Achieving PL/SQL Excellence

Oracle PL/SQL Advanced Techniques
Oracle7 thru Oracle8i
Steven Feuerstein
www.StevenFeuerstein.com www.Quest.com www.OReilly.com
and contributions most excellent from Bill Pribyl and Dick Bolz

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

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Objective & Outline 

Objective
± Expand your knowledge and awareness of important and new features of the PL/SQL language. 

Outline
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± Building with Packages (Oracle7+) PL/SQL Collections (Oracle7 and Oracle8+) Cursor Variables (Oracle7 and Oracle8+) Dynamic SQL: DBMS_SQL and Native Dynamic SQL (8i) Calling Java from PL/SQL (Oracle8i) and C (Oracle8) Oracle Advanced Queuing with DBMS_AQ (Oracle8) Managing Large Objects with DBMS_LOB (Oracle8) Other Oracle8i New Features
» Autonomous Transactions (Oracle8i) » Invoker Rights Model (Oracle8i) » Row Level Security: DBMS_RLS

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

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Software Used in Training 

PL/Vision: a library of packages installed on top of PL/SQL.
± PL/Vision Lite - use it, copy, change it for free -- unless you build software to be sold commercially. ± Active PL/SQL Knowledge Base: contains PL/Vision Professional, the fully supported and enhanced version. 

Demonstration scripts executed in the training can be found on the RevealNet PL/SQL Pipeline:
± http://www.revealnet.com/Pipelines/PLSQL/index.htm ± Archives surfboard, Miscellaneous, PL/SQL Seminar Files ± See filedesc.doc for a listing of many of the files.
plsql_ides.txt 

The PL/SQL IDE (Integrated Development Environment).
± You no longer have to use SQL*Plus and a crude editor! Choose from among the many listed in plsql_ides.txt.

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Achieving PL/SQL Excellence

Building with PL/SQL Packages 
 

Overview Initialization section Overloading

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What is a Package? 

A collection of code elements, from procedures and functions to TYPE, variable and cursor declarations.
± Single-most important structure within PL/SQL, and almost certainly one of the most under-utilized. ± Conceptually very simple, it can take some time to fully grasp the implications and potential of the package. 

The method of choice by Oracle and other software developers for extending the PL/SQL language.
± You will find packages in the database, in Oracle Developer/2000, in Oracle Application Server. 

Let¶s review some of the benefits of packages.
tmr.pkg dbparm.pkg

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pks te_employee. ± Can lead to performance improvements. custrules.pkg  Improve transaction integrity by hiding data structures behind the package interface.pkb  Construct very flexible and usable utilities for developers. te_employee. watch. ± Puts more structure and organization in your body of code. package-based "component". ± Instead of writing SQL directly in your programs. you call the packaged procedures and functions instead.pkg insga.page 6 .pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .When to Build a Package  Join physically logically-related code. ± There's a big difference between a bunch of separate programs and a coherent.

Program references package element the first time in each session. Does the package have an init section? yes Run initialization code. ± The PL/SQL runtime engine determines when and if this code should be run.Package Initialization  The initialization section is a block of code at the end of the package body that is executed once per session.page 7 . the first time any package element is referenced. no Complete request for packaged element. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

± Setting up package data which does not change for the duration of a session. In fact. BEGIN END pkg. PACKAGE BODY pkg IS PROCEDURE proc IS BEGIN END.page 8 . most packages you build won't have one.Package Initialization Structure  The initialization section: ± Is defined after and outside of any programs in the package. ± Confirming that package is properly instantiated. ± Is not required. ± Can have its own exception handling section. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein BEGIN after/outside of any program defined in the pkg. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Useful for: ± Performing complex setting of default or initial values. FUNCTION func RETURN BEGIN END.

tb_flag.pkg init. 'lpt1'.tst this user. ± Body contains only initialization section. */ SELECT lov_flag. END sessinit. PACKAGE BODY sessinit IS /* No declared package elements at all! */ BEGIN /* Get user preferences for this user.. printer FROM user_config WHERE user_id = USER. 'Y'. EXCEPTION WHEN NO_DATA_FOUND THEN /* No record for show_lov := show_toolbar := printer := PACKAGE sessinit IS show_lov CHAR(1). show_toolbar. WHEN OTHERS THEN RAISE_APPLICATION_ERROR (-20000. init.. show_toolbar CHAR(1). Section  An unusual package! ± Specification contains only variables. END sessinit.  Also a package with many design flaws. 'No profile for ' || USER). */ 'Y'. printer VARCHAR2(60). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . defprinter INTO show_lov.page 9 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .Configure Session with Init.

fmts(12) := 'RRMMDD'.pkg file demonstrates the basic technique (and the reliance on an initialization section) used to achieve this flexibility. fmts(4) := 'MM/DD'. fmts(10) := 'MMDDYYYY'. fmts(11) := 'YYYYMMDD'. ± This increases the flexibility of the date conversion process.Populate Collections  The PL/Vision Date package.pkg dates. BEGIN fmts(1) := 'DD-MON-RR'. employs several PL/SQL tables to convert strings and to perform date arithmetic.page 10 . fmt_count := 12. PLVdate. datemgr. ± The datemgr. Initialization section populates a PL/SQL table. fmts(9) := 'MM/DD/YYYY'. END dt.. fmts(3) := 'DD-MON'. . fmts(2) := 'DD-MON-YYYY'..sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Program Overloading  When you overload programs.page 11 . ± Overloading transfers the "need to know" from the user to the overloaded program. myproc myproc 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . myproc  Overloading is a critical feature when building comprehensive programmatic interfaces (APIs) or components using packages. you need to make that code as smart and as easy to use as possible. ± You can overload modules in any declaration section and in packages. ± If you want others to use your code. you give two or more programs the same name.

Overloading in PL/SQL Built-ins  PL/SQL uses overloading in many common functions. you would have to deal with something like this: date_string := TO_CHAR_FROM_DATE (SYSDATE.page 12 . number_string := TO_CHAR (10000). and took functions like TO_CHAR and TO_DATE totally for granted. ± You just probably never gave it a thought. 'MMDDYY'). date_string := TO_CHAR (SYSDATE. 'MMDDYY'). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± But Oracle couldn't offer that level of convenience without overloading. number_string := TO_CHAR_FROM_NUMBER (10000). Without overloading.

VARCHAR2 is not different enough). ± Their formal parameters differ only in datatype and the datatypes are in the same family. When you compile the package or block containing the overloaded code. When you compile programs that use the overloaded code.How Overloading Works  For two or more modules to be overloaded. There are two different "compile times": ± 1.  Distinguishing characteristics: ± The formal parameters of overloaded modules must differ in number. ± Arguments differ only in their mode (IN. order or datatype family (CHAR vs.page 13 . ± The programs are of different types: procedure and function. IN OUT). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . OUT. ± 2.  Undistinguishing characteristics: ± Functions differ only in their RETURN datatype. the compiler must be able to distinguish between the two calls at compile-time.

END param_modes. FUNCTION func1 (val IN VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2. PROCEDURE proc1 (val IN OUT VARCHAR2).func1 (v_value)). which one? param_modes.calc ('123').proc1 (v_value). PACKAGE only_returns IS FUNCTION func1 (val IN VARCHAR2) RETURN DATE. Only difference is function RETURN type. Only difference is parameter mode. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . PACKAGE param_modes IS PROCEDURE proc1 (val IN VARCHAR2). Parameter data types cause conflict. PROCEDURE calc (reg_in IN VARCHAR2). END only_returns.Examples of Invalid Overloadings PACKAGE too_similar IS PROCEDURE calc (reg_in IN CHAR). which one? DBMS_OUTPUT. which one? too_similar.PUT_LINE (only_returns.page 14 . END too_many_cals.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .l substitute does an even better job.page 15 . You use the type of data and not its value to determine which of the overloaded programs should be executed. the overloading does not provide a single name for different activities.  Overloading by Type. not Value ± A less common application of overloading. you may construct different versions of the ³same´ program which correspond to different patterns of use.PUT_LINE procedure illustrates this technique -and the PL/Vision p.  Fitting the Program to the User ± To make your code as useful as possible. so much as providing different ways of requesting the same activity. In this case. ± The DBMS_OUTPUT.Overload Wherever Possible  Supporting Many Data Combinations ± Apply the same action to different kinds or combinations of data.

PACKAGE p IS PROCEDURE l (date_in IN DATE. YYYY . boolean_in IN BOOLEAN). date_in IN DATE.sps p. END p.A "Classic" Overloaded Package  Many different datatype combinations. number_in IN NUMBER). mask_in IN VARCHAR2 := 'Month DD. mask_in IN VARCHAR2 := µMonth DD.HH:MI:SS PM').page 16 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . YYYY .HH:MI:SS PM'). PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2. allowing the user to pass data to the "display engine" without writing "pre-processing" code. PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2).spb PROCEDURE l (boolean_in IN BOOLEAN). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2. p. PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2. PROCEDURE l (number_in IN NUMBER).

. 'MM/DD/YY HH:MI:SS')).PUT_LINE (TO_CHAR (SYSDATE. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein ‡Extended overloadings are more likely to meet user needs. p. END IF. IF print_report_fl THEN DBMS_OUTPUT. SQLCODE)..PUT_LINE ('FALSE'). p. DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE (SQLERRM || ': ' || TO_CHAR (SQLCODE)).PUT_LINE ('So what is different?'). p.Advantage of Extended Overloading ‡ Minimal overloading means lots of extra coding. ELSE DBMS_OUTPUT. DBMS_OUTPUT.l (print_report_fl).l ('So what is different?'). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . p. DBMS_OUTPUT.page 17 .PUT_LINE ('TRUE').l (SQLERRM.l (SYSDATE).

± If you want to write software that is admired. few developers are considerate enough of their users to try to anticipate their needs. can be applied or needed under very different circumstances.Fitting the Program to the User Writing "unnecessary" code? Time to overload!  A single piece of functionality. think about the way it will be used. the user of your package can benefit from writing less code.. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .. In my experience. ± Your code is a a more natural "fit" under a variety of requirements. such as "display data" or "create a file".page 18   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . appreciated. If you take these different circumstances into account when you design your package specification.and taken completely for granted.

 In other words. so this is just the way it has to be. 'blah').flg'. you have to declare the record to hold the file handle. END. even though you are simply going to close the file immediately after opening it. UTL_FILE.FCLOSE (fid). right? WRONG! PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± She doesn't care what's in it.Creating a File for a Quick Touch  Suppose a developer needs to create a file to be used as a "flag" in the operating system.FILE_TYPE.PUT_LINE (fid. It just needs to be present. 'W'). ± Here is the code required by UTL_FILE: DECLARE fid UTL_FILE. Of course.page 19  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . 'exists. BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE. UTL_FILE. sometimes you will want to create a file and then perform additional operations.FOPEN ('tmp/flags'.

pkg PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 20 .put_line (fid.fcreate ('exists.ini'.  Overloading of FCreate PACKAGE PLVfile IS /* Procedure */ PROCEDURE fcreate (file_in IN VARCHAR2. custrules.flg'). END.FILE_TYPE. Use as Procedure BEGIN PLVfile. TO_CHAR (SYSDATE)). PLVfile. v_user). line_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) RETURN UTL_FILE.Procedure and Function Overloaded  Why not overload a "create file" program so that you can pick the one that most closely fits your situation? Consider the PLVfile package of PL/Vision. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Use as Function DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.fcreate ('temp. END PLVfile. line_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL).FILE_TYPE. BEGIN fid := PLVfile. /* Function */ FUNCTION fcreate (file_in IN VARCHAR2.

Define a different program name for each datatype.  There are three ways to accomplish this: ± Don't overload. the user does not need to pass data. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . but the type of data. ± For example. ± Pass a piece of data of the right type. you must call the DEFINE_COLUMN procedure to define the datatype of the Nth column in the cursor. when you use DBMS_SQL to set up a dynamic query. ± Pass a string ³name´ of the datatype."By-Type" Overloading  In some situations.page 21 .

. DBMS_SQL. 2. lotsa names..VARCHAR2_TYPE...DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. 'STRING'. 2. ± DBMS_SQL..  So many program names to remember! Pass a literal value... BEGIN DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_INTEGER_COLUMN (cur. 30). 'NUMBER'). 1. DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN ± PLVgen..DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. Lotsa typing.. Pass a named constant..NUMBER_TYPE). BEGIN DBMS_SQL. 30). 2.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.  Nasty hard-coding. 30). 1. DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_VARCHAR2_COLUMN (cur. 1).Options for Specifying Column Type  Don't even bother overloading..func 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . BEGIN DBMS_SQL.  Now let's look at two examples of overloading by datatype..page 22 . DBMS_SQL.

30). ± To make it easier to accomplish this task.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Defining Dynamic SQL Columns  The DBMS_SQL. 1. DBMS_SQL. 30).any value -.GET_TIME).DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. 2. 2. you only need to pass a value -.page 23 . 1. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. 'a'. ± The three code blocks below are equivalent. 1. DBMS_UTILITY. from the perspective of DBMS_SQL. USER.DEFINE_COLUMN. DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN procedure defines the datatype of a column.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. v_ename.of the correct type. 2. 30). 1). v_empno).DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.

type_in IN DATE). Any number. any Boolean will do. the user indicates the type of function to be generated by providing a value. PROCEDURE func (name_in IN VARCHAR2. 1) A date function. please! A number function. PACKAGE PLVgen IS PROCEDURE func (name_in IN VARCHAR2. SYSDATE) SQL> exec plvgen.func ('total_salary'. type_in IN VARCHAR2). please! 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± The particular value itself is of no importance. SQL> exec plvgen.func ('last_date'.page 24 .Generating Functions by Value  In PLVgen. any date. any string. type_in IN NUMBER). PROCEDURE func (name_in IN VARCHAR2.

± When I compile profits. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . I rely on an anchored type (%TYPE) to establish the datatype of the second calc¶s parameter. END. PROCEDURE calc (comp_id_IN IN company.comp_id%TYPE). PACKAGE profits IS PROCEDURE calc (comp_id_IN IN NUMBER).page 25 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .  In the above example. but you might later found out that you cannot actually call any of the overloaded programs.The Frustrations of Overloading  Watch out! An overloading can compile successfully. PL/SQL does not sense a conflict with above overloading even though comp_id is a numeric column.

Quiz! Nuances of Overloading PACKAGE sales IS PROCEDURE calc_total (zone_in IN VARCHAR2). END sales.page 26 .  Can I overload two programs which have parameters that differ only by name. sales.calc_total ('ZONE2'). END.calc_total ('NORTHWEST'). sales.pkg ? 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . how would you do it? (Don't peek at the next page!) BEGIN sales. like calc_totals shown above? ± If not. PROCEDURE calc_total (reg_in IN VARCHAR2). why not? ± If so.

ANALYZE_OBJECT ' || '(''TABLE''. ± You can skip over (not specify values for) any IN parameters that have default values.'. of named notation include: ± Code is more "self-documenting".estimate_percent=>50). next_date => TRUNC (SYSDATE + 1). namednot. what => 'DBMS_DDL.page 27 .''ESTIMATE''.''LOAD1''.submit ( job => v_jobno.sql  Advantages 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . DBMS_JOB.Using Named Notation <formal parameter name> => <expression>  Explicit association between the formal parameter (the "name") with the actual parameter (the "value"). That way you don't have to know and pass default values. interval => 'TRUNC(SYSDATE+1)'). This is especially useful when working with infrequently used built-in programs.''TENK''' || '.null.

Three types of collections: ± Index-by tables (Oracle7 only.Achieving PL/SQL Excellence PL/SQL Collections   Collections are single-dimensioned lists of information. originally called PL/SQL tables) ± Nested tables (Oracle8 and above) ± Variable arrays (VARRAYs.page 28 . Oracle8 and above) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

page 29     1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .When to Use Collections  Maintain any kind of list of related information for use in your programs. Improve query performance by avoiding joins. Avoid mutating table errors in database triggers. Build hash tables (custom indexing structures). which are otherwise not supported in PL/SQL Cache data in session-level memory for faster access.  Emulate bi-directional cursors.

483.Index-By Tables TYPE <table_type> IS TABLE OF <datatype> INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. Instead. Valid row numbers range: -2.647 » You will not actually create tables this large.147. emp_copy inmem_emp_t.483.147.  Characteristics of an index-by table: ± Unbounded » Practically speaking.page 30 . ± Available only in PL/SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . DECLARE TYPE inmem_emp_t IS TABLE OF emp%ROWTYPE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. ± Sparse » Data does not have to be stored in consecutive rows of information. ± Homogeneous » Data in each row has the same structure. this broad range allows you to employ the row number as an intelligent key.647 to 2.

Error: NO_DATA_FOUND 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Variable declaration children child_list_type.Index_by Tables TYPE declaration PACKAGE BODY family IS TYPE child_list_type IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2 (30) INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. children (6904) := 'Lisa Nadezhka'. children 6306 6412 6810 6904 µBarbara Anne¶ µGary Richard¶ µAdam Russell¶ µLisa Nadezhka¶ datemgr.page 31 . Component Selection kid := children (4).pkg children 6306 6412 6904 µBarbara Anne¶ µGary Richard¶ µLisa Marie¶ children (6810) := µAdam Russell.

