more programs the same name. ± You can overload modules in any declaration section and in packages. you need to make that code as smart and as easy to use as possible. ± If you want others to use your code. ± Overloading transfers the "need to know" from the user to the overloaded program. myproc myproc 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . myproc  Overloading is a critical feature when building comprehensive programmatic interfaces (APIs) or components using packages.Program Overloading  When you overload programs.

'MMDDYY'). you would have to deal with something like this: date_string := TO_CHAR_FROM_DATE (SYSDATE. number_string := TO_CHAR (10000). 'MMDDYY'). number_string := TO_CHAR_FROM_NUMBER (10000). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . and took functions like TO_CHAR and TO_DATE totally for granted.Overloading in PL/SQL Built-ins  PL/SQL uses overloading in many common functions. ± You just probably never gave it a thought.page 12 . ± But Oracle couldn't offer that level of convenience without overloading. date_string := TO_CHAR (SYSDATE. Without overloading.

 Distinguishing characteristics: ± The formal parameters of overloaded modules must differ in number. the compiler must be able to distinguish between the two calls at compile-time.page 13 . There are two different "compile times": ± 1. When you compile the package or block containing the overloaded code. OUT. VARCHAR2 is not different enough). ± Their formal parameters differ only in datatype and the datatypes are in the same family. ± 2.  Undistinguishing characteristics: ± Functions differ only in their RETURN datatype. ± The programs are of different types: procedure and function. ± Arguments differ only in their mode (IN. When you compile programs that use the overloaded code. order or datatype family (CHAR vs. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . IN OUT).How Overloading Works  For two or more modules to be overloaded.

which one? DBMS_OUTPUT.Examples of Invalid Overloadings PACKAGE too_similar IS PROCEDURE calc (reg_in IN CHAR).PUT_LINE (only_returns.calc ('123'). Parameter data types cause conflict. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . which one? too_similar. FUNCTION func1 (val IN VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2. END too_many_cals.proc1 (v_value). PROCEDURE proc1 (val IN OUT VARCHAR2). PROCEDURE calc (reg_in IN VARCHAR2). which one? param_modes. PACKAGE only_returns IS FUNCTION func1 (val IN VARCHAR2) RETURN DATE. Only difference is parameter mode. PACKAGE param_modes IS PROCEDURE proc1 (val IN VARCHAR2).func1 (v_value)). END param_modes. Only difference is function RETURN type.page 14 . END only_returns.

not Value ± A less common application of overloading. In this case.  Overloading by Type.  Fitting the Program to the User ± To make your code as useful as possible.l substitute does an even better job.Overload Wherever Possible  Supporting Many Data Combinations ± Apply the same action to different kinds or combinations of data.PUT_LINE procedure illustrates this technique -and the PL/Vision p. the overloading does not provide a single name for different activities. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . you may construct different versions of the ³same´ program which correspond to different patterns of use.page 15 . ± The DBMS_OUTPUT. so much as providing different ways of requesting the same activity. You use the type of data and not its value to determine which of the overloaded programs should be executed.

mask_in IN VARCHAR2 := 'Month DD. boolean_in IN BOOLEAN). END p.A "Classic" Overloaded Package  Many different datatype combinations. PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2.sps p. YYYY . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2.HH:MI:SS PM'). number_in IN NUMBER). PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2).page 16 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . p. PACKAGE p IS PROCEDURE l (date_in IN DATE. allowing the user to pass data to the "display engine" without writing "pre-processing" code. mask_in IN VARCHAR2 := µMonth DD. PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2. date_in IN DATE. YYYY . PROCEDURE l (number_in IN NUMBER).spb PROCEDURE l (boolean_in IN BOOLEAN).HH:MI:SS PM').

. p.PUT_LINE (TO_CHAR (SYSDATE. 'MM/DD/YY HH:MI:SS')).Advantage of Extended Overloading ‡ Minimal overloading means lots of extra coding. SQLCODE).l (SQLERRM. DBMS_OUTPUT. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein ‡Extended overloadings are more likely to meet user needs. DBMS_OUTPUT.l (print_report_fl). END IF. ELSE DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE (SQLERRM || ': ' || TO_CHAR (SQLCODE)). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .PUT_LINE ('FALSE').PUT_LINE ('So what is different?').PUT_LINE ('TRUE'). p.page 17 . DBMS_OUTPUT.. IF print_report_fl THEN DBMS_OUTPUT.l (SYSDATE). p. p.l ('So what is different?').

such as "display data" or "create a file".Fitting the Program to the User Writing "unnecessary" code? Time to overload!  A single piece of functionality.and taken completely for granted. ± If you want to write software that is admired. think about the way it will be used.. few developers are considerate enough of their users to try to anticipate their needs. ± Your code is a a more natural "fit" under a variety of requirements. In my experience. the user of your package can benefit from writing less code. can be applied or needed under very different circumstances.page 18   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . If you take these different circumstances into account when you design your package specification. appreciated.. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

FOPEN ('tmp/flags'.flg'.PUT_LINE (fid. even though you are simply going to close the file immediately after opening it. ± She doesn't care what's in it. 'exists. right? WRONG! PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .FCLOSE (fid). ± Here is the code required by UTL_FILE: DECLARE fid UTL_FILE. It just needs to be present. so this is just the way it has to be. END. 'blah'). you have to declare the record to hold the file handle.Creating a File for a Quick Touch  Suppose a developer needs to create a file to be used as a "flag" in the operating system. Of course. UTL_FILE. sometimes you will want to create a file and then perform additional operations.  In other words. UTL_FILE. 'W').page 19  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE.FILE_TYPE.

Procedure and Function Overloaded  Why not overload a "create file" program so that you can pick the one that most closely fits your situation? Consider the PLVfile package of PL/Vision.flg'). /* Function */ FUNCTION fcreate (file_in IN VARCHAR2. END.fcreate ('temp.FILE_TYPE. Use as Procedure BEGIN PLVfile. custrules.pkg PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . PLVfile. TO_CHAR (SYSDATE)).ini'. END PLVfile. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Use as Function DECLARE fid UTL_FILE. line_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL).  Overloading of FCreate PACKAGE PLVfile IS /* Procedure */ PROCEDURE fcreate (file_in IN VARCHAR2.FILE_TYPE.put_line (fid. BEGIN fid := PLVfile.fcreate ('exists. line_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) RETURN UTL_FILE.page 20 . v_user).

the user does not need to pass data. ± Pass a piece of data of the right type.  There are three ways to accomplish this: ± Don't overload. Define a different program name for each datatype. when you use DBMS_SQL to set up a dynamic query. you must call the DEFINE_COLUMN procedure to define the datatype of the Nth column in the cursor. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± For example. but the type of data.page 21 . ± Pass a string ³name´ of the datatype."By-Type" Overloading  In some situations.

DBMS_SQL. 1..page 22 . DBMS_SQL..DEFINE_COLUMN ± PLVgen.. 2. 30).. Pass a named constant. DBMS_SQL. BEGIN DBMS_SQL..DEFINE_VARCHAR2_COLUMN (cur.. lotsa names. DBMS_SQL.. ± DBMS_SQL.func 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Nasty hard-coding.. 2. 1. Lotsa typing.. BEGIN DBMS_SQL..  So many program names to remember! Pass a literal value. 30).. 2..  Now let's look at two examples of overloading by datatype. 'STRING'. 1).NUMBER_TYPE).DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. 'NUMBER').VARCHAR2_TYPE. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.Options for Specifying Column Type  Don't even bother overloading. 30).DEFINE_INTEGER_COLUMN (cur.

DBMS_SQL. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.of the correct type.page 23 . ± The three code blocks below are equivalent. 1.DEFINE_COLUMN. v_empno). 30).DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. 2. USER. DBMS_SQL. 1. ± To make it easier to accomplish this task.GET_TIME).Defining Dynamic SQL Columns  The DBMS_SQL. you only need to pass a value -.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. 'a'. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. 1).DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. 2. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN procedure defines the datatype of a column. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. DBMS_SQL. 2.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. v_ename. 30). from the perspective of DBMS_SQL.any value -. 1. DBMS_UTILITY. 30).

Generating Functions by Value  In PLVgen. please! 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . SYSDATE) SQL> exec plvgen.func ('total_salary'. ± The particular value itself is of no importance. PACKAGE PLVgen IS PROCEDURE func (name_in IN VARCHAR2.func ('last_date'. type_in IN NUMBER). Any number. PROCEDURE func (name_in IN VARCHAR2. SQL> exec plvgen. please! A number function. any string. type_in IN VARCHAR2). any date. type_in IN DATE). PROCEDURE func (name_in IN VARCHAR2. the user indicates the type of function to be generated by providing a value. 1) A date function.page 24 . any Boolean will do.

PROCEDURE calc (comp_id_IN IN company.  In the above example.comp_id%TYPE). but you might later found out that you cannot actually call any of the overloaded programs. ± When I compile profits. I rely on an anchored type (%TYPE) to establish the datatype of the second calc¶s parameter. PL/SQL does not sense a conflict with above overloading even though comp_id is a numeric column. END.page 25 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .The Frustrations of Overloading  Watch out! An overloading can compile successfully. PACKAGE profits IS PROCEDURE calc (comp_id_IN IN NUMBER). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Quiz! Nuances of Overloading PACKAGE sales IS PROCEDURE calc_total (zone_in IN VARCHAR2). like calc_totals shown above? ± If not. how would you do it? (Don't peek at the next page!) BEGIN sales. sales. why not? ± If so.pkg ? 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Can I overload two programs which have parameters that differ only by name. END. END sales.calc_total ('ZONE2'). PROCEDURE calc_total (reg_in IN VARCHAR2). sales.calc_total ('NORTHWEST').page 26 .

± You can skip over (not specify values for) any IN parameters that have default values.estimate_percent=>50).''TENK''' || '.null. interval => 'TRUNC(SYSDATE+1)'). of named notation include: ± Code is more "self-documenting".submit ( job => v_jobno. namednot.sql  Advantages 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . That way you don't have to know and pass default values. DBMS_JOB. This is especially useful when working with infrequently used built-in programs.ANALYZE_OBJECT ' || '(''TABLE''.'. next_date => TRUNC (SYSDATE + 1).Using Named Notation <formal parameter name> => <expression>  Explicit association between the formal parameter (the "name") with the actual parameter (the "value").''ESTIMATE''. what => 'DBMS_DDL.''LOAD1''.page 27 .

originally called PL/SQL tables) ± Nested tables (Oracle8 and above) ± Variable arrays (VARRAYs. Oracle8 and above) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Three types of collections: ± Index-by tables (Oracle7 only.Achieving PL/SQL Excellence PL/SQL Collections   Collections are single-dimensioned lists of information.page 28 .

Avoid mutating table errors in database triggers. Build hash tables (custom indexing structures). which are otherwise not supported in PL/SQL Cache data in session-level memory for faster access. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 29     1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .When to Use Collections  Maintain any kind of list of related information for use in your programs.  Emulate bi-directional cursors. Improve query performance by avoiding joins.

± Available only in PL/SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Sparse » Data does not have to be stored in consecutive rows of information.147. emp_copy inmem_emp_t.  Characteristics of an index-by table: ± Unbounded » Practically speaking. ± Homogeneous » Data in each row has the same structure.647 » You will not actually create tables this large. this broad range allows you to employ the row number as an intelligent key. Valid row numbers range: -2. Instead.483.Index-By Tables TYPE <table_type> IS TABLE OF <datatype> INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER.647 to 2. DECLARE TYPE inmem_emp_t IS TABLE OF emp%ROWTYPE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER.147.page 30 .483.

Variable declaration children child_list_type. Error: NO_DATA_FOUND 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . children (6904) := 'Lisa Nadezhka'.page 31 .pkg children 6306 6412 6904 µBarbara Anne¶ µGary Richard¶ µLisa Marie¶ children (6810) := µAdam Russell. Component Selection kid := children (4).Index_by Tables TYPE declaration PACKAGE BODY family IS TYPE child_list_type IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2 (30) INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. children 6306 6412 6810 6904 µBarbara Anne¶ µGary Richard¶ µAdam Russell¶ µLisa Nadezhka¶ datemgr.

DECLARE TYPE when_t IS TABLE OF DATE.Nested Tables [CREATE OR REPLACE] TYPE <table_type> IS TABLE OF <datatype> [NOT NULL]. Valid row numbers range: 1 to 2.  Nested table characteristics ± Homogeneous » Each row contains the same structure of data.647 ± Initially dense. birthdays when_t. but can become sparse if you DELETE inner rows ± Available both in PL/SQL and SQL (as a column in a table) ± The order of elements is not preserved in the database 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 32 . but only with explicit EXTEND requests » Practically speaking.147. ± Unbounded.483.

sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Nested Tables CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE child_table_type IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2 (30). kids child_table_type) NESTED TABLE kids STORE AS kids_ntab. CREATE TABLE db_family (surname VARCHAR2 (30). For ORACLE's use only db_family surname kids BOLZ BOND Eric Thomas Max Richard Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Marie ntdemo.page 33 .

 Characteristics of variable arrays: ± Homogeneous » Each row contains the same structure of data.Variable Arrays [CREATE OR REPLACE] TYPE <table_type> IS VARRAY (N) OF <datatype> [NOT NULL].147.647 ± Dense » Never any gaps between defined rows. Maximum value: 2. ± Available both in PL/SQL and SQL (as a column in a table) » And the order of elements are preserved in the database. DECLARE TYPE numbers_t IS VARRAY (10) OF NUMBER. salaries numbers_t.page 34 .483. ± Variable arrays are actually stored in the DB table 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . can be EXTENDed or TRIMmed. ± Bounded » Upper limit established when the TYPE is defined.

sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Variable Arrays CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE child_va_type IS VARRAY (8) OF VARCHAR2 (30). CREATE TABLE db_family (surname VARCHAR2 (30). kids child_va_type). db_family surname kids BOLZ BOND 1 Barbara Anne 2 Gary Richard 3 Lisa Marie 1 Eric Thomas 2 Max Richard vademo.page 35 .

± For nested tables and VARRAYs. .. Best option: package specification. or in a PL/SQL declaration section. you define the TYPE of the collection. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE tabtypes IS TYPE integer_ibt IS TABLE OF INTEGER INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER..page 36 .Defining Collections  First. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . from the TYPE. you can define the TYPE in the database with a CREATE statement. TYPE integer_nt IS TABLE OF INTEGER. a collection. TYPE integer_vat IS VARRAY(10) OF INTEGER. this can only occur in a PL/SQL declaration section. ± You can declare multiple collections from that TYPE. END tabtypes.  Then you declare an instance of that type. ± For index-by tables.

'TMRS_VT') T.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .type_name IN ('NAMES_VT'. ± The code used to define the collection TYPE  There is no information in the data dictionary available for index-by tables. all_type_attrs A T.page 37 .Obtaining Collection Information SELECT FROM WHERE AND AND AND A.owner = USER T.attr_type_name Attributes all_coll_types T. colldd.' || A.elem_type_name = A.owner = A.type_name.  ALL_COLL_TYPES ± The types you have created (or have access to) in the database  ALL_TYPE_ATTRS ± Attributes of the data type used in the TYPE definition.attr_name || ' .owner T.

You must initialize them explicitly with a constructor. ± Nested tables and VARRAYs are atomically null. ± Index-by tables are initialized automatically. it must be initialized. 200. / DECLARE -. salaries numbers_t := numbers_t (100. salary_history numbers_t). 200.Initializing Collections  Before you can use a collection.Initialize the collection. BEGIN CREATE TABLE employee_denorm ( employee_id INTEGER. BEGIN CREATE TYPE numbers_t IS VARRAY (10) OF NUMBER. empty when declared. salaries numbers_t := numbers_t (100. 300).page 38 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . DECLARE TYPE numbers_t IS VARRAY (10) OF NUMBER. 300). TYPE defined in PL/SQL TYPE defined in the database Collection used in a table PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Again. comp_tab comp_tabtype. the datatype for any of the collection types can also be an object. total_rev NUMBER). ± Can easily create an index-by table with the same structure as a database table by declaring a record with %ROWTYPE.3. the ³homogeneous´ contents of an index-by table's row can be a record . consider putting TYPEs in database or packages. TYPE comp_tabtype IS TABLE OF comp_rectype INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. BEGIN comp_tab(1). Here we have a three step process.company_id%TYPE. ± But you cannot have nested composite datatypes.comp_id := 1005. DECLARE TYPE comp_rectype IS RECORD (comp_id company.page 39 .Collections of Composites  Starting with Oracle 7. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Starting with Oracle8.

