Achieving PL/SQL Excellence

Oracle PL/SQL Advanced Techniques
Oracle7 thru Oracle8i
Steven Feuerstein
www.StevenFeuerstein.com www.Quest.com www.OReilly.com
and contributions most excellent from Bill Pribyl and Dick Bolz

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 1

Objective & Outline 

Objective
± Expand your knowledge and awareness of important and new features of the PL/SQL language. 

Outline
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± Building with Packages (Oracle7+) PL/SQL Collections (Oracle7 and Oracle8+) Cursor Variables (Oracle7 and Oracle8+) Dynamic SQL: DBMS_SQL and Native Dynamic SQL (8i) Calling Java from PL/SQL (Oracle8i) and C (Oracle8) Oracle Advanced Queuing with DBMS_AQ (Oracle8) Managing Large Objects with DBMS_LOB (Oracle8) Other Oracle8i New Features
» Autonomous Transactions (Oracle8i) » Invoker Rights Model (Oracle8i) » Row Level Security: DBMS_RLS

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

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Software Used in Training 

PL/Vision: a library of packages installed on top of PL/SQL.
± PL/Vision Lite - use it, copy, change it for free -- unless you build software to be sold commercially. ± Active PL/SQL Knowledge Base: contains PL/Vision Professional, the fully supported and enhanced version. 

Demonstration scripts executed in the training can be found on the RevealNet PL/SQL Pipeline:
± http://www.revealnet.com/Pipelines/PLSQL/index.htm ± Archives surfboard, Miscellaneous, PL/SQL Seminar Files ± See filedesc.doc for a listing of many of the files.
plsql_ides.txt 

The PL/SQL IDE (Integrated Development Environment).
± You no longer have to use SQL*Plus and a crude editor! Choose from among the many listed in plsql_ides.txt.

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Achieving PL/SQL Excellence

Building with PL/SQL Packages 
 

Overview Initialization section Overloading

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What is a Package? 

A collection of code elements, from procedures and functions to TYPE, variable and cursor declarations.
± Single-most important structure within PL/SQL, and almost certainly one of the most under-utilized. ± Conceptually very simple, it can take some time to fully grasp the implications and potential of the package. 

The method of choice by Oracle and other software developers for extending the PL/SQL language.
± You will find packages in the database, in Oracle Developer/2000, in Oracle Application Server. 

Let¶s review some of the benefits of packages.
tmr.pkg dbparm.pkg

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pkg insga. you call the packaged procedures and functions instead. te_employee.When to Build a Package  Join physically logically-related code.pks te_employee.pkb  Construct very flexible and usable utilities for developers.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 6 . ± There's a big difference between a bunch of separate programs and a coherent. package-based "component". watch. ± Instead of writing SQL directly in your programs. ± Puts more structure and organization in your body of code. ± Can lead to performance improvements. custrules.pkg  Improve transaction integrity by hiding data structures behind the package interface.

Program references package element the first time in each session. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 7 .Package Initialization  The initialization section is a block of code at the end of the package body that is executed once per session. Does the package have an init section? yes Run initialization code. no Complete request for packaged element. the first time any package element is referenced. ± The PL/SQL runtime engine determines when and if this code should be run.

BEGIN END pkg. ± Can have its own exception handling section. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . PACKAGE BODY pkg IS PROCEDURE proc IS BEGIN END. FUNCTION func RETURN BEGIN END.page 8 . ± Confirming that package is properly instantiated. most packages you build won't have one.  Useful for: ± Performing complex setting of default or initial values. ± Is not required. ± Setting up package data which does not change for the duration of a session. In fact. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein BEGIN after/outside of any program defined in the pkg.Package Initialization Structure  The initialization section: ± Is defined after and outside of any programs in the package.

'lpt1'. show_toolbar CHAR(1).tst this user. EXCEPTION WHEN NO_DATA_FOUND THEN /* No record for show_lov := show_toolbar := printer := PACKAGE sessinit IS show_lov CHAR(1). ± Body contains only initialization section.pkg init. WHEN OTHERS THEN RAISE_APPLICATION_ERROR (-20000. */ SELECT lov_flag. */ 'Y'.. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .. Section  An unusual package! ± Specification contains only variables. 'No profile for ' || USER). show_toolbar.Configure Session with Init. 'Y'. printer FROM user_config WHERE user_id = USER. PACKAGE BODY sessinit IS /* No declared package elements at all! */ BEGIN /* Get user preferences for this user. END sessinit. END sessinit. init. tb_flag. printer VARCHAR2(60).page 9 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . defprinter INTO show_lov.  Also a package with many design flaws.

Populate Collections  The PL/Vision Date package. fmt_count := 12. datemgr. ± This increases the flexibility of the date conversion process. employs several PL/SQL tables to convert strings and to perform date arithmetic. ± The datemgr. BEGIN fmts(1) := 'DD-MON-RR'.. fmts(4) := 'MM/DD'. PLVdate. fmts(3) := 'DD-MON'. .. fmts(12) := 'RRMMDD'. fmts(10) := 'MMDDYYYY'.page 10 . fmts(11) := 'YYYYMMDD'.pkg file demonstrates the basic technique (and the reliance on an initialization section) used to achieve this flexibility. fmts(2) := 'DD-MON-YYYY'. END dt.pkg dates. Initialization section populates a PL/SQL table.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . fmts(9) := 'MM/DD/YYYY'.

± Overloading transfers the "need to know" from the user to the overloaded program. myproc myproc 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± You can overload modules in any declaration section and in packages. you need to make that code as smart and as easy to use as possible.Program Overloading  When you overload programs. you give two or more programs the same name. myproc  Overloading is a critical feature when building comprehensive programmatic interfaces (APIs) or components using packages.page 11 . ± If you want others to use your code.

you would have to deal with something like this: date_string := TO_CHAR_FROM_DATE (SYSDATE. Without overloading. number_string := TO_CHAR_FROM_NUMBER (10000). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 12 . and took functions like TO_CHAR and TO_DATE totally for granted. 'MMDDYY'). 'MMDDYY').Overloading in PL/SQL Built-ins  PL/SQL uses overloading in many common functions. ± You just probably never gave it a thought. number_string := TO_CHAR (10000). date_string := TO_CHAR (SYSDATE. ± But Oracle couldn't offer that level of convenience without overloading.

± Their formal parameters differ only in datatype and the datatypes are in the same family. When you compile programs that use the overloaded code. order or datatype family (CHAR vs.How Overloading Works  For two or more modules to be overloaded. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± 2. ± Arguments differ only in their mode (IN. IN OUT).  Distinguishing characteristics: ± The formal parameters of overloaded modules must differ in number.page 13 . OUT.  Undistinguishing characteristics: ± Functions differ only in their RETURN datatype. ± The programs are of different types: procedure and function. There are two different "compile times": ± 1. VARCHAR2 is not different enough). When you compile the package or block containing the overloaded code. the compiler must be able to distinguish between the two calls at compile-time.

page 14 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Only difference is parameter mode.proc1 (v_value). END param_modes. which one? too_similar. Only difference is function RETURN type.PUT_LINE (only_returns. which one? param_modes. PACKAGE param_modes IS PROCEDURE proc1 (val IN VARCHAR2). PACKAGE only_returns IS FUNCTION func1 (val IN VARCHAR2) RETURN DATE. Parameter data types cause conflict. END too_many_cals.Examples of Invalid Overloadings PACKAGE too_similar IS PROCEDURE calc (reg_in IN CHAR). which one? DBMS_OUTPUT. END only_returns. FUNCTION func1 (val IN VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2. PROCEDURE calc (reg_in IN VARCHAR2). PROCEDURE proc1 (val IN OUT VARCHAR2).func1 (v_value)).calc ('123').

Overload Wherever Possible  Supporting Many Data Combinations ± Apply the same action to different kinds or combinations of data.  Overloading by Type. ± The DBMS_OUTPUT. the overloading does not provide a single name for different activities. not Value ± A less common application of overloading.PUT_LINE procedure illustrates this technique -and the PL/Vision p. You use the type of data and not its value to determine which of the overloaded programs should be executed.page 15 . so much as providing different ways of requesting the same activity.  Fitting the Program to the User ± To make your code as useful as possible.l substitute does an even better job. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . In this case. you may construct different versions of the ³same´ program which correspond to different patterns of use.

mask_in IN VARCHAR2 := 'Month DD.sps p. PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2. PACKAGE p IS PROCEDURE l (date_in IN DATE.page 16 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . END p. date_in IN DATE. YYYY . allowing the user to pass data to the "display engine" without writing "pre-processing" code.HH:MI:SS PM'). boolean_in IN BOOLEAN). PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2.spb PROCEDURE l (boolean_in IN BOOLEAN). YYYY . mask_in IN VARCHAR2 := µMonth DD. p.A "Classic" Overloaded Package  Many different datatype combinations. PROCEDURE l (number_in IN NUMBER). number_in IN NUMBER).HH:MI:SS PM'). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2. PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2).

PUT_LINE (SQLERRM || ': ' || TO_CHAR (SQLCODE)).PUT_LINE ('So what is different?'). p..l ('So what is different?'). DBMS_OUTPUT.Advantage of Extended Overloading ‡ Minimal overloading means lots of extra coding. p. 'MM/DD/YY HH:MI:SS')).page 17 .PUT_LINE ('FALSE'). SQLCODE). p.l (SQLERRM.PUT_LINE (TO_CHAR (SYSDATE. DBMS_OUTPUT. p.PUT_LINE ('TRUE'). IF print_report_fl THEN DBMS_OUTPUT.. DBMS_OUTPUT. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein ‡Extended overloadings are more likely to meet user needs.l (SYSDATE). END IF.l (print_report_fl). ELSE DBMS_OUTPUT. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

the user of your package can benefit from writing less code. ± Your code is a a more natural "fit" under a variety of requirements. In my experience. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . appreciated. If you take these different circumstances into account when you design your package specification. think about the way it will be used.page 18   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . such as "display data" or "create a file".and taken completely for granted..Fitting the Program to the User Writing "unnecessary" code? Time to overload!  A single piece of functionality. can be applied or needed under very different circumstances.. ± If you want to write software that is admired. few developers are considerate enough of their users to try to anticipate their needs.

you have to declare the record to hold the file handle.flg'. sometimes you will want to create a file and then perform additional operations. ± She doesn't care what's in it. so this is just the way it has to be. ± Here is the code required by UTL_FILE: DECLARE fid UTL_FILE. Of course.FILE_TYPE. 'W').FCLOSE (fid). even though you are simply going to close the file immediately after opening it.PUT_LINE (fid. UTL_FILE. 'exists. right? WRONG! PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 19  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE. It just needs to be present.Creating a File for a Quick Touch  Suppose a developer needs to create a file to be used as a "flag" in the operating system.FOPEN ('tmp/flags'. UTL_FILE. END. 'blah').  In other words.

BEGIN fid := PLVfile.pkg PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . line_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL). custrules.ini'. line_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) RETURN UTL_FILE.Procedure and Function Overloaded  Why not overload a "create file" program so that you can pick the one that most closely fits your situation? Consider the PLVfile package of PL/Vision.page 20 .FILE_TYPE. PLVfile.FILE_TYPE. /* Function */ FUNCTION fcreate (file_in IN VARCHAR2. v_user).  Overloading of FCreate PACKAGE PLVfile IS /* Procedure */ PROCEDURE fcreate (file_in IN VARCHAR2.flg'). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Use as Function DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.fcreate ('exists.put_line (fid. TO_CHAR (SYSDATE)).fcreate ('temp. END PLVfile. END. Use as Procedure BEGIN PLVfile.

"By-Type" Overloading  In some situations. Define a different program name for each datatype. the user does not need to pass data. when you use DBMS_SQL to set up a dynamic query. ± For example.page 21 . ± Pass a piece of data of the right type. you must call the DEFINE_COLUMN procedure to define the datatype of the Nth column in the cursor. ± Pass a string ³name´ of the datatype.  There are three ways to accomplish this: ± Don't overload. but the type of data. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

 So many program names to remember! Pass a literal value.DEFINE_COLUMN ± PLVgen. Lotsa typing. ± DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_VARCHAR2_COLUMN (cur.page 22 .DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. 1). 'STRING'.. 30). 2. 2.. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. 2. DBMS_SQL.. lotsa names. 1.Options for Specifying Column Type  Don't even bother overloading.func 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .VARCHAR2_TYPE.NUMBER_TYPE).DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.  Now let's look at two examples of overloading by datatype.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_INTEGER_COLUMN (cur. Pass a named constant. 1...  Nasty hard-coding... 'NUMBER').. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL. 30). DBMS_SQL..DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. 30)....

DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. 1. USER.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. v_empno).DEFINE_COLUMN. you only need to pass a value -. DBMS_UTILITY. ± The three code blocks below are equivalent. 'a'.of the correct type. DBMS_SQL. 30). 1). 2. DBMS_SQL.any value -. 1. 1.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. DBMS_SQL. 30). BEGIN DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. from the perspective of DBMS_SQL. 30). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .DEFINE_COLUMN procedure defines the datatype of a column. 2. ± To make it easier to accomplish this task. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. 2.GET_TIME).Defining Dynamic SQL Columns  The DBMS_SQL.page 23 . v_ename.

any string. type_in IN NUMBER).func ('last_date'. PACKAGE PLVgen IS PROCEDURE func (name_in IN VARCHAR2. any Boolean will do.Generating Functions by Value  In PLVgen. please! A number function. PROCEDURE func (name_in IN VARCHAR2. type_in IN VARCHAR2). type_in IN DATE). PROCEDURE func (name_in IN VARCHAR2. Any number. any date. please! 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 1) A date function. SQL> exec plvgen. the user indicates the type of function to be generated by providing a value. ± The particular value itself is of no importance.page 24 .func ('total_salary'. SYSDATE) SQL> exec plvgen.

 In the above example. PL/SQL does not sense a conflict with above overloading even though comp_id is a numeric column. PROCEDURE calc (comp_id_IN IN company. ± When I compile profits.comp_id%TYPE). END. PACKAGE profits IS PROCEDURE calc (comp_id_IN IN NUMBER). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .The Frustrations of Overloading  Watch out! An overloading can compile successfully. but you might later found out that you cannot actually call any of the overloaded programs.page 25 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . I rely on an anchored type (%TYPE) to establish the datatype of the second calc¶s parameter.

PROCEDURE calc_total (reg_in IN VARCHAR2).  Can I overload two programs which have parameters that differ only by name. END.page 26 . sales. like calc_totals shown above? ± If not. END sales. how would you do it? (Don't peek at the next page!) BEGIN sales. sales.calc_total ('NORTHWEST'). why not? ± If so.pkg ? 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Quiz! Nuances of Overloading PACKAGE sales IS PROCEDURE calc_total (zone_in IN VARCHAR2).calc_total ('ZONE2').

what => 'DBMS_DDL. That way you don't have to know and pass default values.ANALYZE_OBJECT ' || '(''TABLE''.estimate_percent=>50).sql  Advantages 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± You can skip over (not specify values for) any IN parameters that have default values.''ESTIMATE''.''LOAD1''. DBMS_JOB. next_date => TRUNC (SYSDATE + 1).'.submit ( job => v_jobno.page 27 . interval => 'TRUNC(SYSDATE+1)'). namednot. of named notation include: ± Code is more "self-documenting".''TENK''' || '.null. This is especially useful when working with infrequently used built-in programs.Using Named Notation <formal parameter name> => <expression>  Explicit association between the formal parameter (the "name") with the actual parameter (the "value").

Oracle8 and above) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Three types of collections: ± Index-by tables (Oracle7 only.page 28 .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence PL/SQL Collections   Collections are single-dimensioned lists of information. originally called PL/SQL tables) ± Nested tables (Oracle8 and above) ± Variable arrays (VARRAYs.

Improve query performance by avoiding joins.page 29     1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . which are otherwise not supported in PL/SQL Cache data in session-level memory for faster access. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Emulate bi-directional cursors. Avoid mutating table errors in database triggers.When to Use Collections  Maintain any kind of list of related information for use in your programs. Build hash tables (custom indexing structures).

emp_copy inmem_emp_t. Valid row numbers range: -2. Instead. ± Homogeneous » Data in each row has the same structure.483.page 30 .647 to 2.147. this broad range allows you to employ the row number as an intelligent key.147. DECLARE TYPE inmem_emp_t IS TABLE OF emp%ROWTYPE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER.647 » You will not actually create tables this large. ± Available only in PL/SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Characteristics of an index-by table: ± Unbounded » Practically speaking. ± Sparse » Data does not have to be stored in consecutive rows of information.483.Index-By Tables TYPE <table_type> IS TABLE OF <datatype> INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER.

Variable declaration children child_list_type.pkg children 6306 6412 6904 µBarbara Anne¶ µGary Richard¶ µLisa Marie¶ children (6810) := µAdam Russell.page 31 . children (6904) := 'Lisa Nadezhka'. Error: NO_DATA_FOUND 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Component Selection kid := children (4).Index_by Tables TYPE declaration PACKAGE BODY family IS TYPE child_list_type IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2 (30) INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. children 6306 6412 6810 6904 µBarbara Anne¶ µGary Richard¶ µAdam Russell¶ µLisa Nadezhka¶ datemgr.