Valid row numbers range: 1 to 2.647 ± Initially dense. ± Unbounded.page 32 .Nested Tables [CREATE OR REPLACE] TYPE <table_type> IS TABLE OF <datatype> [NOT NULL].147. birthdays when_t.483. but can become sparse if you DELETE inner rows ± Available both in PL/SQL and SQL (as a column in a table) ± The order of elements is not preserved in the database 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Nested table characteristics ± Homogeneous » Each row contains the same structure of data. but only with explicit EXTEND requests » Practically speaking. DECLARE TYPE when_t IS TABLE OF DATE.

sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 33 .Nested Tables CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE child_table_type IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2 (30). kids child_table_type) NESTED TABLE kids STORE AS kids_ntab. CREATE TABLE db_family (surname VARCHAR2 (30). For ORACLE's use only db_family surname kids BOLZ BOND Eric Thomas Max Richard Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Marie ntdemo.

± Available both in PL/SQL and SQL (as a column in a table) » And the order of elements are preserved in the database.page 34 . salaries numbers_t. ± Bounded » Upper limit established when the TYPE is defined. DECLARE TYPE numbers_t IS VARRAY (10) OF NUMBER. can be EXTENDed or TRIMmed.  Characteristics of variable arrays: ± Homogeneous » Each row contains the same structure of data.Variable Arrays [CREATE OR REPLACE] TYPE <table_type> IS VARRAY (N) OF <datatype> [NOT NULL]. Maximum value: 2.647 ± Dense » Never any gaps between defined rows. ± Variable arrays are actually stored in the DB table 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .147.483.

page 35 . CREATE TABLE db_family (surname VARCHAR2 (30). db_family surname kids BOLZ BOND 1 Barbara Anne 2 Gary Richard 3 Lisa Marie 1 Eric Thomas 2 Max Richard vademo.Variable Arrays CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE child_va_type IS VARRAY (8) OF VARCHAR2 (30). kids child_va_type).sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

± You can declare multiple collections from that TYPE. ± For nested tables and VARRAYs. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 36 . from the TYPE. or in a PL/SQL declaration section.Defining Collections  First. you can define the TYPE in the database with a CREATE statement.. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE tabtypes IS TYPE integer_ibt IS TABLE OF INTEGER INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. you define the TYPE of the collection. this can only occur in a PL/SQL declaration section. ± For index-by tables. TYPE integer_vat IS VARRAY(10) OF INTEGER.. . END tabtypes. Best option: package specification. a collection. TYPE integer_nt IS TABLE OF INTEGER.  Then you declare an instance of that type.

type_name IN ('NAMES_VT'.  ALL_COLL_TYPES ± The types you have created (or have access to) in the database  ALL_TYPE_ATTRS ± Attributes of the data type used in the TYPE definition.attr_type_name Attributes all_coll_types T.Obtaining Collection Information SELECT FROM WHERE AND AND AND A. 'TMRS_VT') T.owner = A.attr_name || ' .elem_type_name = A.owner T.page 37 .type_name.owner = USER T.' || A. ± The code used to define the collection TYPE  There is no information in the data dictionary available for index-by tables. colldd.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . all_type_attrs A T.

300). 300). salaries numbers_t := numbers_t (100. empty when declared. BEGIN CREATE TYPE numbers_t IS VARRAY (10) OF NUMBER. salary_history numbers_t). TYPE defined in PL/SQL TYPE defined in the database Collection used in a table PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . You must initialize them explicitly with a constructor.page 38 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . it must be initialized. ± Nested tables and VARRAYs are atomically null. 200. / DECLARE -. DECLARE TYPE numbers_t IS VARRAY (10) OF NUMBER. ± Index-by tables are initialized automatically.Initializing Collections  Before you can use a collection. salaries numbers_t := numbers_t (100. BEGIN CREATE TABLE employee_denorm ( employee_id INTEGER. 200.Initialize the collection.

page 39 . comp_tab comp_tabtype.Collections of Composites  Starting with Oracle 7. DECLARE TYPE comp_rectype IS RECORD (comp_id company. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . the datatype for any of the collection types can also be an object. ± But you cannot have nested composite datatypes. total_rev NUMBER).3. BEGIN comp_tab(1). consider putting TYPEs in database or packages. Here we have a three step process.  Starting with Oracle8. TYPE comp_tabtype IS TABLE OF comp_rectype INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. ± Can easily create an index-by table with the same structure as a database table by declaring a record with %ROWTYPE. Again.comp_id := 1005.company_id%TYPE. the ³homogeneous´ contents of an index-by table's row can be a record .

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . order by date. ± Instead.page 40 . ± In an index-by table. your collections will contain a row's worth of information. In this way.). a row exists in the table only when a value is assigned to that row. ± In almost every case.  Especially handy when caching data from relational tables in user memory. consider using the row value as "smart data" for your application (primary key. etc. ± You should not fill sequentially.  Rows do not have to be defined sequentially.Sparse is Nice  The sparse characteristic of index-by tables and nested tables can be put to good use. unless the order in which items are selected is of importance. it is very similar to a database table.

Transferring DB Table to Collection CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE psemp IS TYPE emp_tabtype IS TABLE OF emp%ROWTYPE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. Initialization section of package 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein  This package moves the entire contents of the emp table into its corresponding collection. END. END LOOP. Some questions: ± Why would I put this collection table in a package? ± When is the collection loaded with the data? ± What rows in that collection are utilized? psemp.empno) := rec. END. emp_tab emp_tabtype. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY psemp IS BEGIN FOR rec IN (SELECT * FROM emp) LOOP emp_tab (rec.page 41 .pkg psemp.tst  PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

the row exists. END.Collection Gotchas CREATE TYPE names_t IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2(30). Jordan'. even if you haven't assigned a value explicitly. / Error -6533! You've got to EXTEND first!  EXTEND before assigning a value to a row. BEGIN greedy_ceos(1) := 'Hamilton. ± Not necessary for index-by tables. but you must do it for VARRAYs and nested tables.page 42 . once extended. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  For index-by tables. / DECLARE greedy_ceos names_t := names_t (). ± For VARRAYs and nested tables. you must reference existing rows or a NO_DATA_FOUND exception is raised. ± Use the EXISTS method to determine if a row existed.

END IF. BEGIN IF salaries.  You can EXTEND one or more rows. salaries(salaries.Set the value of each new row to the contents of the first row.page 43 .Extend by 10 since I know I will need that many. ELSE DBMS_OUTPUT.EXTEND (10. preextend.EXISTS (v_employee_id) THEN -.').FIRST)).PUT_LINE ('Data for employee not available. optional argument. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . salaries.tst  Include a handler for NO_DATA_FOUND or use the EXISTS method to avoid these exceptions. ± Assign a default value with a second. -. ± Pre-extending a large number of rows in advance can improve performance.Handling Collection Gotchas BEGIN -.We are OK.

 The built-in package plitblm (PL/sql Index-TaBLe Methods) defines these methods. NEXT/PRIOR return the closest defined row after/before the specified row. FIRST/LAST return lowest/highest numbers of defined rows.page 44 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . number of elements allowed in a VARRAY. ± LIMIT tells you the max. ± TRIM removes rows from a VARRAY. EXISTS returns TRUE if the specified row is defined. ± ± ± ±  Modify the contents of the collection ± DELETE deletes one or more rows from the index-by table.Collection Methods  Obtain information about the collection COUNT returns number of rows currently defined in the table. ± EXTEND adds rows to a nested table or VARRAY.

The DELETE Method  You can delete one or more rows from a collection using DELETE: BEGIN -. -. but you may also want to call DBMS_SESSION.Delete a range of rows myCollection.DELETE (1400. 17255).DELETE (myCollection.page 45 . -. DELETE releases memory.Delete all rows myCollection.DELETE. END.FREE_UNUSED_USER_MEMORY. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .LAST).Delete one (the last) row myCollection.

Navigating Through Collections 


Use FIRST and NEXT to move from beginning to end. Use LAST and PRIOR to move from end to beginning.
rowind PLS_INTEGER := birthdays.FIRST; -- birthdays.LAST BEGIN LOOP EXIT WHEN rowind IS NULL; DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE (birthdays(rowind).best_present); rowind := birthdays.NEXT (rowind); -- birthdays.PRIOR END LOOP; END;

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Using Collections Inside SQL 

Nested tables and VARRAYs can be defined as columns of a table and referenced directly within SQL. You can also apply SQL operations to the contents of nested tables and VARRAYs with these operators:
± THE - Maps a single column value in a single row to a virtual database table ± CAST - Maps a collection of one type to a collection of another type ± MULTISET - Maps a database table to a collection ± TABLE - Maps a collection to a database table  

Index-by tables are programmatic constructs only.
± You cannot make a direct reference to an index-by table in SQL. ± Instead, so do indirectly with a PL/SQL function.

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Using Collections inside SQL
SELECT column_value FROM TABLE (SELECT children FROM db_family WHERE surname = 'BOLZ'); db_family surname children BOLZ BOND Eric Thomas Max Richard UPDATE TABLE (SELECT children FROM db_family WHERE SURNAME = 'BOLZ) SET column_value = 'Lisa Nadezhka' WHERE column_value = 'Lisa Marie'); db_family surname children BOLZ ...
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Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Marie

column_value Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Marie

Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Nadezhka

Using the THE Operator 

Use THE to manipulate (retrieve, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE) contents of a nested table in a database table.
± Can only use with nested tables, not VARRAYs or index-by tables. ± Only accessible from within SQL statements in PL/SQL.
CREATE TYPE action_list_t IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2(100); / CREATE TABLE inflation_beater ( focus_area VARCHAR2(100), activities action_list_t) NESTED TABLE activities STORE AS activities_tab; SELECT VALUE (act) FROM THE (SELECT activities FROM inflation_beater WHERE focus_area = 'FORTUNE 100') act; UPDATE THE (SELECT activities FROM inflation_beater WHERE focus_area = 'FORTUNE 100') SET COLUMN_VALUE = 'DISBAND OSHA' WHERE COLUMN_VALUE = 'SIDESTEP OSHA';

the.sql

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 49

Using the TABLE and CAST Operators 

Use CAST to convert a collection from one type to another, TABLE to convert a TYPE into a database table.
± Cannot use with index-by tables. ± Useful when you would like to apply SQL operations against a PL/SQL collection (ie, one not stored in a database table).
DECLARE nyc_devolution cutbacks_for_taxcuts := cutbacks_for_taxcuts ('Stop rat extermination programs', 'Fire building inspectors', 'Close public hospitals'); BEGIN DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE ( 'How to Make the NYC Rich Much, Much Richer:'); FOR rec IN (SELECT COLUMN_VALUE ohmy FROM TABLE (CAST (nyc_devolution AS cutbacks_for_taxcuts))) LOOP DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE (rec.ohmy); END LOOP; cast.sql END;

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b. FETCH bird_curs into bird_row.species) AS country_tab_t) FROM birds b. DECLARE CURSOR bird_curs IS SELECT b. converting a set of data (table.country FROM bird_habitats bh WHERE bh. view.species = b.genus. OPEN bird_curs. Retrieves all detail bird_row bird_curs%ROWTYPE. END.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .genus = b. information for the BEGIN master in one trip. CAST(MULTISET(SELECT bh. ± Cannot use with index-by tables.Using the MULTISET Operator  MULTISET is the inverse of TABLE.species.genus AND bh. query) into a VARRAY or nested table.page 51 . multiset. ± You can use MULTISET to emulate or transform relational joins into collections. with potential client-server performance impact.

END. WNDS). END. call functions that retrieve the table's data. Make accessible in SQL for Oracle8 and below.  CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE ibtab IS FUNCTION rowval (indx IN PLS_INTEGER) RETURN DATE. hiredates date_tab.Referencing IB Tables inside SQL  You can't directly reference an index-by table's contents inside SQL. END. FUNCTION rowval (indx IN PLS_INTEGER) RETURN DATE IS BEGIN RETURN hiredates (indx). but hide the index-by table structure. PRAGMA RESTRICT_REFERENCES (rowval.page 52 . Instead. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY ibtab IS TYPE date_tab IS TABLE OF DATE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER.sql PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . WNPS. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein ibtab_in_sql.

Examples of Collections in Action  Emulation of bi-directional cursor operations Avoid mutating table problems in database triggers.  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 53 .

PROCEDURE nextRow. END.Bi-Directional Cursor Emulation  Oracle does not yet support the ability to move back and forth (and at random) through a cursor's result set. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE bidir IS /* Iterate through rows in the result set */ PROCEDURE setRow (nth IN PLS_INTEGER).pkg bidir.  bidir. This is particularly useful (read: efficient) when you need to perform multiple passes against the data.nope.page 54 . deposit your data in a collection and then provide programs to access that data in the necessary fashion. PROCEDURE prevRow. Notice that the collection itself is hidden. FUNCTION getRow RETURN employee_plus%ROWTYPE.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . didn't make it!  Instead. ± A talked-about feature for Oracle9i -.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . it is "mutating". So what are you supposed to do when a row-level operation needs to "touch" that table? mutating. you can use autonomous transactions to relax restrictions associated with queries. Statement Level UPDATE emp SET sal = 1000 UPDATE row 1 Row Level  UPDATE row N Row level triggers cannot query from or change the contents of the table to which it is attached.The Mutating Table Problem  Database triggers can be attached to the SQL statement and/or the individual row operations on a table.sql  Note: in Oracle8i.page 55 .

you have to remember what you needed to do. If you are going to defer the work.A Solution Based on Index-by Tables  Since you cannot perform the processing desired in the row-level trigger.page 56 . you need to defer the action until you get to the statement level. ± an index-by table is an ideal repository for this reminder list. Statement Trigger 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 1st row trigger fires Nth row trigger fires Writes to list Writes to list Work List (PL/SQL Table)  Process data in the list.

but preferable. the rankings must also change to show the new standings for that department only. ± As the sales amount is updated in this table. ± We might update more than one department within a statement so we must be able to retain multiple department numbers.88 144533.An Example: Ranking Salespeople  A table holds the rankings based on the amount of annual sales of salespeople within a department.91 109000.25 3 1 2 6 "Deferred work" is not only necessary. we then know which departments to re-rank.page 57 . ± By storing the salesperson¶s department ids as they change. Department ID Salesperson ID Sales Amount Rank 1055 1055 1055 1047  64333 65709 65706 70904 74055. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .25 65011.

sales_amt) BEGIN rank.dept_id). Doesn't fire unless the sales_amt is actually changed.rank_depts.page 58 . Statement Level Trigger CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER Rank_Sales_Strg AFTER INSERT OR UPDATE OR DELETE ON rank_sales BEGIN rank.pkg All details of the ranking are hidden in the package body.sales_amt != NEW. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .add_dept (:new. END. END.Trigger Logic Required Row Level Trigger CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER Rank_Sales_Rtrg AFTER insert OR update OF sales_amt ON rank_sales FOR EACH ROW WHEN (OLD. ranking.

page 59 . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . PROCEDURE add_dept (dept_id_in IN INTEGER) IS BEGIN IF NOT in_process THEN dept_tab (dept_id_in) := TRUE. PACKAGE BODY rank IS in_process BOOLEAN := FALSE. TYPE dept_tabtype IS TABLE OF BOOLEAN INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. END IF. END rank. dept_tab dept_tabtype. PROCEDURE rank_depts. Table holds indicator that department needs re-ranking.The Ranking Package PACKAGE rank IS PROCEDURE add_dept (dept_id_in IN INTEGER). END add_dept 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Create row to indicate department to be ranked.

in_process := FALSE. END rank_dept. v_deptid := dept_tab. Clean up for next time. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Avoid recursive execution of logic Row number is department number.page 60 .NEXT (v_deptid). END rank. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Continued PROCEDURE rank_depts IS v_deptid PLS_INTEGER := dept_tab. LOOP EXIT WHEN v_deptid IS NULL. dept_tab.DELETE.The Ranking Package.FIRST. END LOOP. BEGIN IF NOT in_process THEN in_process := TRUE. perform_ranking (v_deptid). END IF.

Set of data is relatively small (avoid row chaining).  Nested tables ± You want to store large amounts of persistent data in a column. You don't want to have to worry about sparseness. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  VARRAYs ± ± ± ± You want to preserve the order in which elements are stored.page 61 .Which Collection Type Should I Use?  Index-by tables ± Need to use in both Oracle7 and Oracle8 applications ± Want to take advantage of sparse nature for "intelligent keys". ± You want to use inside SQL. You want to use inside SQL.

Tips for Using Collections 

Wrap access to your collections.
± In many cases, you will want to avoid direct access to (assigning and retrieving) rows in your collections. ± This will give you the flexibility to change your implementation. ± You can also hide complex rules for setting the row number. 

Get creative!
± Don't always fill and use the index-by table sequentially. ± If you can somehow translate your application data to an integer, it can be used as a row number, and therefore offers indexed access. ± Julian date formats and DBMS_UTILITY.GET_HASH_VALUE offer two different methods.

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Achieving PL/SQL Excellence

Cursor Variables

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 63

Architecture of Cursor Variables
With Hard-Coded Cursors
Hard-Coded Cursor

With Cursor Variables

PGA

Cursor Variable

Cursor Variable

Result Set

Shared Global Area

Cursor Object

Result Set 

A cursor variable points to an underlying cursor object in the database.
± The cursor object in turns points to (and keeps its place in) a result set. 