± In almost every case. etc. it is very similar to a database table. In this way. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . order by date. unless the order in which items are selected is of importance.  Especially handy when caching data from relational tables in user memory.  Rows do not have to be defined sequentially. ± In an index-by table. a row exists in the table only when a value is assigned to that row. ± Instead. your collections will contain a row's worth of information.page 40 . ± You should not fill sequentially.).Sparse is Nice  The sparse characteristic of index-by tables and nested tables can be put to good use. consider using the row value as "smart data" for your application (primary key.

END.pkg psemp. END.tst  PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY psemp IS BEGIN FOR rec IN (SELECT * FROM emp) LOOP emp_tab (rec.Transferring DB Table to Collection CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE psemp IS TYPE emp_tabtype IS TABLE OF emp%ROWTYPE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER.empno) := rec. Initialization section of package 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein  This package moves the entire contents of the emp table into its corresponding collection.page 41 . emp_tab emp_tabtype. END LOOP. Some questions: ± Why would I put this collection table in a package? ± When is the collection loaded with the data? ± What rows in that collection are utilized? psemp.

 For index-by tables. the row exists. BEGIN greedy_ceos(1) := 'Hamilton. ± Not necessary for index-by tables. once extended. but you must do it for VARRAYs and nested tables. ± For VARRAYs and nested tables. you must reference existing rows or a NO_DATA_FOUND exception is raised. ± Use the EXISTS method to determine if a row existed.Collection Gotchas CREATE TYPE names_t IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2(30).page 42 . / DECLARE greedy_ceos names_t := names_t (). END. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Jordan'. even if you haven't assigned a value explicitly. / Error -6533! You've got to EXTEND first!  EXTEND before assigning a value to a row.

Set the value of each new row to the contents of the first row. salaries. salaries(salaries.Extend by 10 since I know I will need that many. -. ± Assign a default value with a second.EXISTS (v_employee_id) THEN -. ELSE DBMS_OUTPUT. ± Pre-extending a large number of rows in advance can improve performance. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 43 . BEGIN IF salaries.FIRST)).').We are OK. END IF. optional argument.Handling Collection Gotchas BEGIN -.tst  Include a handler for NO_DATA_FOUND or use the EXISTS method to avoid these exceptions.  You can EXTEND one or more rows.EXTEND (10.PUT_LINE ('Data for employee not available. preextend.

Collection Methods  Obtain information about the collection COUNT returns number of rows currently defined in the table.  The built-in package plitblm (PL/sql Index-TaBLe Methods) defines these methods.page 44 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . number of elements allowed in a VARRAY. ± EXTEND adds rows to a nested table or VARRAY. EXISTS returns TRUE if the specified row is defined. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± TRIM removes rows from a VARRAY. NEXT/PRIOR return the closest defined row after/before the specified row. ± ± ± ±  Modify the contents of the collection ± DELETE deletes one or more rows from the index-by table. ± LIMIT tells you the max. FIRST/LAST return lowest/highest numbers of defined rows.

END.page 45 . -.The DELETE Method  You can delete one or more rows from a collection using DELETE: BEGIN -. DELETE releases memory. but you may also want to call DBMS_SESSION. 17255). -.Delete one (the last) row myCollection.DELETE.Delete all rows myCollection.LAST).DELETE (1400.Delete a range of rows myCollection.DELETE (myCollection.FREE_UNUSED_USER_MEMORY. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Navigating Through Collections 


Use FIRST and NEXT to move from beginning to end. Use LAST and PRIOR to move from end to beginning.
rowind PLS_INTEGER := birthdays.FIRST; -- birthdays.LAST BEGIN LOOP EXIT WHEN rowind IS NULL; DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE (birthdays(rowind).best_present); rowind := birthdays.NEXT (rowind); -- birthdays.PRIOR END LOOP; END;

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Using Collections Inside SQL 

Nested tables and VARRAYs can be defined as columns of a table and referenced directly within SQL. You can also apply SQL operations to the contents of nested tables and VARRAYs with these operators:
± THE - Maps a single column value in a single row to a virtual database table ± CAST - Maps a collection of one type to a collection of another type ± MULTISET - Maps a database table to a collection ± TABLE - Maps a collection to a database table  

Index-by tables are programmatic constructs only.
± You cannot make a direct reference to an index-by table in SQL. ± Instead, so do indirectly with a PL/SQL function.

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Using Collections inside SQL
SELECT column_value FROM TABLE (SELECT children FROM db_family WHERE surname = 'BOLZ'); db_family surname children BOLZ BOND Eric Thomas Max Richard UPDATE TABLE (SELECT children FROM db_family WHERE SURNAME = 'BOLZ) SET column_value = 'Lisa Nadezhka' WHERE column_value = 'Lisa Marie'); db_family surname children BOLZ ...
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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 48

Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Marie

column_value Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Marie

Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Nadezhka

Using the THE Operator 

Use THE to manipulate (retrieve, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE) contents of a nested table in a database table.
± Can only use with nested tables, not VARRAYs or index-by tables. ± Only accessible from within SQL statements in PL/SQL.
CREATE TYPE action_list_t IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2(100); / CREATE TABLE inflation_beater ( focus_area VARCHAR2(100), activities action_list_t) NESTED TABLE activities STORE AS activities_tab; SELECT VALUE (act) FROM THE (SELECT activities FROM inflation_beater WHERE focus_area = 'FORTUNE 100') act; UPDATE THE (SELECT activities FROM inflation_beater WHERE focus_area = 'FORTUNE 100') SET COLUMN_VALUE = 'DISBAND OSHA' WHERE COLUMN_VALUE = 'SIDESTEP OSHA';

the.sql

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Using the TABLE and CAST Operators 

Use CAST to convert a collection from one type to another, TABLE to convert a TYPE into a database table.
± Cannot use with index-by tables. ± Useful when you would like to apply SQL operations against a PL/SQL collection (ie, one not stored in a database table).
DECLARE nyc_devolution cutbacks_for_taxcuts := cutbacks_for_taxcuts ('Stop rat extermination programs', 'Fire building inspectors', 'Close public hospitals'); BEGIN DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE ( 'How to Make the NYC Rich Much, Much Richer:'); FOR rec IN (SELECT COLUMN_VALUE ohmy FROM TABLE (CAST (nyc_devolution AS cutbacks_for_taxcuts))) LOOP DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE (rec.ohmy); END LOOP; cast.sql END;

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view. b.Using the MULTISET Operator  MULTISET is the inverse of TABLE. with potential client-server performance impact.genus AND bh. OPEN bird_curs. END.species.species) AS country_tab_t) FROM birds b. FETCH bird_curs into bird_row. Retrieves all detail bird_row bird_curs%ROWTYPE. converting a set of data (table. ± You can use MULTISET to emulate or transform relational joins into collections.species = b. multiset.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Cannot use with index-by tables.genus.page 51 .country FROM bird_habitats bh WHERE bh.genus = b. information for the BEGIN master in one trip. CAST(MULTISET(SELECT bh. query) into a VARRAY or nested table. DECLARE CURSOR bird_curs IS SELECT b.

hiredates date_tab. but hide the index-by table structure. PRAGMA RESTRICT_REFERENCES (rowval. END. END. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY ibtab IS TYPE date_tab IS TABLE OF DATE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. call functions that retrieve the table's data.  CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE ibtab IS FUNCTION rowval (indx IN PLS_INTEGER) RETURN DATE.Referencing IB Tables inside SQL  You can't directly reference an index-by table's contents inside SQL.page 52 . WNDS). Make accessible in SQL for Oracle8 and below. Instead. FUNCTION rowval (indx IN PLS_INTEGER) RETURN DATE IS BEGIN RETURN hiredates (indx). WNPS. END.sql PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein ibtab_in_sql.

 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Examples of Collections in Action  Emulation of bi-directional cursor operations Avoid mutating table problems in database triggers.page 53 .

± A talked-about feature for Oracle9i -. deposit your data in a collection and then provide programs to access that data in the necessary fashion. This is particularly useful (read: efficient) when you need to perform multiple passes against the data.page 54 .  bidir. END. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE bidir IS /* Iterate through rows in the result set */ PROCEDURE setRow (nth IN PLS_INTEGER).pkg bidir. FUNCTION getRow RETURN employee_plus%ROWTYPE. didn't make it!  Instead. Notice that the collection itself is hidden.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Bi-Directional Cursor Emulation  Oracle does not yet support the ability to move back and forth (and at random) through a cursor's result set.nope. PROCEDURE prevRow. PROCEDURE nextRow.

So what are you supposed to do when a row-level operation needs to "touch" that table? mutating. Statement Level UPDATE emp SET sal = 1000 UPDATE row 1 Row Level  UPDATE row N Row level triggers cannot query from or change the contents of the table to which it is attached.The Mutating Table Problem  Database triggers can be attached to the SQL statement and/or the individual row operations on a table. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 55 . you can use autonomous transactions to relax restrictions associated with queries. it is "mutating".sql  Note: in Oracle8i.

1st row trigger fires Nth row trigger fires Writes to list Writes to list Work List (PL/SQL Table)  Process data in the list. Statement Trigger 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . you have to remember what you needed to do.A Solution Based on Index-by Tables  Since you cannot perform the processing desired in the row-level trigger.page 56 . you need to defer the action until you get to the statement level. ± an index-by table is an ideal repository for this reminder list. If you are going to defer the work.

88 144533.91 109000.25 65011. we then know which departments to re-rank. but preferable. ± We might update more than one department within a statement so we must be able to retain multiple department numbers. Department ID Salesperson ID Sales Amount Rank 1055 1055 1055 1047  64333 65709 65706 70904 74055. ± By storing the salesperson¶s department ids as they change. ± As the sales amount is updated in this table. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . the rankings must also change to show the new standings for that department only.25 3 1 2 6 "Deferred work" is not only necessary.page 57 .An Example: Ranking Salespeople  A table holds the rankings based on the amount of annual sales of salespeople within a department.

rank_depts. Doesn't fire unless the sales_amt is actually changed.add_dept (:new.sales_amt != NEW. Statement Level Trigger CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER Rank_Sales_Strg AFTER INSERT OR UPDATE OR DELETE ON rank_sales BEGIN rank.page 58 .dept_id).pkg All details of the ranking are hidden in the package body. END.sales_amt) BEGIN rank. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END. ranking.Trigger Logic Required Row Level Trigger CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER Rank_Sales_Rtrg AFTER insert OR update OF sales_amt ON rank_sales FOR EACH ROW WHEN (OLD.

The Ranking Package PACKAGE rank IS PROCEDURE add_dept (dept_id_in IN INTEGER). Table holds indicator that department needs re-ranking. PROCEDURE add_dept (dept_id_in IN INTEGER) IS BEGIN IF NOT in_process THEN dept_tab (dept_id_in) := TRUE. END add_dept 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Create row to indicate department to be ranked. dept_tab dept_tabtype.page 59 . TYPE dept_tabtype IS TABLE OF BOOLEAN INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. END rank. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . PROCEDURE rank_depts. PACKAGE BODY rank IS in_process BOOLEAN := FALSE. END IF.

END LOOP. in_process := FALSE.page 60 .DELETE. BEGIN IF NOT in_process THEN in_process := TRUE.The Ranking Package. LOOP EXIT WHEN v_deptid IS NULL.FIRST. END IF. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Avoid recursive execution of logic Row number is department number. perform_ranking (v_deptid). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . v_deptid := dept_tab. END rank_dept. dept_tab.NEXT (v_deptid). END rank. Clean up for next time. Continued PROCEDURE rank_depts IS v_deptid PLS_INTEGER := dept_tab.

Set of data is relatively small (avoid row chaining). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  VARRAYs ± ± ± ± You want to preserve the order in which elements are stored. You want to use inside SQL.Which Collection Type Should I Use?  Index-by tables ± Need to use in both Oracle7 and Oracle8 applications ± Want to take advantage of sparse nature for "intelligent keys".  Nested tables ± You want to store large amounts of persistent data in a column. You don't want to have to worry about sparseness.page 61 . ± You want to use inside SQL.

Tips for Using Collections 

Wrap access to your collections.
± In many cases, you will want to avoid direct access to (assigning and retrieving) rows in your collections. ± This will give you the flexibility to change your implementation. ± You can also hide complex rules for setting the row number. 

Get creative!
± Don't always fill and use the index-by table sequentially. ± If you can somehow translate your application data to an integer, it can be used as a row number, and therefore offers indexed access. ± Julian date formats and DBMS_UTILITY.GET_HASH_VALUE offer two different methods.

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Achieving PL/SQL Excellence

Cursor Variables

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Architecture of Cursor Variables
With Hard-Coded Cursors
Hard-Coded Cursor

With Cursor Variables

PGA

Cursor Variable

Cursor Variable

Result Set

Shared Global Area

Cursor Object

Result Set 

A cursor variable points to an underlying cursor object in the database.
± The cursor object in turns points to (and keeps its place in) a result set. 

The cursor variable can be passed between programs (even between, say, a Java servlet and a PL/SQL stored procedure).
± Static SQL only -- until Oracle8i.
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1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

Benefits of Cursor Variables 

Share cursor management between programs, even across the client-server divide.
± You don't have to pass the result sets of a cursor in order to allow the client-side program to have direct access to the data in the result set. ± Oracle Developer 2.1 utilizes cursor variables when you choose to construct a "base table block" around stored procedures instead of a database table. 

Share the same code across multiple, different queries.
± Since the cursor name is no longer hard-coded, you can use a single block of code (say, a reporting program) against different queries. ± We will try out this technique at the end of the section.

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Cursor Variable Example
DECLARE TYPE company_curtype IS REF CURSOR RETURN company%ROWTYPE;
Declare a variable cursor TYPE.

company_curvar company_curtype;

Declare cursor variable based on that type. Declare a record from cursor variable. OPEN cursor variable, specifying the query. FETCH from the cursor variable.

company_rec company_curvar%ROWTYPE; BEGIN OPEN company_curvar FOR SELECT * FROM company;

FETCH company_curvar INTO company_rec;
Close the cursor variable.

CLOSE company_curvar; END;
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Explicit Cursors and Cursor Variables 

Both hard-coded cursors and cursor variables work with static SQL.
± The SQL is fixed at compile-time. ± The difference is that with cursor variables, you get to decide which static query is opened. 

Many cursor operations are the same:
± Close a variable cursor with the same syntax as that for static cursors. ± Use cursor attributes (%ISOPEN, %FOUND, %NOTFOUND, %ROWCOUNT) with cursor variables (as of Release 2.3). ± Fetch data from the cursor result set through a cursor variable with the same syntax as that of static cursors. 

Let¶s focus on the new and different capabilities of cursor variables.
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Declaring Cursor Types and Variables 

Cursors are declared in two steps, just like programmerdefined records and PL/SQL tables.
± 1. Define a cursor TYPE -- either "weak" or "strong". ± 2. Define a cursor variable.
DECLARE TYPE weak_curtype IS REF CURSOR; TYPE comp_curtype IS REF CURSOR RETURN company%ROWTYPE; curcmp_new comp_curtype; cur_any weak_curtype; BEGIN
Declare cursor variables from the TYPEs. Declare a STRONG referenced cursor TYPE. Declare a WEAK referenced cursor TYPE.

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Strong vs. Weak Cursor Types 

A strong (or constrained) cursor type has a defined return data specification.
± Can only reference cursor objects which return the same data specification, which can be any single SQL datatype or any previously defined record structure. ± Datatype mismatches are identified at compile time.

TYPE cur_typ_name IS REF CURSOR [ RETURN return_type ]; TYPE cur_typ_name IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE; /* Strong */ 

The weak (or unconstrained) cursor type does not have a RETURN clause.
± It can reference any cursor object, be opened FOR any query. ± Datatype mismatches can only be identified at runtime.

TYPE cur_typ_name IS REF CURSOR; /* Weak */
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Opening with the Cursor Variable
OPEN cursor_name FOR select_statement; 

When you open a cursor variable (whether of the weak or strong variety), you must provide the SQL query that identifies the result set.
± If the variable has not yet been assigned to cursor object, the OPEN FOR statement implicitly creates an object for the variable. ± If the variable is already pointing to a cursor object, the OPEN FOR reuses the existing object and attaches the new query to that cursor object. 