DECLARE TYPE when_t IS TABLE OF DATE.Nested Tables [CREATE OR REPLACE] TYPE <table_type> IS TABLE OF <datatype> [NOT NULL]. but can become sparse if you DELETE inner rows ± Available both in PL/SQL and SQL (as a column in a table) ± The order of elements is not preserved in the database 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Unbounded.page 32 .647 ± Initially dense.147. birthdays when_t. Valid row numbers range: 1 to 2.  Nested table characteristics ± Homogeneous » Each row contains the same structure of data. but only with explicit EXTEND requests » Practically speaking.483.

page 33 . For ORACLE's use only db_family surname kids BOLZ BOND Eric Thomas Max Richard Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Marie ntdemo.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . kids child_table_type) NESTED TABLE kids STORE AS kids_ntab. CREATE TABLE db_family (surname VARCHAR2 (30).Nested Tables CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE child_table_type IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2 (30).

can be EXTENDed or TRIMmed. ± Bounded » Upper limit established when the TYPE is defined. ± Variable arrays are actually stored in the DB table 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Variable Arrays [CREATE OR REPLACE] TYPE <table_type> IS VARRAY (N) OF <datatype> [NOT NULL].483.page 34 . ± Available both in PL/SQL and SQL (as a column in a table) » And the order of elements are preserved in the database. salaries numbers_t.647 ± Dense » Never any gaps between defined rows.147. DECLARE TYPE numbers_t IS VARRAY (10) OF NUMBER. Maximum value: 2.  Characteristics of variable arrays: ± Homogeneous » Each row contains the same structure of data.

page 35 .sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . CREATE TABLE db_family (surname VARCHAR2 (30).Variable Arrays CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE child_va_type IS VARRAY (8) OF VARCHAR2 (30). db_family surname kids BOLZ BOND 1 Barbara Anne 2 Gary Richard 3 Lisa Marie 1 Eric Thomas 2 Max Richard vademo. kids child_va_type).

Best option: package specification.  Then you declare an instance of that type. a collection. you can define the TYPE in the database with a CREATE statement. TYPE integer_vat IS VARRAY(10) OF INTEGER. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE tabtypes IS TYPE integer_ibt IS TABLE OF INTEGER INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER..Defining Collections  First. ± For index-by tables. .. TYPE integer_nt IS TABLE OF INTEGER. you define the TYPE of the collection. ± You can declare multiple collections from that TYPE. END tabtypes. this can only occur in a PL/SQL declaration section. or in a PL/SQL declaration section.page 36 . ± For nested tables and VARRAYs. from the TYPE. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

attr_type_name Attributes all_coll_types T.elem_type_name = A. all_type_attrs A T. ± The code used to define the collection TYPE  There is no information in the data dictionary available for index-by tables.page 37 .attr_name || ' .' || A. colldd. 'TMRS_VT') T.owner T.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .type_name IN ('NAMES_VT'.Obtaining Collection Information SELECT FROM WHERE AND AND AND A.  ALL_COLL_TYPES ± The types you have created (or have access to) in the database  ALL_TYPE_ATTRS ± Attributes of the data type used in the TYPE definition.owner = USER T.owner = A.type_name.

You must initialize them explicitly with a constructor. 300). TYPE defined in PL/SQL TYPE defined in the database Collection used in a table PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . salaries numbers_t := numbers_t (100. salaries numbers_t := numbers_t (100.Initializing Collections  Before you can use a collection. BEGIN CREATE TABLE employee_denorm ( employee_id INTEGER. 200. ± Index-by tables are initialized automatically. / DECLARE -. ± Nested tables and VARRAYs are atomically null. 300).Initialize the collection.page 38 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . it must be initialized. 200. empty when declared. salary_history numbers_t). BEGIN CREATE TYPE numbers_t IS VARRAY (10) OF NUMBER. DECLARE TYPE numbers_t IS VARRAY (10) OF NUMBER.

consider putting TYPEs in database or packages. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± But you cannot have nested composite datatypes. the ³homogeneous´ contents of an index-by table's row can be a record . TYPE comp_tabtype IS TABLE OF comp_rectype INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. the datatype for any of the collection types can also be an object. ± Can easily create an index-by table with the same structure as a database table by declaring a record with %ROWTYPE.Collections of Composites  Starting with Oracle 7.  Starting with Oracle8.page 39 .company_id%TYPE. Here we have a three step process. comp_tab comp_tabtype.comp_id := 1005. BEGIN comp_tab(1). DECLARE TYPE comp_rectype IS RECORD (comp_id company. Again. total_rev NUMBER).3.

page 40 . a row exists in the table only when a value is assigned to that row. your collections will contain a row's worth of information. ± Instead. ± In an index-by table.  Rows do not have to be defined sequentially.Sparse is Nice  The sparse characteristic of index-by tables and nested tables can be put to good use. it is very similar to a database table. ± In almost every case. In this way. ± You should not fill sequentially. consider using the row value as "smart data" for your application (primary key. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . order by date.). unless the order in which items are selected is of importance. etc.  Especially handy when caching data from relational tables in user memory.

END. Some questions: ± Why would I put this collection table in a package? ± When is the collection loaded with the data? ± What rows in that collection are utilized? psemp.page 41 . Initialization section of package 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein  This package moves the entire contents of the emp table into its corresponding collection. emp_tab emp_tabtype.pkg psemp. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY psemp IS BEGIN FOR rec IN (SELECT * FROM emp) LOOP emp_tab (rec. END LOOP.tst  PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .empno) := rec. END.Transferring DB Table to Collection CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE psemp IS TYPE emp_tabtype IS TABLE OF emp%ROWTYPE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER.

Collection Gotchas CREATE TYPE names_t IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2(30). even if you haven't assigned a value explicitly. END. ± Use the EXISTS method to determine if a row existed. the row exists. ± Not necessary for index-by tables.page 42 .  For index-by tables. you must reference existing rows or a NO_DATA_FOUND exception is raised. but you must do it for VARRAYs and nested tables. / DECLARE greedy_ceos names_t := names_t (). once extended. Jordan'. / Error -6533! You've got to EXTEND first!  EXTEND before assigning a value to a row. ± For VARRAYs and nested tables. BEGIN greedy_ceos(1) := 'Hamilton. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Set the value of each new row to the contents of the first row. ± Assign a default value with a second. BEGIN IF salaries. -. ± Pre-extending a large number of rows in advance can improve performance.  You can EXTEND one or more rows. END IF. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Extend by 10 since I know I will need that many.We are OK.EXISTS (v_employee_id) THEN -. salaries(salaries.tst  Include a handler for NO_DATA_FOUND or use the EXISTS method to avoid these exceptions.EXTEND (10.Handling Collection Gotchas BEGIN -. salaries. preextend.page 43 .FIRST)). ELSE DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE ('Data for employee not available.'). optional argument.

page 44 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . ± LIMIT tells you the max.  The built-in package plitblm (PL/sql Index-TaBLe Methods) defines these methods. number of elements allowed in a VARRAY. ± ± ± ±  Modify the contents of the collection ± DELETE deletes one or more rows from the index-by table. ± TRIM removes rows from a VARRAY. EXISTS returns TRUE if the specified row is defined. FIRST/LAST return lowest/highest numbers of defined rows. ± EXTEND adds rows to a nested table or VARRAY.Collection Methods  Obtain information about the collection COUNT returns number of rows currently defined in the table. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . NEXT/PRIOR return the closest defined row after/before the specified row.

Delete a range of rows myCollection. -.DELETE (1400.The DELETE Method  You can delete one or more rows from a collection using DELETE: BEGIN -.page 45 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .FREE_UNUSED_USER_MEMORY.Delete all rows myCollection.Delete one (the last) row myCollection.DELETE (myCollection.DELETE. END. but you may also want to call DBMS_SESSION. 17255).LAST). DELETE releases memory. -.

Navigating Through Collections 


Use FIRST and NEXT to move from beginning to end. Use LAST and PRIOR to move from end to beginning.
rowind PLS_INTEGER := birthdays.FIRST; -- birthdays.LAST BEGIN LOOP EXIT WHEN rowind IS NULL; DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE (birthdays(rowind).best_present); rowind := birthdays.NEXT (rowind); -- birthdays.PRIOR END LOOP; END;

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Using Collections Inside SQL 

Nested tables and VARRAYs can be defined as columns of a table and referenced directly within SQL. You can also apply SQL operations to the contents of nested tables and VARRAYs with these operators:
± THE - Maps a single column value in a single row to a virtual database table ± CAST - Maps a collection of one type to a collection of another type ± MULTISET - Maps a database table to a collection ± TABLE - Maps a collection to a database table  

Index-by tables are programmatic constructs only.
± You cannot make a direct reference to an index-by table in SQL. ± Instead, so do indirectly with a PL/SQL function.

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Using Collections inside SQL
SELECT column_value FROM TABLE (SELECT children FROM db_family WHERE surname = 'BOLZ'); db_family surname children BOLZ BOND Eric Thomas Max Richard UPDATE TABLE (SELECT children FROM db_family WHERE SURNAME = 'BOLZ) SET column_value = 'Lisa Nadezhka' WHERE column_value = 'Lisa Marie'); db_family surname children BOLZ ...
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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 48

Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Marie

column_value Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Marie

Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Nadezhka

Using the THE Operator 

Use THE to manipulate (retrieve, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE) contents of a nested table in a database table.
± Can only use with nested tables, not VARRAYs or index-by tables. ± Only accessible from within SQL statements in PL/SQL.
CREATE TYPE action_list_t IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2(100); / CREATE TABLE inflation_beater ( focus_area VARCHAR2(100), activities action_list_t) NESTED TABLE activities STORE AS activities_tab; SELECT VALUE (act) FROM THE (SELECT activities FROM inflation_beater WHERE focus_area = 'FORTUNE 100') act; UPDATE THE (SELECT activities FROM inflation_beater WHERE focus_area = 'FORTUNE 100') SET COLUMN_VALUE = 'DISBAND OSHA' WHERE COLUMN_VALUE = 'SIDESTEP OSHA';

the.sql

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Using the TABLE and CAST Operators 

Use CAST to convert a collection from one type to another, TABLE to convert a TYPE into a database table.
± Cannot use with index-by tables. ± Useful when you would like to apply SQL operations against a PL/SQL collection (ie, one not stored in a database table).
DECLARE nyc_devolution cutbacks_for_taxcuts := cutbacks_for_taxcuts ('Stop rat extermination programs', 'Fire building inspectors', 'Close public hospitals'); BEGIN DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE ( 'How to Make the NYC Rich Much, Much Richer:'); FOR rec IN (SELECT COLUMN_VALUE ohmy FROM TABLE (CAST (nyc_devolution AS cutbacks_for_taxcuts))) LOOP DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE (rec.ohmy); END LOOP; cast.sql END;

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± Cannot use with index-by tables.page 51 .species = b. FETCH bird_curs into bird_row. query) into a VARRAY or nested table.genus.species. multiset. view.country FROM bird_habitats bh WHERE bh. CAST(MULTISET(SELECT bh. END.species) AS country_tab_t) FROM birds b. converting a set of data (table.Using the MULTISET Operator  MULTISET is the inverse of TABLE. b.genus = b. DECLARE CURSOR bird_curs IS SELECT b.genus AND bh. information for the BEGIN master in one trip.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± You can use MULTISET to emulate or transform relational joins into collections. with potential client-server performance impact. OPEN bird_curs. Retrieves all detail bird_row bird_curs%ROWTYPE.

PRAGMA RESTRICT_REFERENCES (rowval.page 52 . Make accessible in SQL for Oracle8 and below. END. END. FUNCTION rowval (indx IN PLS_INTEGER) RETURN DATE IS BEGIN RETURN hiredates (indx). WNPS. call functions that retrieve the table's data. END. WNDS).  CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE ibtab IS FUNCTION rowval (indx IN PLS_INTEGER) RETURN DATE.sql PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY ibtab IS TYPE date_tab IS TABLE OF DATE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. but hide the index-by table structure. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein ibtab_in_sql.Referencing IB Tables inside SQL  You can't directly reference an index-by table's contents inside SQL. Instead. hiredates date_tab.

Examples of Collections in Action  Emulation of bi-directional cursor operations Avoid mutating table problems in database triggers.page 53 .  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

deposit your data in a collection and then provide programs to access that data in the necessary fashion.Bi-Directional Cursor Emulation  Oracle does not yet support the ability to move back and forth (and at random) through a cursor's result set. FUNCTION getRow RETURN employee_plus%ROWTYPE. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE bidir IS /* Iterate through rows in the result set */ PROCEDURE setRow (nth IN PLS_INTEGER).pkg bidir.page 54 . ± A talked-about feature for Oracle9i -. PROCEDURE prevRow. Notice that the collection itself is hidden.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .nope.  bidir. This is particularly useful (read: efficient) when you need to perform multiple passes against the data. PROCEDURE nextRow. didn't make it!  Instead. END.

you can use autonomous transactions to relax restrictions associated with queries. So what are you supposed to do when a row-level operation needs to "touch" that table? mutating.sql  Note: in Oracle8i.page 55 . Statement Level UPDATE emp SET sal = 1000 UPDATE row 1 Row Level  UPDATE row N Row level triggers cannot query from or change the contents of the table to which it is attached.The Mutating Table Problem  Database triggers can be attached to the SQL statement and/or the individual row operations on a table. it is "mutating". 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Statement Trigger 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 56 . ± an index-by table is an ideal repository for this reminder list. you need to defer the action until you get to the statement level. If you are going to defer the work. you have to remember what you needed to do.A Solution Based on Index-by Tables  Since you cannot perform the processing desired in the row-level trigger. 1st row trigger fires Nth row trigger fires Writes to list Writes to list Work List (PL/SQL Table)  Process data in the list.

88 144533. the rankings must also change to show the new standings for that department only. ± By storing the salesperson¶s department ids as they change. but preferable. ± We might update more than one department within a statement so we must be able to retain multiple department numbers.page 57 .25 3 1 2 6 "Deferred work" is not only necessary.25 65011. we then know which departments to re-rank. ± As the sales amount is updated in this table.An Example: Ranking Salespeople  A table holds the rankings based on the amount of annual sales of salespeople within a department. Department ID Salesperson ID Sales Amount Rank 1055 1055 1055 1047  64333 65709 65706 70904 74055. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .91 109000.

ranking.sales_amt) BEGIN rank. Doesn't fire unless the sales_amt is actually changed.dept_id). END.rank_depts. END.Trigger Logic Required Row Level Trigger CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER Rank_Sales_Rtrg AFTER insert OR update OF sales_amt ON rank_sales FOR EACH ROW WHEN (OLD.sales_amt != NEW.pkg All details of the ranking are hidden in the package body.add_dept (:new.page 58 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Statement Level Trigger CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER Rank_Sales_Strg AFTER INSERT OR UPDATE OR DELETE ON rank_sales BEGIN rank.

END IF. dept_tab dept_tabtype. PROCEDURE rank_depts.page 59 . Table holds indicator that department needs re-ranking. END add_dept 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Create row to indicate department to be ranked. PACKAGE BODY rank IS in_process BOOLEAN := FALSE. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END rank. TYPE dept_tabtype IS TABLE OF BOOLEAN INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. PROCEDURE add_dept (dept_id_in IN INTEGER) IS BEGIN IF NOT in_process THEN dept_tab (dept_id_in) := TRUE.The Ranking Package PACKAGE rank IS PROCEDURE add_dept (dept_id_in IN INTEGER).

FIRST.DELETE. END LOOP. END rank. LOOP EXIT WHEN v_deptid IS NULL. END rank_dept. END IF. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Avoid recursive execution of logic Row number is department number.page 60 . v_deptid := dept_tab.NEXT (v_deptid). BEGIN IF NOT in_process THEN in_process := TRUE. perform_ranking (v_deptid). in_process := FALSE. Continued PROCEDURE rank_depts IS v_deptid PLS_INTEGER := dept_tab. Clean up for next time. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . dept_tab.The Ranking Package.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  VARRAYs ± ± ± ± You want to preserve the order in which elements are stored. You want to use inside SQL.page 61 . Set of data is relatively small (avoid row chaining).  Nested tables ± You want to store large amounts of persistent data in a column. You don't want to have to worry about sparseness. ± You want to use inside SQL.Which Collection Type Should I Use?  Index-by tables ± Need to use in both Oracle7 and Oracle8 applications ± Want to take advantage of sparse nature for "intelligent keys".

Tips for Using Collections 

Wrap access to your collections.
± In many cases, you will want to avoid direct access to (assigning and retrieving) rows in your collections. ± This will give you the flexibility to change your implementation. ± You can also hide complex rules for setting the row number. 

Get creative!
± Don't always fill and use the index-by table sequentially. ± If you can somehow translate your application data to an integer, it can be used as a row number, and therefore offers indexed access. ± Julian date formats and DBMS_UTILITY.GET_HASH_VALUE offer two different methods.

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Achieving PL/SQL Excellence

Cursor Variables

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Architecture of Cursor Variables
With Hard-Coded Cursors
Hard-Coded Cursor

With Cursor Variables

PGA

Cursor Variable

Cursor Variable

Result Set

Shared Global Area

Cursor Object

Result Set 

A cursor variable points to an underlying cursor object in the database.
± The cursor object in turns points to (and keeps its place in) a result set. 