The cursor variable can be passed between programs (even between, say, a Java servlet and a PL/SQL stored procedure).
± Static SQL only -- until Oracle8i.
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1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

Benefits of Cursor Variables 

Share cursor management between programs, even across the client-server divide.
± You don't have to pass the result sets of a cursor in order to allow the client-side program to have direct access to the data in the result set. ± Oracle Developer 2.1 utilizes cursor variables when you choose to construct a "base table block" around stored procedures instead of a database table. 

Share the same code across multiple, different queries.
± Since the cursor name is no longer hard-coded, you can use a single block of code (say, a reporting program) against different queries. ± We will try out this technique at the end of the section.

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Cursor Variable Example
DECLARE TYPE company_curtype IS REF CURSOR RETURN company%ROWTYPE;
Declare a variable cursor TYPE.

company_curvar company_curtype;

Declare cursor variable based on that type. Declare a record from cursor variable. OPEN cursor variable, specifying the query. FETCH from the cursor variable.

company_rec company_curvar%ROWTYPE; BEGIN OPEN company_curvar FOR SELECT * FROM company;

FETCH company_curvar INTO company_rec;
Close the cursor variable.

CLOSE company_curvar; END;
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Explicit Cursors and Cursor Variables 

Both hard-coded cursors and cursor variables work with static SQL.
± The SQL is fixed at compile-time. ± The difference is that with cursor variables, you get to decide which static query is opened. 

Many cursor operations are the same:
± Close a variable cursor with the same syntax as that for static cursors. ± Use cursor attributes (%ISOPEN, %FOUND, %NOTFOUND, %ROWCOUNT) with cursor variables (as of Release 2.3). ± Fetch data from the cursor result set through a cursor variable with the same syntax as that of static cursors. 

Let¶s focus on the new and different capabilities of cursor variables.
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1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

Declaring Cursor Types and Variables 

Cursors are declared in two steps, just like programmerdefined records and PL/SQL tables.
± 1. Define a cursor TYPE -- either "weak" or "strong". ± 2. Define a cursor variable.
DECLARE TYPE weak_curtype IS REF CURSOR; TYPE comp_curtype IS REF CURSOR RETURN company%ROWTYPE; curcmp_new comp_curtype; cur_any weak_curtype; BEGIN
Declare cursor variables from the TYPEs. Declare a STRONG referenced cursor TYPE. Declare a WEAK referenced cursor TYPE.

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Strong vs. Weak Cursor Types 

A strong (or constrained) cursor type has a defined return data specification.
± Can only reference cursor objects which return the same data specification, which can be any single SQL datatype or any previously defined record structure. ± Datatype mismatches are identified at compile time.

TYPE cur_typ_name IS REF CURSOR [ RETURN return_type ]; TYPE cur_typ_name IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE; /* Strong */ 

The weak (or unconstrained) cursor type does not have a RETURN clause.
± It can reference any cursor object, be opened FOR any query. ± Datatype mismatches can only be identified at runtime.

TYPE cur_typ_name IS REF CURSOR; /* Weak */
1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein
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Opening with the Cursor Variable
OPEN cursor_name FOR select_statement; 

When you open a cursor variable (whether of the weak or strong variety), you must provide the SQL query that identifies the result set.
± If the variable has not yet been assigned to cursor object, the OPEN FOR statement implicitly creates an object for the variable. ± If the variable is already pointing to a cursor object, the OPEN FOR reuses the existing object and attaches the new query to that cursor object. 

Remember, the cursor object is nothing more than a memory location.
± It is maintained independently of the query itself.
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. emp_curvar emp_curtype.page 71 . Match Needed BEGIN OPEN emp_curvar FOR SELECT * from emp. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END. a cursor or a programmer-defined record..Opening with Strong Cursor Types DECLARE TYPE emp_curtype IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE.  STRONG cursor data specifications must match or be compatible with the structure of the SELECT statement.. ± You can establish the return type based on a database table.

Verification will take ELSIF get_type_in = µDEPT¶ place at the FETCH. OPEN retval FOR SELECT * FROM emp. FUNCTION open_emp_or_dept (get_type_in IN VARCHAR2) RETURN pkg. END IF. END.  A weak cursor TYPE doesn't define the RETURN structure.cv_type. BEGIN IF get_type_in = µEMP¶ THEN Either query will "do". RETURN retval. you can associate any SELECT statement with a weak cursor variable.Opening with Weak Cursor Types PACKAGE pkg IS TYPE cv_type IS REF CURSOR. END.cv_type IS retval pkg. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . REF TYPE placed in package so that it is "globally" available. THEN OPEN retval FOR SELECT * FROM dept.page 72 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .

it match the OPEN FOR statement structure.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . FETCH cursor_var_name INTO var_name. The INTO structure must match in number and datatype to: ± FOR STRONG cursor types. mismatch.. ± FOR WEAK cursor types. ± The ROWTYPE_MISMATCH exception is raised on failure.Fetching from the Cursor Variable FETCH cursor_var_name INTO record_name.   Compatibility checks are performed prior to fetching row. var_name.. ± Fetching can continue with a different INTO clause. .page 73 . it match the cursor type data specification..  Fetching with cursor variables follows the same rules as those with static cursors.

When to Use Cursor Variables  Make it easier for calling programs (especially non-PL/SQL programs) to manipulate result sets. ± JDBC recognizes cursor variables.page 74 . Use a single block of code to manipulate multiple queries. ± You could use dynamic SQL to achieve this effect. since cursor names are "hard coded".  hccursor.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . you have to repeat the code for each cursor.  Define a base table block in Forms Builder (formerly Oracle Forms) on stored procedures rather than a table directly. ± With explicit cursors. but static cursors are more efficient than dynamic SQL and cursor variables are less complicated than DBMS_SQL.

/ allcurrs.page 75 . ± It also creates the data structures you will need to call the function.Consolidating Different Cursors  The following package specification hides the SQL behind a single open function.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END. TYPE int_rt IS RECORD (key INTEGER). bysal CONSTANT INTEGER := 2. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE allcurs IS bydept CONSTANT INTEGER := 1. TYPE cv_t IS REF CURSOR RETURN int_rt.tst explcv. FUNCTION open (type_in IN INTEGER) RETURN cv_t.pkg allcurs.

RETURN retval. ELSIF type_in = bysal THEN OPEN retval FOR SELECT empno FROM emp ORDER BY SAL. BEGIN IF type_in = bydept THEN OPEN retval FOR SELECT empno FROM emp ORDER BY deptno. END.Consolidating Different Cursors  The open function simply opens FOR a different SELECT based on the criteria passed to it.page 76 . / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY allcurs IS FUNCTION open (type_in IN INTEGER) RETURN cv_t IS retval cv_t. END IF. END.

open (&1). DECLARE cv allcurs.page 77 "Report processor" is independent of the particular SELECT . END LOOP.Hiding SQL Variations in Resulting Code  The following block demonstrates that you can alter which SQL statement to query -.in this case.empno%TYPE. BEGIN cv := allcurs. p.cv_t. EXIT WHEN cv%NOTFOUND. v_empno emp. LOOP FETCH cv INTO v_empno. change the ORDER BY clause -without having to change the code you write. END. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .l (v_empno). CLOSE cv.

1. unconstrained type. you can build screens that access data using a cursor variable-based procedural API.Cursor Variables Let's summarize  Flexibility ± Choose which static SQL statement is executed at run-time. or a more general.page 78 .  Improve Client-Side Access to Data ± At least in Oracle Developer 2.  Hide Variations in Underlying SQL ± You no longer have to repeat the same code for different cursors.  Strong and Weak Types ± Create REF CURSORs for specific queries. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Dynamic SQL  Dynamic SQL and dynamic PL/SQL: ± The DBMS_SQL package ± Native dynamic SQL in Oracle8i 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 79 .

 Execute DDL inside PL/SQL programs.  Execute dynamically-constructed PL/SQL programs. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . you no longer have to write SQL to generate SQL to get your job done. ± Very common requirement on the Web. What can you do with Dynamic SQL?  Build ad-hoc query and update applications.Dynamic SQL and PL/SQL Execution  "Dynamic SQL" mean that you construct the SQL statement or PL/SQL block at runtime and then execute it.1 and DBMS_SQL. ± One example: implement indirect referencing in PL/SQL. ± Also supported with "native dynamic SQL" in Oracle8i. ± Construct powerful DBA utilities. ± Available in PL/SQL since Release 2.page 80 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .

Method 2: non-queries with a fixed number of host variables. ± NDS does not support method 4. These methods are in increasing order of complexity.Four Methods of Dynamic SQL   Method 1: non-queries without host variables. execute one or more times. If you can recognize the types. Method 4: queries with a variable number of items in the SELECT list and/or non-queries with a variable number of host variables. ± Different methods require the use of different programs in DBMS_SQL. Method 3: queries with a fixed number of items in the SELECT list and a fixed number of host variables.page 81 . executed a single time. you can more quickly figure out how to code your solution.    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

used for DDL. ± OPEN FOR <sql string>. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  The new "native dynamic SQL" or NDS of Oracle8i offers two native statements in the PL/SQL language to implement most of your dynamic SQL requirements: ± EXECUTE IMMEDIATE <sql string>. ± But this package is very complex.Native Dynamic SQL  Prior to Oracle8i. difficult to use. DML and single row fetches. you would use the DBMS_SQL built-in package to execute dynamic SQL.page 82 . and relatively slow (performance did improve significantly as of Oracle8). used for multi-row queries.

| record }] [USING {IN | OUT | IN OUT] bind argument [. {IN | OUT | IN OUT] bind argument]. The USING clause allows you to specify bind arguments or variables to be passed into the SQL string before execution...]. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 83   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . The INTO clause allows you to pass values from the select list of a single row query into local variables.EXECUTE IMMEDIATE EXECUTE IMMEDIATE sql-string [INTO {define_variable[. define_variables]. including objects..  Use this statement to execute any dynamic SQL statement (including a PL/SQL block) except for multi-row queries. collections and records..

COUNT(*) For Any Table  Here's a handy and simple utility based on NDS: CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION tabCount ( tab IN VARCHAR2. IF tabCount ('citizens'.PUT_LINE ( 'Not the best health care system in the world.. USER) || '. WHERE clause. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein tabcount81. sch IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) RETURN INTEGER IS Specify schema. 'insured = ''NO''') > 40.. table and retval INTEGER. and not much of a democracy either!').sf PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .' || tab || ' WHERE ' || NVL (whr. BEGIN EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'SELECT COUNT(*) FROM ' || NVL (sch. END. END IF. '1=1') INTO retval. RETURN retval.page 84 .000 THEN DBMS_OUTPUT. whr IN VARCHAR2 := NULL...000.sf compare with: tabcount.

. col_in IN VARCHAR2..Other Execute Immediate Examples  Perform an update. EXECUTE IMMEDIATE v_str. end_in.page 85 . name_in IN VARCHAR2) IS v_str VARCHAR2 (100). END.. PROCEDURE runprog (pkg_in IN VARCHAR2. END. end_in IN DATE. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . start_in IN DATE. BEGIN v_str := 'BEGIN ' || pkg_in || '.. Pass in bind variables with USING clause. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE updnumval ( tab_in IN VARCHAR2. END. start_in. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN pl ('Compile Error "' || SQLERRM || '" on: ' || v_str).  Execute a stored procedure.'.' || name_in || '. val_in IN NUMBER) IS BEGIN EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'UPDATE ' || tab_in || ' SET ' || col_in || ' = :val WHERE hiredate BETWEEN :lodate AND :hidate' USING val_in.

cond. PROCEDURE add_profit_source ( hosp_name IN VARCHAR2. including objects and collections.. END. cond IN preexisting_conditions) IS BEGIN EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'INSERT INTO ' || tabname (hosp_name) || ' VALUES (:revenue_generator. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein health$. ± In the following example. :revenue_inhibitors)' USING pers. pers IN Person.page 86 . ± No special syntax needed..pkg PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . the USING clause allows me to pass an object and nested table to an INSERT statement with a variable table name.Using Objects and Collections in NDS  One of the key advantages to NDS over DBMS_SQL is that it works with Oracle8 datatypes.

pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . variable syntax! EXIT WHEN cv%NOTFOUND. END LOOP.page 87 . DBMS_OUTPUT. ndsutil.Multiple Row Queries and NDS  Oracle extends the cursor variable feature of Oracle7 to support multi-row dynamic queries. CLOSE cv. cv cv_type. ± Here is a simple utility the displays the values of any date. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE showcol ( tab IN VARCHAR2.sp END. number or string column in any table. '1 = 1'). BEGIN OPEN cv FOR 'SELECT ' || col || ' FROM ' || tab || ' WHERE ' || NVL (whr. whr IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) IS TYPE cv_type IS REF CURSOR. col IN VARCHAR2. val VARCHAR2(32767). showcol. LOOP Familiar cursor FETCH cv INTO val.PUT_LINE (val).

± If dynamic PL/SQL. pass a variable with a NULL value. then you provide a value for each placeholder (by position).) through the USING clause.pkg    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . str2list.page 88 . Instead. column names. You cannot pass the NULL literal directly in the USING clause. You can have duplicate placeholders (for bind arguments). ± If dynamic SQL. provide a value for each distinct placeholder (by name). The USING clause for a query can only have IN bind arguments.Some Fine Print for NDS  You cannot pass schema elements (table names. etc.

with many rules to follow and lots of code to write.page 89 .Dynamic SQL using DBMS_SQL  Prior to Oracle8i. DBMS_SQL is a very large and complex package. the only way to perform dynamic SQL was with the DBMS_SQL package.     1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . You should only use DBMS_SQL when you cannot use NDS. in particular method 4. Supports all four methods of dynamic SQL. The overhead for using DBMS_SQL has decreased significantly in Oracle8 and again in Oracle8i.

page 90 .Learning Through Examples  DDL ± Create an index from within PL/SQL  DML ± Update rows in a table  DML with binding ± Update rows using bind variables  Queries ± Method 3 and a dynamic WHERE clause  PL/SQL Version of "SELECT *" ± Example of Method 4  PL/SQL ± Create a generic calculation program 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

page 91 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . fdbk INTEGER.CLOSE_CURSOR (cur).DDL with Dynamic SQL PROCEDURE create_index (index_in IN VARCHAR2.PARSE (cur. DBMS_SQL. DDL_statement VARCHAR2(200) := 'CREATE INDEX ' || index_in || ' ON ' || tab_in || ' ( ' || col_in || ')'. tab_in IN VARCHAR2. ± Open a cursor. which will be used to execute the DDL statement. fdbk := DBMS_SQL. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.  creind. DBMS_SQL.OPEN_CURSOR. DDL_statement.sp Creates an index on any column(s) in any table in your schema.NATIVE). ± Parse and execute that DDL statement.EXECUTE (cur). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END. ± Construct the DDL statement as a string. col_in IN VARCHAR2) IS cur INTEGER := DBMS_SQL.

sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . DBMS_SQL.CLOSE_CURSOR (cur). fdbk PLS_INTEGER. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.PARSE (cur. DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE ('Rows updated: ' || TO_CHAR (fdbk)). 'UPDATE emp SET ' || col_in || ' = ' || val_in || ' WHERE ename LIKE UPPER (''' || ename_in || ''')'. updnval1. ename_in IN emp. val_in IN NUMBER) IS cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL. fdbk := DBMS_SQL.Updates with Dynamic SQL  Update numeric column for specified employees.page 92 .ename%TYPE. DBMS_SQL.OPEN_CURSOR. END.NATIVE).EXECUTE (cur). CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE updnumval ( col_in IN VARCHAR2.

sp updnval3.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . val_in IN NUMBER) IS cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL.BIND_VARIABLE (cur. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE updnumval ( col_in IN VARCHAR2. fdbk PLS_INTEGER. 'UPDATE emp SET ' || col_in || ' = ' || val_in || ' WHERE hiredate BETWEEN :lodate AND :hidate'. END.PUT_LINE ('Rows updated: ' || TO_CHAR (fdbk)). DBMS_SQL.Updates with Bind Variables  Update salaries for date range using binding. end_in). start_in IN DATE.PARSE (cur. DBMS_SQL.BIND_VARIABLE (cur. updnval2.EXECUTE (cur). 'lodate'.page 93 . end_in IN DATE.OPEN_CURSOR. 'hidate'. start_in). fdbk := DBMS_SQL. DBMS_OUTPUT.CLOSE_CURSOR (cur). DBMS_SQL. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL.NATIVE).

page 94 .Processing Flow for a Dynamic Query Allocate cursor memory (OPEN_CURSOR) Fill cursor with data (EXECUTE) Make sure SELECT is well formed (PARSE) Fill buffer with data (FETCH_ROWS) (EXECUTE_AND_FETCH) Bind any variables (BIND_VARIABLE) (BIND_ARRAY) Retrieve the data (COLUMN_VALUE) Give cursor structure (DEFINE_COLUMN) (DEFINE_ARRAY) Release cursor memory (CLOSE_CURSOR) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

END. DBMS_SQL. 1. rec.NATIVE). DBMS_SQL.ename). 2.COLUMN_VALUE (cur.EXECUTE (cur).OPEN_CURSOR. rec. DBMS_SQL.sp showemp2. 1). DBMS_SQL. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein showemps. 60). 2.ename).page 95 . 'SELECT empno.tst PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .COLUMN_VALUE (cur.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.empno).CLOSE_CURSOR (cur). DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL.Queries with Dynamic SQL  Show employees using a dynamic WHERE clause..FETCH_ROWS (cur) = 0.PUT_LINE (TO_CHAR (rec.empno) || '=' || rec. 'a'.sp showemps. fdbk INTEGER. fdbk := DBMS_SQL. 1. rec emp%ROWTYPE. DBMS_OUTPUT.. LOOP EXIT WHEN DBMS_SQL. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE showemps (where_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) IS cur INTEGER := DBMS_SQL. END LOOP. ename FROM emp ' || ' WHERE ' || NVL (where_in. '1=1').PARSE (cur.

DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL. END LOOP. BEGIN FOR each-column-in-table LOOP add-column-to-select-list.page 96 Very simplified pseudo-code intab.PARSE (cur. select_string. nth_col.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. val). datatype). END LOOP.NATIVE).sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . FOR each-column-in-table LOOP DBMS_SQL. FOR each-column-in-table LOOP DBMS_SQL. END.Dynamic SELECT * FROM Any Table  Method 4 example: the number of columns queried changes with each table. END LOOP. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .COLUMN_VALUE (cur. ± The resulting code is much more complicated. END LOOP. LOOP fetch-a-row. nth_col.

TRUE). which returns a single row. ± If exact_match is TRUE. ± Even if the exception is raised. ± Very similar to the implicit SELECT cursor in native PL/SQL. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . exact_match IN BOOLEAN DEFAULT FALSE) RETURN INTEGER.EXECUTE_AND_FETCH (cur.  Makes it easy to execute and fetch a single row from a query.Using EXECUTE_AND_FETCH FUNCTION execute_and_fetch (cursor_in IN INTEGER. raises NO_DATA_FOUND or raises the TOO_MANY_ROWS exception. the first row will still be fetched and available. numrows := DBMS_SQL. then EXECUTE_AND_FETCH will raise the TOO_MANY_ROWS exception if more than one row is fetched by the SELECT.EXECUTE_AND_FETCH (cur).page 97 . numrows := DBMS_SQL.

sf dyncalc.page 98 . arg10_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL dyncalc. arg4_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. and enter the arguments. NULL.Dynamic Formula Execution  Suppose I am building a user interface that allows a user to select a formula for execution.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . I would have to modify my screen every time a new formula was added. nargs_in IN INTEGER := arg1_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg3_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg5_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg7_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg9_in IN VARCHAR2 := ) RETURN VARCHAR2. FUNCTION dyncalc ( oper_in IN VARCHAR2. 0. NULL. a single function will do the trick. arg8_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. ± Using static PL/SQL. ± With DBMS_SQL. arg6_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. NULL. NULL. arg2_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. NULL.

You must have a BEGIN-END around the code.More on Dynamic PL/SQL BEGIN cur := open_and_parse ('BEGIN get_max_sal (:deptin. DBMS_SQL. Possibilities inherent in dynamic PL/SQL are mind-boggling! dynplsql.BIND_VARIABLE (cur. v_deptin). fdbk := DBMS_SQL.sql dynplsql.EXECUTE (cur). µdeptin¶. :salout).BIND_VARIABLE (cur. DBMS_SQL.tst    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .VARIABLE_VALUE (cur. µsalout¶. my_salary). my_salary). END.sp dynplsql. DBMS_SQL.  Use BIND_VARIABLE to bind any placeholders in the string -. END. µsalout¶.page 99 . Use VARIABLE_VALUE to extract a value from any variable you have bound.').even OUT arguments which are not being bound to any values.

fdbk := DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.'.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . END.CLOSE_CURSOR (v_cur). retval). fdbk PLS_INTEGER. DBMS_SQL.dbmaxvc2.BIND_VARIABLE (v_cur. PL/SQL does not support indirect referencing. 2000). RETURN retval. Here is an example of a "PL/SQL NAME_IN": FUNCTION valbyname (nm IN VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2 IS v_cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL.pkg dynvar. 'val'. END.NATIVE).OPEN_CURSOR. retval PLV. DBMS_SQL. 'a'.page 100  dynvar. DBMS_SQL. 'val'.PARSE (v_cur. 'BEGIN :val := ' || nm || '. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .EXECUTE (v_cur).Indirect Referencing with Dyn PL/SQL  Oracle Forms offers support for indirect referencing with the NAME_IN and COPY built-ins.VARIABLE_VALUE (v_cur. but you can accomplish much of the same thing with dynamic PL/SQL execution.

 LAST_SQL_FUNCTION_CODE ± Returns SQL function code of cursor.  LAST_ROW_ID ± Returns the ROWID of last row processed.  IS_OPEN ± Is the cursor already open?  LAST_ERROR_POSITION ± Returns relative column position in cursor of text causing error condition. ± Call these immediately after your usage to make sure they refer to your cursor.DBMS_SQL Status Built-ins  The package offers a set of modules to return information about the lastoperated cursor in your session. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 101 .  LAST_ROW_COUNT ± Returns the cumulative count of rows fetched from the cursor.

± DBMS_SQL.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . dumplong. Then you retrieve the column using the special COLUMN_VALUE_LONG variant.Working with LONG Values  DBMS_SQL provides special procedures so that you can extract values from a LONG column in a table.DEFINE_COLUMN_LONG ± DBMS_SQL.pkg dumplong.page 102 . you define the column as a LONG.COLUMN_VALUE_LONG   First. ± Transfer the LONG contents into an index-by table so that you can transfer a value of more than 32K bytes into your PL/SQL program.

New DBMS_SQL Features PL/SQL8 Extensions to DBMS_SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 103 .

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .New Features in DBMS_SQL  The functionality of DBMS_SQL has been extended in Oracle8 in several ways: ± Parse very long SQL strings ± Describe cursor columns ± Use "array processing" to perform bulk updates. ± Support for RETURNING clause to avoid unnecessary queries. deletes and fetches. inserts.page 104 .

col_cnt OUT INTEGER.  Returns all of the column information in an index table of records.  Before PL/SQL8.Describing Cursor Columns PROCEDURE DBMS_SQL.DESCRIBE_COLUMNS (c IN INTEGER. desc_t OUT DBMS_SQL. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .DESC_TAB). ± The record TYPE is also defined in DBMS_SQL.page 105 .DESCRIBE_COLUMNS. ± Now you can call the DBMS_SQL. it was not possible to determine the datatypes of the columns defined in a cursor.

END LOOP.pkg desccols.DESC_TAB.CLOSE_CURSOR (cur).col_name).Basic Steps to Describe Columns  The following script shows the individual steps you will need to perform in order to use this feature. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE show_columns IS cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL.DESCRIBE_COLUMNS (cur.PARSE (cur. FOR colind IN 1 . empno FROM emp'.OPEN_CURSOR.tst showcols. cols DBMS_SQL. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL. 'SELECT hiredate. ncols. DBMS_SQL. ncols LOOP DBMS_OUTPUT.page 106 .NATIVE).sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . cols). END. DBMS_SQL.PUT_LINE (cols(colind). ncols PLS_INTEGER. desccols..

page 107 . Instead of providing a scalar value for an operation. can offer a significant performance boost over Oracle7 dynamic SQL.. however. It really isn't "array processing". i."Array Processing" in DBMS_SQL  PL/SQL8 now allows you to specify the use of "arrays". 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . index tables.    This technique still. deletes and fetches.e. ± In actuality. DBMS_SQL is executing the specified SQL statement N times. inserts. DBMS_SQL then repeats your action for every row in the table. you specify an index table. when you perform updates. where N is the number of rows in the table.

) through the USING clause. effdsql.sql openprse. ± Increased chance of reusing parsed SQL. ± Encapsulate DBMS_SQL. ± With NDS. only possible for statements that do not need USING and INTO clauses. and easier code to write. column names. etc. concatenate) whenever possible.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .PARSE so that you include the trace in that program.page 108 . not the invoker of the code.Recommendations for Dynamic SQL  Bind (vs.  Encapsulate statements to improve error handling.pkg whichsch. ± But remember: you cannot pass schema elements (table names. though you could write variations for those as well. ± Otherwise that SQL will be executed under the authority of the owner of the code.  Use the Oracle8i invoker rights model whenever you want to share your dynamic SQL programs among multiple schemas.

page 109 . but DBMS_SQL is hard to use... of course. you have upgraded to Oracle8i!  Major Advantages of NDS: ± Ease of use ± Performance ± Works with all SQL datatypes (including userdefined object and collection types) ± Fetch into records  When You'd Use DBMS_SQL: ± ± ± ± ± ± ± Method 4 Dynamic SQL DESCRIBE columns of cursor SQL statements larger than 32K RETURNING into an array Reuse of parsed SQL statements Bulk dynamic SQL Available from client-side PL/SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± If. Both implementations will still come in handy.NDS or DBMS_SQL: Which is Best?  Dynamic SQL and PL/SQL is very useful.

persistent messaging subsytem of Oracle 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 110 . asynchronous.Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Oracle Advanced Queuing  The high performance.

Distribution Center Coffee Beans Producer Shipping Service Retailer Consumer 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . consistent manner. systems are now heavily reliant on the ability of components to communicate with each other in a dependable.page 111 .Who Needs Messaging? Everyone!  In the distributed world of the Internet.

page 112 .Applications Relying on Messaging     Stock trading system Airline reservation system Auction portals Any e-commerce application 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

page 113 . message propagation.Key Features of Oracle AQ  Leverage full power of SQL ± Messages are stored in database tables  Database high availability. the listen feature and notification capabilities. ± Rule-based subscribers. scalability and reliability all carry over to queues ± Strong history and retention ± Backup and recovery ± Comprehensive journaliing  Rich message content increases usefulness of queueing ± Use object types to define highly structured payloads  New to Oracle8i. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . AQ now offers a publish/subscribe style of messaging between applications.

page 114 .AQ architectural overview Queue Monitor process Queue table Queue ³Producers´ Enqueued messages Message 4 Message 3 Message 2 Message1 ³Consumers´ Dequeued messages Messages include both control information and ³payload´ (content) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

0.Oracle AQ Highlights  In 8.page 115 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . AQ supports: ± ± ± ± ± Multiple queues Resetting order and priority of queued items Queue management using only SQL & PL/SQL Multiple message recipients Propagation of queue to remote servers  Oracle8i adds: ± ± ± ± Rules-based publish & subscribe Listening on multiple queues Easier monitoring Native Java interface PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

AQ Components  The DBMS_AQ package offers enqueue and dequeue capabilities The DBMS_AQADM package provides administrative functionality to manage queues and queue tables. Underlying database tables and views The queue monitor (background process) ± Set # of processes with the AQ_TM_PROCESSES initialization parameter.page 116 .    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

assigns retry and retention properties to queue Drops a stopped queue Can also turn on/off enqueue and dequeue operations Stops queue. optionally waiting for outstanding transactions Adds an ³agent´ as a subscriber 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . payload type.DBMS_AQADM Highlights CREATE_QUEUE_TABLE DROP_QUEUE_TABLE CREATE_QUEUE DROP_QUEUE START_QUEUE STOP_QUEUE ADD_SUBSCRIBER Assigns name. storage clause. sort column.page 117 . whether multiple consumers Drops table if all queues in the table have been stopped Associates queue table with queue.

Creating Queue Tables and Queues CREATE TYPE message_type AS OBJECT (title VARCHAR2(30). Define the "payload" Create the queue table DBMS_AQADM. END.CREATE_QUEUE (queue_name => 'msgqueue'.CREATE_QUEUE_TABLE (queue_table => 'msg'. / BEGIN DBMS_AQADM.page 118 . text VARCHAR2(2000)).START_QUEUE (queue_name => 'msgqueue'). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein aq. queue_payload_type => 'message_type').pkg Start the queue PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . queue_table => 'msg'). Define a queue in the queue table DBMS_AQADM.

 ENQUEUE puts a message into a specified queue.The "operational package": DBMS_AQ  DBMS_AQ is deceptively simple. and returns a RAW message handle DEQUEUE extracts a message from a specified queue Parameters control message properties such as: ± Visibility (ON_COMMIT or IMMEDIATE) ± ± ± ± Priority Delay Expiration Locking behavior PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 119   aq. but lots of complexity buried inside the parameters of these procedures.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . ± Only two procedures.

page 120 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .msgid_type. msgid aq..* Place the message on the specified queue and get a msg ID in return. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .ENQUEUE ( 'msgqueue'. my_msg message_type.MESSAGE_PROPERTIES_T. BEGIN my_msg := message_type ( 'First Enqueue'. queueopts. DBMS_AQ. END.Simple Enqueue Example DECLARE queueopts DBMS_AQ. Declare records to hold various enqueue and msg properties.. aqenq*. msgid). 'May there be many more.ENQUEUE_OPTIONS_T. Set up the payload with an object constructor. my_msg. msgprops DBMS_AQ.'). msgprops.

END. my_msg := message_type ( 'Second Enqueue'.. my_msg. Modify the dequeue sequence by changing the deviation field and relative msg ID. queueopts.. my_msg.. msgprops. queueopts.relative_msgid := msgid1. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . queueopts. Same setup as previous page ..page 121 .delay := 3 * 60 * 60 * 24. 'And this one goes first.'). DBMS_AQ. msgprops. queueopts. msgid1). msgprops.BEFORE...ENQUEUE ('msgqueue'. msgid2). DBMS_AQ. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Specify a delay before the payload is available.ENQUEUE ( 'msgqueue'..More Interesting Enqueue Example DECLARE .'). 'May there be many more..sequence_deviation := DBMS_AQ. BEGIN my_msg := message_type ( 'First Enqueue'.

MESSAGE_PROPERTIES_T.BROWSE).DEQUEUE_OPTIONS_T.* Declare records to hold various dequeue and msg properties.dequeue_mode := mode_in. my_msg. PROCEDURE getmsg (mode_in IN INTEGER) IS BEGIN queueopts. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . msgprops. aqdeq*.msgid_type. getmsg (DBMS_AQ.DEQUEUE ( 'msgqueue'. BEGIN getmsg (DBMS_AQ. msgprops DBMS_AQ.pkg */ my_msg message_type. getmsg (DBMS_AQ. Demonstrates destructive and non-destructive dequeuing.page 122 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . /* defined in aq. END. msgid aq. Dequeue operation isolated in local module. queueopts.REMOVE). msgid). DBMS_AQ.REMOVE).Dequeue Example DECLARE queueopts DBMS_AQ. END.

ENQUEUE_OPTIONS_T. PROCEDURE push (item IN VARCHAR2) IS queueopts DBMS_AQ. END. DBMS_AQ. msgprops. item_obj. msgprops DBMS_AQ. BEGIN item_obj := aqstk_objtype (item).pkg priority.1. queueopts. msgid). item_obj aqstk_objtype. msgprops. msgid aq.ENQUEUE ( c_queue.visibility := DBMS_AQ.page 123 .pkg aqstk2.MESSAGE_PROPERTIES_T.msgid_type.IMMEDIATE.priority := g_priority. the higher the priority.Prioritized Payloads  You can assign priorities to individual payloads and then dequeue according to those priorities.  A stack implementation using AQ demonstrates this well. aqstk.* 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± The lower the numeric priority value. g_priority := g_priority . queueopts.

DBMS_AQADM. Add subscribers for the queue. BEGIN DBMS_AQADM. NULL)). queue_payload_type => 'student_major_t'.ADD_SUBSCRIBER ( c_queue.  Steps to working with a subscriber list: ± 1. NULL. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein aqmult*.page 124 . The queue table must be defined to support multiple subscribers or consumers. multiple_consumers => TRUE). ± The message is then not removed from the queue until all subscribers have dequeued the message.* PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . SYS.AQ$_AGENT (name_in. ± 2.Defining Message Subscribers  You can specify that a message is to be enqueued for a list of subscribers.CREATE_QUEUE_TABLE ( queue_table => 'major_qtable'.

Summary  Very powerful and flexible architecture. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Much more robust that DBMS_PIPE. ± Should be strongly supported "down the road".Oracle AQ . improved security.  Considered by Oracle to be a core component of its overall solution. ± Crucial for Oracle to have a message-oriented middleware in order to offer an all-Oracle solution. supporting a publish-subscribe model. LISTEN capability. ± Significant enhancements in Oracle8i.page 125 .

page 126 .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Managing Large Objects with DBMS_LOB 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

though they will probably not be actually desupported. they should no longer be used.page 127 . Images.LOB Terms  LOB = Large OBject: a category of datatype allowing storage of ³unstructured´ data up to 4 gigabytes LOB datatype can be: ± Column in table ± Attribute in object type ± Element in nested table   Possible applications include office documents. sounds. ± Oracle has announced deprecation of LONGs. LOB datatypes are the successor to LONGs. etc.  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . video.

external do not ± External LOBs are read-only from within Oracle 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Key programming differences: ± Internal LOBs participate in transactions.page 128 . improving performance.Types of Large Objects  ³Internal´ LOBs ± BLOB: unstructured binary data ± CLOB: single-byte fixedwidth character data ± NCLOB: multi-byte fixedwidth character data (or varying width in )  ³External´ LOBs ± BFILE: pointer to an operating system file  Temporary LOBs ± Internal LOBs that do not participate in transactions.