Remember, the cursor object is nothing more than a memory location.
± It is maintained independently of the query itself.
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. a cursor or a programmer-defined record.page 71 . Match Needed BEGIN OPEN emp_curvar FOR SELECT * from emp.. ± You can establish the return type based on a database table. emp_curvar emp_curtype.Opening with Strong Cursor Types DECLARE TYPE emp_curtype IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE. .  STRONG cursor data specifications must match or be compatible with the structure of the SELECT statement. END. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

OPEN retval FOR SELECT * FROM emp. END.Opening with Weak Cursor Types PACKAGE pkg IS TYPE cv_type IS REF CURSOR. Verification will take ELSIF get_type_in = µDEPT¶ place at the FETCH. you can associate any SELECT statement with a weak cursor variable. THEN OPEN retval FOR SELECT * FROM dept. REF TYPE placed in package so that it is "globally" available.cv_type.  A weak cursor TYPE doesn't define the RETURN structure.page 72 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . END IF. FUNCTION open_emp_or_dept (get_type_in IN VARCHAR2) RETURN pkg.cv_type IS retval pkg. END. BEGIN IF get_type_in = µEMP¶ THEN Either query will "do". PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . RETURN retval.

FETCH cursor_var_name INTO var_name. . ± Fetching can continue with a different INTO clause. it match the OPEN FOR statement structure.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . var_name. The INTO structure must match in number and datatype to: ± FOR STRONG cursor types. ± FOR WEAK cursor types. it match the cursor type data specification.... ± The ROWTYPE_MISMATCH exception is raised on failure.Fetching from the Cursor Variable FETCH cursor_var_name INTO record_name.   Compatibility checks are performed prior to fetching row.page 73 . mismatch.  Fetching with cursor variables follows the same rules as those with static cursors.

page 74 . but static cursors are more efficient than dynamic SQL and cursor variables are less complicated than DBMS_SQL. ± You could use dynamic SQL to achieve this effect. ± JDBC recognizes cursor variables. ± With explicit cursors. you have to repeat the code for each cursor. since cursor names are "hard coded".  hccursor.When to Use Cursor Variables  Make it easier for calling programs (especially non-PL/SQL programs) to manipulate result sets.  Define a base table block in Forms Builder (formerly Oracle Forms) on stored procedures rather than a table directly.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Use a single block of code to manipulate multiple queries.

page 75 . END. bysal CONSTANT INTEGER := 2. ± It also creates the data structures you will need to call the function.tst explcv. TYPE cv_t IS REF CURSOR RETURN int_rt.Consolidating Different Cursors  The following package specification hides the SQL behind a single open function. / allcurrs.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . TYPE int_rt IS RECORD (key INTEGER).pkg allcurs. FUNCTION open (type_in IN INTEGER) RETURN cv_t. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE allcurs IS bydept CONSTANT INTEGER := 1.

BEGIN IF type_in = bydept THEN OPEN retval FOR SELECT empno FROM emp ORDER BY deptno. ELSIF type_in = bysal THEN OPEN retval FOR SELECT empno FROM emp ORDER BY SAL.Consolidating Different Cursors  The open function simply opens FOR a different SELECT based on the criteria passed to it. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END.page 76 . CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY allcurs IS FUNCTION open (type_in IN INTEGER) RETURN cv_t IS retval cv_t. END. RETURN retval. END IF.

in this case. END. EXIT WHEN cv%NOTFOUND. DECLARE cv allcurs.Hiding SQL Variations in Resulting Code  The following block demonstrates that you can alter which SQL statement to query -. BEGIN cv := allcurs. p.page 77 "Report processor" is independent of the particular SELECT . LOOP FETCH cv INTO v_empno.open (&1). CLOSE cv. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .cv_t. v_empno emp. END LOOP.l (v_empno).empno%TYPE. change the ORDER BY clause -without having to change the code you write.

unconstrained type.  Improve Client-Side Access to Data ± At least in Oracle Developer 2.Cursor Variables Let's summarize  Flexibility ± Choose which static SQL statement is executed at run-time.  Hide Variations in Underlying SQL ± You no longer have to repeat the same code for different cursors.1. or a more general.  Strong and Weak Types ± Create REF CURSORs for specific queries. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 78 . you can build screens that access data using a cursor variable-based procedural API.

page 79 .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Dynamic SQL  Dynamic SQL and dynamic PL/SQL: ± The DBMS_SQL package ± Native dynamic SQL in Oracle8i 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

± Available in PL/SQL since Release 2. you no longer have to write SQL to generate SQL to get your job done. What can you do with Dynamic SQL?  Build ad-hoc query and update applications. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± One example: implement indirect referencing in PL/SQL.Dynamic SQL and PL/SQL Execution  "Dynamic SQL" mean that you construct the SQL statement or PL/SQL block at runtime and then execute it.  Execute DDL inside PL/SQL programs.page 80 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . ± Also supported with "native dynamic SQL" in Oracle8i. ± Very common requirement on the Web.  Execute dynamically-constructed PL/SQL programs. ± Construct powerful DBA utilities.1 and DBMS_SQL.

± Different methods require the use of different programs in DBMS_SQL. Method 4: queries with a variable number of items in the SELECT list and/or non-queries with a variable number of host variables. execute one or more times. If you can recognize the types.    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± NDS does not support method 4. These methods are in increasing order of complexity. Method 3: queries with a fixed number of items in the SELECT list and a fixed number of host variables. Method 2: non-queries with a fixed number of host variables. executed a single time. you can more quickly figure out how to code your solution.Four Methods of Dynamic SQL   Method 1: non-queries without host variables.page 81 .

you would use the DBMS_SQL built-in package to execute dynamic SQL. and relatively slow (performance did improve significantly as of Oracle8). difficult to use. ± But this package is very complex. DML and single row fetches. used for multi-row queries.Native Dynamic SQL  Prior to Oracle8i. used for DDL. ± OPEN FOR <sql string>.  The new "native dynamic SQL" or NDS of Oracle8i offers two native statements in the PL/SQL language to implement most of your dynamic SQL requirements: ± EXECUTE IMMEDIATE <sql string>.page 82 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

EXECUTE IMMEDIATE EXECUTE IMMEDIATE sql-string [INTO {define_variable[.. The USING clause allows you to specify bind arguments or variables to be passed into the SQL string before execution. define_variables]. {IN | OUT | IN OUT] bind argument]. The INTO clause allows you to pass values from the select list of a single row query into local variables.]. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..  Use this statement to execute any dynamic SQL statement (including a PL/SQL block) except for multi-row queries. collections and records. | record }] [USING {IN | OUT | IN OUT] bind argument [.page 83   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . including objects...

' || tab || ' WHERE ' || NVL (whr.. 'insured = ''NO''') > 40. sch IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) RETURN INTEGER IS Specify schema.sf compare with: tabcount.. RETURN retval. '1=1') INTO retval. WHERE clause.sf PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .PUT_LINE ( 'Not the best health care system in the world. table and retval INTEGER.000. USER) || '.page 84 . and not much of a democracy either!').COUNT(*) For Any Table  Here's a handy and simple utility based on NDS: CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION tabCount ( tab IN VARCHAR2.000 THEN DBMS_OUTPUT.. BEGIN EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'SELECT COUNT(*) FROM ' || NVL (sch. END. whr IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein tabcount81.. IF tabCount ('citizens'. END IF.

PROCEDURE runprog (pkg_in IN VARCHAR2.Other Execute Immediate Examples  Perform an update. val_in IN NUMBER) IS BEGIN EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'UPDATE ' || tab_in || ' SET ' || col_in || ' = :val WHERE hiredate BETWEEN :lodate AND :hidate' USING val_in. END. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . BEGIN v_str := 'BEGIN ' || pkg_in || '. name_in IN VARCHAR2) IS v_str VARCHAR2 (100).' || name_in || '. EXECUTE IMMEDIATE v_str.  Execute a stored procedure. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN pl ('Compile Error "' || SQLERRM || '" on: ' || v_str). Pass in bind variables with USING clause. end_in IN DATE. start_in. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE updnumval ( tab_in IN VARCHAR2. col_in IN VARCHAR2.page 85 . END....'.. end_in. start_in IN DATE. END.

pkg PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . the USING clause allows me to pass an object and nested table to an INSERT statement with a variable table name. including objects and collections. END. ± In the following example.. pers IN Person. cond IN preexisting_conditions) IS BEGIN EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'INSERT INTO ' || tabname (hosp_name) || ' VALUES (:revenue_generator.. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein health$. PROCEDURE add_profit_source ( hosp_name IN VARCHAR2.page 86 . cond. :revenue_inhibitors)' USING pers.Using Objects and Collections in NDS  One of the key advantages to NDS over DBMS_SQL is that it works with Oracle8 datatypes. ± No special syntax needed.

variable syntax! EXIT WHEN cv%NOTFOUND. val VARCHAR2(32767). whr IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) IS TYPE cv_type IS REF CURSOR.PUT_LINE (val). CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE showcol ( tab IN VARCHAR2. BEGIN OPEN cv FOR 'SELECT ' || col || ' FROM ' || tab || ' WHERE ' || NVL (whr.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . CLOSE cv. cv cv_type. ± Here is a simple utility the displays the values of any date. '1 = 1'). col IN VARCHAR2. number or string column in any table. LOOP Familiar cursor FETCH cv INTO val.page 87 . ndsutil. END LOOP.sp END. DBMS_OUTPUT. showcol.Multiple Row Queries and NDS  Oracle extends the cursor variable feature of Oracle7 to support multi-row dynamic queries.

± If dynamic PL/SQL. You cannot pass the NULL literal directly in the USING clause. etc. Instead.pkg    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .) through the USING clause. then you provide a value for each placeholder (by position).Some Fine Print for NDS  You cannot pass schema elements (table names. provide a value for each distinct placeholder (by name). pass a variable with a NULL value. column names. The USING clause for a query can only have IN bind arguments. str2list.page 88 . You can have duplicate placeholders (for bind arguments). ± If dynamic SQL.

DBMS_SQL is a very large and complex package. in particular method 4. The overhead for using DBMS_SQL has decreased significantly in Oracle8 and again in Oracle8i. with many rules to follow and lots of code to write.     1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Dynamic SQL using DBMS_SQL  Prior to Oracle8i. the only way to perform dynamic SQL was with the DBMS_SQL package. Supports all four methods of dynamic SQL.page 89 . You should only use DBMS_SQL when you cannot use NDS.

Learning Through Examples  DDL ± Create an index from within PL/SQL  DML ± Update rows in a table  DML with binding ± Update rows using bind variables  Queries ± Method 3 and a dynamic WHERE clause  PL/SQL Version of "SELECT *" ± Example of Method 4  PL/SQL ± Create a generic calculation program 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 90 .

DBMS_SQL. END. ± Parse and execute that DDL statement. DDL_statement VARCHAR2(200) := 'CREATE INDEX ' || index_in || ' ON ' || tab_in || ' ( ' || col_in || ')'. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.NATIVE). which will be used to execute the DDL statement. DDL_statement. col_in IN VARCHAR2) IS cur INTEGER := DBMS_SQL. fdbk := DBMS_SQL.page 91 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . DBMS_SQL. fdbk INTEGER.sp Creates an index on any column(s) in any table in your schema.CLOSE_CURSOR (cur).OPEN_CURSOR.  creind.PARSE (cur. tab_in IN VARCHAR2. ± Open a cursor.DDL with Dynamic SQL PROCEDURE create_index (index_in IN VARCHAR2. ± Construct the DDL statement as a string. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .EXECUTE (cur).

page 92 .NATIVE).ename%TYPE.Updates with Dynamic SQL  Update numeric column for specified employees. ename_in IN emp.OPEN_CURSOR. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. 'UPDATE emp SET ' || col_in || ' = ' || val_in || ' WHERE ename LIKE UPPER (''' || ename_in || ''')'. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE updnumval ( col_in IN VARCHAR2. val_in IN NUMBER) IS cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL. fdbk := DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL. END.PARSE (cur. fdbk PLS_INTEGER. DBMS_OUTPUT.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .PUT_LINE ('Rows updated: ' || TO_CHAR (fdbk)).EXECUTE (cur).CLOSE_CURSOR (cur). updnval1. DBMS_SQL.

end_in). updnval2. 'hidate'.OPEN_CURSOR. end_in IN DATE.BIND_VARIABLE (cur. fdbk := DBMS_SQL. start_in IN DATE. start_in).PARSE (cur. DBMS_SQL.EXECUTE (cur).CLOSE_CURSOR (cur). BEGIN DBMS_SQL. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE updnumval ( col_in IN VARCHAR2. END.BIND_VARIABLE (cur.page 93 .NATIVE). DBMS_OUTPUT.sp updnval3. fdbk PLS_INTEGER.Updates with Bind Variables  Update salaries for date range using binding. DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . DBMS_SQL. 'lodate'.PUT_LINE ('Rows updated: ' || TO_CHAR (fdbk)). 'UPDATE emp SET ' || col_in || ' = ' || val_in || ' WHERE hiredate BETWEEN :lodate AND :hidate'. val_in IN NUMBER) IS cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL.

page 94 .Processing Flow for a Dynamic Query Allocate cursor memory (OPEN_CURSOR) Fill cursor with data (EXECUTE) Make sure SELECT is well formed (PARSE) Fill buffer with data (FETCH_ROWS) (EXECUTE_AND_FETCH) Bind any variables (BIND_VARIABLE) (BIND_ARRAY) Retrieve the data (COLUMN_VALUE) Give cursor structure (DEFINE_COLUMN) (DEFINE_ARRAY) Release cursor memory (CLOSE_CURSOR) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

empno) || '=' || rec.FETCH_ROWS (cur) = 0.ename). BEGIN DBMS_SQL.NATIVE). 2. DBMS_SQL.CLOSE_CURSOR (cur). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein showemps. DBMS_OUTPUT. rec.sp showemp2.COLUMN_VALUE (cur. 'SELECT empno. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE showemps (where_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) IS cur INTEGER := DBMS_SQL. rec. DBMS_SQL. fdbk := DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL.page 95 .empno).. END.OPEN_CURSOR.tst PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . rec emp%ROWTYPE. 'a'.PUT_LINE (TO_CHAR (rec. 1). ename FROM emp ' || ' WHERE ' || NVL (where_in. 2. END LOOP.COLUMN_VALUE (cur. DBMS_SQL.sp showemps.EXECUTE (cur). LOOP EXIT WHEN DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL. 1. 60).ename)..DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.Queries with Dynamic SQL  Show employees using a dynamic WHERE clause.PARSE (cur. DBMS_SQL. 1.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. '1=1'). fdbk INTEGER.

± The resulting code is much more complicated. DBMS_SQL.page 96 Very simplified pseudo-code intab. val). nth_col. DBMS_SQL. nth_col. FOR each-column-in-table LOOP DBMS_SQL.Dynamic SELECT * FROM Any Table  Method 4 example: the number of columns queried changes with each table. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .PARSE (cur. BEGIN FOR each-column-in-table LOOP add-column-to-select-list. datatype). FOR each-column-in-table LOOP DBMS_SQL.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . END LOOP. END LOOP. END LOOP.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. END LOOP. select_string. LOOP fetch-a-row.NATIVE). END.COLUMN_VALUE (cur.

the first row will still be fetched and available. ± If exact_match is TRUE.EXECUTE_AND_FETCH (cur).EXECUTE_AND_FETCH (cur. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . exact_match IN BOOLEAN DEFAULT FALSE) RETURN INTEGER.page 97 .Using EXECUTE_AND_FETCH FUNCTION execute_and_fetch (cursor_in IN INTEGER. ± Even if the exception is raised. which returns a single row. numrows := DBMS_SQL. ± Very similar to the implicit SELECT cursor in native PL/SQL. raises NO_DATA_FOUND or raises the TOO_MANY_ROWS exception.  Makes it easy to execute and fetch a single row from a query. TRUE). numrows := DBMS_SQL. then EXECUTE_AND_FETCH will raise the TOO_MANY_ROWS exception if more than one row is fetched by the SELECT.

arg4_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. NULL. arg8_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. I would have to modify my screen every time a new formula was added. arg2_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. a single function will do the trick. NULL. ± With DBMS_SQL. and enter the arguments. arg10_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL dyncalc.sf dyncalc. 0. arg6_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. FUNCTION dyncalc ( oper_in IN VARCHAR2. nargs_in IN INTEGER := arg1_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg3_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg5_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg7_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg9_in IN VARCHAR2 := ) RETURN VARCHAR2. NULL.Dynamic Formula Execution  Suppose I am building a user interface that allows a user to select a formula for execution. NULL. NULL.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Using static PL/SQL.page 98 .

page 99 . µdeptin¶. DBMS_SQL. Use VARIABLE_VALUE to extract a value from any variable you have bound. You must have a BEGIN-END around the code.VARIABLE_VALUE (cur. fdbk := DBMS_SQL.sp dynplsql.BIND_VARIABLE (cur.EXECUTE (cur). my_salary). Possibilities inherent in dynamic PL/SQL are mind-boggling! dynplsql.sql dynplsql. v_deptin). END.More on Dynamic PL/SQL BEGIN cur := open_and_parse ('BEGIN get_max_sal (:deptin.even OUT arguments which are not being bound to any values.BIND_VARIABLE (cur. µsalout¶. my_salary).tst    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . µsalout¶. DBMS_SQL.  Use BIND_VARIABLE to bind any placeholders in the string -. END.'). DBMS_SQL. :salout).