The cursor variable can be passed between programs (even between, say, a Java servlet and a PL/SQL stored procedure).
± Static SQL only -- until Oracle8i.
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1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

Benefits of Cursor Variables 

Share cursor management between programs, even across the client-server divide.
± You don't have to pass the result sets of a cursor in order to allow the client-side program to have direct access to the data in the result set. ± Oracle Developer 2.1 utilizes cursor variables when you choose to construct a "base table block" around stored procedures instead of a database table. 

Share the same code across multiple, different queries.
± Since the cursor name is no longer hard-coded, you can use a single block of code (say, a reporting program) against different queries. ± We will try out this technique at the end of the section.

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Cursor Variable Example
DECLARE TYPE company_curtype IS REF CURSOR RETURN company%ROWTYPE;
Declare a variable cursor TYPE.

company_curvar company_curtype;

Declare cursor variable based on that type. Declare a record from cursor variable. OPEN cursor variable, specifying the query. FETCH from the cursor variable.

company_rec company_curvar%ROWTYPE; BEGIN OPEN company_curvar FOR SELECT * FROM company;

FETCH company_curvar INTO company_rec;
Close the cursor variable.

CLOSE company_curvar; END;
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Explicit Cursors and Cursor Variables 

Both hard-coded cursors and cursor variables work with static SQL.
± The SQL is fixed at compile-time. ± The difference is that with cursor variables, you get to decide which static query is opened. 

Many cursor operations are the same:
± Close a variable cursor with the same syntax as that for static cursors. ± Use cursor attributes (%ISOPEN, %FOUND, %NOTFOUND, %ROWCOUNT) with cursor variables (as of Release 2.3). ± Fetch data from the cursor result set through a cursor variable with the same syntax as that of static cursors. 

Let¶s focus on the new and different capabilities of cursor variables.
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Declaring Cursor Types and Variables 

Cursors are declared in two steps, just like programmerdefined records and PL/SQL tables.
± 1. Define a cursor TYPE -- either "weak" or "strong". ± 2. Define a cursor variable.
DECLARE TYPE weak_curtype IS REF CURSOR; TYPE comp_curtype IS REF CURSOR RETURN company%ROWTYPE; curcmp_new comp_curtype; cur_any weak_curtype; BEGIN
Declare cursor variables from the TYPEs. Declare a STRONG referenced cursor TYPE. Declare a WEAK referenced cursor TYPE.

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Strong vs. Weak Cursor Types 

A strong (or constrained) cursor type has a defined return data specification.
± Can only reference cursor objects which return the same data specification, which can be any single SQL datatype or any previously defined record structure. ± Datatype mismatches are identified at compile time.

TYPE cur_typ_name IS REF CURSOR [ RETURN return_type ]; TYPE cur_typ_name IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE; /* Strong */ 

The weak (or unconstrained) cursor type does not have a RETURN clause.
± It can reference any cursor object, be opened FOR any query. ± Datatype mismatches can only be identified at runtime.

TYPE cur_typ_name IS REF CURSOR; /* Weak */
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Opening with the Cursor Variable
OPEN cursor_name FOR select_statement; 

When you open a cursor variable (whether of the weak or strong variety), you must provide the SQL query that identifies the result set.
± If the variable has not yet been assigned to cursor object, the OPEN FOR statement implicitly creates an object for the variable. ± If the variable is already pointing to a cursor object, the OPEN FOR reuses the existing object and attaches the new query to that cursor object. 

Remember, the cursor object is nothing more than a memory location.
± It is maintained independently of the query itself.
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END. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  STRONG cursor data specifications must match or be compatible with the structure of the SELECT statement..page 71 . a cursor or a programmer-defined record.Opening with Strong Cursor Types DECLARE TYPE emp_curtype IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE. . Match Needed BEGIN OPEN emp_curvar FOR SELECT * from emp. ± You can establish the return type based on a database table. emp_curvar emp_curtype..

OPEN retval FOR SELECT * FROM emp. REF TYPE placed in package so that it is "globally" available.page 72 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . BEGIN IF get_type_in = µEMP¶ THEN Either query will "do". END IF. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  A weak cursor TYPE doesn't define the RETURN structure. THEN OPEN retval FOR SELECT * FROM dept. FUNCTION open_emp_or_dept (get_type_in IN VARCHAR2) RETURN pkg.cv_type IS retval pkg. END. Verification will take ELSIF get_type_in = µDEPT¶ place at the FETCH. END. you can associate any SELECT statement with a weak cursor variable. RETURN retval.cv_type.Opening with Weak Cursor Types PACKAGE pkg IS TYPE cv_type IS REF CURSOR.

FETCH cursor_var_name INTO var_name.. .Fetching from the Cursor Variable FETCH cursor_var_name INTO record_name. mismatch. The INTO structure must match in number and datatype to: ± FOR STRONG cursor types.. ± The ROWTYPE_MISMATCH exception is raised on failure..  Fetching with cursor variables follows the same rules as those with static cursors. ± Fetching can continue with a different INTO clause. it match the OPEN FOR statement structure. var_name. ± FOR WEAK cursor types.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .   Compatibility checks are performed prior to fetching row.page 73 . it match the cursor type data specification.

but static cursors are more efficient than dynamic SQL and cursor variables are less complicated than DBMS_SQL.  Define a base table block in Forms Builder (formerly Oracle Forms) on stored procedures rather than a table directly. Use a single block of code to manipulate multiple queries. ± JDBC recognizes cursor variables. ± With explicit cursors. ± You could use dynamic SQL to achieve this effect.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . you have to repeat the code for each cursor. since cursor names are "hard coded".When to Use Cursor Variables  Make it easier for calling programs (especially non-PL/SQL programs) to manipulate result sets.  hccursor.page 74 .

TYPE cv_t IS REF CURSOR RETURN int_rt. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE allcurs IS bydept CONSTANT INTEGER := 1.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .pkg allcurs. / allcurrs. bysal CONSTANT INTEGER := 2. END.tst explcv. TYPE int_rt IS RECORD (key INTEGER). FUNCTION open (type_in IN INTEGER) RETURN cv_t. ± It also creates the data structures you will need to call the function.Consolidating Different Cursors  The following package specification hides the SQL behind a single open function.page 75 .

Consolidating Different Cursors  The open function simply opens FOR a different SELECT based on the criteria passed to it. BEGIN IF type_in = bydept THEN OPEN retval FOR SELECT empno FROM emp ORDER BY deptno. ELSIF type_in = bysal THEN OPEN retval FOR SELECT empno FROM emp ORDER BY SAL. END. END. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY allcurs IS FUNCTION open (type_in IN INTEGER) RETURN cv_t IS retval cv_t. END IF. RETURN retval.page 76 .

END LOOP. END. v_empno emp.empno%TYPE. LOOP FETCH cv INTO v_empno. DECLARE cv allcurs. BEGIN cv := allcurs. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . EXIT WHEN cv%NOTFOUND.in this case. p.open (&1).cv_t. change the ORDER BY clause -without having to change the code you write.Hiding SQL Variations in Resulting Code  The following block demonstrates that you can alter which SQL statement to query -.l (v_empno).page 77 "Report processor" is independent of the particular SELECT . CLOSE cv.

page 78 .1.  Improve Client-Side Access to Data ± At least in Oracle Developer 2.  Hide Variations in Underlying SQL ± You no longer have to repeat the same code for different cursors.  Strong and Weak Types ± Create REF CURSORs for specific queries.Cursor Variables Let's summarize  Flexibility ± Choose which static SQL statement is executed at run-time. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . you can build screens that access data using a cursor variable-based procedural API. or a more general. unconstrained type.

page 79 .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Dynamic SQL  Dynamic SQL and dynamic PL/SQL: ± The DBMS_SQL package ± Native dynamic SQL in Oracle8i 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

± Available in PL/SQL since Release 2. ± Also supported with "native dynamic SQL" in Oracle8i.  Execute dynamically-constructed PL/SQL programs. ± Construct powerful DBA utilities. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Very common requirement on the Web. ± One example: implement indirect referencing in PL/SQL. What can you do with Dynamic SQL?  Build ad-hoc query and update applications. you no longer have to write SQL to generate SQL to get your job done.page 80 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .  Execute DDL inside PL/SQL programs.Dynamic SQL and PL/SQL Execution  "Dynamic SQL" mean that you construct the SQL statement or PL/SQL block at runtime and then execute it.1 and DBMS_SQL.

± Different methods require the use of different programs in DBMS_SQL. Method 3: queries with a fixed number of items in the SELECT list and a fixed number of host variables.    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . you can more quickly figure out how to code your solution. Method 2: non-queries with a fixed number of host variables. If you can recognize the types. executed a single time. execute one or more times.page 81 . These methods are in increasing order of complexity.Four Methods of Dynamic SQL   Method 1: non-queries without host variables. ± NDS does not support method 4. Method 4: queries with a variable number of items in the SELECT list and/or non-queries with a variable number of host variables.

 The new "native dynamic SQL" or NDS of Oracle8i offers two native statements in the PL/SQL language to implement most of your dynamic SQL requirements: ± EXECUTE IMMEDIATE <sql string>.page 82 . used for multi-row queries.Native Dynamic SQL  Prior to Oracle8i. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± OPEN FOR <sql string>. DML and single row fetches. ± But this package is very complex. you would use the DBMS_SQL built-in package to execute dynamic SQL. and relatively slow (performance did improve significantly as of Oracle8). used for DDL. difficult to use.

The INTO clause allows you to pass values from the select list of a single row query into local variables.. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Use this statement to execute any dynamic SQL statement (including a PL/SQL block) except for multi-row queries.].. define_variables]. including objects.EXECUTE IMMEDIATE EXECUTE IMMEDIATE sql-string [INTO {define_variable[. | record }] [USING {IN | OUT | IN OUT] bind argument [. {IN | OUT | IN OUT] bind argument]..page 83   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .. collections and records. The USING clause allows you to specify bind arguments or variables to be passed into the SQL string before execution.

USER) || '. WHERE clause.. sch IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) RETURN INTEGER IS Specify schema..000. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein tabcount81. table and retval INTEGER. BEGIN EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'SELECT COUNT(*) FROM ' || NVL (sch. '1=1') INTO retval.COUNT(*) For Any Table  Here's a handy and simple utility based on NDS: CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION tabCount ( tab IN VARCHAR2.. END. IF tabCount ('citizens'. and not much of a democracy either!'). whr IN VARCHAR2 := NULL.' || tab || ' WHERE ' || NVL (whr. RETURN retval.sf PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END IF. 'insured = ''NO''') > 40..PUT_LINE ( 'Not the best health care system in the world.sf compare with: tabcount.page 84 .000 THEN DBMS_OUTPUT.

page 85 . END. end_in. start_in.. col_in IN VARCHAR2.' || name_in || '. end_in IN DATE.. start_in IN DATE..Other Execute Immediate Examples  Perform an update. END. PROCEDURE runprog (pkg_in IN VARCHAR2.'. END. BEGIN v_str := 'BEGIN ' || pkg_in || '. name_in IN VARCHAR2) IS v_str VARCHAR2 (100).  Execute a stored procedure. EXECUTE IMMEDIATE v_str. Pass in bind variables with USING clause.. val_in IN NUMBER) IS BEGIN EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'UPDATE ' || tab_in || ' SET ' || col_in || ' = :val WHERE hiredate BETWEEN :lodate AND :hidate' USING val_in. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE updnumval ( tab_in IN VARCHAR2. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN pl ('Compile Error "' || SQLERRM || '" on: ' || v_str). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

± No special syntax needed. END. cond.Using Objects and Collections in NDS  One of the key advantages to NDS over DBMS_SQL is that it works with Oracle8 datatypes.page 86 . cond IN preexisting_conditions) IS BEGIN EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'INSERT INTO ' || tabname (hosp_name) || ' VALUES (:revenue_generator. :revenue_inhibitors)' USING pers. PROCEDURE add_profit_source ( hosp_name IN VARCHAR2. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein health$.. pers IN Person. ± In the following example. including objects and collections..pkg PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . the USING clause allows me to pass an object and nested table to an INSERT statement with a variable table name.

PUT_LINE (val). DBMS_OUTPUT. cv cv_type.Multiple Row Queries and NDS  Oracle extends the cursor variable feature of Oracle7 to support multi-row dynamic queries. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE showcol ( tab IN VARCHAR2.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . LOOP Familiar cursor FETCH cv INTO val. showcol. CLOSE cv. ± Here is a simple utility the displays the values of any date.page 87 . '1 = 1'). whr IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) IS TYPE cv_type IS REF CURSOR. ndsutil. END LOOP. col IN VARCHAR2. variable syntax! EXIT WHEN cv%NOTFOUND.sp END. BEGIN OPEN cv FOR 'SELECT ' || col || ' FROM ' || tab || ' WHERE ' || NVL (whr. number or string column in any table. val VARCHAR2(32767).

pass a variable with a NULL value. provide a value for each distinct placeholder (by name). The USING clause for a query can only have IN bind arguments.page 88 .Some Fine Print for NDS  You cannot pass schema elements (table names. ± If dynamic PL/SQL. You cannot pass the NULL literal directly in the USING clause. ± If dynamic SQL. str2list.pkg    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . column names. then you provide a value for each placeholder (by position). etc.) through the USING clause. Instead. You can have duplicate placeholders (for bind arguments).

    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Dynamic SQL using DBMS_SQL  Prior to Oracle8i.page 89 . DBMS_SQL is a very large and complex package. in particular method 4. with many rules to follow and lots of code to write. The overhead for using DBMS_SQL has decreased significantly in Oracle8 and again in Oracle8i. Supports all four methods of dynamic SQL. the only way to perform dynamic SQL was with the DBMS_SQL package. You should only use DBMS_SQL when you cannot use NDS.

page 90 .Learning Through Examples  DDL ± Create an index from within PL/SQL  DML ± Update rows in a table  DML with binding ± Update rows using bind variables  Queries ± Method 3 and a dynamic WHERE clause  PL/SQL Version of "SELECT *" ± Example of Method 4  PL/SQL ± Create a generic calculation program 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

 creind. tab_in IN VARCHAR2. ± Parse and execute that DDL statement.EXECUTE (cur). END. ± Construct the DDL statement as a string. col_in IN VARCHAR2) IS cur INTEGER := DBMS_SQL. fdbk INTEGER. fdbk := DBMS_SQL.sp Creates an index on any column(s) in any table in your schema.DDL with Dynamic SQL PROCEDURE create_index (index_in IN VARCHAR2. DBMS_SQL.NATIVE). BEGIN DBMS_SQL.OPEN_CURSOR.CLOSE_CURSOR (cur). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . DDL_statement VARCHAR2(200) := 'CREATE INDEX ' || index_in || ' ON ' || tab_in || ' ( ' || col_in || ')'. ± Open a cursor. DBMS_SQL.PARSE (cur.page 91 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . DDL_statement. which will be used to execute the DDL statement.

DBMS_SQL. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE updnumval ( col_in IN VARCHAR2.OPEN_CURSOR. updnval1. fdbk PLS_INTEGER. END.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .ename%TYPE.PARSE (cur. val_in IN NUMBER) IS cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL.PUT_LINE ('Rows updated: ' || TO_CHAR (fdbk)). ename_in IN emp.page 92 . fdbk := DBMS_SQL. DBMS_OUTPUT.NATIVE).CLOSE_CURSOR (cur).Updates with Dynamic SQL  Update numeric column for specified employees. 'UPDATE emp SET ' || col_in || ' = ' || val_in || ' WHERE ename LIKE UPPER (''' || ename_in || ''')'.EXECUTE (cur).

start_in).BIND_VARIABLE (cur. END.CLOSE_CURSOR (cur). DBMS_OUTPUT. 'lodate'.EXECUTE (cur). 'hidate'.sp updnval3. fdbk := DBMS_SQL. start_in IN DATE. val_in IN NUMBER) IS cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL.BIND_VARIABLE (cur.Updates with Bind Variables  Update salaries for date range using binding. end_in). updnval2. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE updnumval ( col_in IN VARCHAR2. DBMS_SQL.NATIVE). DBMS_SQL.PUT_LINE ('Rows updated: ' || TO_CHAR (fdbk)). DBMS_SQL.PARSE (cur. end_in IN DATE. 'UPDATE emp SET ' || col_in || ' = ' || val_in || ' WHERE hiredate BETWEEN :lodate AND :hidate'.OPEN_CURSOR. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. fdbk PLS_INTEGER.page 93 .sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . DBMS_SQL.

page 94 .Processing Flow for a Dynamic Query Allocate cursor memory (OPEN_CURSOR) Fill cursor with data (EXECUTE) Make sure SELECT is well formed (PARSE) Fill buffer with data (FETCH_ROWS) (EXECUTE_AND_FETCH) Bind any variables (BIND_VARIABLE) (BIND_ARRAY) Retrieve the data (COLUMN_VALUE) Give cursor structure (DEFINE_COLUMN) (DEFINE_ARRAY) Release cursor memory (CLOSE_CURSOR) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

ename).ename). ename FROM emp ' || ' WHERE ' || NVL (where_in. LOOP EXIT WHEN DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL.empno) || '=' || rec. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. fdbk INTEGER. 1.PARSE (cur.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.COLUMN_VALUE (cur.PUT_LINE (TO_CHAR (rec. fdbk := DBMS_SQL. 1. DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL.tst PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 60).FETCH_ROWS (cur) = 0. rec. END LOOP. '1=1').Queries with Dynamic SQL  Show employees using a dynamic WHERE clause. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE showemps (where_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) IS cur INTEGER := DBMS_SQL. DBMS_OUTPUT.EXECUTE (cur).. 'a'.OPEN_CURSOR.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. DBMS_SQL.empno).. rec.COLUMN_VALUE (cur. DBMS_SQL. END.sp showemps. 2. 2.NATIVE). rec emp%ROWTYPE. DBMS_SQL. 1). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein showemps.page 95 .CLOSE_CURSOR (cur).sp showemp2. 'SELECT empno.