EMPTY_CLOB() ± BFILENAME 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . trim ± For external LOBs: File existence test. substring and instring searches. copy. close  Other built-in functions ± LOADFROMFILE (load an external BFILE into a BLOB) ± EMPTY_LOB(). comparison and length checking ± For internal LOBs: Write. erase. append. open.page 129 .PL/SQL built-ins for LOBs  Package DBMS_LOB ± Supports for all LOBs: Reading.

Question: What¶s in the_fax? 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . received DATE.Deceptively simple example  BLOB-typed column in a table CREATE TABLE incoming_faxes (fax_id INTEGER. the_fax BLOB.  Retrieve record with BLOB into PL/SQL variable DECLARE CURSOR fax_cur IS SELECT fax FROM incoming_faxes. BEGIN OPEN fax_cur. CLOSE fax_cur.page 130 . FETCH fax_cur INTO the_fax. END. fax BLOB).

The ³LOB locator´ LOB t l sel es [ ll ] t i i t r .page 131 . tt LOBs <lob segment> fax_id 281937 received 12-JAN-98 fax <lob locator> Updati  t e LOB anges t e pointer is ompli ates se of LOBs ± LOB locators cannot span transactions ± Programs must lock records containing LOBs efore updating ± Programs performing L must accommodate dynamic LOB locator alues 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

oodb.page 132 ..Example: Piecewise CLOB programmatic insert  Create a table CREATE TABLE web_pages ( url VARCHAR2(512) PRIMARY KEY.com'. .. 1 of 2  Must get a new LOB locator before writing into the LOB: DECLARE the_url web_pages. htmlloc CLOB). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . BEGIN INSERT INTO web_pages VALUES (the_url.url%TYPE := 'http://www. EMPTY_CLOB()) RETURNING htmlloc INTO the_loc. the_loc CLOB.

the_loc CLOB. several likely exceptions offset => running_total.REQUEST_PIECES(url => the_url). EMPTY_CLOB()) and loads a web page RETURNING htmlloc INTO the_loc. Note: We are ignoring amount => piece_length.COUNT LOOP piece_length := LENGTH(html_tab(the_piece_no)).WRITE(lob_loc => the_loc. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .HTML_PIECES. html_tab UTL_HTTP.oodb. FOR the_piece_no IN 1.. into a CLOB column html_tab := UTL_HTTP.html_tab. running_total := running_total + piece_length.url%TYPE := 'http://www. running_total PLS_INTEGER := 1.com'. DBMS_LOB.page 133 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein BEGIN . This block retrieves INSERT INTO web_pages VALUES (the_url. END LOOP. buffer => html_tab(the_piece_no)). piece_length PLS_INTEGER. END.Example: Piecewise CLOB programmatic insert DECLARE the_url web_pages.

str_offset INTEGER. BEGIN OPEN hcur. END IF. pattern => 'oodb'). FETCH hcur INTO the_loc. str_offset := DBMS_LOB.Example: Piecewise CLOB programmatic update DECLARE Program must lock the record explicitly CURSOR hcur IS SELECT htmlloc FROM web_pages WHERE url = 'http://www. buffer => 'cool'). CLOSE hcur. offset => str_offset.oodb.com' FOR UPDATE. END. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . amount => 4. IF str_offset != 0 THEN DBMS_LOB.INSTR(lob_loc => the_loc. the_loc CLOB.page 134 .WRITE(lob_loc => the_loc.

Preparing to use BFILEs  You must first create an Oracle I ORY´ ± Creates logical alias for full directory pat ± imilar to LIBRARY (used for C "external procedures"). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 135 .  Example: CREATE DIRECTORY web_pix AS 'D:\bill\training\pix'. ut IRECTORY namespace is global  Syntax: CREATE OR REPLACE DIRECTORY <directory name> AS '<full path to directory>'.

CREATE TABLE web_graphics ( image_id INTEGER.page 136 . CREATE TYPE Business_card_t AS OBJECT ( name Name_t. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . scanned_card_image BFILE ). addresses Address_tab_t...  In an object type.Using BFILE datatype in DDL  In a table.. phones Phone_tab_t. image BFILE)..

BEGIN INSERT INTO web_graphics VALUES (100015. picture). file_exprn) RETURN BFILE.gif'). /  Notes: ± No automatic file checking or synchronization ± No participation in transactions 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 137 .The built-in BFILENAME function  Returns value of datatype BFILE. 'prodicon. END. Spec: FUNCTION BFILENAME(directory_exprn.  Example: DECLARE picture BFILE := BFILENAME('WEB_PIX'.

page 138 .FILE_READONLY). pic_blob_loc BLOB := EMPTY_BLOB(). src_lob => pic_file. BEGIN INSERT INTO web_graphic_blobs VALUES (1.FILEOPEN(pic_file.LOADFROMFILE(dest_lob => pic_blob_loc. DBMS_LOB.Loading File into Database BLOB CREATE TABLE web_graphic_blobs ( image_id INTEGER. pic_blob_loc) RETURNING image INTO pic_blob_loc.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .GETLENGTH(pic_file)). 'prodicon. END.FILECLOSE(pic_file).gif'). DBMS_LOB. DBMS_LOB. image BLOB). DBMS_LOB. / loadblob. DECLARE pic_file BFILE := BFILENAME('WEB_PIX'. amount => DBMS_LOB.

New DBMS_LOB APIs in 8i  Support for temporary LOBs ± No logging or rollback faster! ± Lifespan: session.page 139 . that can mean less I/O » Trigger will not fire until CLOSE » Indexes will not update until CLOSE ± ISOPEN 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . or transaction  Ability to retrieve LOB ³chunk size´ ± Allows programmer to tune READs and WRITEs  For all internal LOBs ± OPEN & CLOSE allow control over timing. call.

.Large Object ..Summary  LOB support in Oracle is now significantly improved. ± LOB locator behavior slightly abstruse ± Inability to modify BFILEs directly from within PL/SQL. ± Complete support in PL/SQL (and other APIs) ± Much better performance and control than with LONGs ± Usable in object types HOT  Some weaknesses. COLD 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 140 .

page 141 .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Leveraging Java Inside PL/SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

functions..Overview of Java interoperability  Java inside or outside 8i server can call PL/SQL ± Standard JDBC and SQLJ calls with Oracle extensions ± Same Java on client.. mid-tier.a BRIEF introduction to Java... triggers in Java Distinct Java & PL/SQL namespaces  But first.page 142 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . or server Not covered in this seminar  PL/SQL can call Java inside 8i server ± ± ± ± Command-line tools load Java classes DDL extensions publish Java classes Writing stored procedures.

fastest.. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± We just need to keep a firm grip on common sense and stay focused on delivering solutions.Question 1: What is Java?  Could it be.page 143 .. slickest piece of software ever designed by human beings? ± Just the latest in a series of "silver bullets" promoted by software vendors in order to prop up quarterly sales? ± The first and only successful O-O language? ± None of the above?  We don't really need to take a vote. ± The end of programming history as we know it? ± The easiest.

page 144 .and very aggressively. it is very unlikely and totally unthinkable for years to come. ± Ubiquitous in thousands of production applications and millions of lines of code. PL/SQL will still be: ± Faster and more productive than Java for database operations. ± A language in which hundreds of thousands of developers are trained. to boot. ± Supported and improved by Oracle -.  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Question 2: Will Java Replace PL/SQL?  While that scenario is certainly possible.

± string is definitely not the same as String. everything exception the primitive datatypes.  Everything is a class (or an object instantiated from a class). ± Well..page 145 ..Some Important Things to Remember  Java is a case sensitive language. ± Don't get overwhelmed by all the classes and all the strange quirks.  You don't have to know how to do everything with Java to get lots of value out of it.. you have to instantiate an object from that class.. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Before you can call a (non-static) class method...

Oh.PUT_LINE ('Hello world!'). } }  No members.out. public class Hello { public static void main (String[] args) { System.. no methods.. END.Building a Java Class  Let's start from the very beginning. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE hello IS BEGIN DBMS_OUTPUT. by the way: the PL/SQL version 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .println ("Hello world!").page 146 . except the "special" main method. ± Used to test or run stand-alone a class.

page 147 .7b\lib\classes. ± It will also automatically recompile any classes used by your class that has not been compiled since last change.d:\java D:> javac Hello.class file. e:\jdk1.zip.java -classpath d:\java 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .java file to a . you must compile it with the javac command.1. ± You must also either have set the CLASSPATH or include it in your javac call.zip. ± This will convert the . SET CLASSPATH = d:\Oracle\Ora81\jdbc\lib\classes111.Compiling Classes  Before you can use a class.

Running a Class  Run a class? What does that mean? It means that if your class contains a method with this header: public static void main (String[] args)  then you can "run" the main method with the java command: d:\java> java Hello  You can also pass one or more arguments on the command line: d:\java> java Hello mom Hello2.page 148 .java 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . you will use a class by instantiating objects from the class and then invoking class methods on the object. Let's build a performance analyzer class to explore these ideas.page 149 . Usually. however.Using a Class  The main method is handy for providing a built-in test mechanism of your class.

page 150 .currentTimeMillis() . } public long elapsed () { return (System.java Tmr.l ("Elapsed time for " + context. public void capture () { Gstart = System. } public void showElapsed () { p.Gstart).l ("Elapsed time ". elapsed()).currentTimeMillis to calculate elapsed time to nearest thousandth of a second.currentTimeMillis() . } public void showElapsed (String context) { p. } } p.java 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Compare Performance of Methods  Use System. System. class Tmr { private long Gstart = 0.Gstart).java InFile.currentTimeMillis().

 Inner class ± Classes that are defined inside other classes.. but at least one method remains unimplemented.Types of Classes  There are several different kinds of classes in Java.page 151 . besides the "regular" kind we just saw.  Interface class ± The class only contains unimplemented methods.  Abstract class ± The class can contain members and methods. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..

 Polymorphism ± An object of a class can have "multiple" forms. supertype/"wider" Citizen Person Employee Hourly Worker Salaried Worker subtype/"narrower" War Criminal Person. ± Dynamic polymorphism: form is determined at run-time. either as its own class or as any superclass. ± Static polymorphism: form is chosen at compile-time (PL/SQL overloading).And Now for Some Scary Buzzwords!  Inheritance ± Subclasses inherit methods and variables from extended superclasses.java A Class Hierarchy Management NonManagement Corporation 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 152 .

you are actually allocating a new object. String myName. boolean char byte short int long float double  Strings ± A String object is a read-only. if you assign a new value to it. ± Can't do a direct == comparison. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . if (myName. these are not objects instantiated from classes.Language Basics  Comments // Single line comment /* Block comment */ /** Documentation comment */  Primitive datatypes ± So I lied. myName = "Steven". myName = "Feuerstein".equals(YourName)) foundFamily().page 153 .

indx < args.println ( (String)enum.println (args[indx]).out. static void processAll (Enumeration enum) { while (enum. Examples: for (indx indx=0.page 154 .NextElement()). step) { lotsaStuff } while (expression) { lostsaStuff } do { lostsaStuff } while (expression).Writing Loops in Java  Three kinds of loops: while.hasMoreElements ()) { processIt (enum. System. do-while and for ± Note: you need squiggly brackets only if there is more than one statement in the loop body.length.nextElement()) } } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . for (initialize. expression. indx++) System.out.

page 155 . } } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .. ± No default values for arguments. } public String name () { return mname.Passing Parameters  Some important differences from PL/SQL. } } class LotsALingos { public static void main (String args[]) { PuterLingo Java = new PuterLingo("Java"). class PuterLingo { private String mname.out. public PuterLingo (String name) { mname = name.. you still include the open and close parentheses. ± If a method has no arguments.println (Java. you must supply a value for each parameter.name()). System. ± Only positional notation is supported.

out. Throwing my own public static int numBytes (String filename) { exception try { if (filename. Put inside try clause File myFile = new File (filename).println (e. } catch (Exception e) { System. return myFile. "WHEN OTHERS" } in Java } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 156 .toString()). rather than raise and handle. } File-related catch (SecurityException e) { exceptions return -1.Exception Handling in Java  Very similar to PL/SQL.equals("")) throw new Exception ("Filename is NULL").length(). you "throw" and "catch" exceptions.

} 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . NoSuchFile { . ± Use the throws clause in your specification. as in: public static int numBytes (String filename) throws SecurityException..page 157 . ± So you can pass them as arguments and do anything and everything else you can do with objects..Differences Between Java & PL/SQL  Exceptions are objects derived directly or indirectly from the Exception class.  You must inform users of your method of which exceptions may be thrown.

± Object oriented development (Java) is very different from procedural coding (PL/SQL).Java's Not So Tough!  You can learn enough Java in less than a week to: ± Build simple classes ± Leverage Java inside PL/SQL  Moving to the next level of expertise will be more of a challenge.  Now let's explore how you can put Java to work for you inside PL/SQL programs. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 158 .

using JDBC or SQLJ Oracle 8i server PL/SQL cover for Java method Java virtual machine running Java method Oracle Developer client (PL/SQL) Net8 OCI or Pro*C client VB or C++ via OO4O or ODBC 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 159 .Java Stored Procedures (JSPs) Java applet or app.

better file I/O ± RMI callouts.JSPs: Some sample uses PL/SQL extender ± For example.page 160 . network communication in/out PL/SQL replacement ± More standard language ± Good performer for numeric processing tasks ± Beware database I/O & string manipulation performance Scaleable deployment of third party code ± Vertical application ± Web server ± XML parser/generator 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Grant privileges as desired 5.. rather than BEGIN. Load into server using ³loadjava´ command-line tool 3.Creating JSP to call from PL/SQL   1. Create Java classes in your favorite IDE 2. Publish PL/SQL cover using AS LANGUAGE JAVA.... Call from PL/SQL (or SQL) as if calling PL/SQL    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .END 4.page 161 .

println main method is used to test the class. long PceoComp) { name = Pname. long Playoffs. 5000000.page 162 PL/SQL .out. CEOCompensation = PceoComp.java Advanced Techniques . } public String toString () { return name + " is a transnational entity with " + layoffs + " laid-off employees.println (TheGlobalMonster). 50000000). paying its" + " Chief Executive Officer " + CEOCompensation. layoffs = Playoffs. }} 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Notes on Java classes  toString method automatically used by System.out. System. Entry points must be public static in most cases Classes may call other classes Avoid GUI calls     person. } public static void main (String[] args) { // A very scary company Corporation TheGlobalMonster = new Corporation ( "Northrup-Ford-Mattel-Yahoo-ATT".Create Java class(es) class Corporation extends Person { long layoffs. public Corporation ( String Pname. long CEOCompensation.

jar file Oracle 8i server Java class Java source Java resource loadjava Example: loadjava loadjava -user scott/tiger -oci8 -resolve datacraft/bill/Hello.page 163 .Upload using ³loadjava´ utility .java file Java resource file .class file .class options (abbreviated) -oci8 -resolve loadjava will connect using OCI driver Resolves external class references at compile time -resolver (shown later) Search path like CLASSPATH 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Hello.. .Publish  Example (top-level call spec) CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION hello_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2 AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft. /  Syntax (simplified) CREATE [ OR REPLACE PROCE URE FUNCTION <name> <sqlt pe> ] [ [ <ar s> ) ] [ AUTHID { DEFINER | CURRENT_USER } ] AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME '<met fullname> (<Ja a t pe fullname>..lang.page 164 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .bill.String'.) [ return <Ja a t pe fullname> ]'.Emp(int) return java.

page 165 .sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .PUT_LINE(hello_emp(7499)). for example.  Method 2: Use 8i SQL CALL statement. from SQL*Plus: VARIABLE thename VARCHAR2(12) CALL hello_emp(7499) INTO :thename.Call the wrapped method  Method 1: Call as if PL/SQL module BEGIN DBMS_OUTPUT. END. PRINT :thename ± CALL avoids overhead of SELECT fn FROM DUAL jsp.

ARRAY 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 166 .sql.sql.math.Publishing -.more concepts Shape mapping ± Java methods declared ³void´ become PL/SQL procedures ± Signature mismatches detected only at runtime Type mapping (typical) VARCHAR2 DATE NUMBER user-defined object type user-defined object type object REFerence user-defined collection type java.Timestamp java.sql.STRUCT <named type> oracle.REF oracle.sql.String java.lang.BigDecimal oracle.

.lang.page 167 ..Publish in PL/SQL Package Spec  Designate Java module in PL/SQL package spec.util.Hello.String'. END. / (No package body required in this case) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Emp(int) return java. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE hello_pkg AS FUNCTION hi_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2 AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.

Publish as module in package body  .util. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END. / CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY hello_pkg2 AS FUNCTION hi_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2 IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.lang..String'.Hello.. END.or in package body CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE hello_pkg2 AS FUNCTION hi_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2.page 168 .Emp(int) return java.

util. MEMBER FUNCTION hello_emp RETURN VARCHAR2). MEMBER FUNCTION hello_emp RETURN VARCHAR2 IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.Emp(int) return java.lang.String'.page 169 . / CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE BODY foo_t AS MEMBER FUNCTION hello_emp RETURN VARCHAR2 IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.String'). END.lang.Publish as object type method  Either in spec: CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE foo_t AS OBJECT ( bar VARCHAR2(30).util.Hello. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Emp(int) return java. / or in the body: CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE foo_t AS OBJECT ( bar VARCHAR2(30).Hello.