END. Here is an example of a "PL/SQL NAME_IN": FUNCTION valbyname (nm IN VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2 IS v_cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL. 'a'. fdbk PLS_INTEGER. but you can accomplish much of the same thing with dynamic PL/SQL execution. 2000).pkg dynvar.dbmaxvc2.Indirect Referencing with Dyn PL/SQL  Oracle Forms offers support for indirect referencing with the NAME_IN and COPY built-ins. 'BEGIN :val := ' || nm || '. DBMS_SQL. END.EXECUTE (v_cur). fdbk := DBMS_SQL.CLOSE_CURSOR (v_cur). DBMS_SQL. retval).VARIABLE_VALUE (v_cur. DBMS_SQL.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .'.PARSE (v_cur. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.BIND_VARIABLE (v_cur.page 100  dynvar. 'val'. 'val'.OPEN_CURSOR. DBMS_SQL. retval PLV. RETURN retval.NATIVE). PL/SQL does not support indirect referencing. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

page 101 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Call these immediately after your usage to make sure they refer to your cursor.DBMS_SQL Status Built-ins  The package offers a set of modules to return information about the lastoperated cursor in your session.  LAST_ROW_COUNT ± Returns the cumulative count of rows fetched from the cursor.  LAST_ROW_ID ± Returns the ROWID of last row processed.  IS_OPEN ± Is the cursor already open?  LAST_ERROR_POSITION ± Returns relative column position in cursor of text causing error condition.  LAST_SQL_FUNCTION_CODE ± Returns SQL function code of cursor.

dumplong.Working with LONG Values  DBMS_SQL provides special procedures so that you can extract values from a LONG column in a table. you define the column as a LONG.pkg dumplong. ± DBMS_SQL.COLUMN_VALUE_LONG   First.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .DEFINE_COLUMN_LONG ± DBMS_SQL.page 102 . Then you retrieve the column using the special COLUMN_VALUE_LONG variant. ± Transfer the LONG contents into an index-by table so that you can transfer a value of more than 32K bytes into your PL/SQL program.

page 103 .New DBMS_SQL Features PL/SQL8 Extensions to DBMS_SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

± Support for RETURNING clause to avoid unnecessary queries. deletes and fetches.page 104 . inserts.New Features in DBMS_SQL  The functionality of DBMS_SQL has been extended in Oracle8 in several ways: ± Parse very long SQL strings ± Describe cursor columns ± Use "array processing" to perform bulk updates. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

DESCRIBE_COLUMNS.DESCRIBE_COLUMNS (c IN INTEGER. desc_t OUT DBMS_SQL.DESC_TAB).page 105 . ± The record TYPE is also defined in DBMS_SQL. col_cnt OUT INTEGER. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Describing Cursor Columns PROCEDURE DBMS_SQL. it was not possible to determine the datatypes of the columns defined in a cursor.  Before PL/SQL8. ± Now you can call the DBMS_SQL.  Returns all of the column information in an index table of records.

CLOSE_CURSOR (cur).tst showcols. END. ncols LOOP DBMS_OUTPUT. FOR colind IN 1 . desccols. empno FROM emp'.page 106 . DBMS_SQL. END LOOP. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. cols DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE show_columns IS cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL.pkg desccols.col_name).PUT_LINE (cols(colind). 'SELECT hiredate.Basic Steps to Describe Columns  The following script shows the individual steps you will need to perform in order to use this feature.DESCRIBE_COLUMNS (cur. DBMS_SQL.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .. ncols. ncols PLS_INTEGER.DESC_TAB.OPEN_CURSOR.PARSE (cur.NATIVE). cols).

. when you perform updates. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . where N is the number of rows in the table."Array Processing" in DBMS_SQL  PL/SQL8 now allows you to specify the use of "arrays".    This technique still. deletes and fetches. however. i. DBMS_SQL is executing the specified SQL statement N times. Instead of providing a scalar value for an operation.page 107 . DBMS_SQL then repeats your action for every row in the table. can offer a significant performance boost over Oracle7 dynamic SQL. inserts. It really isn't "array processing". you specify an index table. index tables. ± In actuality.e.

pkg whichsch.page 108 . column names.) through the USING clause. etc. ± With NDS. effdsql. ± But remember: you cannot pass schema elements (table names. ± Encapsulate DBMS_SQL.sql openprse. ± Increased chance of reusing parsed SQL.PARSE so that you include the trace in that program.Recommendations for Dynamic SQL  Bind (vs.  Use the Oracle8i invoker rights model whenever you want to share your dynamic SQL programs among multiple schemas.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . and easier code to write. ± Otherwise that SQL will be executed under the authority of the owner of the code. concatenate) whenever possible. not the invoker of the code.  Encapsulate statements to improve error handling. only possible for statements that do not need USING and INTO clauses. though you could write variations for those as well.

. but DBMS_SQL is hard to use.NDS or DBMS_SQL: Which is Best?  Dynamic SQL and PL/SQL is very useful.page 109 . of course.. you have upgraded to Oracle8i!  Major Advantages of NDS: ± Ease of use ± Performance ± Works with all SQL datatypes (including userdefined object and collection types) ± Fetch into records  When You'd Use DBMS_SQL: ± ± ± ± ± ± ± Method 4 Dynamic SQL DESCRIBE columns of cursor SQL statements larger than 32K RETURNING into an array Reuse of parsed SQL statements Bulk dynamic SQL Available from client-side PL/SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± If. Both implementations will still come in handy.

page 110 . persistent messaging subsytem of Oracle 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . asynchronous.Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Oracle Advanced Queuing  The high performance.

page 111 . systems are now heavily reliant on the ability of components to communicate with each other in a dependable. consistent manner. Distribution Center Coffee Beans Producer Shipping Service Retailer Consumer 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Who Needs Messaging? Everyone!  In the distributed world of the Internet.

page 112 .Applications Relying on Messaging     Stock trading system Airline reservation system Auction portals Any e-commerce application 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

message propagation. AQ now offers a publish/subscribe style of messaging between applications. ± Rule-based subscribers. the listen feature and notification capabilities.page 113 .Key Features of Oracle AQ  Leverage full power of SQL ± Messages are stored in database tables  Database high availability. scalability and reliability all carry over to queues ± Strong history and retention ± Backup and recovery ± Comprehensive journaliing  Rich message content increases usefulness of queueing ± Use object types to define highly structured payloads  New to Oracle8i. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

AQ architectural overview Queue Monitor process Queue table Queue ³Producers´ Enqueued messages Message 4 Message 3 Message 2 Message1 ³Consumers´ Dequeued messages Messages include both control information and ³payload´ (content) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 114 .

Oracle AQ Highlights  In 8.0.page 115 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . AQ supports: ± ± ± ± ± Multiple queues Resetting order and priority of queued items Queue management using only SQL & PL/SQL Multiple message recipients Propagation of queue to remote servers  Oracle8i adds: ± ± ± ± Rules-based publish & subscribe Listening on multiple queues Easier monitoring Native Java interface PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 116 .AQ Components  The DBMS_AQ package offers enqueue and dequeue capabilities The DBMS_AQADM package provides administrative functionality to manage queues and queue tables. Underlying database tables and views The queue monitor (background process) ± Set # of processes with the AQ_TM_PROCESSES initialization parameter.

whether multiple consumers Drops table if all queues in the table have been stopped Associates queue table with queue.page 117 . optionally waiting for outstanding transactions Adds an ³agent´ as a subscriber 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . sort column.DBMS_AQADM Highlights CREATE_QUEUE_TABLE DROP_QUEUE_TABLE CREATE_QUEUE DROP_QUEUE START_QUEUE STOP_QUEUE ADD_SUBSCRIBER Assigns name. assigns retry and retention properties to queue Drops a stopped queue Can also turn on/off enqueue and dequeue operations Stops queue. storage clause. payload type.

pkg Start the queue PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . text VARCHAR2(2000)). queue_payload_type => 'message_type'). Define the "payload" Create the queue table DBMS_AQADM.CREATE_QUEUE_TABLE (queue_table => 'msg'.START_QUEUE (queue_name => 'msgqueue').Creating Queue Tables and Queues CREATE TYPE message_type AS OBJECT (title VARCHAR2(30). / BEGIN DBMS_AQADM. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein aq. END.page 118 . queue_table => 'msg').CREATE_QUEUE (queue_name => 'msgqueue'. Define a queue in the queue table DBMS_AQADM.

± Only two procedures.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . but lots of complexity buried inside the parameters of these procedures.The "operational package": DBMS_AQ  DBMS_AQ is deceptively simple.page 119   aq. and returns a RAW message handle DEQUEUE extracts a message from a specified queue Parameters control message properties such as: ± Visibility (ON_COMMIT or IMMEDIATE) ± ± ± ± Priority Delay Expiration Locking behavior PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  ENQUEUE puts a message into a specified queue.

my_msg message_type. msgid aq.Simple Enqueue Example DECLARE queueopts DBMS_AQ. Declare records to hold various enqueue and msg properties. aqenq*. msgprops. msgid).msgid_type.* Place the message on the specified queue and get a msg ID in return.ENQUEUE ( 'msgqueue'.page 120 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . msgprops DBMS_AQ.. DBMS_AQ. Set up the payload with an object constructor. BEGIN my_msg := message_type ( 'First Enqueue'. my_msg. END.. 'May there be many more.MESSAGE_PROPERTIES_T. queueopts.'). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .ENQUEUE_OPTIONS_T.

BEGIN my_msg := message_type ( 'First Enqueue'. DBMS_AQ. msgid2)... my_msg. Same setup as previous page .').sequence_deviation := DBMS_AQ. queueopts. END. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Specify a delay before the payload is available. 'And this one goes first.'). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .. queueopts. msgprops.BEFORE. msgprops.More Interesting Enqueue Example DECLARE . queueopts... Modify the dequeue sequence by changing the deviation field and relative msg ID.relative_msgid := msgid1.ENQUEUE ('msgqueue'. 'May there be many more. my_msg.delay := 3 * 60 * 60 * 24... msgid1).. DBMS_AQ. msgprops. my_msg := message_type ( 'Second Enqueue'. queueopts.page 121 .ENQUEUE ( 'msgqueue'.

getmsg (DBMS_AQ. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .msgid_type. msgprops DBMS_AQ. Dequeue operation isolated in local module. msgprops. aqdeq*. BEGIN getmsg (DBMS_AQ.DEQUEUE_OPTIONS_T.dequeue_mode := mode_in. DBMS_AQ.pkg */ my_msg message_type. PROCEDURE getmsg (mode_in IN INTEGER) IS BEGIN queueopts. msgid). Demonstrates destructive and non-destructive dequeuing.page 122 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . END.BROWSE).* Declare records to hold various dequeue and msg properties. my_msg. queueopts.REMOVE).DEQUEUE ( 'msgqueue'.Dequeue Example DECLARE queueopts DBMS_AQ.MESSAGE_PROPERTIES_T. msgid aq. /* defined in aq. END. getmsg (DBMS_AQ.REMOVE).

msgprops. queueopts.ENQUEUE_OPTIONS_T. item_obj aqstk_objtype. item_obj.MESSAGE_PROPERTIES_T.* 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Prioritized Payloads  You can assign priorities to individual payloads and then dequeue according to those priorities.pkg aqstk2. DBMS_AQ. END. queueopts. msgprops.visibility := DBMS_AQ. the higher the priority.  A stack implementation using AQ demonstrates this well. PROCEDURE push (item IN VARCHAR2) IS queueopts DBMS_AQ.1.pkg priority. ± The lower the numeric priority value. msgid).page 123 . BEGIN item_obj := aqstk_objtype (item).msgid_type.IMMEDIATE.priority := g_priority. msgprops DBMS_AQ.ENQUEUE ( c_queue. g_priority := g_priority . msgid aq. aqstk.

ADD_SUBSCRIBER ( c_queue. queue_payload_type => 'student_major_t'.  Steps to working with a subscriber list: ± 1. BEGIN DBMS_AQADM. DBMS_AQADM. multiple_consumers => TRUE).AQ$_AGENT (name_in.CREATE_QUEUE_TABLE ( queue_table => 'major_qtable'. NULL.page 124 . SYS. ± 2. ± The message is then not removed from the queue until all subscribers have dequeued the message. Add subscribers for the queue.Defining Message Subscribers  You can specify that a message is to be enqueued for a list of subscribers. NULL)). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein aqmult*. The queue table must be defined to support multiple subscribers or consumers.* PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

± Crucial for Oracle to have a message-oriented middleware in order to offer an all-Oracle solution.page 125 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . improved security. LISTEN capability. ± Significant enhancements in Oracle8i. supporting a publish-subscribe model. ± Much more robust that DBMS_PIPE.Oracle AQ . ± Should be strongly supported "down the road".Summary  Very powerful and flexible architecture.  Considered by Oracle to be a core component of its overall solution.

page 126 .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Managing Large Objects with DBMS_LOB 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

video. they should no longer be used. though they will probably not be actually desupported. etc.  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 127 . ± Oracle has announced deprecation of LONGs. Images. sounds. LOB datatypes are the successor to LONGs.LOB Terms  LOB = Large OBject: a category of datatype allowing storage of ³unstructured´ data up to 4 gigabytes LOB datatype can be: ± Column in table ± Attribute in object type ± Element in nested table   Possible applications include office documents.

improving performance. external do not ± External LOBs are read-only from within Oracle 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 128 .Types of Large Objects  ³Internal´ LOBs ± BLOB: unstructured binary data ± CLOB: single-byte fixedwidth character data ± NCLOB: multi-byte fixedwidth character data (or varying width in )  ³External´ LOBs ± BFILE: pointer to an operating system file  Temporary LOBs ± Internal LOBs that do not participate in transactions.  Key programming differences: ± Internal LOBs participate in transactions.

erase. trim ± For external LOBs: File existence test. append. comparison and length checking ± For internal LOBs: Write. substring and instring searches. copy. EMPTY_CLOB() ± BFILENAME 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . close  Other built-in functions ± LOADFROMFILE (load an external BFILE into a BLOB) ± EMPTY_LOB(). open.PL/SQL built-ins for LOBs  Package DBMS_LOB ± Supports for all LOBs: Reading.page 129 .

CLOSE fax_cur. FETCH fax_cur INTO the_fax. Question: What¶s in the_fax? 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . the_fax BLOB.  Retrieve record with BLOB into PL/SQL variable DECLARE CURSOR fax_cur IS SELECT fax FROM incoming_faxes. fax BLOB).Deceptively simple example  BLOB-typed column in a table CREATE TABLE incoming_faxes (fax_id INTEGER. BEGIN OPEN fax_cur. received DATE.page 130 . END.

The ³LOB locator´ LOB t l sel es [ ll ] t i i t r .page 131 . tt LOBs <lob segment> fax_id 281937 received 12-JAN-98 fax <lob locator> Updati  t e LOB anges t e pointer is ompli ates se of LOBs ± LOB locators cannot span transactions ± Programs must lock records containing LOBs efore updating ± Programs performing L must accommodate dynamic LOB locator alues 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

. EMPTY_CLOB()) RETURNING htmlloc INTO the_loc.com'. htmlloc CLOB). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..url%TYPE := 'http://www. . BEGIN INSERT INTO web_pages VALUES (the_url.oodb. 1 of 2  Must get a new LOB locator before writing into the LOB: DECLARE the_url web_pages.page 132 . the_loc CLOB.Example: Piecewise CLOB programmatic insert  Create a table CREATE TABLE web_pages ( url VARCHAR2(512) PRIMARY KEY.

into a CLOB column html_tab := UTL_HTTP.html_tab. FOR the_piece_no IN 1.oodb.WRITE(lob_loc => the_loc.HTML_PIECES..COUNT LOOP piece_length := LENGTH(html_tab(the_piece_no)). Note: We are ignoring amount => piece_length. EMPTY_CLOB()) and loads a web page RETURNING htmlloc INTO the_loc. several likely exceptions offset => running_total. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .url%TYPE := 'http://www.REQUEST_PIECES(url => the_url). running_total := running_total + piece_length.Example: Piecewise CLOB programmatic insert DECLARE the_url web_pages.com'. END. piece_length PLS_INTEGER. DBMS_LOB. running_total PLS_INTEGER := 1. This block retrieves INSERT INTO web_pages VALUES (the_url. buffer => html_tab(the_piece_no)). html_tab UTL_HTTP.page 133 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein BEGIN . the_loc CLOB. END LOOP.

com' FOR UPDATE. str_offset := DBMS_LOB. the_loc CLOB. buffer => 'cool'). offset => str_offset.oodb. END. amount => 4. IF str_offset != 0 THEN DBMS_LOB. END IF. pattern => 'oodb'). str_offset INTEGER.WRITE(lob_loc => the_loc. CLOSE hcur.INSTR(lob_loc => the_loc. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . BEGIN OPEN hcur.Example: Piecewise CLOB programmatic update DECLARE Program must lock the record explicitly CURSOR hcur IS SELECT htmlloc FROM web_pages WHERE url = 'http://www.page 134 . FETCH hcur INTO the_loc.