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . DBMS_SQL.PARSE (cur.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . ± The resulting code is much more complicated. END LOOP. LOOP fetch-a-row. nth_col.COLUMN_VALUE (cur.Dynamic SELECT * FROM Any Table  Method 4 example: the number of columns queried changes with each table.NATIVE). FOR each-column-in-table LOOP DBMS_SQL. FOR each-column-in-table LOOP DBMS_SQL. END LOOP. nth_col. BEGIN FOR each-column-in-table LOOP add-column-to-select-list. DBMS_SQL. END. select_string. datatype). val). END LOOP.page 96 Very simplified pseudo-code intab.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. END LOOP.

numrows := DBMS_SQL.Using EXECUTE_AND_FETCH FUNCTION execute_and_fetch (cursor_in IN INTEGER. numrows := DBMS_SQL. raises NO_DATA_FOUND or raises the TOO_MANY_ROWS exception. TRUE). ± Even if the exception is raised. ± Very similar to the implicit SELECT cursor in native PL/SQL.EXECUTE_AND_FETCH (cur). then EXECUTE_AND_FETCH will raise the TOO_MANY_ROWS exception if more than one row is fetched by the SELECT. the first row will still be fetched and available.EXECUTE_AND_FETCH (cur.  Makes it easy to execute and fetch a single row from a query. exact_match IN BOOLEAN DEFAULT FALSE) RETURN INTEGER. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± If exact_match is TRUE. which returns a single row.page 97 .

NULL.Dynamic Formula Execution  Suppose I am building a user interface that allows a user to select a formula for execution. NULL.sf dyncalc. arg8_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. NULL. ± With DBMS_SQL. NULL. NULL. arg6_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. arg10_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL dyncalc. FUNCTION dyncalc ( oper_in IN VARCHAR2. ± Using static PL/SQL. nargs_in IN INTEGER := arg1_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg3_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg5_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg7_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg9_in IN VARCHAR2 := ) RETURN VARCHAR2. a single function will do the trick.page 98 . 0. I would have to modify my screen every time a new formula was added.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . arg2_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. arg4_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. and enter the arguments.

my_salary). END.'). DBMS_SQL.EXECUTE (cur). :salout). END.even OUT arguments which are not being bound to any values. Use VARIABLE_VALUE to extract a value from any variable you have bound.BIND_VARIABLE (cur. fdbk := DBMS_SQL.More on Dynamic PL/SQL BEGIN cur := open_and_parse ('BEGIN get_max_sal (:deptin. µsalout¶.  Use BIND_VARIABLE to bind any placeholders in the string -. v_deptin). You must have a BEGIN-END around the code. my_salary).BIND_VARIABLE (cur. µsalout¶.VARIABLE_VALUE (cur. DBMS_SQL.tst    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . DBMS_SQL.page 99 . µdeptin¶.sp dynplsql. Possibilities inherent in dynamic PL/SQL are mind-boggling! dynplsql.sql dynplsql.

fdbk := DBMS_SQL.VARIABLE_VALUE (v_cur.'. but you can accomplish much of the same thing with dynamic PL/SQL execution. DBMS_SQL. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . retval). Here is an example of a "PL/SQL NAME_IN": FUNCTION valbyname (nm IN VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2 IS v_cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL. 'val'. END.EXECUTE (v_cur). fdbk PLS_INTEGER. DBMS_SQL.NATIVE). DBMS_SQL.CLOSE_CURSOR (v_cur).BIND_VARIABLE (v_cur. 'BEGIN :val := ' || nm || '.PARSE (v_cur. retval PLV. PL/SQL does not support indirect referencing.page 100  dynvar. 2000).Indirect Referencing with Dyn PL/SQL  Oracle Forms offers support for indirect referencing with the NAME_IN and COPY built-ins.OPEN_CURSOR. END.pkg dynvar. DBMS_SQL.dbmaxvc2.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . RETURN retval. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. 'val'. 'a'.

 IS_OPEN ± Is the cursor already open?  LAST_ERROR_POSITION ± Returns relative column position in cursor of text causing error condition.page 101 .  LAST_ROW_ID ± Returns the ROWID of last row processed.DBMS_SQL Status Built-ins  The package offers a set of modules to return information about the lastoperated cursor in your session.  LAST_ROW_COUNT ± Returns the cumulative count of rows fetched from the cursor. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Call these immediately after your usage to make sure they refer to your cursor.  LAST_SQL_FUNCTION_CODE ± Returns SQL function code of cursor.

tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . dumplong. ± DBMS_SQL.Working with LONG Values  DBMS_SQL provides special procedures so that you can extract values from a LONG column in a table. you define the column as a LONG.page 102 . Then you retrieve the column using the special COLUMN_VALUE_LONG variant. ± Transfer the LONG contents into an index-by table so that you can transfer a value of more than 32K bytes into your PL/SQL program.COLUMN_VALUE_LONG   First.pkg dumplong.DEFINE_COLUMN_LONG ± DBMS_SQL.

New DBMS_SQL Features PL/SQL8 Extensions to DBMS_SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 103 .

inserts. ± Support for RETURNING clause to avoid unnecessary queries.page 104 . deletes and fetches. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .New Features in DBMS_SQL  The functionality of DBMS_SQL has been extended in Oracle8 in several ways: ± Parse very long SQL strings ± Describe cursor columns ± Use "array processing" to perform bulk updates.

it was not possible to determine the datatypes of the columns defined in a cursor.page 105 .  Before PL/SQL8. ± Now you can call the DBMS_SQL.  Returns all of the column information in an index table of records. desc_t OUT DBMS_SQL. ± The record TYPE is also defined in DBMS_SQL. col_cnt OUT INTEGER.Describing Cursor Columns PROCEDURE DBMS_SQL. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .DESCRIBE_COLUMNS.DESC_TAB).DESCRIBE_COLUMNS (c IN INTEGER.

BEGIN DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL.col_name). 'SELECT hiredate.PUT_LINE (cols(colind).DESC_TAB. cols DBMS_SQL.tst showcols.pkg desccols. DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL. END.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . empno FROM emp'.CLOSE_CURSOR (cur). cols). desccols. ncols.OPEN_CURSOR. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE show_columns IS cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL. END LOOP. ncols PLS_INTEGER.Basic Steps to Describe Columns  The following script shows the individual steps you will need to perform in order to use this feature.DESCRIBE_COLUMNS (cur. FOR colind IN 1 ..NATIVE).PARSE (cur. ncols LOOP DBMS_OUTPUT.page 106 .

   This technique still."Array Processing" in DBMS_SQL  PL/SQL8 now allows you to specify the use of "arrays". 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . however.page 107 .e. inserts. where N is the number of rows in the table. deletes and fetches. DBMS_SQL is executing the specified SQL statement N times. index tables. ± In actuality. can offer a significant performance boost over Oracle7 dynamic SQL. you specify an index table.. when you perform updates. i. It really isn't "array processing". Instead of providing a scalar value for an operation. DBMS_SQL then repeats your action for every row in the table.

± But remember: you cannot pass schema elements (table names. etc.sql openprse. ± Otherwise that SQL will be executed under the authority of the owner of the code. effdsql.PARSE so that you include the trace in that program.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Encapsulate statements to improve error handling.  Use the Oracle8i invoker rights model whenever you want to share your dynamic SQL programs among multiple schemas.Recommendations for Dynamic SQL  Bind (vs.pkg whichsch. not the invoker of the code. only possible for statements that do not need USING and INTO clauses. ± Encapsulate DBMS_SQL.) through the USING clause. and easier code to write. column names. ± With NDS. though you could write variations for those as well.page 108 . ± Increased chance of reusing parsed SQL. concatenate) whenever possible.

. of course.. ± If.page 109 . but DBMS_SQL is hard to use. you have upgraded to Oracle8i!  Major Advantages of NDS: ± Ease of use ± Performance ± Works with all SQL datatypes (including userdefined object and collection types) ± Fetch into records  When You'd Use DBMS_SQL: ± ± ± ± ± ± ± Method 4 Dynamic SQL DESCRIBE columns of cursor SQL statements larger than 32K RETURNING into an array Reuse of parsed SQL statements Bulk dynamic SQL Available from client-side PL/SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .NDS or DBMS_SQL: Which is Best?  Dynamic SQL and PL/SQL is very useful. Both implementations will still come in handy.

page 110 . asynchronous.Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Oracle Advanced Queuing  The high performance. persistent messaging subsytem of Oracle 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Distribution Center Coffee Beans Producer Shipping Service Retailer Consumer 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . consistent manner.Who Needs Messaging? Everyone!  In the distributed world of the Internet.page 111 . systems are now heavily reliant on the ability of components to communicate with each other in a dependable.

Applications Relying on Messaging     Stock trading system Airline reservation system Auction portals Any e-commerce application 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 112 .

Key Features of Oracle AQ  Leverage full power of SQL ± Messages are stored in database tables  Database high availability. scalability and reliability all carry over to queues ± Strong history and retention ± Backup and recovery ± Comprehensive journaliing  Rich message content increases usefulness of queueing ± Use object types to define highly structured payloads  New to Oracle8i. ± Rule-based subscribers.page 113 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . the listen feature and notification capabilities. AQ now offers a publish/subscribe style of messaging between applications. message propagation.

page 114 .AQ architectural overview Queue Monitor process Queue table Queue ³Producers´ Enqueued messages Message 4 Message 3 Message 2 Message1 ³Consumers´ Dequeued messages Messages include both control information and ³payload´ (content) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

0. AQ supports: ± ± ± ± ± Multiple queues Resetting order and priority of queued items Queue management using only SQL & PL/SQL Multiple message recipients Propagation of queue to remote servers  Oracle8i adds: ± ± ± ± Rules-based publish & subscribe Listening on multiple queues Easier monitoring Native Java interface PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Oracle AQ Highlights  In 8.page 115 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .

AQ Components  The DBMS_AQ package offers enqueue and dequeue capabilities The DBMS_AQADM package provides administrative functionality to manage queues and queue tables.    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 116 . Underlying database tables and views The queue monitor (background process) ± Set # of processes with the AQ_TM_PROCESSES initialization parameter.

page 117 . storage clause. optionally waiting for outstanding transactions Adds an ³agent´ as a subscriber 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . whether multiple consumers Drops table if all queues in the table have been stopped Associates queue table with queue. assigns retry and retention properties to queue Drops a stopped queue Can also turn on/off enqueue and dequeue operations Stops queue. payload type.DBMS_AQADM Highlights CREATE_QUEUE_TABLE DROP_QUEUE_TABLE CREATE_QUEUE DROP_QUEUE START_QUEUE STOP_QUEUE ADD_SUBSCRIBER Assigns name. sort column.

END. queue_table => 'msg').Creating Queue Tables and Queues CREATE TYPE message_type AS OBJECT (title VARCHAR2(30). queue_payload_type => 'message_type').START_QUEUE (queue_name => 'msgqueue').CREATE_QUEUE (queue_name => 'msgqueue'. Define the "payload" Create the queue table DBMS_AQADM. text VARCHAR2(2000)).page 118 . Define a queue in the queue table DBMS_AQADM. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein aq.pkg Start the queue PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .CREATE_QUEUE_TABLE (queue_table => 'msg'. / BEGIN DBMS_AQADM.

The "operational package": DBMS_AQ  DBMS_AQ is deceptively simple.  ENQUEUE puts a message into a specified queue. but lots of complexity buried inside the parameters of these procedures.page 119   aq. and returns a RAW message handle DEQUEUE extracts a message from a specified queue Parameters control message properties such as: ± Visibility (ON_COMMIT or IMMEDIATE) ± ± ± ± Priority Delay Expiration Locking behavior PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Only two procedures.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .

END.MESSAGE_PROPERTIES_T. Declare records to hold various enqueue and msg properties. 'May there be many more. my_msg. msgprops DBMS_AQ.page 120 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . msgprops. Set up the payload with an object constructor.ENQUEUE ( 'msgqueue'. msgid).Simple Enqueue Example DECLARE queueopts DBMS_AQ. msgid aq.. queueopts. DBMS_AQ. my_msg message_type.ENQUEUE_OPTIONS_T.'). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .* Place the message on the specified queue and get a msg ID in return. BEGIN my_msg := message_type ( 'First Enqueue'.msgid_type.. aqenq*.

queueopts. queueopts. msgprops.. msgprops.....relative_msgid := msgid1. queueopts. msgprops.. my_msg. DBMS_AQ. my_msg. msgid1). DBMS_AQ. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Specify a delay before the payload is available.ENQUEUE ('msgqueue'.More Interesting Enqueue Example DECLARE .page 121 .'). msgid2). END. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .sequence_deviation := DBMS_AQ. my_msg := message_type ( 'Second Enqueue'. BEGIN my_msg := message_type ( 'First Enqueue'. Modify the dequeue sequence by changing the deviation field and relative msg ID.'). 'And this one goes first.delay := 3 * 60 * 60 * 24. 'May there be many more...ENQUEUE ( 'msgqueue'. Same setup as previous page .BEFORE. queueopts.

getmsg (DBMS_AQ. msgid aq. END. msgprops.* Declare records to hold various dequeue and msg properties.Dequeue Example DECLARE queueopts DBMS_AQ. PROCEDURE getmsg (mode_in IN INTEGER) IS BEGIN queueopts. aqdeq*.MESSAGE_PROPERTIES_T. DBMS_AQ.DEQUEUE_OPTIONS_T.pkg */ my_msg message_type. BEGIN getmsg (DBMS_AQ. Demonstrates destructive and non-destructive dequeuing.BROWSE). END. my_msg. /* defined in aq.page 122 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . Dequeue operation isolated in local module. msgprops DBMS_AQ.DEQUEUE ( 'msgqueue'. msgid).dequeue_mode := mode_in.REMOVE). getmsg (DBMS_AQ. queueopts.msgid_type. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .REMOVE).

± The lower the numeric priority value. msgid aq.priority := g_priority.* 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . msgprops. the higher the priority.msgid_type. queueopts.IMMEDIATE. msgid).Prioritized Payloads  You can assign priorities to individual payloads and then dequeue according to those priorities. msgprops. g_priority := g_priority . PROCEDURE push (item IN VARCHAR2) IS queueopts DBMS_AQ. item_obj. queueopts.ENQUEUE_OPTIONS_T. DBMS_AQ.page 123 .1.pkg aqstk2.  A stack implementation using AQ demonstrates this well. END. msgprops DBMS_AQ.visibility := DBMS_AQ. BEGIN item_obj := aqstk_objtype (item).MESSAGE_PROPERTIES_T.ENQUEUE ( c_queue.pkg priority. item_obj aqstk_objtype. aqstk.

BEGIN DBMS_AQADM. multiple_consumers => TRUE).CREATE_QUEUE_TABLE ( queue_table => 'major_qtable'.page 124 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein aqmult*.AQ$_AGENT (name_in.Defining Message Subscribers  You can specify that a message is to be enqueued for a list of subscribers.  Steps to working with a subscriber list: ± 1. SYS. ± 2. ± The message is then not removed from the queue until all subscribers have dequeued the message. Add subscribers for the queue. DBMS_AQADM. The queue table must be defined to support multiple subscribers or consumers.ADD_SUBSCRIBER ( c_queue. queue_payload_type => 'student_major_t'. NULL)). NULL.* PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

± Should be strongly supported "down the road". improved security. ± Significant enhancements in Oracle8i.Summary  Very powerful and flexible architecture. ± Much more robust that DBMS_PIPE. ± Crucial for Oracle to have a message-oriented middleware in order to offer an all-Oracle solution. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 125 . LISTEN capability.  Considered by Oracle to be a core component of its overall solution. supporting a publish-subscribe model.Oracle AQ .

page 126 .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Managing Large Objects with DBMS_LOB 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

though they will probably not be actually desupported. LOB datatypes are the successor to LONGs. video.  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Oracle has announced deprecation of LONGs. sounds. etc.LOB Terms  LOB = Large OBject: a category of datatype allowing storage of ³unstructured´ data up to 4 gigabytes LOB datatype can be: ± Column in table ± Attribute in object type ± Element in nested table   Possible applications include office documents.page 127 . Images. they should no longer be used.

improving performance. external do not ± External LOBs are read-only from within Oracle 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Types of Large Objects  ³Internal´ LOBs ± BLOB: unstructured binary data ± CLOB: single-byte fixedwidth character data ± NCLOB: multi-byte fixedwidth character data (or varying width in )  ³External´ LOBs ± BFILE: pointer to an operating system file  Temporary LOBs ± Internal LOBs that do not participate in transactions.  Key programming differences: ± Internal LOBs participate in transactions.page 128 .

open.PL/SQL built-ins for LOBs  Package DBMS_LOB ± Supports for all LOBs: Reading. append. substring and instring searches.page 129 . trim ± For external LOBs: File existence test. EMPTY_CLOB() ± BFILENAME 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . comparison and length checking ± For internal LOBs: Write. copy. erase. close  Other built-in functions ± LOADFROMFILE (load an external BFILE into a BLOB) ± EMPTY_LOB().