DROP JAVA: drops a named Java library unit Several roles available for Java operations: ± JAVAUSERPRIV. JAVADEBUGPRIV ± You can also grant specific privileges. class.   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . JAVA_ADMIN.page 170 . or resource ± Can read file designated with BFILE() function  ALTER JAVA: compiles Java source.New DDL Statements and Roles  CREATE JAVA ± Alternative to ³loadjava´ utility ± Creates or replaces an Oracle ³library unit´ from Java source. resolves Java class references. JAVAIDPRIV. JAVASYSPRIV (needed for file IO operations).

CustomDatum ± oracle.jdbc2.STRUCT ± oracle.page 171 .SQLData 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .sql.sql.Passing Oracle8 objects Oracle8i server Object in O-R table Java application Java object   Harder than you¶d think Three different interfacing techniques ± oracle.

page 172 .JPublisher utility Database server Definition of type or REF in data dictionary User-supplied JPublisher input file What does it do? ± Generates Java that encapsulates type and REF types of mapping supported for methods JPublisher ± ³Oracle mapping´ ± ³JDBC mapping´ ± ³Object JDBC mapping´ Three Generated Java file(s) for use in Java programs 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Account_t)'.bill. /  jspobj.save (datacraft.Passing object using JPub-generated Java  After generating and uploading classes with JPub.AccountRuntime.bill. they become available to use in mapping Example of passing an Account_t object: CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE account_save (new_acct IN Account_t) IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.page 173 .sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

but that package is very limited.page 174 . Java offers many file-related classes with much greater capabilities. Let's see how we can make that great Java stuff available from within PL/SQL.Example: Improving File I/O  You can read/write files in PL/SQL with UTL_FILE.   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

± The File class offers a length method that returns the number of bytes in a file. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± This is not available through UTL_FILE (though you can get it through DBMS_LOB). ± Instead build a static method that instantiates a Java object from the class and then invokes the relevant method against that object.  Let's start with something simple..Encapsulate Java Classes  You won't generally access native Java methods in your PL/SQL wrapper.page 175 ..

} } JFile2.length(). import java. return myFile.page 176 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .io. public class JFile2 { public static long length (String fileName) { File myFile = new File (fileName).File.java  Take each of these steps: ± Import the File class to resolve reference. ± Instantiate a File object for the specified name. ± Call the method of choice against that object and return the value.My Own Java Class for File Manipulation  Accept the name of a file and return its length.

lang. we will certainly want to add more functionality over time.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 177 . END. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE xfile IS FUNCTION length (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN NUMBER. / xfile2. / CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY xfile IS FUNCTION length (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN NUMBER AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'JFile.Build a Package over Java Method  Let's put it in a package.String) return long'.length (java. END. ± I translate the Java long to a PL/SQL NUMBER.

± 3.  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Mapping the Boolean Datatype  Both Java and PL/SQL support a native Boolean datatype. you will need to take these steps: ± 1.page 178 . Write a "public" PL/SQL wrapper function to convert that number to a true PL/SQL Boolean. ± 2. so you'd expect smooth sailing. Convert the Java boolean to a String or number and return that value. Write a "hidden" PL/SQL wrapper function that returns the string or number. Not so! To pass a Boolean back from Java to PL/SQL.

± And don't forget: this is a boolean primitive.java  Translate TRUE to 1 and FALSE to 0. not a Boolean class.canRead().page 179 . public class JFile3 { public static int canRead (String fileName) { File myFile = new File (fileName). } } JFile3.io. else return 0. import java. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . boolean retval = myFile. if (retval) return 1.File.Translate Boolean to Number  Accept the name of a file and return its length.

page 180 . ± Avoid the hard-codings with named constants.String) return int'.java END. JFile. FUNCTION canRead (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN BOOLEAN AS BEGIN xfile3.pkg END.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE xfile IS FUNCTION canRead (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN BOOLEAN. END.java / xfile. xfile4.Wrapper for Pseudo-Boolean function  Simple translation back to PL/SQL Boolean.lang..pkg RETURN IcanRead (file) = 1. JFile4. / CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY xfile IS FUNCTION IcanRead (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN NUMBER AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'JFile3.canRead (java.

// starting with 0 String laborType = (String)(attribs[0]).out.page 181 .tst PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . // Access individual attributes by array index.sql. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein UnionBuster.SQLException { // Get the attributes of the labor_source object. System. public class UnionBuster { Obtain attributes of public static void wageStrategy (STRUCT e) the Oracle object. throws java.Passing Objects to Java with STRUCT  You can pass Oracle object information to Java without relying on JPub by using the STRUCT class. } } Extract individual attribute values from the array.println ( "Pay " + laborType + " $" + hourly_rate + " per hour"). Object[] attribs = e.getAttributes().java passobj. BigDecimal hourly_rate = (BigDecimal)(attribs[1]).

/ BEGIN bust_em_with ( labor_source ('Workfare'. hourly_rate NUMBER). The Oracle object type definition CREATE TYPE labor_source_t AS OBJECT ( labor_type VARCHAR2(30).STRUCT)'. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 0)). / CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE bust_em_with ( labor_source_in IN labor_source_t) AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'UnionBuster.wageStrategy (oracle. END. bust_em_with ( labor_source ('Prisoners'. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Fully specify the STRUCT class in parameter list.sql.Wrapping a STRUCT-based Method  You can pass Oracle object information to Java without relying on JPub by using the STRUCT class.page 182 . '5')).

± Call it within methods and output will display in your Java environment. ± Here is a good nucleus for a login.out.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . public class HelloAll { public static void lotsaText ( int count) { for (int i = 0. i++) { System.PUT_LINE: System. HelloAll.Viewing Output from Java Methods  Java provides a "print line" method similar to DBMS_OUTPUT.SET_OUTPUT (1000000).println. }}}  When called within a PL/SQL wrapper.println ( "Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello All!"). i < count.java HelloAll. you can redirect the output to the DBMS_OUTPUT buffer.out.page 183 .sql file: SET SERVEROUTPUT ON SIZE 1000000 CALL DBMS_JAVA.

getErrorCode() and getMessage() to obtain information about the error thrown. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Error Handling with Java-PL/SQL  Java offers a very similar.  Any error not caught by the JVM (Java virtual machine) will be thrown back to the PL/SQL block or SQL statement.sql. ± And also spew out the entire Java error stack! (at least through 8.1.page 184 . you "throw" and "catch". such as java.5). ± Use two methods. but more robust error handling mechanism than PL/SQL.SQLException. ± Exceptions are objects instantiated from the Exception class or a subclass of it. ± Instead of raising and handling.

kprb.executeUpdate(OracleStatement.OracleStatement.driver.parseExecuteFetch(KprbDBAccess.jdbc.java:14) DropAny.jdbc. the entire Java stack is displayed on your screen.SQLException: getErrInfo.driver.PUT_LINE (SQLERRM). EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN DBMS_OUTPUT.driver.check_error(KprbDBAccess.PUT_LINE (SQLCODE).OracleStatement.java) at oracle.KprbDBAccess.java) at oracle.page 185 .object(DropAny.java -29532 dropany.java) at oracle.jdbc.sql.doExecute(OracleStatement.jdbc. / SQL> 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 java.KprbDBAccess.doExecuteWithTimeout(OracleStatement.SQLException: ORA-00942: table or view does not exist at oracle.java) at oracle.OracleStatement.jdbc.OracleStatement.tst ORA-29532: Java call terminated by uncaught Java exception: java. DBMS_OUTPUT.tst ORA-00942: table or view does not exist 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .kprb.doExecuteWithBatch(OracleStatement. END.OracleStatement.driver.Trapping and Identifying Errors  Currently.java) at DropAny.jdbc.java) at oracle.sp dropany2.driver. 'blip'). BEGIN dropany ('TABLE'.sql.jdbc.doExecuteOther(OracleStatement.java) at oracle. and you have to do some digging to extract the Oracle error information.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Must be a shared object library on Unix or a dynamically linked library (DLL) on Windows.page 186 . or method.Achieving PL/SQL Excellence External Procedures  An external procedure is a 3GL routine that can serve as the ³body´ of a PL/SQL function. procedure.  An Oracle8 feature that allowed relatively "native" callouts to C from PL/SQL for the first time.

page 187 .DLL or .so file extproc returns results returns results 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Process & data flow Application Makes request Net8 External Procedure Listener spawns External Shared Library Calls PL/SQL Runtime Engine PL/SQL body Client or server-side application returns results calls routine from Routine in .

sql diskspace.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .External procedures: Sample uses      Send email Invoke operating system command Invoke custom or legacy application Call C runtime library function Perform admin tasks email.page 188 .

dll'.page 189 . this function returns: » » » » » sectors per cluster bytes per sector number of free clusters total number of clusters ³return code´ indicating success or failure  First.dll ± For given drive letter. create an Oracle8 ³library´: CREATE OR REPLACE LIBRARY nt_kernel AS 'c:\winnt\system32\kernel32.Determine free disk space on NT (1/4)  Use pre-existing routine: ± GetDiskFreeSpaceA in kernel32. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

page 190 . bytes_per_sector OUT PLS_INTEGER. number_of_free_clusters OUT PLS_INTEGER. END disk_util. total_number_of_clusters OUT PLS_INTEGER) RETURN PLS_INTEGER. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Package spec (2/4)  Nothing unexpected here: CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE disk_util AS FUNCTION get_disk_free_space (root_path IN VARCHAR2. sectors_per_cluster OUT PLS_INTEGER.

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END disk_util. bytes_per_sector OUT PLS_INTEGER. total_number_of_clusters BY REFERENCE LONG. bytes_per_sector BY REFERENCE LONG. RETURN LONG).0 (3/4) CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY disk_util AS FUNCTION get_disk_free_space (root_path IN VARCHAR2. sectors_per_cluster BY REFERENCE LONG. total_number_of_clusters OUT PLS_INTEGER) RETURN PLS_INTEGER IS EXTERNAL LIBRARY nt_kernel NAME "GetDiskFreeSpaceA" LANGUAGE C CALLING STANDARD PASCAL PARAMETERS (root_path STRING. number_of_free_clusters OUT pls_integer.page 191  All the magic is in the EXTERNAL section 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . number_of_free_clusters BY REFERENCE LONG. sectors_per_cluster OUT PLS_INTEGER.Package body in Oracle 8.

Usage (4/4)
DECLARE lroot_path VARCHAR2(3) := 'C:\'; lsectors_per_cluster PLS_INTEGER; lbytes_per_sector PLS_INTEGER; lnumber_of_free_clusters PLS_INTEGER; ltotal_number_of_clusters PLS_INTEGER; return_code PLS_INTEGER; free_meg REAL; BEGIN return_code := disk_util.get_disk_free_space (lroot_path, lsectors_per_cluster, lbytes_per_sector, lnumber_of_free_clusters, ltotal_number_of_clusters); free_meg := lsectors_per_cluster * lbytes_per_sector * lnumber_of_free_clusters / 1024 / 1024; DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('free disk space, Mb = ' || free_meg); diskspace.sql END;
1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein
PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 192

Creating your own external procedure 

1. Identify or create shared library 2. Identify or CREATE LIBRARY within Oracle 3. Map the parameters using:
± EXTERNAL clause (Oracle8) or ± LANGUAGE clause (Oracle8i)  

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 193

1. Identify/create external routine 


Prerequisite: O/S must support shared libraries Some useful routines are pre-built in C runtime library
± On Unix: /lib/libc.so ± On NT: <systemroot>\system32\crtdll.dll 

Building a shared library of your own requires knowledge of:
± Appropriate language (typically C) ± Compiler & linker

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 194

2. Create the Oracle library 

Syntax:
CREATE OR REPLACE LIBRARY <library name> AS '<full path to file>'; 

Assigns a programmer-defined alias to a specific shared library file Notes
± Requires CREATE LIBRARY pri ilege ± Does not alidate directory ± Can¶t use symbolic link 

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 195

3. Map the parameters
This can get complicated, because«
± Must pass extra parameters to designate:
» NULL/NOT NULL state » String length » Maximum allocated length

± Six choices of parameter mode
» » » » » » IN RETURN IN BY REFERENCE RETURN BY REFERENCE OUT IN OUT

These details are better suited for close reading«
PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 196

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Oracle8i New Features Autonomous Transactions Invoker Rights Model Row Level Security 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 197 .

page 198 .Oracle8i New Features  Oracle8i offers a number of PL/SQL-specific features that give you tremendous additional flexibility and capability. ± And the learning curve to take advantage of these features is generally not too steep.    Autonomous Transactions The Invoker Rights Model Row level security 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

you can now define a PL/SQL block to execute as an "autonomous transaction". msg IN VARCHAR2) AS PRAGMA AUTONOMOUS_TRANSACTION. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE loginfo ( code IN PLS_INTEGER. ± There was only one transaction allowed per connection. ± Any changes made within that block can be saved or reversed without affecting the outer or main transaction.Autonomous Transactions  Prior to Oracle8i. a COMMIT or ROLLBACK in any program in your session committed or rolled back all changes in your session.  With Oracle8i.page 199 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

page 200 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . ± One component should not have any impact (esp. something like a COMMIT) on other components. software usage meter. which can cause all sorts of complications: your log entry becomes a part of your transaction.When to Use Autonomous Transactions  Reusable Application Components ± ATs are more or less required in the new distributed application architecture of the Internet.  Call functions within SQL that change the database. etc.  Tracing Code Usage ± Build retry mechanisms. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Now you can avoid the complexities (need for ROLLBACK TO savepoints and so on).  Logging Mechanism ± Commonly developers lot to database tables.

pkg retry. rec.sp log81. text_in IN VARCHAR2 ) IS PRAGMA AUTONOMOUS_TRANSACTION.program ).tst retry. logger. SYSDATE. rec. let's add some session information. USER. SYSDATE. text_in. END. COMMIT. END.Logging with ATs  Don't forget that ROLLBACK in the exception section! CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY log IS PROCEDURE putline ( code_in IN INTEGER. BEGIN INSERT INTO logtab VALUES (code_in.pkg log81*. USER.tst PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Avoid interdependencies with the main transaction. While we're at it. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN ROLLBACK.page 201 .machine.

sql auton_in_sql.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .sql autontrigger*. ± You cannot define an entire package as an AT.Tips and Gotchas with ATs  An AT program must COMMIT or ROLLBACK before terminating. ± You cannot define a nested anonymous block to be an AT. or an error is raised. ± Place the SET TRANSACTION statement in the outer transaction.   The AT PRAGMA goes in the body of packages. autonserial. The AT PRAGMA can be used only with individual programs and toplevel anonymous blocks.page 202 . ± You cannot tell by looking at the package spec if you are calling ATs or not -and this info is not available in the data dictionary. ± You can use the SET TRANSACTION ISOLATION LEVEL SERIALIZABLE to indicate that you do not want the changes visible until the outer transaction commits.  Any changes committed in an AT are visible in the outer transaction.

The Invoker Rights Model  Prior to Oracle8i. it ran under the privileges of the account in which the program was defined. ± This is called the « Definer Rights Model  With Oracle8i. you can now decide at compilation time whether your program or package will execute in the definer's schema (the default) or the schema of the invoker of the code.page 203 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . ± This is called the « Invoker Rights Model PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . whenever you executed a stored program.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .About Definer Rights  Allows you to centralize access to and control of underlying data structures. But it can be a source of confusion and architectural problems. Note: Oracle built-in packages have long had the capability of running under the invoker's authority. Ignores roles and relies on directly-granted privileges. OE Code Order_Mgt Place Cancel Sam_Sales Close Old Orders  OE Data X  Orders Cannot alter table directly.page 204 .

requiring copy of stored module  Security ± No declarative way to restrict privileges on certain modules in a package -.page 205 . ± Can bypass 8i¶s ³fine-grained´ access features (see the DBMS_RLS package) ± Difficult to audit privileges  Sure would be nice to have a choice. unless you write code in the package to essentially recreate roles programmatically..Problems with Definer Rights  Deployment & maintenance ± Must install module in all remote databases where needed ± In some databases..it's all or nothing. each user has own copy of table(s).and now you do! 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

You could also create local.  For modules with separate spec and body.Oracle8i Invoker Rights Syntax  For top level modules: CREATE [ OR REPLACE ] <module type> [ AUTHID { DEFINER | CURRENT_USER } ] AS . do what it takes to get the code to compile.  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .. ± At run-time. Synonyms may be necessary if modules use object names not qualified by schema.. the objects referenced may well be different from those against which it compiled. and must be at the package level. "dummy" objects. ± In other words.page 206 . AUTHID goes only in spec.

FROM accounts WHERE. modify destroy . code..acct_mgr.... Central Code schema PACKAGE acct_mgr make AUTHID CURRENT_USER User/Data schema PROCEDURE mng_account IS BEGIN .).destroy(.. accounts table 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .. you can execute code owned by another schema.page 207 .."Reflection" Capability of Invoker Rights  With invoker rights. yet have all references to data structures "reflect back" into your own schema. END..

all other calls in stack are resolved according to definer rights.  Information about the rights model is not available in the data dictionary What if you want to maintain a single version of your code for both pre-Oracle8i and Oracle8i installations. ± Both static and dynamic SQL is supported. only data ± When your stored code references another stored code element. Note: cannot use with wrapped code. ± AUTHID CURRENT_USER is ignored.  Once a definer rights program is called.Tips and Gotchas for Invoker Rights  Does not apply to code objects.sql  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .sql handy. oneversion. taking advantage of the invoker rights model whenever possible? ± A creative use of SQL*Plus substitution variables comes in very invdefinv.page 208 . the definer rights model is always applied to resolve the reference.

page 209 .sql whichsch*.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . National HQ Check City Statistics New York Schema stolenlives Chicago Schema stolenlives  Especially handy with dynamic SQL.When to Invoke Invoker Rights  You want to reuse the same code among many users. ± Share a program that uses dynamic SQL (whether DBMS_SQL or the new native implementation) and you end up taking the most unexpected DDL and DML detours. but you want their own directly-granted privileges to determine access. authid.