 Example: CREATE DIRECTORY web_pix AS 'D:\bill\training\pix'. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Preparing to use BFILEs  You must first create an Oracle I ORY´ ± Creates logical alias for full directory pat ± imilar to LIBRARY (used for C "external procedures").page 135 . ut IRECTORY namespace is global  Syntax: CREATE OR REPLACE DIRECTORY <directory name> AS '<full path to directory>'.

.Using BFILE datatype in DDL  In a table. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .. image BFILE). phones Phone_tab_t.  In an object type. addresses Address_tab_t.page 136 . scanned_card_image BFILE ). CREATE TYPE Business_card_t AS OBJECT ( name Name_t. CREATE TABLE web_graphics ( image_id INTEGER...

page 137 . END. /  Notes: ± No automatic file checking or synchronization ± No participation in transactions 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .gif'). Spec: FUNCTION BFILENAME(directory_exprn.  Example: DECLARE picture BFILE := BFILENAME('WEB_PIX'. 'prodicon.The built-in BFILENAME function  Returns value of datatype BFILE. BEGIN INSERT INTO web_graphics VALUES (100015. file_exprn) RETURN BFILE. picture).

DECLARE pic_file BFILE := BFILENAME('WEB_PIX'. src_lob => pic_file.page 138 . DBMS_LOB. amount => DBMS_LOB.gif').Loading File into Database BLOB CREATE TABLE web_graphic_blobs ( image_id INTEGER.FILEOPEN(pic_file. pic_blob_loc BLOB := EMPTY_BLOB(). BEGIN INSERT INTO web_graphic_blobs VALUES (1. DBMS_LOB.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .LOADFROMFILE(dest_lob => pic_blob_loc.FILECLOSE(pic_file).FILE_READONLY). / loadblob.GETLENGTH(pic_file)). image BLOB). pic_blob_loc) RETURNING image INTO pic_blob_loc. DBMS_LOB. 'prodicon. END. DBMS_LOB.

page 139 . or transaction  Ability to retrieve LOB ³chunk size´ ± Allows programmer to tune READs and WRITEs  For all internal LOBs ± OPEN & CLOSE allow control over timing.New DBMS_LOB APIs in 8i  Support for temporary LOBs ± No logging or rollback faster! ± Lifespan: session. call. that can mean less I/O » Trigger will not fire until CLOSE » Indexes will not update until CLOSE ± ISOPEN 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

± Complete support in PL/SQL (and other APIs) ± Much better performance and control than with LONGs ± Usable in object types HOT  Some weaknesses.Summary  LOB support in Oracle is now significantly improved.. ± LOB locator behavior slightly abstruse ± Inability to modify BFILEs directly from within PL/SQL.page 140 . COLD 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Large Object ..

page 141 .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Leveraging Java Inside PL/SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

. functions. triggers in Java Distinct Java & PL/SQL namespaces  But first.page 142 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .Overview of Java interoperability  Java inside or outside 8i server can call PL/SQL ± Standard JDBC and SQLJ calls with Oracle extensions ± Same Java on client.. or server Not covered in this seminar  PL/SQL can call Java inside 8i server ± ± ± ± Command-line tools load Java classes DDL extensions publish Java classes Writing stored procedures.a BRIEF introduction to Java. mid-tier... PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

± We just need to keep a firm grip on common sense and stay focused on delivering solutions..Question 1: What is Java?  Could it be.. slickest piece of software ever designed by human beings? ± Just the latest in a series of "silver bullets" promoted by software vendors in order to prop up quarterly sales? ± The first and only successful O-O language? ± None of the above?  We don't really need to take a vote. ± The end of programming history as we know it? ± The easiest. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . fastest.page 143 .

page 144 . PL/SQL will still be: ± Faster and more productive than Java for database operations. ± A language in which hundreds of thousands of developers are trained. to boot.  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Ubiquitous in thousands of production applications and millions of lines of code.Question 2: Will Java Replace PL/SQL?  While that scenario is certainly possible. ± Supported and improved by Oracle -. it is very unlikely and totally unthinkable for years to come.and very aggressively.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . everything exception the primitive datatypes. ± string is definitely not the same as String....  You don't have to know how to do everything with Java to get lots of value out of it.page 145 .. you have to instantiate an object from that class.Some Important Things to Remember  Java is a case sensitive language. ± Don't get overwhelmed by all the classes and all the strange quirks.  Everything is a class (or an object instantiated from a class).. ± Well. ± Before you can call a (non-static) class method..

± Used to test or run stand-alone a class. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE hello IS BEGIN DBMS_OUTPUT. no methods. public class Hello { public static void main (String[] args) { System.. } }  No members.out. by the way: the PL/SQL version 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . except the "special" main method..println ("Hello world!").page 146 .PUT_LINE ('Hello world!').Building a Java Class  Let's start from the very beginning. END. Oh.

± You must also either have set the CLASSPATH or include it in your javac call. you must compile it with the javac command. ± It will also automatically recompile any classes used by your class that has not been compiled since last change.zip. SET CLASSPATH = d:\Oracle\Ora81\jdbc\lib\classes111.java -classpath d:\java 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 147 .class file. e:\jdk1.zip.1.java file to a .d:\java D:> javac Hello. ± This will convert the .7b\lib\classes.Compiling Classes  Before you can use a class.

page 148 .Running a Class  Run a class? What does that mean? It means that if your class contains a method with this header: public static void main (String[] args)  then you can "run" the main method with the java command: d:\java> java Hello  You can also pass one or more arguments on the command line: d:\java> java Hello mom Hello2.java 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Let's build a performance analyzer class to explore these ideas. Usually. you will use a class by instantiating objects from the class and then invoking class methods on the object.   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . however.page 149 .Using a Class  The main method is handy for providing a built-in test mechanism of your class.

elapsed()).java 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . } public void showElapsed () { p. } public void showElapsed (String context) { p.currentTimeMillis() .l ("Elapsed time for " + context.currentTimeMillis to calculate elapsed time to nearest thousandth of a second. } } p.java InFile.Gstart).currentTimeMillis().Compare Performance of Methods  Use System. public void capture () { Gstart = System.java Tmr.l ("Elapsed time ".page 150 .currentTimeMillis() . class Tmr { private long Gstart = 0. System.Gstart). } public long elapsed () { return (System.

besides the "regular" kind we just saw.  Interface class ± The class only contains unimplemented methods... 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Types of Classes  There are several different kinds of classes in Java.  Inner class ± Classes that are defined inside other classes. but at least one method remains unimplemented.page 151 .  Abstract class ± The class can contain members and methods.

java A Class Hierarchy Management NonManagement Corporation 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . supertype/"wider" Citizen Person Employee Hourly Worker Salaried Worker subtype/"narrower" War Criminal Person.And Now for Some Scary Buzzwords!  Inheritance ± Subclasses inherit methods and variables from extended superclasses. either as its own class or as any superclass.  Polymorphism ± An object of a class can have "multiple" forms.page 152 . ± Dynamic polymorphism: form is determined at run-time. ± Static polymorphism: form is chosen at compile-time (PL/SQL overloading).

these are not objects instantiated from classes.page 153 . you are actually allocating a new object. myName = "Steven". if (myName. if you assign a new value to it. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . String myName. boolean char byte short int long float double  Strings ± A String object is a read-only.Language Basics  Comments // Single line comment /* Block comment */ /** Documentation comment */  Primitive datatypes ± So I lied.equals(YourName)) foundFamily(). myName = "Feuerstein". ± Can't do a direct == comparison.

nextElement()) } } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . step) { lotsaStuff } while (expression) { lostsaStuff } do { lostsaStuff } while (expression).println (args[indx]).out.hasMoreElements ()) { processIt (enum.length.println ( (String)enum. indx++) System. do-while and for ± Note: you need squiggly brackets only if there is more than one statement in the loop body. System. Examples: for (indx indx=0. for (initialize. indx < args.NextElement()).Writing Loops in Java  Three kinds of loops: while. expression. static void processAll (Enumeration enum) { while (enum.page 154 .out.

± Only positional notation is supported..name()).out. } } class LotsALingos { public static void main (String args[]) { PuterLingo Java = new PuterLingo("Java"). } public String name () { return mname. class PuterLingo { private String mname.page 155 . you still include the open and close parentheses. } } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± No default values for arguments. System. ± If a method has no arguments.Passing Parameters  Some important differences from PL/SQL. you must supply a value for each parameter..println (Java. public PuterLingo (String name) { mname = name.

equals("")) throw new Exception ("Filename is NULL"). "WHEN OTHERS" } in Java } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .out. return myFile. Put inside try clause File myFile = new File (filename). } catch (Exception e) { System.toString()). you "throw" and "catch" exceptions.println (e. rather than raise and handle.page 156 .Exception Handling in Java  Very similar to PL/SQL. Throwing my own public static int numBytes (String filename) { exception try { if (filename.length(). } File-related catch (SecurityException e) { exceptions return -1.

} 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 157 .Differences Between Java & PL/SQL  Exceptions are objects derived directly or indirectly from the Exception class... NoSuchFile { . ± Use the throws clause in your specification. as in: public static int numBytes (String filename) throws SecurityException. ± So you can pass them as arguments and do anything and everything else you can do with objects.  You must inform users of your method of which exceptions may be thrown.

Java's Not So Tough!  You can learn enough Java in less than a week to: ± Build simple classes ± Leverage Java inside PL/SQL  Moving to the next level of expertise will be more of a challenge.  Now let's explore how you can put Java to work for you inside PL/SQL programs. ± Object oriented development (Java) is very different from procedural coding (PL/SQL). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 158 .

using JDBC or SQLJ Oracle 8i server PL/SQL cover for Java method Java virtual machine running Java method Oracle Developer client (PL/SQL) Net8 OCI or Pro*C client VB or C++ via OO4O or ODBC 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 159 .Java Stored Procedures (JSPs) Java applet or app.

JSPs: Some sample uses PL/SQL extender ± For example. network communication in/out PL/SQL replacement ± More standard language ± Good performer for numeric processing tasks ± Beware database I/O & string manipulation performance Scaleable deployment of third party code ± Vertical application ± Web server ± XML parser/generator 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . better file I/O ± RMI callouts.page 160 .

.END 4..Creating JSP to call from PL/SQL   1. Grant privileges as desired 5. Load into server using ³loadjava´ command-line tool 3. Create Java classes in your favorite IDE 2.page 161 . Publish PL/SQL cover using AS LANGUAGE JAVA. rather than BEGIN.. Call from PL/SQL (or SQL) as if calling PL/SQL    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..

50000000).println (TheGlobalMonster). } public static void main (String[] args) { // A very scary company Corporation TheGlobalMonster = new Corporation ( "Northrup-Ford-Mattel-Yahoo-ATT".out. layoffs = Playoffs. long PceoComp) { name = Pname. CEOCompensation = PceoComp. Entry points must be public static in most cases Classes may call other classes Avoid GUI calls     person. } public String toString () { return name + " is a transnational entity with " + layoffs + " laid-off employees.page 162 PL/SQL . paying its" + " Chief Executive Officer " + CEOCompensation. System. public Corporation ( String Pname.out. 5000000.println main method is used to test the class. long Playoffs.java Advanced Techniques . }} 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Notes on Java classes  toString method automatically used by System. long CEOCompensation.Create Java class(es) class Corporation extends Person { long layoffs.

java file Java resource file .class options (abbreviated) -oci8 -resolve loadjava will connect using OCI driver Resolves external class references at compile time -resolver (shown later) Search path like CLASSPATH 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Upload using ³loadjava´ utility .page 163 .jar file Oracle 8i server Java class Java source Java resource loadjava Example: loadjava loadjava -user scott/tiger -oci8 -resolve datacraft/bill/Hello.class file .

lang.Emp(int) return java.page 164 . /  Syntax (simplified) CREATE [ OR REPLACE PROCE URE FUNCTION <name> <sqlt pe> ] [ [ <ar s> ) ] [ AUTHID { DEFINER | CURRENT_USER } ] AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME '<met fullname> (<Ja a t pe fullname>..bill. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Hello.. .Publish  Example (top-level call spec) CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION hello_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2 AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.) [ return <Ja a t pe fullname> ]'.String'.

for example.Call the wrapped method  Method 1: Call as if PL/SQL module BEGIN DBMS_OUTPUT. END.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . PRINT :thename ± CALL avoids overhead of SELECT fn FROM DUAL jsp.PUT_LINE(hello_emp(7499)).page 165 . from SQL*Plus: VARIABLE thename VARCHAR2(12) CALL hello_emp(7499) INTO :thename.  Method 2: Use 8i SQL CALL statement.

sql.page 166 .sql.sql.Publishing -.ARRAY 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .BigDecimal oracle.lang.String java.math.STRUCT <named type> oracle.REF oracle.more concepts Shape mapping ± Java methods declared ³void´ become PL/SQL procedures ± Signature mismatches detected only at runtime Type mapping (typical) VARCHAR2 DATE NUMBER user-defined object type user-defined object type object REFerence user-defined collection type java.Timestamp java.sql.

String'..Publish in PL/SQL Package Spec  Designate Java module in PL/SQL package spec.page 167 . END.. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE hello_pkg AS FUNCTION hi_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2 AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.Emp(int) return java.lang.Hello.util. / (No package body required in this case) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

String'.Emp(int) return java..Publish as module in package body  .page 168 .Hello.util.. / CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY hello_pkg2 AS FUNCTION hi_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2 IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.or in package body CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE hello_pkg2 AS FUNCTION hi_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2. END. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END.lang.

MEMBER FUNCTION hello_emp RETURN VARCHAR2).Hello.Emp(int) return java.String'.Hello.lang. MEMBER FUNCTION hello_emp RETURN VARCHAR2 IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft. / CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE BODY foo_t AS MEMBER FUNCTION hello_emp RETURN VARCHAR2 IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.util.Emp(int) return java.util. END.page 169 .String'). / or in the body: CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE foo_t AS OBJECT ( bar VARCHAR2(30).lang. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Publish as object type method  Either in spec: CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE foo_t AS OBJECT ( bar VARCHAR2(30).

JAVA_ADMIN. or resource ± Can read file designated with BFILE() function  ALTER JAVA: compiles Java source.New DDL Statements and Roles  CREATE JAVA ± Alternative to ³loadjava´ utility ± Creates or replaces an Oracle ³library unit´ from Java source. JAVASYSPRIV (needed for file IO operations).page 170 . DROP JAVA: drops a named Java library unit Several roles available for Java operations: ± JAVAUSERPRIV. JAVADEBUGPRIV ± You can also grant specific privileges. resolves Java class references. JAVAIDPRIV.   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . class.

jdbc2.page 171 .sql.sql.STRUCT ± oracle.Passing Oracle8 objects Oracle8i server Object in O-R table Java application Java object   Harder than you¶d think Three different interfacing techniques ± oracle.SQLData 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .CustomDatum ± oracle.

page 172 .JPublisher utility Database server Definition of type or REF in data dictionary User-supplied JPublisher input file What does it do? ± Generates Java that encapsulates type and REF types of mapping supported for methods JPublisher ± ³Oracle mapping´ ± ³JDBC mapping´ ± ³Object JDBC mapping´ Three Generated Java file(s) for use in Java programs 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

they become available to use in mapping Example of passing an Account_t object: CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE account_save (new_acct IN Account_t) IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .AccountRuntime.bill.Passing object using JPub-generated Java  After generating and uploading classes with JPub. /  jspobj.save (datacraft.page 173 .bill.Account_t)'.

Java offers many file-related classes with much greater capabilities.Example: Improving File I/O  You can read/write files in PL/SQL with UTL_FILE. but that package is very limited.   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Let's see how we can make that great Java stuff available from within PL/SQL.page 174 .

. ± This is not available through UTL_FILE (though you can get it through DBMS_LOB). ± Instead build a static method that instantiates a Java object from the class and then invokes the relevant method against that object.page 175 .Encapsulate Java Classes  You won't generally access native Java methods in your PL/SQL wrapper.  Let's start with something simple.. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± The File class offers a length method that returns the number of bytes in a file.

page 176 . import java.java  Take each of these steps: ± Import the File class to resolve reference.io. ± Instantiate a File object for the specified name. } } JFile2.My Own Java Class for File Manipulation  Accept the name of a file and return its length. ± Call the method of choice against that object and return the value. return myFile.length(). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . public class JFile2 { public static long length (String fileName) { File myFile = new File (fileName).File.

END. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE xfile IS FUNCTION length (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN NUMBER.String) return long'.length (java. / CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY xfile IS FUNCTION length (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN NUMBER AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'JFile.lang. ± I translate the Java long to a PL/SQL NUMBER. END.page 177 . / xfile2.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Build a Package over Java Method  Let's put it in a package. we will certainly want to add more functionality over time.

± 3.  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . so you'd expect smooth sailing. you will need to take these steps: ± 1.page 178 . Write a "hidden" PL/SQL wrapper function that returns the string or number. Not so! To pass a Boolean back from Java to PL/SQL. ± 2. Convert the Java boolean to a String or number and return that value. Write a "public" PL/SQL wrapper function to convert that number to a true PL/SQL Boolean.Mapping the Boolean Datatype  Both Java and PL/SQL support a native Boolean datatype.

if (retval) return 1.Translate Boolean to Number  Accept the name of a file and return its length. not a Boolean class. boolean retval = myFile.canRead(). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .File. else return 0.page 179 .io.java  Translate TRUE to 1 and FALSE to 0. } } JFile3. ± And don't forget: this is a boolean primitive. import java. public class JFile3 { public static int canRead (String fileName) { File myFile = new File (fileName).

String) return int'.java / xfile. JFile.pkg RETURN IcanRead (file) = 1.canRead (java.Wrapper for Pseudo-Boolean function  Simple translation back to PL/SQL Boolean.java END. END..pkg END. / CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY xfile IS FUNCTION IcanRead (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN NUMBER AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'JFile3.page 180 .lang. JFile4. FUNCTION canRead (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN BOOLEAN AS BEGIN xfile3.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . xfile4. ± Avoid the hard-codings with named constants. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE xfile IS FUNCTION canRead (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN BOOLEAN..

} } Extract individual attribute values from the array.getAttributes().Passing Objects to Java with STRUCT  You can pass Oracle object information to Java without relying on JPub by using the STRUCT class. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein UnionBuster. BigDecimal hourly_rate = (BigDecimal)(attribs[1]).tst PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .SQLException { // Get the attributes of the labor_source object.println ( "Pay " + laborType + " $" + hourly_rate + " per hour"). // starting with 0 String laborType = (String)(attribs[0]). Object[] attribs = e. public class UnionBuster { Obtain attributes of public static void wageStrategy (STRUCT e) the Oracle object. // Access individual attributes by array index.page 181 . throws java.out. System.sql.java passobj.

0)). hourly_rate NUMBER). '5')). / BEGIN bust_em_with ( labor_source ('Workfare'.sql. / CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE bust_em_with ( labor_source_in IN labor_source_t) AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'UnionBuster. The Oracle object type definition CREATE TYPE labor_source_t AS OBJECT ( labor_type VARCHAR2(30). bust_em_with ( labor_source ('Prisoners'.wageStrategy (oracle.page 182 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Fully specify the STRUCT class in parameter list. END.STRUCT)'.Wrapping a STRUCT-based Method  You can pass Oracle object information to Java without relying on JPub by using the STRUCT class. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

i < count.out.Viewing Output from Java Methods  Java provides a "print line" method similar to DBMS_OUTPUT. ± Call it within methods and output will display in your Java environment.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .println. HelloAll.page 183 .out.PUT_LINE: System. you can redirect the output to the DBMS_OUTPUT buffer.java HelloAll.println ( "Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello All!"). public class HelloAll { public static void lotsaText ( int count) { for (int i = 0.SET_OUTPUT (1000000). }}}  When called within a PL/SQL wrapper. i++) { System. ± Here is a good nucleus for a login.sql file: SET SERVEROUTPUT ON SIZE 1000000 CALL DBMS_JAVA.

± And also spew out the entire Java error stack! (at least through 8. such as java. getErrorCode() and getMessage() to obtain information about the error thrown. ± Exceptions are objects instantiated from the Exception class or a subclass of it.5).sql.  Any error not caught by the JVM (Java virtual machine) will be thrown back to the PL/SQL block or SQL statement.Error Handling with Java-PL/SQL  Java offers a very similar. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . but more robust error handling mechanism than PL/SQL.1.SQLException. ± Use two methods. you "throw" and "catch".page 184 . ± Instead of raising and handling.

BEGIN dropany ('TABLE'.jdbc.SQLException: getErrInfo.jdbc.java) at oracle.jdbc.driver.tst ORA-00942: table or view does not exist 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . / SQL> 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 java.KprbDBAccess.executeUpdate(OracleStatement. DBMS_OUTPUT. and you have to do some digging to extract the Oracle error information.SQLException: ORA-00942: table or view does not exist at oracle.KprbDBAccess.java) at oracle.OracleStatement. 'blip').sp dropany2.java) at oracle.driver.driver.kprb.check_error(KprbDBAccess.OracleStatement.kprb.doExecute(OracleStatement.doExecuteWithBatch(OracleStatement.jdbc.tst ORA-29532: Java call terminated by uncaught Java exception: java.parseExecuteFetch(KprbDBAccess.doExecuteOther(OracleStatement. END.object(DropAny.java) at DropAny. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN DBMS_OUTPUT. the entire Java stack is displayed on your screen.java) at oracle.sql.page 185 .jdbc.java -29532 dropany.jdbc.java) at oracle.PUT_LINE (SQLERRM).sql.Trapping and Identifying Errors  Currently.OracleStatement.driver.driver.java) at oracle.doExecuteWithTimeout(OracleStatement.jdbc.PUT_LINE (SQLCODE).OracleStatement.java:14) DropAny.OracleStatement.

 An Oracle8 feature that allowed relatively "native" callouts to C from PL/SQL for the first time. ± Must be a shared object library on Unix or a dynamically linked library (DLL) on Windows.page 186 .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence External Procedures  An external procedure is a 3GL routine that can serve as the ³body´ of a PL/SQL function. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . procedure. or method.

Process & data flow Application Makes request Net8 External Procedure Listener spawns External Shared Library Calls PL/SQL Runtime Engine PL/SQL body Client or server-side application returns results calls routine from Routine in .DLL or .so file extproc returns results returns results 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 187 .

External procedures: Sample uses      Send email Invoke operating system command Invoke custom or legacy application Call C runtime library function Perform admin tasks email.sql diskspace.page 188 .sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

dll ± For given drive letter.page 189 . this function returns: » » » » » sectors per cluster bytes per sector number of free clusters total number of clusters ³return code´ indicating success or failure  First. create an Oracle8 ³library´: CREATE OR REPLACE LIBRARY nt_kernel AS 'c:\winnt\system32\kernel32.Determine free disk space on NT (1/4)  Use pre-existing routine: ± GetDiskFreeSpaceA in kernel32. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .dll'.

sectors_per_cluster OUT PLS_INTEGER. bytes_per_sector OUT PLS_INTEGER. END disk_util. number_of_free_clusters OUT PLS_INTEGER. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . total_number_of_clusters OUT PLS_INTEGER) RETURN PLS_INTEGER.page 190 .Package spec (2/4)  Nothing unexpected here: CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE disk_util AS FUNCTION get_disk_free_space (root_path IN VARCHAR2.

number_of_free_clusters OUT pls_integer. bytes_per_sector BY REFERENCE LONG. END disk_util.0 (3/4) CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY disk_util AS FUNCTION get_disk_free_space (root_path IN VARCHAR2. total_number_of_clusters OUT PLS_INTEGER) RETURN PLS_INTEGER IS EXTERNAL LIBRARY nt_kernel NAME "GetDiskFreeSpaceA" LANGUAGE C CALLING STANDARD PASCAL PARAMETERS (root_path STRING. number_of_free_clusters BY REFERENCE LONG. sectors_per_cluster OUT PLS_INTEGER. total_number_of_clusters BY REFERENCE LONG.page 191  All the magic is in the EXTERNAL section 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . RETURN LONG). bytes_per_sector OUT PLS_INTEGER. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . sectors_per_cluster BY REFERENCE LONG.Package body in Oracle 8.

Usage (4/4)
DECLARE lroot_path VARCHAR2(3) := 'C:\'; lsectors_per_cluster PLS_INTEGER; lbytes_per_sector PLS_INTEGER; lnumber_of_free_clusters PLS_INTEGER; ltotal_number_of_clusters PLS_INTEGER; return_code PLS_INTEGER; free_meg REAL; BEGIN return_code := disk_util.get_disk_free_space (lroot_path, lsectors_per_cluster, lbytes_per_sector, lnumber_of_free_clusters, ltotal_number_of_clusters); free_meg := lsectors_per_cluster * lbytes_per_sector * lnumber_of_free_clusters / 1024 / 1024; DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('free disk space, Mb = ' || free_meg); diskspace.sql END;
1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein
PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 192

Creating your own external procedure 

1. Identify or create shared library 2. Identify or CREATE LIBRARY within Oracle 3. Map the parameters using:
± EXTERNAL clause (Oracle8) or ± LANGUAGE clause (Oracle8i)  

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 193

1. Identify/create external routine 


Prerequisite: O/S must support shared libraries Some useful routines are pre-built in C runtime library
± On Unix: /lib/libc.so ± On NT: <systemroot>\system32\crtdll.dll 

Building a shared library of your own requires knowledge of:
± Appropriate language (typically C) ± Compiler & linker

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 194

2. Create the Oracle library 

Syntax:
CREATE OR REPLACE LIBRARY <library name> AS '<full path to file>'; 

Assigns a programmer-defined alias to a specific shared library file Notes
± Requires CREATE LIBRARY pri ilege ± Does not alidate directory ± Can¶t use symbolic link 

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 195

3. Map the parameters
This can get complicated, because«
± Must pass extra parameters to designate:
» NULL/NOT NULL state » String length » Maximum allocated length

± Six choices of parameter mode
» » » » » » IN RETURN IN BY REFERENCE RETURN BY REFERENCE OUT IN OUT

These details are better suited for close reading«
PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 196

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

page 197 .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Oracle8i New Features Autonomous Transactions Invoker Rights Model Row Level Security 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

± And the learning curve to take advantage of these features is generally not too steep.    Autonomous Transactions The Invoker Rights Model Row level security 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 198 .Oracle8i New Features  Oracle8i offers a number of PL/SQL-specific features that give you tremendous additional flexibility and capability.

you can now define a PL/SQL block to execute as an "autonomous transaction". ± Any changes made within that block can be saved or reversed without affecting the outer or main transaction.page 199 .  With Oracle8i.Autonomous Transactions  Prior to Oracle8i. a COMMIT or ROLLBACK in any program in your session committed or rolled back all changes in your session. ± There was only one transaction allowed per connection. msg IN VARCHAR2) AS PRAGMA AUTONOMOUS_TRANSACTION. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE loginfo ( code IN PLS_INTEGER.

 Logging Mechanism ± Commonly developers lot to database tables.When to Use Autonomous Transactions  Reusable Application Components ± ATs are more or less required in the new distributed application architecture of the Internet. software usage meter. something like a COMMIT) on other components. ± One component should not have any impact (esp.  Tracing Code Usage ± Build retry mechanisms.page 200 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .  Call functions within SQL that change the database. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . etc. which can cause all sorts of complications: your log entry becomes a part of your transaction. ± Now you can avoid the complexities (need for ROLLBACK TO savepoints and so on).

USER.tst retry. rec.program ). EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN ROLLBACK. SYSDATE. While we're at it. END.page 201 . USER. END.pkg log81*.machine. SYSDATE. text_in IN VARCHAR2 ) IS PRAGMA AUTONOMOUS_TRANSACTION.pkg retry. COMMIT. logger. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Avoid interdependencies with the main transaction. text_in.sp log81. rec.tst PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . let's add some session information.Logging with ATs  Don't forget that ROLLBACK in the exception section! CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY log IS PROCEDURE putline ( code_in IN INTEGER. BEGIN INSERT INTO logtab VALUES (code_in.

± You cannot define a nested anonymous block to be an AT. ± You cannot tell by looking at the package spec if you are calling ATs or not -and this info is not available in the data dictionary. ± You cannot define an entire package as an AT. ± You can use the SET TRANSACTION ISOLATION LEVEL SERIALIZABLE to indicate that you do not want the changes visible until the outer transaction commits.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . The AT PRAGMA can be used only with individual programs and toplevel anonymous blocks. autonserial.sql autontrigger*.sql auton_in_sql. or an error is raised. ± Place the SET TRANSACTION statement in the outer transaction.page 202 .  Any changes committed in an AT are visible in the outer transaction.   The AT PRAGMA goes in the body of packages.Tips and Gotchas with ATs  An AT program must COMMIT or ROLLBACK before terminating.

you can now decide at compilation time whether your program or package will execute in the definer's schema (the default) or the schema of the invoker of the code. ± This is called the « Invoker Rights Model PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . it ran under the privileges of the account in which the program was defined. ± This is called the « Definer Rights Model  With Oracle8i.page 203 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . whenever you executed a stored program.The Invoker Rights Model  Prior to Oracle8i.

Note: Oracle built-in packages have long had the capability of running under the invoker's authority. OE Code Order_Mgt Place Cancel Sam_Sales Close Old Orders  OE Data X  Orders Cannot alter table directly. But it can be a source of confusion and architectural problems. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Ignores roles and relies on directly-granted privileges.page 204 .About Definer Rights  Allows you to centralize access to and control of underlying data structures.

.it's all or nothing. each user has own copy of table(s).and now you do! 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . unless you write code in the package to essentially recreate roles programmatically. requiring copy of stored module  Security ± No declarative way to restrict privileges on certain modules in a package -.page 205 .Problems with Definer Rights  Deployment & maintenance ± Must install module in all remote databases where needed ± In some databases.. ± Can bypass 8i¶s ³fine-grained´ access features (see the DBMS_RLS package) ± Difficult to audit privileges  Sure would be nice to have a choice.

and must be at the package level... ± At run-time.  For modules with separate spec and body. "dummy" objects. the objects referenced may well be different from those against which it compiled. do what it takes to get the code to compile. You could also create local. Synonyms may be necessary if modules use object names not qualified by schema. ± In other words.page 206 .Oracle8i Invoker Rights Syntax  For top level modules: CREATE [ OR REPLACE ] <module type> [ AUTHID { DEFINER | CURRENT_USER } ] AS . AUTHID goes only in spec.  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

."Reflection" Capability of Invoker Rights  With invoker rights... code..acct_mgr.. yet have all references to data structures "reflect back" into your own schema.FROM accounts WHERE.page 207 . you can execute code owned by another schema....destroy(. accounts table 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . modify destroy .). Central Code schema PACKAGE acct_mgr make AUTHID CURRENT_USER User/Data schema PROCEDURE mng_account IS BEGIN . END.

± Both static and dynamic SQL is supported.  Once a definer rights program is called. the definer rights model is always applied to resolve the reference. oneversion.page 208 . ± AUTHID CURRENT_USER is ignored. all other calls in stack are resolved according to definer rights. only data ± When your stored code references another stored code element.Tips and Gotchas for Invoker Rights  Does not apply to code objects.sql  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .sql handy.  Information about the rights model is not available in the data dictionary What if you want to maintain a single version of your code for both pre-Oracle8i and Oracle8i installations. Note: cannot use with wrapped code. taking advantage of the invoker rights model whenever possible? ± A creative use of SQL*Plus substitution variables comes in very invdefinv.