FETCH fax_cur INTO the_fax. received DATE. Question: What¶s in the_fax? 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . CLOSE fax_cur. BEGIN OPEN fax_cur.Deceptively simple example  BLOB-typed column in a table CREATE TABLE incoming_faxes (fax_id INTEGER. END. the_fax BLOB.  Retrieve record with BLOB into PL/SQL variable DECLARE CURSOR fax_cur IS SELECT fax FROM incoming_faxes. fax BLOB).page 130 .

The ³LOB locator´ LOB t l sel es [ ll ] t i i t r . tt LOBs <lob segment> fax_id 281937 received 12-JAN-98 fax <lob locator> Updati  t e LOB anges t e pointer is ompli ates se of LOBs ± LOB locators cannot span transactions ± Programs must lock records containing LOBs efore updating ± Programs performing L must accommodate dynamic LOB locator alues 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 131 .

url%TYPE := 'http://www. 1 of 2  Must get a new LOB locator before writing into the LOB: DECLARE the_url web_pages.page 132 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . htmlloc CLOB). ...oodb. the_loc CLOB.com'. EMPTY_CLOB()) RETURNING htmlloc INTO the_loc. BEGIN INSERT INTO web_pages VALUES (the_url.Example: Piecewise CLOB programmatic insert  Create a table CREATE TABLE web_pages ( url VARCHAR2(512) PRIMARY KEY.

EMPTY_CLOB()) and loads a web page RETURNING htmlloc INTO the_loc. into a CLOB column html_tab := UTL_HTTP. buffer => html_tab(the_piece_no)). This block retrieves INSERT INTO web_pages VALUES (the_url.oodb. running_total := running_total + piece_length.page 133 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein BEGIN .REQUEST_PIECES(url => the_url).url%TYPE := 'http://www. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .COUNT LOOP piece_length := LENGTH(html_tab(the_piece_no)). END. html_tab UTL_HTTP..html_tab. several likely exceptions offset => running_total. DBMS_LOB. Note: We are ignoring amount => piece_length.HTML_PIECES.Example: Piecewise CLOB programmatic insert DECLARE the_url web_pages. the_loc CLOB.WRITE(lob_loc => the_loc. running_total PLS_INTEGER := 1. END LOOP. FOR the_piece_no IN 1.com'. piece_length PLS_INTEGER.

the_loc CLOB. IF str_offset != 0 THEN DBMS_LOB.com' FOR UPDATE. END IF. END. str_offset INTEGER. amount => 4.page 134 . buffer => 'cool'). CLOSE hcur. BEGIN OPEN hcur.INSTR(lob_loc => the_loc. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . offset => str_offset. FETCH hcur INTO the_loc.WRITE(lob_loc => the_loc.Example: Piecewise CLOB programmatic update DECLARE Program must lock the record explicitly CURSOR hcur IS SELECT htmlloc FROM web_pages WHERE url = 'http://www. str_offset := DBMS_LOB. pattern => 'oodb').oodb.

page 135 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ut IRECTORY namespace is global  Syntax: CREATE OR REPLACE DIRECTORY <directory name> AS '<full path to directory>'.Preparing to use BFILEs  You must first create an Oracle I ORY´ ± Creates logical alias for full directory pat ± imilar to LIBRARY (used for C "external procedures").  Example: CREATE DIRECTORY web_pix AS 'D:\bill\training\pix'.

.Using BFILE datatype in DDL  In a table.  In an object type. image BFILE). CREATE TYPE Business_card_t AS OBJECT ( name Name_t..page 136 . addresses Address_tab_t.. scanned_card_image BFILE ). CREATE TABLE web_graphics ( image_id INTEGER. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .. phones Phone_tab_t.

picture).  Example: DECLARE picture BFILE := BFILENAME('WEB_PIX'. BEGIN INSERT INTO web_graphics VALUES (100015. file_exprn) RETURN BFILE.gif').The built-in BFILENAME function  Returns value of datatype BFILE. 'prodicon. /  Notes: ± No automatic file checking or synchronization ± No participation in transactions 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Spec: FUNCTION BFILENAME(directory_exprn.page 137 . END.

src_lob => pic_file. image BLOB). pic_blob_loc) RETURNING image INTO pic_blob_loc.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Loading File into Database BLOB CREATE TABLE web_graphic_blobs ( image_id INTEGER.page 138 . DBMS_LOB. amount => DBMS_LOB. / loadblob. END. DBMS_LOB. BEGIN INSERT INTO web_graphic_blobs VALUES (1. pic_blob_loc BLOB := EMPTY_BLOB(). DBMS_LOB. DBMS_LOB.gif').GETLENGTH(pic_file)).LOADFROMFILE(dest_lob => pic_blob_loc. 'prodicon. DECLARE pic_file BFILE := BFILENAME('WEB_PIX'.FILEOPEN(pic_file.FILECLOSE(pic_file).FILE_READONLY).

or transaction  Ability to retrieve LOB ³chunk size´ ± Allows programmer to tune READs and WRITEs  For all internal LOBs ± OPEN & CLOSE allow control over timing.page 139 .New DBMS_LOB APIs in 8i  Support for temporary LOBs ± No logging or rollback faster! ± Lifespan: session. call. that can mean less I/O » Trigger will not fire until CLOSE » Indexes will not update until CLOSE ± ISOPEN 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Summary  LOB support in Oracle is now significantly improved. COLD 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .. ± Complete support in PL/SQL (and other APIs) ± Much better performance and control than with LONGs ± Usable in object types HOT  Some weaknesses.page 140 .Large Object .. ± LOB locator behavior slightly abstruse ± Inability to modify BFILEs directly from within PL/SQL.

page 141 .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Leveraging Java Inside PL/SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Overview of Java interoperability  Java inside or outside 8i server can call PL/SQL ± Standard JDBC and SQLJ calls with Oracle extensions ± Same Java on client.. functions. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .a BRIEF introduction to Java.. triggers in Java Distinct Java & PL/SQL namespaces  But first. mid-tier.page 142 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . or server Not covered in this seminar  PL/SQL can call Java inside 8i server ± ± ± ± Command-line tools load Java classes DDL extensions publish Java classes Writing stored procedures...

. slickest piece of software ever designed by human beings? ± Just the latest in a series of "silver bullets" promoted by software vendors in order to prop up quarterly sales? ± The first and only successful O-O language? ± None of the above?  We don't really need to take a vote.page 143 . ± We just need to keep a firm grip on common sense and stay focused on delivering solutions. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Question 1: What is Java?  Could it be. ± The end of programming history as we know it? ± The easiest.. fastest.

and very aggressively.  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . PL/SQL will still be: ± Faster and more productive than Java for database operations. ± Supported and improved by Oracle -. ± Ubiquitous in thousands of production applications and millions of lines of code.Question 2: Will Java Replace PL/SQL?  While that scenario is certainly possible.page 144 . to boot. it is very unlikely and totally unthinkable for years to come. ± A language in which hundreds of thousands of developers are trained.

Some Important Things to Remember  Java is a case sensitive language. everything exception the primitive datatypes. ± Before you can call a (non-static) class method.. ± string is definitely not the same as String. ± Well.. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .. ± Don't get overwhelmed by all the classes and all the strange quirks.  Everything is a class (or an object instantiated from a class)..  You don't have to know how to do everything with Java to get lots of value out of it. you have to instantiate an object from that class.page 145 ...

no methods. except the "special" main method. by the way: the PL/SQL version 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END..Building a Java Class  Let's start from the very beginning. ± Used to test or run stand-alone a class.page 146 .out. Oh..println ("Hello world!"). } }  No members. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE hello IS BEGIN DBMS_OUTPUT. public class Hello { public static void main (String[] args) { System.PUT_LINE ('Hello world!').

class file.7b\lib\classes.zip. you must compile it with the javac command.java -classpath d:\java 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .d:\java D:> javac Hello.java file to a .page 147 . SET CLASSPATH = d:\Oracle\Ora81\jdbc\lib\classes111.Compiling Classes  Before you can use a class. ± This will convert the .1. e:\jdk1.zip. ± You must also either have set the CLASSPATH or include it in your javac call. ± It will also automatically recompile any classes used by your class that has not been compiled since last change.

Running a Class  Run a class? What does that mean? It means that if your class contains a method with this header: public static void main (String[] args)  then you can "run" the main method with the java command: d:\java> java Hello  You can also pass one or more arguments on the command line: d:\java> java Hello mom Hello2.page 148 .java 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

page 149 . Usually. you will use a class by instantiating objects from the class and then invoking class methods on the object.Using a Class  The main method is handy for providing a built-in test mechanism of your class. however. Let's build a performance analyzer class to explore these ideas.   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

currentTimeMillis(). System. public void capture () { Gstart = System.l ("Elapsed time for " + context. elapsed()).page 150 .Gstart).Gstart). } public void showElapsed (String context) { p.Compare Performance of Methods  Use System.currentTimeMillis() . } public long elapsed () { return (System.java 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .currentTimeMillis() . } public void showElapsed () { p. class Tmr { private long Gstart = 0.l ("Elapsed time ".java Tmr.java InFile. } } p.currentTimeMillis to calculate elapsed time to nearest thousandth of a second.

but at least one method remains unimplemented. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..page 151 .  Abstract class ± The class can contain members and methods..Types of Classes  There are several different kinds of classes in Java. besides the "regular" kind we just saw.  Interface class ± The class only contains unimplemented methods.  Inner class ± Classes that are defined inside other classes.

And Now for Some Scary Buzzwords!  Inheritance ± Subclasses inherit methods and variables from extended superclasses.page 152 .  Polymorphism ± An object of a class can have "multiple" forms. ± Static polymorphism: form is chosen at compile-time (PL/SQL overloading). ± Dynamic polymorphism: form is determined at run-time.java A Class Hierarchy Management NonManagement Corporation 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . supertype/"wider" Citizen Person Employee Hourly Worker Salaried Worker subtype/"narrower" War Criminal Person. either as its own class or as any superclass.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Language Basics  Comments // Single line comment /* Block comment */ /** Documentation comment */  Primitive datatypes ± So I lied.page 153 . if (myName. these are not objects instantiated from classes. boolean char byte short int long float double  Strings ± A String object is a read-only. myName = "Feuerstein". you are actually allocating a new object. myName = "Steven". String myName.equals(YourName)) foundFamily(). ± Can't do a direct == comparison. if you assign a new value to it.

out. indx++) System.NextElement()).println ( (String)enum.page 154 . expression.Writing Loops in Java  Three kinds of loops: while.nextElement()) } } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Examples: for (indx indx=0. static void processAll (Enumeration enum) { while (enum. step) { lotsaStuff } while (expression) { lostsaStuff } do { lostsaStuff } while (expression).length. for (initialize.println (args[indx]). System.out. indx < args.hasMoreElements ()) { processIt (enum. do-while and for ± Note: you need squiggly brackets only if there is more than one statement in the loop body.

you still include the open and close parentheses. } } class LotsALingos { public static void main (String args[]) { PuterLingo Java = new PuterLingo("Java").println (Java. } public String name () { return mname.out.. you must supply a value for each parameter.. class PuterLingo { private String mname. public PuterLingo (String name) { mname = name.Passing Parameters  Some important differences from PL/SQL.page 155 . ± Only positional notation is supported. ± No default values for arguments. ± If a method has no arguments.name()). System. } } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

you "throw" and "catch" exceptions.length().out.equals("")) throw new Exception ("Filename is NULL"). Put inside try clause File myFile = new File (filename). Throwing my own public static int numBytes (String filename) { exception try { if (filename.toString()). } File-related catch (SecurityException e) { exceptions return -1.page 156 . rather than raise and handle. } catch (Exception e) { System. return myFile.Exception Handling in Java  Very similar to PL/SQL.println (e. "WHEN OTHERS" } in Java } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

as in: public static int numBytes (String filename) throws SecurityException. NoSuchFile { . ± So you can pass them as arguments and do anything and everything else you can do with objects.  You must inform users of your method of which exceptions may be thrown. ± Use the throws clause in your specification.Differences Between Java & PL/SQL  Exceptions are objects derived directly or indirectly from the Exception class.page 157 ... } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

± Object oriented development (Java) is very different from procedural coding (PL/SQL).Java's Not So Tough!  You can learn enough Java in less than a week to: ± Build simple classes ± Leverage Java inside PL/SQL  Moving to the next level of expertise will be more of a challenge.  Now let's explore how you can put Java to work for you inside PL/SQL programs. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 158 .

using JDBC or SQLJ Oracle 8i server PL/SQL cover for Java method Java virtual machine running Java method Oracle Developer client (PL/SQL) Net8 OCI or Pro*C client VB or C++ via OO4O or ODBC 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 159 .Java Stored Procedures (JSPs) Java applet or app.

JSPs: Some sample uses PL/SQL extender ± For example.page 160 . better file I/O ± RMI callouts. network communication in/out PL/SQL replacement ± More standard language ± Good performer for numeric processing tasks ± Beware database I/O & string manipulation performance Scaleable deployment of third party code ± Vertical application ± Web server ± XML parser/generator 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Create Java classes in your favorite IDE 2. Grant privileges as desired 5. Load into server using ³loadjava´ command-line tool 3. Call from PL/SQL (or SQL) as if calling PL/SQL    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Publish PL/SQL cover using AS LANGUAGE JAVA...END 4.Creating JSP to call from PL/SQL   1.page 161 ... rather than BEGIN.

out. public Corporation ( String Pname. 50000000). paying its" + " Chief Executive Officer " + CEOCompensation. CEOCompensation = PceoComp.println main method is used to test the class.page 162 PL/SQL . } public static void main (String[] args) { // A very scary company Corporation TheGlobalMonster = new Corporation ( "Northrup-Ford-Mattel-Yahoo-ATT". 5000000. }} 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Notes on Java classes  toString method automatically used by System. long PceoComp) { name = Pname.println (TheGlobalMonster).Create Java class(es) class Corporation extends Person { long layoffs. long Playoffs. layoffs = Playoffs.out. } public String toString () { return name + " is a transnational entity with " + layoffs + " laid-off employees. long CEOCompensation. System.java Advanced Techniques . Entry points must be public static in most cases Classes may call other classes Avoid GUI calls     person.

jar file Oracle 8i server Java class Java source Java resource loadjava Example: loadjava loadjava -user scott/tiger -oci8 -resolve datacraft/bill/Hello.java file Java resource file .page 163 .class options (abbreviated) -oci8 -resolve loadjava will connect using OCI driver Resolves external class references at compile time -resolver (shown later) Search path like CLASSPATH 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .class file .Upload using ³loadjava´ utility .

) [ return <Ja a t pe fullname> ]'. /  Syntax (simplified) CREATE [ OR REPLACE PROCE URE FUNCTION <name> <sqlt pe> ] [ [ <ar s> ) ] [ AUTHID { DEFINER | CURRENT_USER } ] AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME '<met fullname> (<Ja a t pe fullname>.. .page 164 .Publish  Example (top-level call spec) CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION hello_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2 AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.Emp(int) return java. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .bill.Hello.String'.lang..

sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Method 2: Use 8i SQL CALL statement. END.page 165 . PRINT :thename ± CALL avoids overhead of SELECT fn FROM DUAL jsp.Call the wrapped method  Method 1: Call as if PL/SQL module BEGIN DBMS_OUTPUT. from SQL*Plus: VARIABLE thename VARCHAR2(12) CALL hello_emp(7499) INTO :thename. for example.PUT_LINE(hello_emp(7499)).

String java.ARRAY 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .lang.sql.sql.REF oracle.more concepts Shape mapping ± Java methods declared ³void´ become PL/SQL procedures ± Signature mismatches detected only at runtime Type mapping (typical) VARCHAR2 DATE NUMBER user-defined object type user-defined object type object REFerence user-defined collection type java.sql.BigDecimal oracle.STRUCT <named type> oracle.math.page 166 .Publishing -.sql.Timestamp java.

Hello. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE hello_pkg AS FUNCTION hi_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2 AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.. END.Emp(int) return java.Publish in PL/SQL Package Spec  Designate Java module in PL/SQL package spec. / (No package body required in this case) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .util.String'.lang..page 167 .

/ 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .lang.page 168 ..Emp(int) return java. END.String'.Hello.util. / CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY hello_pkg2 AS FUNCTION hi_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2 IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft..Publish as module in package body  .or in package body CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE hello_pkg2 AS FUNCTION hi_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2. END.

MEMBER FUNCTION hello_emp RETURN VARCHAR2).String'). END.Hello.page 169 .Emp(int) return java.String'. MEMBER FUNCTION hello_emp RETURN VARCHAR2 IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.Emp(int) return java.lang.Publish as object type method  Either in spec: CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE foo_t AS OBJECT ( bar VARCHAR2(30). / or in the body: CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE foo_t AS OBJECT ( bar VARCHAR2(30).lang.util. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . / CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE BODY foo_t AS MEMBER FUNCTION hello_emp RETURN VARCHAR2 IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.Hello.util.