HQ Chicago Check City Statistics  New York stolenlives Analyze Pattern stolenlives perpetrators perp. Rely on definer rights to access centralized data from any schema.page 210 .sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Combining Invoker & Definer Rights  Rely on invoker rights to allow centralized code to work with schema-specific data.

Row Level Security DBMS_RLS Row-Level Security 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 211 .

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . DBMS_RLS.Row-Level Security with DBMS_RLS  Oracle8i offers a new package. The DBMS_RLS package (along with "system contexts") now allow you to do so in a foolproof manner. you could achieve this only partially through the use of views.page 212   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . Row Level Security  The establishment of security policies on (restricted access to) individual rows of a table. Prior to Oracle8i. with which to implement automated row-level security (also referred to as "fine grained access control").

page 213 .Components Needed for RLS  System Contexts ± A new feature in Oracle8i.  DBMS_RLS ± Use programs in DBMS_RLS to associate your security policies with tables.  Let's step through a simple example to see how all these pieces tie together. their context information is set properly. the system context is a named set of attributevalue pairs global to your session. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Database Logon Triggers ± I want to make sure that when a person logs in.  Security Policy Packages ± You will need to write a package containing functions that establish the security policies to be applied to a particular table.

fgac.A National Health Care System  The year is 2010. clinic and regulator. no more private insurance companies soaking up 30 cents on the dollar. Here are some rules: ± Doctors can only see patients who are assigned to their clinic.page 214 . ± Patients can only see information about themselves.sql  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  We need a top-notch. The main tables are patient. all pregnant women receive excellent prenatal care. popular uprising in the United States has forced the establishment of a national healthcare system. ± A massive. highly secure database for NHCS. ± Regulators can only see patients who reside in the same state. doctor. all children are vaccinated. No more for-profit hospitals pulling billions of dollars out of the system.

doctor_id). sets the context accordingly. and create a procedure that will set the context attributes (type and ID) upon login. doc_rec doc_cur%ROWTYPE.page 215 .sql for logic that identifies SELECT doctor_id FROM doctor different types of people and WHERE schema_name = USER. See CURSOR doc_cur IS fgac. CREATE CONTEXT patient_restriction USING nhc_pkg. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . doc_rec. DBMS_SESSION. PROCEDURE set_context IS This is a simplification.SET_CONTEXT ( 'patient_restriction'. c_person_type_attr. DBMS_SESSION. 'DOCTOR'). BEGIN OPEN doc_cur. END. FETCH doc_cur INTO doc_rec.Set the Context  Define a context in the database. c_person_id_attr.SET_CONTEXT ( 'patient_restriction'.

FUNCTION person_predicate ( schema_in VARCHAR2. BEGIN IF l_context = 'DOCTOR' THEN retval := 'home_clinic_id IN (SELECT home_clinic_id FROM doctor We need a different string WHERE doctor_id = SYS_CONTEXT (''' || to modify the WHERE c_context || '''.Define the Predicate  A predicate is a string that will be appended to the WHERE clause of the table to which this security policy is associated (see next page). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . person. ''' || clause for each type of c_person_id_attr || '''))'. information for this retval VARCHAR2(2000). connection.page 216 . c_person_type_attr). name_in VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2 IS l_context VARCHAR2(100) := Extract the context SYS_CONTEXT (c_context.

UPDATE.DELETE'). 'SCOTT'.ADD_POLICY procedure. BEGIN DBMS_RLS. update or delete against the SCOTT.page 217 .ADD_POLICY OBJECT_SCHEMA OBJECT_NAME POLICY_NAME FUNCTION_SCHEMA POLICY_FUNCTION STATEMENT_TYPES END. 'nhc_pkg. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 'patient_privacy'.Create the Security Policy  Use the DBMS_RLS. ( => => => => => => 'SCOTT'.nhc_pkg package. 'SELECT.PATIENT table will be modified by the string returned by the person_predicate function of the SCOTT. 'patient'.person_predicate'. ± The following procedure call specifies that the WHERE clause of any query.

CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER set_id_on_logon AFTER LOGON ON DATABASE BEGIN nhc_pkg. logon is disabled. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN DBMS_OUTPUT. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 218 .set_context. END.sql Exception handling in trigger is critical! If you allow an exception to go unhandled. Setting Context  By setting the context in the logon trigger. fgac. we guarantee that the context is set (and the predicate applied) no matter which product is the entry point to Oracle.PUT_LINE ( 'Error ' || SQLCODE || ' setting context for ' || USER').Create Logon Trigger.

Chris Silva .Veva Silva . Predicate: home_clinic_id IN (SELECT home_clinic_id FROM doctor WHERE doctor_id = SYS_CONTEXT ('patient_restriction'.Queries Transparently Filtered  What you see is determined automatically by who you are.IL Context Information for "CSILVA": Type: PATIENT ID: Predicate: schema_name = 'CSILVA' Patients Visible to "CSILVA": CSILVA .Chris Silva . 'person_id')) Patients Visible to "SWALLACE": CSILVA . Context Information for "SWALLACE": Type: DOCTOR Doctor sees only her ID: 1060 patients. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .IL VSILVA .page 219 .IL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Patient sees only himself.

Take Full Advantage of PL/SQL! January.and play a new tune with PL/SQL! 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Jump out of your rut . May.. March. It's so easy to fall into a rut with a programming language..page 220 . April. and you use only what you know..... February..  ± You learn what you need to get the job done....

a..k.Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Appendices (a.page 221 . If time permits«)     UTL_FILE ± file IO DBMS_JOB ± Job scheduling DBMS_PIPE ± Pipe-based communication DBMS_UTILITY ± the kitchen sink package 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

.Built-in Packages: UTL_FILE UTL_FILE Server-side File I/O Application FOPEN GET_LINE PUT_LINE .. Physical Files 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 222 .

± Maximum of 1023 bytes per line (read or write) until Oracle 8. ± No higher-level file operations supported (change privileges.UTL_FILE: Server-side I/O  Allows you to read from and write to operating system files on the database server.5. delete.page 223 . no use of environmental variables). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .   But you can read lines from a file and write lines to a file. A "version 1" (fairly primitive) utility. ± Limitations on files you can access (no mapped files. random access to contents).0.. when it jumps to 32K.. copy.

UTL_FILE Module Outline FCLOSE FCLOSE_ALL FFLUSH FOPEN GET_LINE IS_OPEN NEW_LINE PUT PUT_LINE PUTF Close the specified file Close all open files in your session Flush all data from the UTL_FILE buffer to your file Open a file Get the next line from a file Returns TRUE if the file is open (sort of) Insert a new line character in file at the end of current line Puts text into the UTL_FILE buffer Puts text and new line character into UTL_FILE buffer.page 224 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . Puts formatted text into the buffer PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Authorizing Directory Access  Oracle requires you to list explicitly those directories you wish to be able to read/write with UTL_FILE. utl_file_dir = * Allows read & write for any directory. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 225 Allows read & write for current directory. utl_file_dir = /tmp utl_file_dir = /accounts/newdev  And don't do either of the following: utl_file_dir = . ± Use a separate entry for each directory (and subdirectory. ± You do this by adding lines to the instance parameter file.  Follow these rules to avoid many headaches. there is no subdirectory recursion). no trailing delimiter. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . ± No single or double quotes around directory.

Test UTL_FILE Access  About the hardest part to working with UTL_FILE is simply getting started. restart your database. and then run the following test script (it can't get much simpler than this): DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.PUT_LINE (fid.FCLOSE (fid). So before you write anything fancy.tst  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . UTL_FILE. BEGIN /* Change the directory name to one to which you at least || THINK you have read/write access. UTL_FILE.FOPEN ('c:\temp'. 'test.FILE_TYPE. / utlfile. 'W').txt'. END. */ fid := UTL_FILE.page 226 . 'hello'). modify your initialization file.

 The FOPEN function returns a record ("file handle") based on the UTL_FILE.. ± In actuality. 'W' for Write and 'A' for Append. this function simply returns TRUE if the file handle's id field is NOT NULL. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Specify file location.FOPEN ('c:\temp'.page 227 .txt'.   Maximum of 10 files may be opened in each user session.FILE_TYPE. Test to see if file is open with the IS_OPEN function. 'W'). name and operation type. Not much of a test. ± Currently contains a single ID field. 'test. BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE. END.FILE_TYPE.Opening a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE. ± Types are 'R' for Read..

'test. 'R'). ± You might want to build your own GET_LINE which handles the exception and returns an EOF Boolean status flag.0.FILE_TYPE. ± In Oracle8 Release 8. UTL_FILE. BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE. END. the ceiling is raised to 32K.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  The NO_DATA_FOUND exception is raised if you read past the end of the file.Reading from a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.txt'. UTL_FILE.   Can only read from a file opened with the "R" mode. getnext.FOPEN ('c:\temp'. myline).FCLOSE (fid).page 228 .5 and above. Lines in the file cannot be longer than 1023 bytes in length.GET_LINE (fid.

'test.PUTF (fid. 'UTL_FILE').FCLOSE (fid). ± The file buffers are automatically flushed when you close a file or exit your session.FOPEN ('c:\temp'. 'is so much fun').PUT (fid.PUT_LINE (fid.txt'.FILE_TYPE. allowing for some formatting. BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE. '&1'). UTL_FILE is so much fun that I never want to stop Resulting Text  You can use PUT. UTL_FILE.Writing to a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE. END. ± PUTF is like the C printf program.  Call FFLUSH to make sure that everything you have written to the buffer is flushed out to the file. UTL_FILE. ' that I never\nwant to %s'. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . UTL_FILE. PUT_LINE or PUTF. UTL_FILE.page 229 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . 'W').

page 230   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .FCLOSE (fid). You can close a single file with FCLOSE or all open files with FCLOSE_ALL. END. UTL_FILE.Closing a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .FILE_TYPE. 'R').GET_LINE (fid.FCLOSE (fid).txt'.READ_ERROR THEN UTL_FILE. you will not see the data you have (supposedly) written to that file. UTL_FILE. 'test.  If you do not close the file. BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE. EXCEPTION WHEN UTL_FILE. myline). You should close files in exception handlers to make sure that files are not left "hanging" open.FOPEN ('c:\temp'.

EXCEPTION.page 231 .  UTL_FILE relies on a combination of user-defined exceptions and STANDARD exceptions to communicate errors. ± They all share a common SQLCODE of 1. EXCEPTION. EXCEPTION. EXCEPTION.  You have to take special care to trap and handle the named exceptions. EXCEPTION. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . EXCEPTION. EXCEPTION. ± UTL_FILE-named exceptions in other cases. ± NO_DATA_FOUND when you try to read past the end of the file.Error Handling in UTL_FILE PACKAGE UTL_FILE IS invalid_path invalid_mode invalid_filehandle invalid_operation read_error write_error internal_error END.

READ_ERROR THEN recNgo (PLVfile.c_invalid_mode). RAISE. RAISE.c_internal_error). END. WHEN UTL_FILE. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . WHEN UTL_FILE.c_invalid_path).WRITE_ERROR THEN recNgo (PLVfile. WHEN UTL_FILE. RAISE. RAISE.c_invalid_filehandle). utlflexc.Recommended Exception Section EXCEPTION WHEN UTL_FILE.c_read_error).c_write_error). WHEN UTL_FILE. translating the generic user-defined exception into an understandable message.c_invalid_operation). WHEN UTL_FILE.page 232  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . RAISE.INTERNAL_ERROR THEN recNgo (PLVfile. RAISE.INVALID_OPERATION THEN recNgo (PLVfile. Re-raise exception if you want it to propagate from that block.INVALID_FILEHANDLE THEN recNgo (PLVfile. WHEN UTL_FILE.INVALID_MODE THEN recNgo (PLVfile.sql  Trap locally by name. record the error. RAISE.INVALID_PATH THEN recNgo (PLVfile.

page 233 ...Built-in Packages: DBMS_JOB DBMS_JOB Scheduled Execution of Stored Procedures Application SUBMIT RUN REMOVE . Background Process DBA_JOBS Oracle Job Queue Subsystem 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

which in turn offers job scheduling capabilities within the Oracle Server. Schedule large batch jobs to run on "off hours". Made its debut in PL/SQL Release 2. ± ± ± ±    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 234 .2. Create a listener program to poll the contents of a pipe and take action.Overview of DBMS_JOB  DBMS_JOB provides an API to the Oracle job queues. Built by Oracle to support snapshots and replication. but only ³publicly available´ and supported in PL/SQL Release 2. Schedule regular maintenance on instances. You can use DBMS_JOB to: Replicate data between different database instances.1. ± Spawn background processes to avoid blocking client process.

page 235 CHANGE INTERVAL ISUBMIT NEXT_DATE REMOVE RUN SUBMIT USER_EXPORT WHAT 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . Changes when a queued job will run. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Returns the job string for a job number. Submits a job to the queue returning a unique job number. Changes the job string of a job.DBMS_JOB Module Outline BROKEN Marks the job as either FIXED or BROKEN. Forces immediate execution of the specified job number. Changes the interval between executions of a job. Removes the job from the queue. Changes one or all attributes of a job. Submits a job to the queue using a predefined job number. Broken jobs will not run as scheduled.

'calculate_totals.SUBMIT (job#. I run calculate_totals immediately and then on a daily basis thereafter. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± In the above example.Submitting a Job DECLARE job# BINARY_INTEGER. you specify the date on which it should next execute. BEGIN DBMS_JOB. instead of having DBMS_JOB generate one for you.  When you submit a job. and then the job¶s execution interval (frequency of execution).ISUBMIT and supply the job number.page 236 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .'. SYSDATE. 'SYSDATE + 1'). Notice that the start time is a DATE expression. END. while the interval is a string (this is dynamic PL/SQL!)  You can also call DBMS_JOB.  A job is a call to a stored procedure or an anonymous block ± It must end with a semi-colon and can contain ³hard-coded´ arguments.

page 237 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .null. to analyze a specific table every evening at midnight. interval => 'TRUNC(SYSDATE+1)' ).''ESTIMATE''. END. what => 'DBMS_DDL.'. BEGIN DBMS_JOB.estimate_percent=>50).Submit Job Example DECLARE v_jobno INTEGER.ANALYZE_OBJECT ' || '(''TABLE''.ANALYZE_OBJECT.l (v_jobno).''LOAD1''. next_date => TRUNC (SYSDATE + 1). /  This block submits a job that uses a built-in procedure.submit ( job => v_jobno. DBMS_DDL.''TENK''' || '. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . p.

next_date => SYSDATE + 1/24 . ± Job 2 passes a date into procedure MY_JOB2.SYSDATE+1.ISUBMIT (job => 1 .2. executes immediately. END.ISubmit Job Example BEGIN DBMS_JOB. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .'SYSDATE+10/1440').' .'BEGIN null.page 238 . and 3. DBMS_JOB. runs it in one hour and executes every day thereafter.120).ISUBMIT(3. 'my_job2(date_IN=>SYSDATE).SYSDATE.'.what => 'my_job1(''string_parm_value''. END. executes for the first time tomorrow and every 10 minutes thereafter. numbered 1. /  This block submits three jobs to the job queue.' .null). and will be removed from the queue automatically. DBMS_JOB. ± Job 1 passes a string and number into procedure MY_JOB1.ISUBMIT (2.DBMS_JOB. ± Job 3 is a PL/SQL block which does nothing.interval => 'SYSDATE +1').

3).page 239 + 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . ''FRIDAY''))) + 18/24' PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Use date arithmetic to request intervals smaller than a day. Wednesday and Friday at 6 PM 'SYSDATE + 1/24' 'NEXT_DAY (TRUNC (SYSDATE).Specifying Job Times & Frequencies  Probably the most complicated part of using DBMS_JOB is to get the string expression of the job interval right. ''MONDAY''). at 9 AM Every Monday. ''WEDNESDAY''). ''MONDAY'') + 9/24' 'TRUNC (LEAST ( NEXT_DAY (SYSDATE. ''SATURDAY'') 2/24' 'NEXT_DAY ( ADD_MONTHS (TRUNC (SYSDATE. ''Q''). Every hour Every Sunday at 2 AM First Monday of each quarter. you must use 2 single quotes to embed strings. NEXT_DAY (SYSDATE. ± Since it's a string. NEXT_DAY (SYSDATE.