National HQ Check City Statistics New York Schema stolenlives Chicago Schema stolenlives  Especially handy with dynamic SQL.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Share a program that uses dynamic SQL (whether DBMS_SQL or the new native implementation) and you end up taking the most unexpected DDL and DML detours.page 209 . authid.sql whichsch*.When to Invoke Invoker Rights  You want to reuse the same code among many users. but you want their own directly-granted privileges to determine access.

page 210 . HQ Chicago Check City Statistics  New York stolenlives Analyze Pattern stolenlives perpetrators perp. Rely on definer rights to access centralized data from any schema.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Combining Invoker & Definer Rights  Rely on invoker rights to allow centralized code to work with schema-specific data.

page 211 .Row Level Security DBMS_RLS Row-Level Security 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Row Level Security  The establishment of security policies on (restricted access to) individual rows of a table. The DBMS_RLS package (along with "system contexts") now allow you to do so in a foolproof manner. with which to implement automated row-level security (also referred to as "fine grained access control"). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . DBMS_RLS. you could achieve this only partially through the use of views.Row-Level Security with DBMS_RLS  Oracle8i offers a new package.page 212   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . Prior to Oracle8i.

their context information is set properly. the system context is a named set of attributevalue pairs global to your session.  Security Policy Packages ± You will need to write a package containing functions that establish the security policies to be applied to a particular table.page 213 .  DBMS_RLS ± Use programs in DBMS_RLS to associate your security policies with tables.  Let's step through a simple example to see how all these pieces tie together.  Database Logon Triggers ± I want to make sure that when a person logs in. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Components Needed for RLS  System Contexts ± A new feature in Oracle8i.

page 214 . doctor. Here are some rules: ± Doctors can only see patients who are assigned to their clinic. ± Patients can only see information about themselves. popular uprising in the United States has forced the establishment of a national healthcare system. all children are vaccinated. all pregnant women receive excellent prenatal care. clinic and regulator. no more private insurance companies soaking up 30 cents on the dollar.  We need a top-notch.A National Health Care System  The year is 2010. ± A massive. ± Regulators can only see patients who reside in the same state. fgac.sql  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . No more for-profit hospitals pulling billions of dollars out of the system. highly secure database for NHCS. The main tables are patient.

DBMS_SESSION.SET_CONTEXT ( 'patient_restriction'.doctor_id).SET_CONTEXT ( 'patient_restriction'. doc_rec doc_cur%ROWTYPE. c_person_id_attr.Set the Context  Define a context in the database. doc_rec. FETCH doc_cur INTO doc_rec. DBMS_SESSION. See CURSOR doc_cur IS fgac. END. BEGIN OPEN doc_cur. PROCEDURE set_context IS This is a simplification. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .sql for logic that identifies SELECT doctor_id FROM doctor different types of people and WHERE schema_name = USER. CREATE CONTEXT patient_restriction USING nhc_pkg. and create a procedure that will set the context attributes (type and ID) upon login.page 215 . 'DOCTOR'). sets the context accordingly. c_person_type_attr.

c_person_type_attr). FUNCTION person_predicate ( schema_in VARCHAR2. ''' || clause for each type of c_person_id_attr || '''))'. person. connection.Define the Predicate  A predicate is a string that will be appended to the WHERE clause of the table to which this security policy is associated (see next page). name_in VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2 IS l_context VARCHAR2(100) := Extract the context SYS_CONTEXT (c_context.page 216 . BEGIN IF l_context = 'DOCTOR' THEN retval := 'home_clinic_id IN (SELECT home_clinic_id FROM doctor We need a different string WHERE doctor_id = SYS_CONTEXT (''' || to modify the WHERE c_context || '''. information for this retval VARCHAR2(2000). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

PATIENT table will be modified by the string returned by the person_predicate function of the SCOTT. ( => => => => => => 'SCOTT'. 'nhc_pkg. 'SCOTT'. ± The following procedure call specifies that the WHERE clause of any query. 'patient_privacy'.DELETE').ADD_POLICY procedure. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .UPDATE.ADD_POLICY OBJECT_SCHEMA OBJECT_NAME POLICY_NAME FUNCTION_SCHEMA POLICY_FUNCTION STATEMENT_TYPES END.page 217 . 'SELECT.person_predicate'. update or delete against the SCOTT.nhc_pkg package.Create the Security Policy  Use the DBMS_RLS. BEGIN DBMS_RLS. 'patient'.

set_context.page 218 . logon is disabled.PUT_LINE ( 'Error ' || SQLCODE || ' setting context for ' || USER'). CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER set_id_on_logon AFTER LOGON ON DATABASE BEGIN nhc_pkg. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN DBMS_OUTPUT. we guarantee that the context is set (and the predicate applied) no matter which product is the entry point to Oracle.sql Exception handling in trigger is critical! If you allow an exception to go unhandled. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . fgac. Setting Context  By setting the context in the logon trigger. END.Create Logon Trigger.

Predicate: home_clinic_id IN (SELECT home_clinic_id FROM doctor WHERE doctor_id = SYS_CONTEXT ('patient_restriction'.IL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Patient sees only himself.Queries Transparently Filtered  What you see is determined automatically by who you are.IL VSILVA .Veva Silva . 'person_id')) Patients Visible to "SWALLACE": CSILVA .page 219 .Chris Silva .IL Context Information for "CSILVA": Type: PATIENT ID: Predicate: schema_name = 'CSILVA' Patients Visible to "CSILVA": CSILVA .Chris Silva . Context Information for "SWALLACE": Type: DOCTOR Doctor sees only her ID: 1060 patients. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

and play a new tune with PL/SQL! 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Take Full Advantage of PL/SQL! January. February. It's so easy to fall into a rut with a programming language....  ± You learn what you need to get the job done. March. Jump out of your rut .... April...page 220 . May.. and you use only what you know..

page 221 .k.. If time permits«)     UTL_FILE ± file IO DBMS_JOB ± Job scheduling DBMS_PIPE ± Pipe-based communication DBMS_UTILITY ± the kitchen sink package 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Appendices (a.a.

.. Physical Files 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Built-in Packages: UTL_FILE UTL_FILE Server-side File I/O Application FOPEN GET_LINE PUT_LINE .page 222 .

  But you can read lines from a file and write lines to a file. delete. ± No higher-level file operations supported (change privileges. ± Maximum of 1023 bytes per line (read or write) until Oracle 8.5. no use of environmental variables). when it jumps to 32K.0. random access to contents). A "version 1" (fairly primitive) utility. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..page 223 . ± Limitations on files you can access (no mapped files.. copy.UTL_FILE: Server-side I/O  Allows you to read from and write to operating system files on the database server.

Puts formatted text into the buffer PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 224 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .UTL_FILE Module Outline FCLOSE FCLOSE_ALL FFLUSH FOPEN GET_LINE IS_OPEN NEW_LINE PUT PUT_LINE PUTF Close the specified file Close all open files in your session Flush all data from the UTL_FILE buffer to your file Open a file Get the next line from a file Returns TRUE if the file is open (sort of) Insert a new line character in file at the end of current line Puts text into the UTL_FILE buffer Puts text and new line character into UTL_FILE buffer.

utl_file_dir = /tmp utl_file_dir = /accounts/newdev  And don't do either of the following: utl_file_dir = . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . there is no subdirectory recursion). ± You do this by adding lines to the instance parameter file. ± No single or double quotes around directory.page 225 Allows read & write for current directory. utl_file_dir = * Allows read & write for any directory. ± Use a separate entry for each directory (and subdirectory. no trailing delimiter. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .Authorizing Directory Access  Oracle requires you to list explicitly those directories you wish to be able to read/write with UTL_FILE.  Follow these rules to avoid many headaches.

UTL_FILE.PUT_LINE (fid. / utlfile. */ fid := UTL_FILE. 'hello').FCLOSE (fid).tst  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . modify your initialization file. So before you write anything fancy.FOPEN ('c:\temp'. END.page 226 . 'W').txt'. UTL_FILE. and then run the following test script (it can't get much simpler than this): DECLARE fid UTL_FILE. 'test.FILE_TYPE. restart your database. BEGIN /* Change the directory name to one to which you at least || THINK you have read/write access.Test UTL_FILE Access  About the hardest part to working with UTL_FILE is simply getting started.

this function simply returns TRUE if the file handle's id field is NOT NULL.FILE_TYPE. 'W'). END.page 227 . ± In actuality. Test to see if file is open with the IS_OPEN function. 'W' for Write and 'A' for Append.  Specify file location. 'test. BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE.FOPEN ('c:\temp'. Not much of a test. ± Currently contains a single ID field.  The FOPEN function returns a record ("file handle") based on the UTL_FILE. ± Types are 'R' for Read. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ...   Maximum of 10 files may be opened in each user session.txt'. name and operation type.Opening a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.FILE_TYPE.

Lines in the file cannot be longer than 1023 bytes in length. getnext. the ceiling is raised to 32K. 'test. 'R').GET_LINE (fid. myline).FILE_TYPE.page 228 . ± You might want to build your own GET_LINE which handles the exception and returns an EOF Boolean status flag.Reading from a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE. BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE.  The NO_DATA_FOUND exception is raised if you read past the end of the file.5 and above. END.txt'. UTL_FILE. ± In Oracle8 Release 8. UTL_FILE.FCLOSE (fid).   Can only read from a file opened with the "R" mode.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .0.FOPEN ('c:\temp'.

± The file buffers are automatically flushed when you close a file or exit your session.  Call FFLUSH to make sure that everything you have written to the buffer is flushed out to the file. UTL_FILE. UTL_FILE is so much fun that I never want to stop Resulting Text  You can use PUT. ' that I never\nwant to %s'.FILE_TYPE.PUT_LINE (fid. ± PUTF is like the C printf program. allowing for some formatting.FOPEN ('c:\temp'. END. 'UTL_FILE'). '&1'). 'is so much fun').PUT (fid.FCLOSE (fid).PUTF (fid. PUT_LINE or PUTF. 'W'). UTL_FILE. UTL_FILE. 'test. BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE. UTL_FILE.page 229 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .txt'. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Writing to a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . You can close a single file with FCLOSE or all open files with FCLOSE_ALL. UTL_FILE.FOPEN ('c:\temp'.txt'. EXCEPTION WHEN UTL_FILE. you will not see the data you have (supposedly) written to that file. myline). You should close files in exception handlers to make sure that files are not left "hanging" open. 'test. 'R').  If you do not close the file.page 230   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .FCLOSE (fid). BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE.FILE_TYPE.Closing a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE. UTL_FILE.GET_LINE (fid.FCLOSE (fid).READ_ERROR THEN UTL_FILE. END.

EXCEPTION.page 231 . EXCEPTION. EXCEPTION. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . EXCEPTION. EXCEPTION. ± They all share a common SQLCODE of 1.Error Handling in UTL_FILE PACKAGE UTL_FILE IS invalid_path invalid_mode invalid_filehandle invalid_operation read_error write_error internal_error END. ± NO_DATA_FOUND when you try to read past the end of the file. ± UTL_FILE-named exceptions in other cases. EXCEPTION. EXCEPTION.  You have to take special care to trap and handle the named exceptions.  UTL_FILE relies on a combination of user-defined exceptions and STANDARD exceptions to communicate errors.

INTERNAL_ERROR THEN recNgo (PLVfile. RAISE.c_write_error).INVALID_MODE THEN recNgo (PLVfile. RAISE.c_invalid_filehandle). RAISE.c_internal_error).Recommended Exception Section EXCEPTION WHEN UTL_FILE.c_invalid_operation). utlflexc.sql  Trap locally by name.INVALID_OPERATION THEN recNgo (PLVfile.c_invalid_mode). RAISE. WHEN UTL_FILE.c_invalid_path). WHEN UTL_FILE.INVALID_PATH THEN recNgo (PLVfile.c_read_error). WHEN UTL_FILE. END. translating the generic user-defined exception into an understandable message. Re-raise exception if you want it to propagate from that block.WRITE_ERROR THEN recNgo (PLVfile. RAISE. WHEN UTL_FILE.READ_ERROR THEN recNgo (PLVfile. RAISE.INVALID_FILEHANDLE THEN recNgo (PLVfile. RAISE. WHEN UTL_FILE. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . record the error. WHEN UTL_FILE.page 232  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .

Background Process DBA_JOBS Oracle Job Queue Subsystem 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..Built-in Packages: DBMS_JOB DBMS_JOB Scheduled Execution of Stored Procedures Application SUBMIT RUN REMOVE .page 233 ..

Schedule large batch jobs to run on "off hours".Overview of DBMS_JOB  DBMS_JOB provides an API to the Oracle job queues.1. You can use DBMS_JOB to: Replicate data between different database instances. Create a listener program to poll the contents of a pipe and take action. Made its debut in PL/SQL Release 2. Schedule regular maintenance on instances. ± ± ± ±    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .2. which in turn offers job scheduling capabilities within the Oracle Server. ± Spawn background processes to avoid blocking client process.page 234 . Built by Oracle to support snapshots and replication. but only ³publicly available´ and supported in PL/SQL Release 2.

Changes when a queued job will run. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Changes the job string of a job. Submits a job to the queue using a predefined job number. Returns the job string for a job number. Broken jobs will not run as scheduled.page 235 CHANGE INTERVAL ISUBMIT NEXT_DATE REMOVE RUN SUBMIT USER_EXPORT WHAT 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . Removes the job from the queue. Forces immediate execution of the specified job number. Changes one or all attributes of a job. Submits a job to the queue returning a unique job number. Changes the interval between executions of a job.DBMS_JOB Module Outline BROKEN Marks the job as either FIXED or BROKEN.

 A job is a call to a stored procedure or an anonymous block ± It must end with a semi-colon and can contain ³hard-coded´ arguments. ± In the above example.  When you submit a job. 'SYSDATE + 1').ISUBMIT and supply the job number. instead of having DBMS_JOB generate one for you.'. BEGIN DBMS_JOB. and then the job¶s execution interval (frequency of execution). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . while the interval is a string (this is dynamic PL/SQL!)  You can also call DBMS_JOB.page 236 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .SUBMIT (job#. SYSDATE. 'calculate_totals. you specify the date on which it should next execute. END. Notice that the start time is a DATE expression. I run calculate_totals immediately and then on a daily basis thereafter.Submitting a Job DECLARE job# BINARY_INTEGER.

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Submit Job Example DECLARE v_jobno INTEGER. to analyze a specific table every evening at midnight. what => 'DBMS_DDL. p.'. interval => 'TRUNC(SYSDATE+1)' ).l (v_jobno).ANALYZE_OBJECT.''TENK''' || '. next_date => TRUNC (SYSDATE + 1).''ESTIMATE''.submit ( job => v_jobno. DBMS_DDL. END.estimate_percent=>50).page 237 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . BEGIN DBMS_JOB.ANALYZE_OBJECT ' || '(''TABLE''. /  This block submits a job that uses a built-in procedure.null.''LOAD1''.

executes for the first time tomorrow and every 10 minutes thereafter.SYSDATE+1. numbered 1. /  This block submits three jobs to the job queue.page 238 . ± Job 1 passes a string and number into procedure MY_JOB1.2.null).' .'. runs it in one hour and executes every day thereafter.120). executes immediately. DBMS_JOB.SYSDATE.ISUBMIT(3.ISubmit Job Example BEGIN DBMS_JOB.ISUBMIT (2.'BEGIN null.ISUBMIT (job => 1 . ± Job 3 is a PL/SQL block which does nothing.interval => 'SYSDATE +1'). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . and will be removed from the queue automatically.' .next_date => SYSDATE + 1/24 .DBMS_JOB.what => 'my_job1(''string_parm_value''. and 3. 'my_job2(date_IN=>SYSDATE). ± Job 2 passes a date into procedure MY_JOB2. DBMS_JOB. END.'SYSDATE+10/1440'). END.

''Q''). Wednesday and Friday at 6 PM 'SYSDATE + 1/24' 'NEXT_DAY (TRUNC (SYSDATE). ± Since it's a string. 3). NEXT_DAY (SYSDATE. NEXT_DAY (SYSDATE. ± Use date arithmetic to request intervals smaller than a day.page 239 + 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . ''MONDAY'') + 9/24' 'TRUNC (LEAST ( NEXT_DAY (SYSDATE. at 9 AM Every Monday. ''SATURDAY'') 2/24' 'NEXT_DAY ( ADD_MONTHS (TRUNC (SYSDATE. Every hour Every Sunday at 2 AM First Monday of each quarter. ''FRIDAY''))) + 18/24' PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . you must use 2 single quotes to embed strings. ''MONDAY'').Specifying Job Times & Frequencies  Probably the most complicated part of using DBMS_JOB is to get the string expression of the job interval right. ''WEDNESDAY'').

retaining current job number. expjob.REMOVE (rec.ISUBMIT. ± Only if the job was submitted from same schema BEGIN FOR rec IN (SELECT * FROM USER_JOBS) LOOP DBMS_JOB.job). ± Produces a string that can be used to recreate an existing job in the job queue.  Run a job immediately. DBMS_JOB.  Export jobs from the queue. ± Performs an implicit COMMIT in current session.RUN (my_job#). ± Uses DBMS_JOB. Remove all jobs for current schema.Other Job Queue Operations  Remove a job from the queue.page 240 . END LOOP.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

what job_id username start_date job_definition jr j s showjobs.job .job = j.this_date.job ORDER BY jr. who owns them and when they began.sql FROM DBA_JOBS_RUNNING . SELECT jr.V$SESSION WHERE s.Job Queue Views  You can also view the job queue by looking at the DBA_JOBS_RUNNING. ± The following query blends job information with session information to display currently-executing jobs.jr.username .this_date . DBA_JOBS and USER_JOBS views. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .sid AND jr.page 241 .DBA_JOBS .sid = jr.

ora (initialization) file for your database instance: ± job_queue_processes=N where n is the number of concurrent background processes permitted. ± The default is PUBLIC access. The valid range is 1 to 3600 (a maximum. The valid range is 0 through 36. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . of one hour).page 242 . ± job_queue_interval=N where N is the interval in seconds to check the job queue.Setting up the Job Facility  Make sure that the correct access is set up for the DBMS_JOB package.  You will need to set three parameters in the init. therefore. You will have to take special DBA action if you want to restrict who can run jobs.

the job facility will mark your job as broken. it may cause the background processes to fail and no longer run any jobs at all.page 243 . ± Always include a WHEN OTHERS exception handler in your job program which traps any and all problems and automatically sets the job status to broken. Then you can go ahead and submit it. if your failure raises an unhandled exception. ± Do you want it to try 16 times? ± In addition.  To avoid unexpected and unhandled failures of scheduled jobs: ± Always use the RUN built-in to execute your job in a ³test´ mode.Error Handling with DBMS_JOB  What if your stored procedure fails? ± After 16 attempts. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

BROKEN (job#. job_pkg.sql  The WHEN OTHERS exception handler of the calc_totals procedure traps any kind of failure.sql showspc.page 244 .Stopping the Job When It Fails PROCEDURE calc_totals IS BEGIN .job (µcalc_totals¶) DBMS_JOB. END. You can go in and fix the problem.. µFAIL¶). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .log (µcalc_totals¶. spacelog. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN job# := job_pkg. ± Uses a call to BROKEN to set the status of the job to ³broken´. TRUE). ± Obtains the job number from a packaged function by passing the name of the procedure. ± Now the job facility will not try to run this program again.. ± Calls log program of package to record that failure took place.

When a job runs.  You will need to fully-qualify all database links (with user name and password) to get them to work properly.page 245 ."Good to Knows" for DBMS_JOB  You may find it useful to always wrap your stored procedure call (the what) inside a BEGIN-END block. difficult to reproduce behavior at times with "straight" procedure calls. perform a COMMIT after your submit. You can use the DBMS_IJOB to manage the jobs of other users. ± DBMS_JOB only allows you to modify characteristics and behavior of jobs submitted by the current schema. it picks up the current execution environment for the user. If you find that you submit a job to run immediately and it does not start. ± We've noticed some aberrant.    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Built-in Packages: DBMS_PIPE DBMS_PIPE Inter-session Communication 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 246 .

page 247 .  Uses for DBMS_PIPE include: ± Parallelization of program execution. Oracle uses database pipes to parallelize database operations.DBMS_PIPE Overview  Allows communication between different Oracle sessions through a pipe in the RDBMS Shared Global Area. You can parallelize your own code. ± Interface PL/SQL-database activities with operating system functions and programs written in other languages. ± More sophisticated debugging inside PL/SQL programs (work around fundamental limitations of DBMS_OUTPUT). ± Operates outside of database transaction limitations. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Perform and commit DML in a separate transaction space from your main transaction.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . using a maximum of 4096 bytes. ± Names can be up to 128 chars long (do not use names beginning with ³ORA$´. They are reserved for Oracle use). ± The pipe sends/receives a message. which can be composed of one or more separate packets.Architecture of DBMS_PIPE Shared Global Area ³Sue´ ³Bob´ Message Buffer Message Buffer Session A  Session B A pipe is a named object that uses the System Global Area to provide a non-transaction based conduit of information.page 248 .

± Each packet can be a string. ± If there isn¶t currently room in the pipe. you can wait for up to 1000 days (or 86400000 seconds) for the pipe to be cleared. ± This is the default. number. ROWID or RAW.  Receive a message from that pipe. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein pipex1.sql pipex2.sql PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± You can wait for up to 1000 days for a message.Processing Flow of DBMS_PIPE  Construct a message from packets of information.page 249 . date. ± There is just one message buffer per session.  Unpack the message packets and take action. ± Separate out the individual packets in the message (again: string. so you should always specify a timeout period.  Send the message to a named pipe. date or number).

making it a candidate for removal with a LRU algorithm. PACK_MESSAGE Packs an item into the message buffer for your session.page 250 . NEXT_ITEM_TYPE Returns the datatype of the next item in the piped message. PURGE Empties the contents of a pipe into your local buffer freeing it for removal. SEND_MESSAGE Sends contents of message buffer to the specified pipe. UNPACK_MESSAGE Unpacks the next item from the local message buffer and deposits it into the specified local variable. RECEIVE_MESSAGE Receives a message from pipe and copies to local buffer. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . REMOVE_PIPE RESET_BUFFER Removes a pipe explicitly created via CREATE_PIPE. Clears your buffer so that PACK_MESSAGE and UNPACK_MESSAGE can work from the first item. UNIQUE_SESSION_NAME Returns name that is unique among all sessions in the database.DBMS_PIPE Module Outline Module Name CREATE_PIPE Description Creates a PUBLIC or PRIVATE pipe.

BEGIN stat := DBMS_PIPE.Creating Public and Private Pipes  There are two ways to create pipes: implicitly and explicitly. ± Use CREATE_PIPE to create a pipe explicitly. ± Send messages to non-existent pipe implicitly create it.page 251 .  An explicit pipe can be private (accessible only to sessions with matching userID or SYSDBA privileges). ± Specify TRUE for private argument of CREATE_PIPE. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . private => TRUE).CREATE_PIPE ( pipename => 'bbs'. PROCEDURE newpipe IS stat INTEGER.  A public pipe is accessible as long as you know its name. ± Implicitly-created pipes are always public. maxpipesize => 20000.

Sending a Message Provide pipe name. 10 * 4096). FUNCTION send_message (pipename IN VARCHAR2. 60.PACK_MESSAGE ( total_sales (month_num)). but not smaller). IF pipe_stat != 0 THEN RAISE could_not_send. END LOOP. maxpipesize IN INTEGER DEFAULT 8192) RETURN INTEGER.page 252 . Status of 0 means message was sent. waiting up to 1 minute. 12 LOOP DBMS_PIPE. expanding pipe size to 40 Kbytes. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . FOR month_num IN 1 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Fill your message buffer with packets of data. Send to "monthly" pipe.SEND_MESSAGE ( µmonthly¶. timeout IN INTEGER DEFAULT maxwait. seconds you will wait. and new max pipe size (you can make it bigger.. pipe_stat := DBMS_PIPE.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  First you pull the message from the pipe and place it in buffer with RECEIVE_MESSAGE. timeout IN INTEGER DEFAULT maxwait) RETURN INTEGER.Receiving and Unpack a Message FUNCTION receive_message (pipename IN VARCHAR2. PROCEDURE unpack_message (item OUT NUMBER). ± Pipe status of 0 means the message was read successfully. ± You need to know the datatype of packet or check it using NEXT_ITEM_TYPE. ± Specify pipe and number of seconds you will wait before you time out.  Then you call UNPACK_MESSAGE to extract individual packets from the message. PROCEDURE unpack_message (item OUT VARCHAR2). PROCEDURE unpack_message (item OUT DATE).page 253 .

prod_total). seconds for the BEGIN next report. ELSE RAISE_APPLICATION_ERROR ( Stop process if -20000.UNPACK_MESSAGE (prod_total). Wait up to N prod_total NUMBER. data not received. If I got something. END. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . pass it on to the IF pipe_status = 0 computation THEN program. analyze_production (SYSDATE.'). every_n_secs). PROCEDURE analyze_assembly_data (every_n_secs IN INTEGER) IS pipe_status INTEGER.RECEIVE_MESSAGE ( 'production'.page 254 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . END IF.A Pipe-based Listener Program  Program wakes up every N seconds to read the data from the pipe and analyze results from assembly line (an intentional "infinite loop"!). END LOOP. DBMS_PIPE. 'Production data unavailable. LOOP pipe_status := DBMS_PIPE.

you have to make sure that you unpack a packet into the right kind of variable. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Or you use the built-in NEXT_ITEM_TYPE to tell you in advance the datatype of the next packet in the message and take appropriate action. Either: ± You know the datatype and therefore can ³hard-code´ the correct variable into the call to UNPACK_MESSAGE.page 255 .Unpacking the Message FUNCTION next_item_type RETURN INTEGER. Returns one of the following values: Value 0 6 9 11 12 23 Description or Data type No more items in buffer NUMBER VARCHAR2 ROWID DATE RAW dbpipe.sql dbpipe.tst  Since a message can be composed of packets of different datatypes.

you can do the same for your application if: ± You have multiple CPUs available.  Suppose I want to calculate my net profit. but are not dependent on each other. I must execute them sequentially and incur an elapsed time of 45 minutes before I calculate the profits. ± You have processes which can run in parallel.Parallelizing Your Code with Pipes  Oracle uses DBMS_PIPE to improve RDBMS performance. total office expenses and total compensation. ± These programs each take 15 minutes. In order to do so I must first compute total sales.  Without pipes. ± The CEO is decidedly unhappy about the delay. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 256 .

Sequential vs. Parallel Execution Sequential Execution: Maximum Elapsed Time S t a r t E n d Process A Process B Process C Parallel Execution: Minimum Elapsed Time Start Process A Process B Process C End 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 257 .

page 258 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . calculate_net_profits. END.  The ³kick off´ programs pass their messages to separate pipes.in a muchdecreased elapsed time.  The ³wait´ program waits till it receives a message from each program.Parallelizing PL/SQL Execution BEGIN kick_off_sales_calc. Then net profits can be computed -. ± When each program is complete. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Other programs running in the background grab the messages and start their corresponding calculation program. wait_for_confirmation. kick_off_exp_calc. it puts a message (perhaps even a value) into the pipe. kick_off_totcomp_calc.

IF stat = 0 THEN lots_of_number_crunching. stat := DBMS_PIPE. END.Code to Kick Off and Calculate PROCEDURE kick_off_sales_calc IS stat INTEGER.SEND_MESSAGE (µsales¶).SEND_MESSAGE (µsales¶). DBMS_PIPE. and send back the results.PACK_MESSAGE (sales$). calculate sales.SEND_MESSAGE (µsales¶). stat := DBMS_PIPE.RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µsales¶). PROCEDURE calculate_sales IS stat INTEGER.page 259 . BEGIN stat := DBMS_PIPE. Receive the year. END IF. stat := DBMS_PIPE. ELSE DBMS_PIPE. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Send message to start calculations. BEGIN DBMS_PIPE. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .PACK_MESSAGE (NULL). END.PACK_MESSAGE (1995).

DBMS_PIPE.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Wait for all calculations to finish.RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µsales¶).UNPACK_MESSAGE (comp$). END. PROCEDURE calculate_net_profits IS BEGIN net_profits := sales$ . The order in which you wait is insignificant. END.UNPACK_MESSAGE (offexp$).page 260 .UNPACK_MESSAGE (sales$).RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µoffexp¶). stat := DBMS_PIPE.Waiting for Confirmation PROCEDURE wait_for_confirmation IS stat INTEGER. parallel. stat := DBMS_PIPE.comp$.RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µcomp¶). DBMS_PIPE. DBMS_PIPE.offexp$ . BEGIN stat := DBMS_PIPE. Perform final calculation.

± A listener program grabs the request (including the return pipe name). ± The requester reads the information from the pipe.page 261 .pkg  Implementation of a system-wide. obtains the data. in-memory cache. syscache.Other DBMS_PIPE Examples  Simple trace package that sends it output either to screen or to pipe. and sends it to the pipe. watch.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Demonstrates the use of toggles and switches in packages.pkg p_and_l. ± A request for data is passed to a "central" pipe.pkg syscache.

Built-in Packages: DBMS_UTILITY DBMS_UTILITY Application GET_TIME GET_HASH_VALUE FORMAT_CALL_STACK . A µgrab-bag¶ of miscellaneous operations SCHEMA 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ...page 262 .

Gets block number part of data block address.pkg COMMA_TO_TABLE COMPILE_SCHEMA DATA_BLOCK_ADDRESS_BLOCK DATA_BLOCK_ADDRESS_FILE DB_VERSION EXEC_DDL_STATEMENT FORMAT_CALL_STACK FORMAT_ERROR_STACK GET_HASH_VALUE 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .page 263 dbver.pkg dbparm. Returns hash value for string. Returns database version (Oracle8) Executes DDL statement (Oracle8). Returns execution call stack.DBMS_UTILITY Module Outline ANALYZE_DATABASE ANALYZE_PART_OBJECT Analyze objects in database Runs ANALYZE TABLE or ANALYZE INDEX for each partition of the object (Oracle8). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Returns error stack. Parses comma-delimited list to index-by table. Gets file number part of data block address. Recompile INVALID objects in specified schema.

Returns platform and version of database. Returns "current time" down to hundredth of second. Creates data block address from block & file numbers. Resolves name of object into component parts.DBMS_UTILITY Module Outline. cont. Returns TRUE if in parallel server mode. GET_PARAMETER_VALUE GET_TIME IS_PARALLEL_SERVER MAKE_DATA_BLOCK_ADDRESS NAME_RESOLVE NAME_TOKENIZE PORT_STRING TABLE_TO_COMMA Retrieves value of database parameter (Oracle8). Converts list (in index-by-table) of elements into a comma-delimited list (string).page 264 . Parses string object designator into components. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

 Compare results from consecutive calls to GET_TIME to determine the elapsed time of PL/SQL code execution.page 265 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± SYSDATE only reflects times down to the nearest second.Sub-Second Timings with GET_TIME  GET_TIME returns the number of 100ths of seconds that have elapsed since an arbitrary point in time. BEGIN v_start := DBMS_UTILITY. so GET_TIME offers significant additional granularity. calc_totals. Basic steps necessary to convert GET_TIME into a performance analysis tool. DECLARE v_start BINARY_INTEGER. ± Useful when analyzing individual PL/SQL programs. END.GET_TIME. especially those that run in sub-second time. DBMS_OUTPUT.GET_TIME .v_start).PUT_LINE (DBMS_UTILITY.

PROCEDURE capture ( context_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) PROCEDURE show_elapsed (prefix_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL.show_elapsed. BEGIN PLVtmr.sps plvtmr. END. END PLVtmr.sql plvtmr. PLVtmr.spb 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . PROCEDURE set_factor (factor_in IN NUMBER). Clean and lean timing code ovrhead.page 266 .Building a Layer Over GET_TIME Partial package specification PACKAGE PLVtmr IS PROCEDURE turn_on. reset_in IN BOOLEAN := TRUE).capture. adjust_in IN NUMBER := 0. PROCEDURE turn_off. calc_totals.

page 267 . equivalent to CHR(10). ± Most recent program at beginning of "report". ± Does not show package elements. ----.Accessing the Execution Call Stack Use in the exception section to show context of error. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN DBMS_OUTPUT. END.FORMAT_CALL_STACK).VALIDATE_REQUEST function STEVEN. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .PUT_LINE ( DBMS_UTILITY.COMPANY_TYPE procedure STEVEN.CALC_NET_WORTH anonymous block  "Little known facts" about FORMAT_CALL_STACK: ± Contains embedded new-line characters. only the package name.PL/SQL Call Stack ----object line object handle number name 88ce3f74 88e49fc4 88e49390 88e2bd20 8 2 1 1 package STEVEN.

END LOOP. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE dispcs IS stk VARCHAR2(10000). BEGIN stk := DBMS_UTILITY. next_line VARCHAR2(255). startpos.pkg plvcs.startpos + 1).sp dispcs. next_newline INTEGER.FORMAT_CALL_STACK || CHR(10). which means you cannot pass it to DBMS_OUTPUT directly. startpos := next_newline + 1. LOOP next_newline := INSTR (stk.PUT_LINE (next_line). startpos INTEGER := 1.tst callstack. dispcs.sps DBMS_OUTPUT. use a loop to read through the stack. startpos.page 268 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . next_line := SUBSTR ( stk. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 1). Instead. EXIT WHEN next_newline = 0. next_newline . CHR(10).Accessing Call Stack Contents  The call stack length can easily exceed 255 bytes. END.

dblink OUT VARCHAR2.NAME_RESOLVE (name IN VARCHAR2.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .sp snc.. schema OUT VARCHAR2. part2 OUT VARCHAR2.  Possible "Part 1" Types 5 7 8 9 Synonym Procedure Function Package What a chore! All those arguments. part1_type OUT NUMBER. the way they are attached also follows a complicated syntax.. see it as an opportunity.. part1 OUT VARCHAR2. context IN NUMBER. object_number OUT NUMBER). ± Use NAME_RESOLVE to break down an identifier string into its components easily.but don't see it as a problem.Resolving Names of Stored Code  Code names have many components..page 269 .for encapsulation! showcomp. PROCEDURE DBMS_UTILITY.

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