JAVASYSPRIV (needed for file IO operations).page 170 . JAVAIDPRIV. DROP JAVA: drops a named Java library unit Several roles available for Java operations: ± JAVAUSERPRIV.   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . or resource ± Can read file designated with BFILE() function  ALTER JAVA: compiles Java source. JAVA_ADMIN. resolves Java class references. JAVADEBUGPRIV ± You can also grant specific privileges.New DDL Statements and Roles  CREATE JAVA ± Alternative to ³loadjava´ utility ± Creates or replaces an Oracle ³library unit´ from Java source. class.

SQLData 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Passing Oracle8 objects Oracle8i server Object in O-R table Java application Java object   Harder than you¶d think Three different interfacing techniques ± oracle.page 171 .sql.CustomDatum ± oracle.sql.jdbc2.STRUCT ± oracle.

JPublisher utility Database server Definition of type or REF in data dictionary User-supplied JPublisher input file What does it do? ± Generates Java that encapsulates type and REF types of mapping supported for methods JPublisher ± ³Oracle mapping´ ± ³JDBC mapping´ ± ³Object JDBC mapping´ Three Generated Java file(s) for use in Java programs 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 172 .

AccountRuntime.bill.page 173 .Passing object using JPub-generated Java  After generating and uploading classes with JPub.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . they become available to use in mapping Example of passing an Account_t object: CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE account_save (new_acct IN Account_t) IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.Account_t)'. /  jspobj.save (datacraft.bill.

Let's see how we can make that great Java stuff available from within PL/SQL. but that package is very limited.   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Example: Improving File I/O  You can read/write files in PL/SQL with UTL_FILE. Java offers many file-related classes with much greater capabilities.page 174 .

.page 175 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± This is not available through UTL_FILE (though you can get it through DBMS_LOB)..  Let's start with something simple. ± Instead build a static method that instantiates a Java object from the class and then invokes the relevant method against that object.Encapsulate Java Classes  You won't generally access native Java methods in your PL/SQL wrapper. ± The File class offers a length method that returns the number of bytes in a file.

± Instantiate a File object for the specified name. public class JFile2 { public static long length (String fileName) { File myFile = new File (fileName). import java.File. ± Call the method of choice against that object and return the value.My Own Java Class for File Manipulation  Accept the name of a file and return its length.java  Take each of these steps: ± Import the File class to resolve reference. return myFile.page 176 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .io.length(). } } JFile2.

pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . / CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY xfile IS FUNCTION length (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN NUMBER AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'JFile. ± I translate the Java long to a PL/SQL NUMBER.Build a Package over Java Method  Let's put it in a package. / xfile2. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE xfile IS FUNCTION length (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN NUMBER. END.String) return long'. we will certainly want to add more functionality over time.page 177 . END.lang.length (java.

you will need to take these steps: ± 1. Write a "hidden" PL/SQL wrapper function that returns the string or number.  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 178 . so you'd expect smooth sailing. ± 3. ± 2. Write a "public" PL/SQL wrapper function to convert that number to a true PL/SQL Boolean. Convert the Java boolean to a String or number and return that value.Mapping the Boolean Datatype  Both Java and PL/SQL support a native Boolean datatype. Not so! To pass a Boolean back from Java to PL/SQL.

± And don't forget: this is a boolean primitive.io. public class JFile3 { public static int canRead (String fileName) { File myFile = new File (fileName). import java.page 179 . } } JFile3. not a Boolean class.File. if (retval) return 1. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . else return 0.java  Translate TRUE to 1 and FALSE to 0.Translate Boolean to Number  Accept the name of a file and return its length.canRead(). boolean retval = myFile.

canRead (java.pkg END.String) return int'.java / xfile.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .java END. ± Avoid the hard-codings with named constants.. / CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY xfile IS FUNCTION IcanRead (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN NUMBER AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'JFile3..pkg RETURN IcanRead (file) = 1. JFile4. FUNCTION canRead (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN BOOLEAN AS BEGIN xfile3.lang. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE xfile IS FUNCTION canRead (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN BOOLEAN. JFile. END. xfile4.page 180 .Wrapper for Pseudo-Boolean function  Simple translation back to PL/SQL Boolean.

println ( "Pay " + laborType + " $" + hourly_rate + " per hour"). System. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein UnionBuster.Passing Objects to Java with STRUCT  You can pass Oracle object information to Java without relying on JPub by using the STRUCT class.SQLException { // Get the attributes of the labor_source object. } } Extract individual attribute values from the array.sql.java passobj. // Access individual attributes by array index. throws java. Object[] attribs = e.page 181 . BigDecimal hourly_rate = (BigDecimal)(attribs[1]).out.tst PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . // starting with 0 String laborType = (String)(attribs[0]). public class UnionBuster { Obtain attributes of public static void wageStrategy (STRUCT e) the Oracle object.getAttributes().

page 182 .Wrapping a STRUCT-based Method  You can pass Oracle object information to Java without relying on JPub by using the STRUCT class. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Fully specify the STRUCT class in parameter list.sql. END. 0)). bust_em_with ( labor_source ('Prisoners'. The Oracle object type definition CREATE TYPE labor_source_t AS OBJECT ( labor_type VARCHAR2(30). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . hourly_rate NUMBER). / BEGIN bust_em_with ( labor_source ('Workfare'.STRUCT)'.wageStrategy (oracle. '5')). / CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE bust_em_with ( labor_source_in IN labor_source_t) AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'UnionBuster.

SET_OUTPUT (1000000).java HelloAll. HelloAll. public class HelloAll { public static void lotsaText ( int count) { for (int i = 0.PUT_LINE: System. i++) { System.page 183 . you can redirect the output to the DBMS_OUTPUT buffer. ± Call it within methods and output will display in your Java environment.println ( "Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello All!").println.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . i < count. ± Here is a good nucleus for a login. }}}  When called within a PL/SQL wrapper.out.sql file: SET SERVEROUTPUT ON SIZE 1000000 CALL DBMS_JAVA.out.Viewing Output from Java Methods  Java provides a "print line" method similar to DBMS_OUTPUT.

getErrorCode() and getMessage() to obtain information about the error thrown. you "throw" and "catch". ± Use two methods. such as java. but more robust error handling mechanism than PL/SQL.SQLException.  Any error not caught by the JVM (Java virtual machine) will be thrown back to the PL/SQL block or SQL statement.5). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Instead of raising and handling.1. ± Exceptions are objects instantiated from the Exception class or a subclass of it.Error Handling with Java-PL/SQL  Java offers a very similar.sql.page 184 . ± And also spew out the entire Java error stack! (at least through 8.

BEGIN dropany ('TABLE'.object(DropAny.KprbDBAccess. END.java) at oracle.parseExecuteFetch(KprbDBAccess.PUT_LINE (SQLERRM).KprbDBAccess.jdbc.sp dropany2.sql.java -29532 dropany.doExecuteWithTimeout(OracleStatement. 'blip').OracleStatement.driver.jdbc.sql.driver.driver.kprb.java) at DropAny.page 185 . the entire Java stack is displayed on your screen.java:14) DropAny.SQLException: getErrInfo.jdbc.OracleStatement.PUT_LINE (SQLCODE). EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN DBMS_OUTPUT.jdbc. DBMS_OUTPUT.executeUpdate(OracleStatement.java) at oracle.check_error(KprbDBAccess.tst ORA-00942: table or view does not exist 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .OracleStatement.doExecuteWithBatch(OracleStatement.OracleStatement.tst ORA-29532: Java call terminated by uncaught Java exception: java.doExecuteOther(OracleStatement.doExecute(OracleStatement.jdbc.Trapping and Identifying Errors  Currently.SQLException: ORA-00942: table or view does not exist at oracle.driver. / SQL> 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 java.jdbc.driver.java) at oracle.java) at oracle.OracleStatement.kprb. and you have to do some digging to extract the Oracle error information.java) at oracle.jdbc.java) at oracle.

procedure.page 186 .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence External Procedures  An external procedure is a 3GL routine that can serve as the ³body´ of a PL/SQL function. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . or method.  An Oracle8 feature that allowed relatively "native" callouts to C from PL/SQL for the first time. ± Must be a shared object library on Unix or a dynamically linked library (DLL) on Windows.

DLL or .page 187 .Process & data flow Application Makes request Net8 External Procedure Listener spawns External Shared Library Calls PL/SQL Runtime Engine PL/SQL body Client or server-side application returns results calls routine from Routine in .so file extproc returns results returns results 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 188 .sql diskspace.External procedures: Sample uses      Send email Invoke operating system command Invoke custom or legacy application Call C runtime library function Perform admin tasks email.

create an Oracle8 ³library´: CREATE OR REPLACE LIBRARY nt_kernel AS 'c:\winnt\system32\kernel32.page 189 . / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .dll ± For given drive letter.Determine free disk space on NT (1/4)  Use pre-existing routine: ± GetDiskFreeSpaceA in kernel32.dll'. this function returns: » » » » » sectors per cluster bytes per sector number of free clusters total number of clusters ³return code´ indicating success or failure  First.

sectors_per_cluster OUT PLS_INTEGER. END disk_util. number_of_free_clusters OUT PLS_INTEGER.page 190 .Package spec (2/4)  Nothing unexpected here: CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE disk_util AS FUNCTION get_disk_free_space (root_path IN VARCHAR2. bytes_per_sector OUT PLS_INTEGER. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . total_number_of_clusters OUT PLS_INTEGER) RETURN PLS_INTEGER.

END disk_util. bytes_per_sector OUT PLS_INTEGER.page 191  All the magic is in the EXTERNAL section 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . number_of_free_clusters BY REFERENCE LONG. RETURN LONG).Package body in Oracle 8. sectors_per_cluster BY REFERENCE LONG. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .0 (3/4) CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY disk_util AS FUNCTION get_disk_free_space (root_path IN VARCHAR2. number_of_free_clusters OUT pls_integer. bytes_per_sector BY REFERENCE LONG. total_number_of_clusters BY REFERENCE LONG. total_number_of_clusters OUT PLS_INTEGER) RETURN PLS_INTEGER IS EXTERNAL LIBRARY nt_kernel NAME "GetDiskFreeSpaceA" LANGUAGE C CALLING STANDARD PASCAL PARAMETERS (root_path STRING. sectors_per_cluster OUT PLS_INTEGER.

Usage (4/4)
DECLARE lroot_path VARCHAR2(3) := 'C:\'; lsectors_per_cluster PLS_INTEGER; lbytes_per_sector PLS_INTEGER; lnumber_of_free_clusters PLS_INTEGER; ltotal_number_of_clusters PLS_INTEGER; return_code PLS_INTEGER; free_meg REAL; BEGIN return_code := disk_util.get_disk_free_space (lroot_path, lsectors_per_cluster, lbytes_per_sector, lnumber_of_free_clusters, ltotal_number_of_clusters); free_meg := lsectors_per_cluster * lbytes_per_sector * lnumber_of_free_clusters / 1024 / 1024; DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('free disk space, Mb = ' || free_meg); diskspace.sql END;
1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein
PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 192

Creating your own external procedure 

1. Identify or create shared library 2. Identify or CREATE LIBRARY within Oracle 3. Map the parameters using:
± EXTERNAL clause (Oracle8) or ± LANGUAGE clause (Oracle8i)  

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 193

1. Identify/create external routine 


Prerequisite: O/S must support shared libraries Some useful routines are pre-built in C runtime library
± On Unix: /lib/libc.so ± On NT: <systemroot>\system32\crtdll.dll 

Building a shared library of your own requires knowledge of:
± Appropriate language (typically C) ± Compiler & linker

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 194

2. Create the Oracle library 

Syntax:
CREATE OR REPLACE LIBRARY <library name> AS '<full path to file>'; 

Assigns a programmer-defined alias to a specific shared library file Notes
± Requires CREATE LIBRARY pri ilege ± Does not alidate directory ± Can¶t use symbolic link 

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 195

3. Map the parameters
This can get complicated, because«
± Must pass extra parameters to designate:
» NULL/NOT NULL state » String length » Maximum allocated length

± Six choices of parameter mode
» » » » » » IN RETURN IN BY REFERENCE RETURN BY REFERENCE OUT IN OUT

These details are better suited for close reading«
PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 196

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Oracle8i New Features Autonomous Transactions Invoker Rights Model Row Level Security 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 197 .

   Autonomous Transactions The Invoker Rights Model Row level security 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± And the learning curve to take advantage of these features is generally not too steep.page 198 .Oracle8i New Features  Oracle8i offers a number of PL/SQL-specific features that give you tremendous additional flexibility and capability.

± There was only one transaction allowed per connection.Autonomous Transactions  Prior to Oracle8i. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE loginfo ( code IN PLS_INTEGER. msg IN VARCHAR2) AS PRAGMA AUTONOMOUS_TRANSACTION. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . you can now define a PL/SQL block to execute as an "autonomous transaction". a COMMIT or ROLLBACK in any program in your session committed or rolled back all changes in your session.page 199 . ± Any changes made within that block can be saved or reversed without affecting the outer or main transaction.  With Oracle8i.

 Tracing Code Usage ± Build retry mechanisms. something like a COMMIT) on other components. ± One component should not have any impact (esp.  Logging Mechanism ± Commonly developers lot to database tables. etc.When to Use Autonomous Transactions  Reusable Application Components ± ATs are more or less required in the new distributed application architecture of the Internet.page 200 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . which can cause all sorts of complications: your log entry becomes a part of your transaction. ± Now you can avoid the complexities (need for ROLLBACK TO savepoints and so on). software usage meter.  Call functions within SQL that change the database. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

sp log81.page 201 . EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN ROLLBACK. BEGIN INSERT INTO logtab VALUES (code_in. rec. END.machine. END. text_in.tst PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . let's add some session information.pkg retry.Logging with ATs  Don't forget that ROLLBACK in the exception section! CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY log IS PROCEDURE putline ( code_in IN INTEGER.program ).pkg log81*. rec. USER. SYSDATE. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Avoid interdependencies with the main transaction. text_in IN VARCHAR2 ) IS PRAGMA AUTONOMOUS_TRANSACTION. logger. USER.tst retry. While we're at it. COMMIT. SYSDATE.

± You cannot define an entire package as an AT.sql autontrigger*.   The AT PRAGMA goes in the body of packages. ± You cannot tell by looking at the package spec if you are calling ATs or not -and this info is not available in the data dictionary. or an error is raised.page 202 .sql auton_in_sql. ± You can use the SET TRANSACTION ISOLATION LEVEL SERIALIZABLE to indicate that you do not want the changes visible until the outer transaction commits. ± You cannot define a nested anonymous block to be an AT. The AT PRAGMA can be used only with individual programs and toplevel anonymous blocks. autonserial.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Place the SET TRANSACTION statement in the outer transaction.  Any changes committed in an AT are visible in the outer transaction.Tips and Gotchas with ATs  An AT program must COMMIT or ROLLBACK before terminating.

The Invoker Rights Model  Prior to Oracle8i. you can now decide at compilation time whether your program or package will execute in the definer's schema (the default) or the schema of the invoker of the code. ± This is called the « Invoker Rights Model PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . whenever you executed a stored program.page 203 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . it ran under the privileges of the account in which the program was defined. ± This is called the « Definer Rights Model  With Oracle8i.

Ignores roles and relies on directly-granted privileges. Note: Oracle built-in packages have long had the capability of running under the invoker's authority.About Definer Rights  Allows you to centralize access to and control of underlying data structures.page 204 . But it can be a source of confusion and architectural problems. OE Code Order_Mgt Place Cancel Sam_Sales Close Old Orders  OE Data X  Orders Cannot alter table directly. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

each user has own copy of table(s)..page 205 .Problems with Definer Rights  Deployment & maintenance ± Must install module in all remote databases where needed ± In some databases. unless you write code in the package to essentially recreate roles programmatically. requiring copy of stored module  Security ± No declarative way to restrict privileges on certain modules in a package -.and now you do! 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Can bypass 8i¶s ³fine-grained´ access features (see the DBMS_RLS package) ± Difficult to audit privileges  Sure would be nice to have a choice..it's all or nothing.

± At run-time. and must be at the package level...Oracle8i Invoker Rights Syntax  For top level modules: CREATE [ OR REPLACE ] <module type> [ AUTHID { DEFINER | CURRENT_USER } ] AS . do what it takes to get the code to compile.  For modules with separate spec and body. the objects referenced may well be different from those against which it compiled. You could also create local.page 206 . Synonyms may be necessary if modules use object names not qualified by schema.  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± In other words. "dummy" objects. AUTHID goes only in spec.

modify destroy .acct_mgr. code. Central Code schema PACKAGE acct_mgr make AUTHID CURRENT_USER User/Data schema PROCEDURE mng_account IS BEGIN .page 207 .. yet have all references to data structures "reflect back" into your own schema.... accounts table 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ... END."Reflection" Capability of Invoker Rights  With invoker rights... you can execute code owned by another schema.).FROM accounts WHERE.destroy(.

sql  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Tips and Gotchas for Invoker Rights  Does not apply to code objects.page 208 . ± AUTHID CURRENT_USER is ignored. Note: cannot use with wrapped code.  Information about the rights model is not available in the data dictionary What if you want to maintain a single version of your code for both pre-Oracle8i and Oracle8i installations. taking advantage of the invoker rights model whenever possible? ± A creative use of SQL*Plus substitution variables comes in very invdefinv. only data ± When your stored code references another stored code element. oneversion.sql handy. all other calls in stack are resolved according to definer rights.  Once a definer rights program is called. the definer rights model is always applied to resolve the reference. ± Both static and dynamic SQL is supported.

National HQ Check City Statistics New York Schema stolenlives Chicago Schema stolenlives  Especially handy with dynamic SQL.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . authid. ± Share a program that uses dynamic SQL (whether DBMS_SQL or the new native implementation) and you end up taking the most unexpected DDL and DML detours. but you want their own directly-granted privileges to determine access.sql whichsch*.page 209 .When to Invoke Invoker Rights  You want to reuse the same code among many users.

sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . HQ Chicago Check City Statistics  New York stolenlives Analyze Pattern stolenlives perpetrators perp.page 210 . Rely on definer rights to access centralized data from any schema.Combining Invoker & Definer Rights  Rely on invoker rights to allow centralized code to work with schema-specific data.

Row Level Security DBMS_RLS Row-Level Security 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 211 .

Row-Level Security with DBMS_RLS  Oracle8i offers a new package. The DBMS_RLS package (along with "system contexts") now allow you to do so in a foolproof manner. Row Level Security  The establishment of security policies on (restricted access to) individual rows of a table. DBMS_RLS. Prior to Oracle8i. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . with which to implement automated row-level security (also referred to as "fine grained access control"). you could achieve this only partially through the use of views.page 212   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . their context information is set properly. the system context is a named set of attributevalue pairs global to your session.  Security Policy Packages ± You will need to write a package containing functions that establish the security policies to be applied to a particular table.  DBMS_RLS ± Use programs in DBMS_RLS to associate your security policies with tables.Components Needed for RLS  System Contexts ± A new feature in Oracle8i.page 213 .  Let's step through a simple example to see how all these pieces tie together.  Database Logon Triggers ± I want to make sure that when a person logs in.

highly secure database for NHCS.page 214 . No more for-profit hospitals pulling billions of dollars out of the system. no more private insurance companies soaking up 30 cents on the dollar. Here are some rules: ± Doctors can only see patients who are assigned to their clinic. popular uprising in the United States has forced the establishment of a national healthcare system.  We need a top-notch. all children are vaccinated.A National Health Care System  The year is 2010. all pregnant women receive excellent prenatal care. doctor. fgac. ± Regulators can only see patients who reside in the same state. ± A massive. The main tables are patient. ± Patients can only see information about themselves.sql  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . clinic and regulator.

doctor_id).sql for logic that identifies SELECT doctor_id FROM doctor different types of people and WHERE schema_name = USER.Set the Context  Define a context in the database. and create a procedure that will set the context attributes (type and ID) upon login.SET_CONTEXT ( 'patient_restriction'.SET_CONTEXT ( 'patient_restriction'. doc_rec doc_cur%ROWTYPE. FETCH doc_cur INTO doc_rec. c_person_id_attr. c_person_type_attr. doc_rec. CREATE CONTEXT patient_restriction USING nhc_pkg.page 215 . See CURSOR doc_cur IS fgac. BEGIN OPEN doc_cur. PROCEDURE set_context IS This is a simplification. DBMS_SESSION. 'DOCTOR'). END. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . DBMS_SESSION. sets the context accordingly.

Define the Predicate  A predicate is a string that will be appended to the WHERE clause of the table to which this security policy is associated (see next page). information for this retval VARCHAR2(2000). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . FUNCTION person_predicate ( schema_in VARCHAR2. name_in VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2 IS l_context VARCHAR2(100) := Extract the context SYS_CONTEXT (c_context. connection. ''' || clause for each type of c_person_id_attr || '''))'. c_person_type_attr). person. BEGIN IF l_context = 'DOCTOR' THEN retval := 'home_clinic_id IN (SELECT home_clinic_id FROM doctor We need a different string WHERE doctor_id = SYS_CONTEXT (''' || to modify the WHERE c_context || '''.page 216 .

ADD_POLICY OBJECT_SCHEMA OBJECT_NAME POLICY_NAME FUNCTION_SCHEMA POLICY_FUNCTION STATEMENT_TYPES END. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ( => => => => => => 'SCOTT'.nhc_pkg package. 'SCOTT'.DELETE'). 'SELECT. 'nhc_pkg.UPDATE. update or delete against the SCOTT.page 217 .Create the Security Policy  Use the DBMS_RLS. 'patient_privacy'. ± The following procedure call specifies that the WHERE clause of any query.PATIENT table will be modified by the string returned by the person_predicate function of the SCOTT.person_predicate'. 'patient'.ADD_POLICY procedure. BEGIN DBMS_RLS.

set_context. CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER set_id_on_logon AFTER LOGON ON DATABASE BEGIN nhc_pkg. END. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE ( 'Error ' || SQLCODE || ' setting context for ' || USER'). logon is disabled. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . we guarantee that the context is set (and the predicate applied) no matter which product is the entry point to Oracle. fgac.Create Logon Trigger. Setting Context  By setting the context in the logon trigger.page 218 .sql Exception handling in trigger is critical! If you allow an exception to go unhandled.

Predicate: home_clinic_id IN (SELECT home_clinic_id FROM doctor WHERE doctor_id = SYS_CONTEXT ('patient_restriction'.Veva Silva .IL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Patient sees only himself.IL Context Information for "CSILVA": Type: PATIENT ID: Predicate: schema_name = 'CSILVA' Patients Visible to "CSILVA": CSILVA . 'person_id')) Patients Visible to "SWALLACE": CSILVA . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Chris Silva .IL VSILVA .page 219 .Queries Transparently Filtered  What you see is determined automatically by who you are.Chris Silva . Context Information for "SWALLACE": Type: DOCTOR Doctor sees only her ID: 1060 patients.

. April..and play a new tune with PL/SQL! 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 220 .. Jump out of your rut .... February..Take Full Advantage of PL/SQL! January.. It's so easy to fall into a rut with a programming language... May. and you use only what you know.  ± You learn what you need to get the job done. March.

a. If time permits«)     UTL_FILE ± file IO DBMS_JOB ± Job scheduling DBMS_PIPE ± Pipe-based communication DBMS_UTILITY ± the kitchen sink package 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Appendices (a.k..page 221 .

Built-in Packages: UTL_FILE UTL_FILE Server-side File I/O Application FOPEN GET_LINE PUT_LINE .page 222 . Physical Files 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ...

. ± Limitations on files you can access (no mapped files. when it jumps to 32K.   But you can read lines from a file and write lines to a file.0. ± Maximum of 1023 bytes per line (read or write) until Oracle 8.. random access to contents). delete. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 223 .5. no use of environmental variables). copy.UTL_FILE: Server-side I/O  Allows you to read from and write to operating system files on the database server. ± No higher-level file operations supported (change privileges. A "version 1" (fairly primitive) utility.

Puts formatted text into the buffer PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .UTL_FILE Module Outline FCLOSE FCLOSE_ALL FFLUSH FOPEN GET_LINE IS_OPEN NEW_LINE PUT PUT_LINE PUTF Close the specified file Close all open files in your session Flush all data from the UTL_FILE buffer to your file Open a file Get the next line from a file Returns TRUE if the file is open (sort of) Insert a new line character in file at the end of current line Puts text into the UTL_FILE buffer Puts text and new line character into UTL_FILE buffer.page 224 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .

utl_file_dir = * Allows read & write for any directory. no trailing delimiter.page 225 Allows read & write for current directory. ± No single or double quotes around directory. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Use a separate entry for each directory (and subdirectory. ± You do this by adding lines to the instance parameter file. utl_file_dir = /tmp utl_file_dir = /accounts/newdev  And don't do either of the following: utl_file_dir = .Authorizing Directory Access  Oracle requires you to list explicitly those directories you wish to be able to read/write with UTL_FILE. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .  Follow these rules to avoid many headaches. there is no subdirectory recursion).

modify your initialization file. / utlfile.PUT_LINE (fid.txt'.tst  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 'test. END.FILE_TYPE. 'hello'). and then run the following test script (it can't get much simpler than this): DECLARE fid UTL_FILE. restart your database. BEGIN /* Change the directory name to one to which you at least || THINK you have read/write access.FCLOSE (fid). */ fid := UTL_FILE.FOPEN ('c:\temp'. UTL_FILE.Test UTL_FILE Access  About the hardest part to working with UTL_FILE is simply getting started. So before you write anything fancy. UTL_FILE.page 226 . 'W').

 Specify file location. 'W').FILE_TYPE. 'W' for Write and 'A' for Append. BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE.txt'. ± Currently contains a single ID field. ± In actuality. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..FILE_TYPE.page 227 . ± Types are 'R' for Read. name and operation type.  The FOPEN function returns a record ("file handle") based on the UTL_FILE. Test to see if file is open with the IS_OPEN function. END.FOPEN ('c:\temp'. Not much of a test.Opening a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.   Maximum of 10 files may be opened in each user session. this function simply returns TRUE if the file handle's id field is NOT NULL.. 'test.

txt'. BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE. 'R').FCLOSE (fid).GET_LINE (fid.FILE_TYPE.Reading from a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE. the ceiling is raised to 32K. ± You might want to build your own GET_LINE which handles the exception and returns an EOF Boolean status flag.FOPEN ('c:\temp'.   Can only read from a file opened with the "R" mode.page 228 .sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± In Oracle8 Release 8. Lines in the file cannot be longer than 1023 bytes in length.5 and above. getnext.  The NO_DATA_FOUND exception is raised if you read past the end of the file. myline). 'test. END. UTL_FILE. UTL_FILE.0.

UTL_FILE. ± PUTF is like the C printf program. END. UTL_FILE. UTL_FILE.FOPEN ('c:\temp'. 'is so much fun'). 'UTL_FILE'). allowing for some formatting. UTL_FILE is so much fun that I never want to stop Resulting Text  You can use PUT. ± The file buffers are automatically flushed when you close a file or exit your session.PUTF (fid.FCLOSE (fid).FILE_TYPE. '&1').PUT_LINE (fid. ' that I never\nwant to %s'. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 'W'). PUT_LINE or PUTF. UTL_FILE.txt'.PUT (fid.page 229 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE.Writing to a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.  Call FFLUSH to make sure that everything you have written to the buffer is flushed out to the file. 'test.

myline).FOPEN ('c:\temp'. You should close files in exception handlers to make sure that files are not left "hanging" open. 'test.  If you do not close the file. You can close a single file with FCLOSE or all open files with FCLOSE_ALL. you will not see the data you have (supposedly) written to that file. 'R'). END. UTL_FILE.page 230   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Closing a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE. BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE.READ_ERROR THEN UTL_FILE.FILE_TYPE.FCLOSE (fid).GET_LINE (fid. UTL_FILE.FCLOSE (fid). EXCEPTION WHEN UTL_FILE.txt'.

EXCEPTION. EXCEPTION. ± They all share a common SQLCODE of 1. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . EXCEPTION. ± UTL_FILE-named exceptions in other cases.  You have to take special care to trap and handle the named exceptions. EXCEPTION. EXCEPTION.Error Handling in UTL_FILE PACKAGE UTL_FILE IS invalid_path invalid_mode invalid_filehandle invalid_operation read_error write_error internal_error END.  UTL_FILE relies on a combination of user-defined exceptions and STANDARD exceptions to communicate errors. EXCEPTION.page 231 . EXCEPTION. ± NO_DATA_FOUND when you try to read past the end of the file.

RAISE. utlflexc. RAISE.c_write_error).Recommended Exception Section EXCEPTION WHEN UTL_FILE. WHEN UTL_FILE. RAISE.INVALID_PATH THEN recNgo (PLVfile. WHEN UTL_FILE.c_invalid_operation).c_invalid_path). translating the generic user-defined exception into an understandable message. Re-raise exception if you want it to propagate from that block.page 232  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .c_invalid_filehandle).c_invalid_mode).READ_ERROR THEN recNgo (PLVfile. RAISE. END.c_read_error). WHEN UTL_FILE. WHEN UTL_FILE. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .sql  Trap locally by name.c_internal_error). RAISE. RAISE.INVALID_FILEHANDLE THEN recNgo (PLVfile. WHEN UTL_FILE.INVALID_MODE THEN recNgo (PLVfile. record the error.INVALID_OPERATION THEN recNgo (PLVfile.WRITE_ERROR THEN recNgo (PLVfile.INTERNAL_ERROR THEN recNgo (PLVfile. RAISE. WHEN UTL_FILE.

. Background Process DBA_JOBS Oracle Job Queue Subsystem 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 233 ..Built-in Packages: DBMS_JOB DBMS_JOB Scheduled Execution of Stored Procedures Application SUBMIT RUN REMOVE .

Create a listener program to poll the contents of a pipe and take action. Made its debut in PL/SQL Release 2. ± ± ± ±    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .2.1.Overview of DBMS_JOB  DBMS_JOB provides an API to the Oracle job queues. You can use DBMS_JOB to: Replicate data between different database instances. which in turn offers job scheduling capabilities within the Oracle Server. Schedule large batch jobs to run on "off hours". ± Spawn background processes to avoid blocking client process. Built by Oracle to support snapshots and replication.page 234 . Schedule regular maintenance on instances. but only ³publicly available´ and supported in PL/SQL Release 2.

Forces immediate execution of the specified job number. Changes the interval between executions of a job. Changes one or all attributes of a job.page 235 CHANGE INTERVAL ISUBMIT NEXT_DATE REMOVE RUN SUBMIT USER_EXPORT WHAT 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Removes the job from the queue.DBMS_JOB Module Outline BROKEN Marks the job as either FIXED or BROKEN. Submits a job to the queue returning a unique job number. Changes the job string of a job. Returns the job string for a job number. Submits a job to the queue using a predefined job number. Broken jobs will not run as scheduled. Changes when a queued job will run.

 A job is a call to a stored procedure or an anonymous block ± It must end with a semi-colon and can contain ³hard-coded´ arguments.ISUBMIT and supply the job number.  When you submit a job. SYSDATE. BEGIN DBMS_JOB. 'calculate_totals. while the interval is a string (this is dynamic PL/SQL!)  You can also call DBMS_JOB. and then the job¶s execution interval (frequency of execution). 'SYSDATE + 1'). Notice that the start time is a DATE expression. you specify the date on which it should next execute.Submitting a Job DECLARE job# BINARY_INTEGER.SUBMIT (job#. END. instead of having DBMS_JOB generate one for you. ± In the above example.'.page 236 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . I run calculate_totals immediately and then on a daily basis thereafter.

ANALYZE_OBJECT. to analyze a specific table every evening at midnight. DBMS_DDL.Submit Job Example DECLARE v_jobno INTEGER.''LOAD1''. BEGIN DBMS_JOB.submit ( job => v_jobno.''TENK''' || '.null. what => 'DBMS_DDL. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .estimate_percent=>50). END.page 237 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .ANALYZE_OBJECT ' || '(''TABLE''. interval => 'TRUNC(SYSDATE+1)' ). /  This block submits a job that uses a built-in procedure.l (v_jobno).''ESTIMATE''.'. next_date => TRUNC (SYSDATE + 1). p.

what => 'my_job1(''string_parm_value''.ISUBMIT(3. ± Job 3 is a PL/SQL block which does nothing.ISUBMIT (job => 1 . END.SYSDATE+1. ± Job 1 passes a string and number into procedure MY_JOB1. 'my_job2(date_IN=>SYSDATE).interval => 'SYSDATE +1'). numbered 1. and 3.' . END. runs it in one hour and executes every day thereafter.next_date => SYSDATE + 1/24 .ISUBMIT (2.'SYSDATE+10/1440').' . DBMS_JOB.page 238 . and will be removed from the queue automatically. ± Job 2 passes a date into procedure MY_JOB2.'BEGIN null. /  This block submits three jobs to the job queue.ISubmit Job Example BEGIN DBMS_JOB. executes for the first time tomorrow and every 10 minutes thereafter.120). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .null).'.2. executes immediately.DBMS_JOB.SYSDATE. DBMS_JOB.

Every hour Every Sunday at 2 AM First Monday of each quarter. you must use 2 single quotes to embed strings. ± Since it's a string. ''MONDAY'') + 9/24' 'TRUNC (LEAST ( NEXT_DAY (SYSDATE. ''WEDNESDAY''). ''MONDAY''). ± Use date arithmetic to request intervals smaller than a day. NEXT_DAY (SYSDATE. 3).page 239 + 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . at 9 AM Every Monday. ''FRIDAY''))) + 18/24' PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Specifying Job Times & Frequencies  Probably the most complicated part of using DBMS_JOB is to get the string expression of the job interval right. ''SATURDAY'') 2/24' 'NEXT_DAY ( ADD_MONTHS (TRUNC (SYSDATE. ''Q''). Wednesday and Friday at 6 PM 'SYSDATE + 1/24' 'NEXT_DAY (TRUNC (SYSDATE). NEXT_DAY (SYSDATE.

Remove all jobs for current schema.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . expjob.ISUBMIT. ± Only if the job was submitted from same schema BEGIN FOR rec IN (SELECT * FROM USER_JOBS) LOOP DBMS_JOB. DBMS_JOB. END LOOP.  Run a job immediately.job). ± Produces a string that can be used to recreate an existing job in the job queue. retaining current job number.page 240 .Other Job Queue Operations  Remove a job from the queue. ± Performs an implicit COMMIT in current session.  Export jobs from the queue.REMOVE (rec.RUN (my_job#). ± Uses DBMS_JOB.

DBA_JOBS .this_date.username .sid = jr. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . SELECT jr.sid AND jr.job .Job Queue Views  You can also view the job queue by looking at the DBA_JOBS_RUNNING.what job_id username start_date job_definition jr j s showjobs. DBA_JOBS and USER_JOBS views.job ORDER BY jr.jr.job = j.this_date .page 241 . ± The following query blends job information with session information to display currently-executing jobs.V$SESSION WHERE s.sql FROM DBA_JOBS_RUNNING . who owns them and when they began.

 You will need to set three parameters in the init. ± job_queue_interval=N where N is the interval in seconds to check the job queue. You will have to take special DBA action if you want to restrict who can run jobs. of one hour). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . The valid range is 0 through 36. ± The default is PUBLIC access.ora (initialization) file for your database instance: ± job_queue_processes=N where n is the number of concurrent background processes permitted. therefore. The valid range is 1 to 3600 (a maximum.page 242 .Setting up the Job Facility  Make sure that the correct access is set up for the DBMS_JOB package.

if your failure raises an unhandled exception. the job facility will mark your job as broken. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Error Handling with DBMS_JOB  What if your stored procedure fails? ± After 16 attempts. Then you can go ahead and submit it. ± Do you want it to try 16 times? ± In addition.  To avoid unexpected and unhandled failures of scheduled jobs: ± Always use the RUN built-in to execute your job in a ³test´ mode. ± Always include a WHEN OTHERS exception handler in your job program which traps any and all problems and automatically sets the job status to broken. it may cause the background processes to fail and no longer run any jobs at all.page 243 .

job_pkg.sql  The WHEN OTHERS exception handler of the calc_totals procedure traps any kind of failure. ± Now the job facility will not try to run this program again. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN job# := job_pkg. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Calls log program of package to record that failure took place.log (µcalc_totals¶. spacelog.page 244 . TRUE).. ± Uses a call to BROKEN to set the status of the job to ³broken´. END. µFAIL¶).Stopping the Job When It Fails PROCEDURE calc_totals IS BEGIN . ± Obtains the job number from a packaged function by passing the name of the procedure.job (µcalc_totals¶) DBMS_JOB.sql showspc.BROKEN (job#.. You can go in and fix the problem.

   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . difficult to reproduce behavior at times with "straight" procedure calls.  You will need to fully-qualify all database links (with user name and password) to get them to work properly. perform a COMMIT after your submit. it picks up the current execution environment for the user. If you find that you submit a job to run immediately and it does not start. When a job runs."Good to Knows" for DBMS_JOB  You may find it useful to always wrap your stored procedure call (the what) inside a BEGIN-END block.page 245 . ± We've noticed some aberrant. You can use the DBMS_IJOB to manage the jobs of other users. ± DBMS_JOB only allows you to modify characteristics and behavior of jobs submitted by the current schema.

page 246 .Built-in Packages: DBMS_PIPE DBMS_PIPE Inter-session Communication 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

± Perform and commit DML in a separate transaction space from your main transaction. You can parallelize your own code. ± Interface PL/SQL-database activities with operating system functions and programs written in other languages. ± Operates outside of database transaction limitations. Oracle uses database pipes to parallelize database operations.DBMS_PIPE Overview  Allows communication between different Oracle sessions through a pipe in the RDBMS Shared Global Area. ± More sophisticated debugging inside PL/SQL programs (work around fundamental limitations of DBMS_OUTPUT).page 247 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Uses for DBMS_PIPE include: ± Parallelization of program execution.

± Names can be up to 128 chars long (do not use names beginning with ³ORA$´. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 248 .Architecture of DBMS_PIPE Shared Global Area ³Sue´ ³Bob´ Message Buffer Message Buffer Session A  Session B A pipe is a named object that uses the System Global Area to provide a non-transaction based conduit of information. They are reserved for Oracle use). ± The pipe sends/receives a message. which can be composed of one or more separate packets. using a maximum of 4096 bytes.

date or number). number.sql pipex2.sql PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Separate out the individual packets in the message (again: string. ± If there isn¶t currently room in the pipe. ± You can wait for up to 1000 days for a message. so you should always specify a timeout period.page 249 . ROWID or RAW. you can wait for up to 1000 days (or 86400000 seconds) for the pipe to be cleared.  Send the message to a named pipe. ± This is the default.  Receive a message from that pipe.Processing Flow of DBMS_PIPE  Construct a message from packets of information.  Unpack the message packets and take action. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein pipex1. ± There is just one message buffer per session. ± Each packet can be a string. date.

PACK_MESSAGE Packs an item into the message buffer for your session. UNPACK_MESSAGE Unpacks the next item from the local message buffer and deposits it into the specified local variable. PURGE Empties the contents of a pipe into your local buffer freeing it for removal. making it a candidate for removal with a LRU algorithm. Clears your buffer so that PACK_MESSAGE and UNPACK_MESSAGE can work from the first item. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . REMOVE_PIPE RESET_BUFFER Removes a pipe explicitly created via CREATE_PIPE.page 250 .DBMS_PIPE Module Outline Module Name CREATE_PIPE Description Creates a PUBLIC or PRIVATE pipe. NEXT_ITEM_TYPE Returns the datatype of the next item in the piped message. RECEIVE_MESSAGE Receives a message from pipe and copies to local buffer. SEND_MESSAGE Sends contents of message buffer to the specified pipe. UNIQUE_SESSION_NAME Returns name that is unique among all sessions in the database.

Creating Public and Private Pipes  There are two ways to create pipes: implicitly and explicitly. ± Send messages to non-existent pipe implicitly create it.  A public pipe is accessible as long as you know its name. private => TRUE). maxpipesize => 20000. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Use CREATE_PIPE to create a pipe explicitly.CREATE_PIPE ( pipename => 'bbs'. PROCEDURE newpipe IS stat INTEGER. ± Implicitly-created pipes are always public.page 251 . ± Specify TRUE for private argument of CREATE_PIPE.  An explicit pipe can be private (accessible only to sessions with matching userID or SYSDBA privileges). BEGIN stat := DBMS_PIPE.

page 252 . Send to "monthly" pipe. END LOOP.PACK_MESSAGE ( total_sales (month_num)).Sending a Message Provide pipe name.. but not smaller). expanding pipe size to 40 Kbytes. seconds you will wait. timeout IN INTEGER DEFAULT maxwait. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Status of 0 means message was sent. IF pipe_stat != 0 THEN RAISE could_not_send.SEND_MESSAGE ( µmonthly¶. FOR month_num IN 1 . and new max pipe size (you can make it bigger. FUNCTION send_message (pipename IN VARCHAR2. 60. 10 * 4096). waiting up to 1 minute. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Fill your message buffer with packets of data. maxpipesize IN INTEGER DEFAULT 8192) RETURN INTEGER. pipe_stat := DBMS_PIPE. 12 LOOP DBMS_PIPE.

± Specify pipe and number of seconds you will wait before you time out. ± You need to know the datatype of packet or check it using NEXT_ITEM_TYPE. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 253 .  Then you call UNPACK_MESSAGE to extract individual packets from the message.  First you pull the message from the pipe and place it in buffer with RECEIVE_MESSAGE.Receiving and Unpack a Message FUNCTION receive_message (pipename IN VARCHAR2. PROCEDURE unpack_message (item OUT DATE). timeout IN INTEGER DEFAULT maxwait) RETURN INTEGER. PROCEDURE unpack_message (item OUT NUMBER). PROCEDURE unpack_message (item OUT VARCHAR2). ± Pipe status of 0 means the message was read successfully.

DBMS_PIPE. prod_total). 'Production data unavailable. LOOP pipe_status := DBMS_PIPE. PROCEDURE analyze_assembly_data (every_n_secs IN INTEGER) IS pipe_status INTEGER.RECEIVE_MESSAGE ( 'production'. Wait up to N prod_total NUMBER. pass it on to the IF pipe_status = 0 computation THEN program. ELSE RAISE_APPLICATION_ERROR ( Stop process if -20000. data not received.page 254 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .UNPACK_MESSAGE (prod_total). END LOOP. END IF. END.A Pipe-based Listener Program  Program wakes up every N seconds to read the data from the pipe and analyze results from assembly line (an intentional "infinite loop"!). every_n_secs).'). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . seconds for the BEGIN next report. If I got something. analyze_production (SYSDATE.

Either: ± You know the datatype and therefore can ³hard-code´ the correct variable into the call to UNPACK_MESSAGE. Returns one of the following values: Value 0 6 9 11 12 23 Description or Data type No more items in buffer NUMBER VARCHAR2 ROWID DATE RAW dbpipe. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Unpacking the Message FUNCTION next_item_type RETURN INTEGER.sql dbpipe. you have to make sure that you unpack a packet into the right kind of variable.page 255 .tst  Since a message can be composed of packets of different datatypes. ± Or you use the built-in NEXT_ITEM_TYPE to tell you in advance the datatype of the next packet in the message and take appropriate action.

In order to do so I must first compute total sales. I must execute them sequentially and incur an elapsed time of 45 minutes before I calculate the profits. ± The CEO is decidedly unhappy about the delay. you can do the same for your application if: ± You have multiple CPUs available.  Suppose I want to calculate my net profit. ± These programs each take 15 minutes. ± You have processes which can run in parallel.  Without pipes.page 256 . but are not dependent on each other. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . total office expenses and total compensation.Parallelizing Your Code with Pipes  Oracle uses DBMS_PIPE to improve RDBMS performance.

Sequential vs.page 257 . Parallel Execution Sequential Execution: Maximum Elapsed Time S t a r t E n d Process A Process B Process C Parallel Execution: Minimum Elapsed Time Start Process A Process B Process C End 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

 The ³wait´ program waits till it receives a message from each program. ± When each program is complete.Parallelizing PL/SQL Execution BEGIN kick_off_sales_calc.  The ³kick off´ programs pass their messages to separate pipes. kick_off_totcomp_calc.in a muchdecreased elapsed time. ± Other programs running in the background grab the messages and start their corresponding calculation program. it puts a message (perhaps even a value) into the pipe.page 258 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . Then net profits can be computed -. calculate_net_profits. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END. kick_off_exp_calc. wait_for_confirmation.

stat := DBMS_PIPE. stat := DBMS_PIPE. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END.Code to Kick Off and Calculate PROCEDURE kick_off_sales_calc IS stat INTEGER.SEND_MESSAGE (µsales¶). Receive the year.PACK_MESSAGE (NULL). END IF. BEGIN stat := DBMS_PIPE.SEND_MESSAGE (µsales¶). PROCEDURE calculate_sales IS stat INTEGER. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Send message to start calculations.page 259 .PACK_MESSAGE (1995).RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µsales¶).PACK_MESSAGE (sales$). ELSE DBMS_PIPE.SEND_MESSAGE (µsales¶). stat := DBMS_PIPE. DBMS_PIPE. calculate sales. IF stat = 0 THEN lots_of_number_crunching. END. BEGIN DBMS_PIPE. and send back the results.

BEGIN stat := DBMS_PIPE.page 260 .UNPACK_MESSAGE (offexp$).comp$. DBMS_PIPE. The order in which you wait is insignificant.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . DBMS_PIPE.RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µsales¶). parallel. stat := DBMS_PIPE.RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µcomp¶).Waiting for Confirmation PROCEDURE wait_for_confirmation IS stat INTEGER. DBMS_PIPE.offexp$ .UNPACK_MESSAGE (comp$).RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µoffexp¶). Perform final calculation. stat := DBMS_PIPE. PROCEDURE calculate_net_profits IS BEGIN net_profits := sales$ . Wait for all calculations to finish.UNPACK_MESSAGE (sales$). END. END.

obtains the data.pkg  Implementation of a system-wide. ± A listener program grabs the request (including the return pipe name).tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Other DBMS_PIPE Examples  Simple trace package that sends it output either to screen or to pipe.page 261 . syscache.pkg syscache. ± A request for data is passed to a "central" pipe. and sends it to the pipe. in-memory cache. ± Demonstrates the use of toggles and switches in packages. ± The requester reads the information from the pipe. watch.pkg p_and_l.

page 262 . A µgrab-bag¶ of miscellaneous operations SCHEMA 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..Built-in Packages: DBMS_UTILITY DBMS_UTILITY Application GET_TIME GET_HASH_VALUE FORMAT_CALL_STACK ..

pkg dbparm. Recompile INVALID objects in specified schema. Returns database version (Oracle8) Executes DDL statement (Oracle8).pkg COMMA_TO_TABLE COMPILE_SCHEMA DATA_BLOCK_ADDRESS_BLOCK DATA_BLOCK_ADDRESS_FILE DB_VERSION EXEC_DDL_STATEMENT FORMAT_CALL_STACK FORMAT_ERROR_STACK GET_HASH_VALUE 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .page 263 dbver. Returns execution call stack. Returns hash value for string. Gets file number part of data block address.DBMS_UTILITY Module Outline ANALYZE_DATABASE ANALYZE_PART_OBJECT Analyze objects in database Runs ANALYZE TABLE or ANALYZE INDEX for each partition of the object (Oracle8). Parses comma-delimited list to index-by table. Gets block number part of data block address. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Returns error stack.

Resolves name of object into component parts. Returns platform and version of database. GET_PARAMETER_VALUE GET_TIME IS_PARALLEL_SERVER MAKE_DATA_BLOCK_ADDRESS NAME_RESOLVE NAME_TOKENIZE PORT_STRING TABLE_TO_COMMA Retrieves value of database parameter (Oracle8). Converts list (in index-by-table) of elements into a comma-delimited list (string).DBMS_UTILITY Module Outline. Parses string object designator into components. Returns TRUE if in parallel server mode. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 264 . Returns "current time" down to hundredth of second. cont. Creates data block address from block & file numbers.

page 265 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .GET_TIME .Sub-Second Timings with GET_TIME  GET_TIME returns the number of 100ths of seconds that have elapsed since an arbitrary point in time.PUT_LINE (DBMS_UTILITY. ± Useful when analyzing individual PL/SQL programs.v_start).GET_TIME. ± SYSDATE only reflects times down to the nearest second. END. calc_totals. so GET_TIME offers significant additional granularity. DECLARE v_start BINARY_INTEGER.  Compare results from consecutive calls to GET_TIME to determine the elapsed time of PL/SQL code execution. BEGIN v_start := DBMS_UTILITY. Basic steps necessary to convert GET_TIME into a performance analysis tool. DBMS_OUTPUT. especially those that run in sub-second time.

PROCEDURE turn_off.page 266 .spb 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Clean and lean timing code ovrhead. adjust_in IN NUMBER := 0. PLVtmr. END PLVtmr. BEGIN PLVtmr.sps plvtmr. calc_totals.capture.sql plvtmr. PROCEDURE capture ( context_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) PROCEDURE show_elapsed (prefix_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. PROCEDURE set_factor (factor_in IN NUMBER). reset_in IN BOOLEAN := TRUE).show_elapsed.Building a Layer Over GET_TIME Partial package specification PACKAGE PLVtmr IS PROCEDURE turn_on. END.

PUT_LINE ( DBMS_UTILITY. ± Most recent program at beginning of "report".PL/SQL Call Stack ----object line object handle number name 88ce3f74 88e49fc4 88e49390 88e2bd20 8 2 1 1 package STEVEN.VALIDATE_REQUEST function STEVEN. END. only the package name.Accessing the Execution Call Stack Use in the exception section to show context of error. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN DBMS_OUTPUT.CALC_NET_WORTH anonymous block  "Little known facts" about FORMAT_CALL_STACK: ± Contains embedded new-line characters. equivalent to CHR(10).COMPANY_TYPE procedure STEVEN.FORMAT_CALL_STACK). ± Does not show package elements. ----. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 267 .

Instead.page 268 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . next_line VARCHAR2(255).startpos + 1). startpos := next_newline + 1. dispcs.sp dispcs. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END LOOP. startpos INTEGER := 1.FORMAT_CALL_STACK || CHR(10). 1). next_newline . next_line := SUBSTR ( stk. END.tst callstack. startpos. LOOP next_newline := INSTR (stk.PUT_LINE (next_line).pkg plvcs. EXIT WHEN next_newline = 0. which means you cannot pass it to DBMS_OUTPUT directly. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE dispcs IS stk VARCHAR2(10000). CHR(10). next_newline INTEGER.sps DBMS_OUTPUT. startpos. BEGIN stk := DBMS_UTILITY. use a loop to read through the stack.Accessing Call Stack Contents  The call stack length can easily exceed 255 bytes.

PROCEDURE DBMS_UTILITY.NAME_RESOLVE (name IN VARCHAR2.for encapsulation! showcomp. object_number OUT NUMBER).sp snc. the way they are attached also follows a complicated syntax..page 269 . dblink OUT VARCHAR2.Resolving Names of Stored Code  Code names have many components.. part1_type OUT NUMBER... part2 OUT VARCHAR2.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . context IN NUMBER. ± Use NAME_RESOLVE to break down an identifier string into its components easily. part1 OUT VARCHAR2.but don't see it as a problem. schema OUT VARCHAR2.  Possible "Part 1" Types 5 7 8 9 Synonym Procedure Function Package What a chore! All those arguments. see it as an opportunity.