Other Job Queue Operations  Remove a job from the queue.REMOVE (rec. expjob.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .ISUBMIT.  Export jobs from the queue. retaining current job number. ± Uses DBMS_JOB.job).page 240 .RUN (my_job#). END LOOP. DBMS_JOB. ± Performs an implicit COMMIT in current session. ± Only if the job was submitted from same schema BEGIN FOR rec IN (SELECT * FROM USER_JOBS) LOOP DBMS_JOB. Remove all jobs for current schema. ± Produces a string that can be used to recreate an existing job in the job queue.  Run a job immediately.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .what job_id username start_date job_definition jr j s showjobs.sid = jr.V$SESSION WHERE s.username . who owns them and when they began.job . SELECT jr.this_date .this_date. DBA_JOBS and USER_JOBS views.jr.sid AND jr. ± The following query blends job information with session information to display currently-executing jobs.page 241 .DBA_JOBS .sql FROM DBA_JOBS_RUNNING .Job Queue Views  You can also view the job queue by looking at the DBA_JOBS_RUNNING.job = j.job ORDER BY jr.

therefore. ± The default is PUBLIC access. You will have to take special DBA action if you want to restrict who can run jobs. ± job_queue_interval=N where N is the interval in seconds to check the job queue. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Setting up the Job Facility  Make sure that the correct access is set up for the DBMS_JOB package. of one hour).ora (initialization) file for your database instance: ± job_queue_processes=N where n is the number of concurrent background processes permitted. The valid range is 1 to 3600 (a maximum.  You will need to set three parameters in the init.page 242 . The valid range is 0 through 36.

the job facility will mark your job as broken. ± Do you want it to try 16 times? ± In addition. if your failure raises an unhandled exception. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Then you can go ahead and submit it. ± Always include a WHEN OTHERS exception handler in your job program which traps any and all problems and automatically sets the job status to broken.Error Handling with DBMS_JOB  What if your stored procedure fails? ± After 16 attempts.page 243 . it may cause the background processes to fail and no longer run any jobs at all.  To avoid unexpected and unhandled failures of scheduled jobs: ± Always use the RUN built-in to execute your job in a ³test´ mode.

TRUE). END. ± Calls log program of package to record that failure took place. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN job# := job_pkg. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 244 . ± Uses a call to BROKEN to set the status of the job to ³broken´.sql  The WHEN OTHERS exception handler of the calc_totals procedure traps any kind of failure. ± Obtains the job number from a packaged function by passing the name of the procedure.Stopping the Job When It Fails PROCEDURE calc_totals IS BEGIN .BROKEN (job#. ± Now the job facility will not try to run this program again.log (µcalc_totals¶. µFAIL¶). You can go in and fix the problem.sql showspc. spacelog.job (µcalc_totals¶) DBMS_JOB.. job_pkg..

page 245 . You can use the DBMS_IJOB to manage the jobs of other users. ± DBMS_JOB only allows you to modify characteristics and behavior of jobs submitted by the current schema.  You will need to fully-qualify all database links (with user name and password) to get them to work properly. ± We've noticed some aberrant. When a job runs. perform a COMMIT after your submit. it picks up the current execution environment for the user.    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . If you find that you submit a job to run immediately and it does not start. difficult to reproduce behavior at times with "straight" procedure calls."Good to Knows" for DBMS_JOB  You may find it useful to always wrap your stored procedure call (the what) inside a BEGIN-END block.

Built-in Packages: DBMS_PIPE DBMS_PIPE Inter-session Communication 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 246 .

± More sophisticated debugging inside PL/SQL programs (work around fundamental limitations of DBMS_OUTPUT).page 247 . Oracle uses database pipes to parallelize database operations. You can parallelize your own code.  Uses for DBMS_PIPE include: ± Parallelization of program execution.DBMS_PIPE Overview  Allows communication between different Oracle sessions through a pipe in the RDBMS Shared Global Area. ± Operates outside of database transaction limitations. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Interface PL/SQL-database activities with operating system functions and programs written in other languages. ± Perform and commit DML in a separate transaction space from your main transaction.

page 248 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Names can be up to 128 chars long (do not use names beginning with ³ORA$´. ± The pipe sends/receives a message. using a maximum of 4096 bytes. They are reserved for Oracle use). which can be composed of one or more separate packets.Architecture of DBMS_PIPE Shared Global Area ³Sue´ ³Bob´ Message Buffer Message Buffer Session A  Session B A pipe is a named object that uses the System Global Area to provide a non-transaction based conduit of information.

± You can wait for up to 1000 days for a message.  Send the message to a named pipe. date. ± There is just one message buffer per session. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein pipex1. ± This is the default. you can wait for up to 1000 days (or 86400000 seconds) for the pipe to be cleared.Processing Flow of DBMS_PIPE  Construct a message from packets of information.  Receive a message from that pipe. ± Separate out the individual packets in the message (again: string.sql PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . so you should always specify a timeout period. date or number). ± If there isn¶t currently room in the pipe.  Unpack the message packets and take action. number. ± Each packet can be a string.page 249 . ROWID or RAW.sql pipex2.

PURGE Empties the contents of a pipe into your local buffer freeing it for removal.page 250 . SEND_MESSAGE Sends contents of message buffer to the specified pipe. NEXT_ITEM_TYPE Returns the datatype of the next item in the piped message. RECEIVE_MESSAGE Receives a message from pipe and copies to local buffer. UNPACK_MESSAGE Unpacks the next item from the local message buffer and deposits it into the specified local variable. REMOVE_PIPE RESET_BUFFER Removes a pipe explicitly created via CREATE_PIPE. UNIQUE_SESSION_NAME Returns name that is unique among all sessions in the database. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Clears your buffer so that PACK_MESSAGE and UNPACK_MESSAGE can work from the first item. PACK_MESSAGE Packs an item into the message buffer for your session.DBMS_PIPE Module Outline Module Name CREATE_PIPE Description Creates a PUBLIC or PRIVATE pipe. making it a candidate for removal with a LRU algorithm.

± Send messages to non-existent pipe implicitly create it. private => TRUE).  A public pipe is accessible as long as you know its name.  An explicit pipe can be private (accessible only to sessions with matching userID or SYSDBA privileges). ± Implicitly-created pipes are always public. BEGIN stat := DBMS_PIPE. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . maxpipesize => 20000. ± Specify TRUE for private argument of CREATE_PIPE. ± Use CREATE_PIPE to create a pipe explicitly. PROCEDURE newpipe IS stat INTEGER.Creating Public and Private Pipes  There are two ways to create pipes: implicitly and explicitly.page 251 .CREATE_PIPE ( pipename => 'bbs'.

but not smaller). 10 * 4096). IF pipe_stat != 0 THEN RAISE could_not_send.page 252 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Fill your message buffer with packets of data. seconds you will wait. END LOOP. Send to "monthly" pipe. FOR month_num IN 1 . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . maxpipesize IN INTEGER DEFAULT 8192) RETURN INTEGER.. timeout IN INTEGER DEFAULT maxwait.Sending a Message Provide pipe name. expanding pipe size to 40 Kbytes.PACK_MESSAGE ( total_sales (month_num)). and new max pipe size (you can make it bigger. pipe_stat := DBMS_PIPE. 60. FUNCTION send_message (pipename IN VARCHAR2. Status of 0 means message was sent. 12 LOOP DBMS_PIPE. waiting up to 1 minute.SEND_MESSAGE ( µmonthly¶.

 Then you call UNPACK_MESSAGE to extract individual packets from the message. ± You need to know the datatype of packet or check it using NEXT_ITEM_TYPE. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Receiving and Unpack a Message FUNCTION receive_message (pipename IN VARCHAR2. ± Pipe status of 0 means the message was read successfully.  First you pull the message from the pipe and place it in buffer with RECEIVE_MESSAGE. PROCEDURE unpack_message (item OUT VARCHAR2). PROCEDURE unpack_message (item OUT NUMBER). timeout IN INTEGER DEFAULT maxwait) RETURN INTEGER. PROCEDURE unpack_message (item OUT DATE). ± Specify pipe and number of seconds you will wait before you time out.page 253 .

prod_total).'). 'Production data unavailable. END. END IF. seconds for the BEGIN next report. data not received. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .RECEIVE_MESSAGE ( 'production'.page 254 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . ELSE RAISE_APPLICATION_ERROR ( Stop process if -20000.A Pipe-based Listener Program  Program wakes up every N seconds to read the data from the pipe and analyze results from assembly line (an intentional "infinite loop"!).UNPACK_MESSAGE (prod_total). analyze_production (SYSDATE. DBMS_PIPE. pass it on to the IF pipe_status = 0 computation THEN program. Wait up to N prod_total NUMBER. PROCEDURE analyze_assembly_data (every_n_secs IN INTEGER) IS pipe_status INTEGER. If I got something. END LOOP. LOOP pipe_status := DBMS_PIPE. every_n_secs).

Unpacking the Message FUNCTION next_item_type RETURN INTEGER. ± Or you use the built-in NEXT_ITEM_TYPE to tell you in advance the datatype of the next packet in the message and take appropriate action.tst  Since a message can be composed of packets of different datatypes. Either: ± You know the datatype and therefore can ³hard-code´ the correct variable into the call to UNPACK_MESSAGE.sql dbpipe. you have to make sure that you unpack a packet into the right kind of variable. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Returns one of the following values: Value 0 6 9 11 12 23 Description or Data type No more items in buffer NUMBER VARCHAR2 ROWID DATE RAW dbpipe.page 255 .

total office expenses and total compensation. but are not dependent on each other.  Without pipes. ± These programs each take 15 minutes. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± You have processes which can run in parallel.page 256 .Parallelizing Your Code with Pipes  Oracle uses DBMS_PIPE to improve RDBMS performance.  Suppose I want to calculate my net profit. I must execute them sequentially and incur an elapsed time of 45 minutes before I calculate the profits. you can do the same for your application if: ± You have multiple CPUs available. In order to do so I must first compute total sales. ± The CEO is decidedly unhappy about the delay.

Parallel Execution Sequential Execution: Maximum Elapsed Time S t a r t E n d Process A Process B Process C Parallel Execution: Minimum Elapsed Time Start Process A Process B Process C End 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 257 .Sequential vs.

kick_off_totcomp_calc. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Then net profits can be computed -. ± Other programs running in the background grab the messages and start their corresponding calculation program. END. it puts a message (perhaps even a value) into the pipe. wait_for_confirmation. calculate_net_profits.page 258 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .  The ³kick off´ programs pass their messages to separate pipes.Parallelizing PL/SQL Execution BEGIN kick_off_sales_calc.in a muchdecreased elapsed time. ± When each program is complete. kick_off_exp_calc.  The ³wait´ program waits till it receives a message from each program.

PACK_MESSAGE (sales$). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END. ELSE DBMS_PIPE.PACK_MESSAGE (NULL). calculate sales.Code to Kick Off and Calculate PROCEDURE kick_off_sales_calc IS stat INTEGER.SEND_MESSAGE (µsales¶).PACK_MESSAGE (1995). and send back the results.SEND_MESSAGE (µsales¶). END IF.RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µsales¶). stat := DBMS_PIPE. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Send message to start calculations. END. IF stat = 0 THEN lots_of_number_crunching. DBMS_PIPE. BEGIN DBMS_PIPE.page 259 . stat := DBMS_PIPE. BEGIN stat := DBMS_PIPE. Receive the year.SEND_MESSAGE (µsales¶). PROCEDURE calculate_sales IS stat INTEGER. stat := DBMS_PIPE.

comp$.RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µsales¶).UNPACK_MESSAGE (sales$).UNPACK_MESSAGE (comp$). END.RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µcomp¶).RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µoffexp¶).page 260 . Perform final calculation. stat := DBMS_PIPE.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .offexp$ .UNPACK_MESSAGE (offexp$). BEGIN stat := DBMS_PIPE. PROCEDURE calculate_net_profits IS BEGIN net_profits := sales$ . DBMS_PIPE. DBMS_PIPE. The order in which you wait is insignificant. END. Wait for all calculations to finish. stat := DBMS_PIPE. DBMS_PIPE.Waiting for Confirmation PROCEDURE wait_for_confirmation IS stat INTEGER. parallel.

pkg p_and_l. ± A request for data is passed to a "central" pipe. ± Demonstrates the use of toggles and switches in packages.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .pkg syscache.page 261 . and sends it to the pipe. syscache. in-memory cache. watch. obtains the data.pkg  Implementation of a system-wide. ± The requester reads the information from the pipe. ± A listener program grabs the request (including the return pipe name).Other DBMS_PIPE Examples  Simple trace package that sends it output either to screen or to pipe.

.. A µgrab-bag¶ of miscellaneous operations SCHEMA 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 262 .Built-in Packages: DBMS_UTILITY DBMS_UTILITY Application GET_TIME GET_HASH_VALUE FORMAT_CALL_STACK .

DBMS_UTILITY Module Outline ANALYZE_DATABASE ANALYZE_PART_OBJECT Analyze objects in database Runs ANALYZE TABLE or ANALYZE INDEX for each partition of the object (Oracle8). Gets block number part of data block address. Parses comma-delimited list to index-by table. Returns hash value for string. Returns error stack. Returns database version (Oracle8) Executes DDL statement (Oracle8). Gets file number part of data block address. Recompile INVALID objects in specified schema. Returns execution call stack.page 263 dbver. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .pkg COMMA_TO_TABLE COMPILE_SCHEMA DATA_BLOCK_ADDRESS_BLOCK DATA_BLOCK_ADDRESS_FILE DB_VERSION EXEC_DDL_STATEMENT FORMAT_CALL_STACK FORMAT_ERROR_STACK GET_HASH_VALUE 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .pkg dbparm.

Converts list (in index-by-table) of elements into a comma-delimited list (string). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Returns TRUE if in parallel server mode. Parses string object designator into components. GET_PARAMETER_VALUE GET_TIME IS_PARALLEL_SERVER MAKE_DATA_BLOCK_ADDRESS NAME_RESOLVE NAME_TOKENIZE PORT_STRING TABLE_TO_COMMA Retrieves value of database parameter (Oracle8).page 264 . Returns platform and version of database. Creates data block address from block & file numbers. Returns "current time" down to hundredth of second.DBMS_UTILITY Module Outline. Resolves name of object into component parts. cont.

page 265 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .GET_TIME. especially those that run in sub-second time. calc_totals.v_start). so GET_TIME offers significant additional granularity. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . DECLARE v_start BINARY_INTEGER. END.  Compare results from consecutive calls to GET_TIME to determine the elapsed time of PL/SQL code execution. ± SYSDATE only reflects times down to the nearest second. ± Useful when analyzing individual PL/SQL programs.Sub-Second Timings with GET_TIME  GET_TIME returns the number of 100ths of seconds that have elapsed since an arbitrary point in time.PUT_LINE (DBMS_UTILITY. Basic steps necessary to convert GET_TIME into a performance analysis tool. BEGIN v_start := DBMS_UTILITY. DBMS_OUTPUT.GET_TIME .

reset_in IN BOOLEAN := TRUE). adjust_in IN NUMBER := 0. PLVtmr.sql plvtmr. END. END PLVtmr.spb 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . PROCEDURE set_factor (factor_in IN NUMBER). BEGIN PLVtmr. calc_totals.sps plvtmr. Clean and lean timing code ovrhead.Building a Layer Over GET_TIME Partial package specification PACKAGE PLVtmr IS PROCEDURE turn_on.capture. PROCEDURE capture ( context_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) PROCEDURE show_elapsed (prefix_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL.show_elapsed. PROCEDURE turn_off.page 266 .

PUT_LINE ( DBMS_UTILITY.VALIDATE_REQUEST function STEVEN.page 267 . END. only the package name.CALC_NET_WORTH anonymous block  "Little known facts" about FORMAT_CALL_STACK: ± Contains embedded new-line characters. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN DBMS_OUTPUT. ----. ± Does not show package elements. ± Most recent program at beginning of "report".FORMAT_CALL_STACK). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .COMPANY_TYPE procedure STEVEN.Accessing the Execution Call Stack Use in the exception section to show context of error. equivalent to CHR(10).PL/SQL Call Stack ----object line object handle number name 88ce3f74 88e49fc4 88e49390 88e2bd20 8 2 1 1 package STEVEN.

END. dispcs. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE dispcs IS stk VARCHAR2(10000). BEGIN stk := DBMS_UTILITY. startpos.pkg plvcs. which means you cannot pass it to DBMS_OUTPUT directly. LOOP next_newline := INSTR (stk.startpos + 1). next_line VARCHAR2(255).FORMAT_CALL_STACK || CHR(10).tst callstack. startpos := next_newline + 1. EXIT WHEN next_newline = 0. 1). startpos INTEGER := 1. next_newline INTEGER.sps DBMS_OUTPUT. use a loop to read through the stack.sp dispcs. CHR(10).PUT_LINE (next_line). next_line := SUBSTR ( stk. next_newline . Instead.page 268 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . startpos.Accessing Call Stack Contents  The call stack length can easily exceed 255 bytes. END LOOP. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

. context IN NUMBER.. part1 OUT VARCHAR2.NAME_RESOLVE (name IN VARCHAR2. part2 OUT VARCHAR2. ± Use NAME_RESOLVE to break down an identifier string into its components easily.sp snc.but don't see it as a problem.Resolving Names of Stored Code  Code names have many components. see it as an opportunity... the way they are attached also follows a complicated syntax.  Possible "Part 1" Types 5 7 8 9 Synonym Procedure Function Package What a chore! All those arguments. object_number OUT NUMBER). schema OUT VARCHAR2. PROCEDURE DBMS_UTILITY. dblink OUT VARCHAR2. part1_type OUT NUMBER.for encapsulation! showcomp.page 269 .pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .