Achieving PL/SQL Excellence

Oracle PL/SQL Advanced Techniques
Oracle7 thru Oracle8i
Steven Feuerstein
www.StevenFeuerstein.com www.Quest.com www.OReilly.com
and contributions most excellent from Bill Pribyl and Dick Bolz

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 1

Objective & Outline 

Objective
± Expand your knowledge and awareness of important and new features of the PL/SQL language. 

Outline
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± Building with Packages (Oracle7+) PL/SQL Collections (Oracle7 and Oracle8+) Cursor Variables (Oracle7 and Oracle8+) Dynamic SQL: DBMS_SQL and Native Dynamic SQL (8i) Calling Java from PL/SQL (Oracle8i) and C (Oracle8) Oracle Advanced Queuing with DBMS_AQ (Oracle8) Managing Large Objects with DBMS_LOB (Oracle8) Other Oracle8i New Features
» Autonomous Transactions (Oracle8i) » Invoker Rights Model (Oracle8i) » Row Level Security: DBMS_RLS

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

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Software Used in Training 

PL/Vision: a library of packages installed on top of PL/SQL.
± PL/Vision Lite - use it, copy, change it for free -- unless you build software to be sold commercially. ± Active PL/SQL Knowledge Base: contains PL/Vision Professional, the fully supported and enhanced version. 

Demonstration scripts executed in the training can be found on the RevealNet PL/SQL Pipeline:
± http://www.revealnet.com/Pipelines/PLSQL/index.htm ± Archives surfboard, Miscellaneous, PL/SQL Seminar Files ± See filedesc.doc for a listing of many of the files.
plsql_ides.txt 

The PL/SQL IDE (Integrated Development Environment).
± You no longer have to use SQL*Plus and a crude editor! Choose from among the many listed in plsql_ides.txt.

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Achieving PL/SQL Excellence

Building with PL/SQL Packages 
 

Overview Initialization section Overloading

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

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What is a Package? 

A collection of code elements, from procedures and functions to TYPE, variable and cursor declarations.
± Single-most important structure within PL/SQL, and almost certainly one of the most under-utilized. ± Conceptually very simple, it can take some time to fully grasp the implications and potential of the package. 

The method of choice by Oracle and other software developers for extending the PL/SQL language.
± You will find packages in the database, in Oracle Developer/2000, in Oracle Application Server. 

Let¶s review some of the benefits of packages.
tmr.pkg dbparm.pkg

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± Instead of writing SQL directly in your programs. custrules.pks te_employee.When to Build a Package  Join physically logically-related code.pkg insga. package-based "component".pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . te_employee.page 6 .pkb  Construct very flexible and usable utilities for developers. you call the packaged procedures and functions instead. ± Puts more structure and organization in your body of code. watch. ± Can lead to performance improvements.pkg  Improve transaction integrity by hiding data structures behind the package interface. ± There's a big difference between a bunch of separate programs and a coherent.

page 7 .Package Initialization  The initialization section is a block of code at the end of the package body that is executed once per session. Program references package element the first time in each session. ± The PL/SQL runtime engine determines when and if this code should be run. Does the package have an init section? yes Run initialization code. no Complete request for packaged element. the first time any package element is referenced. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein BEGIN after/outside of any program defined in the pkg. most packages you build won't have one.  Useful for: ± Performing complex setting of default or initial values. In fact. ± Confirming that package is properly instantiated. ± Is not required.page 8 . BEGIN END pkg. PACKAGE BODY pkg IS PROCEDURE proc IS BEGIN END. FUNCTION func RETURN BEGIN END. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Can have its own exception handling section.Package Initialization Structure  The initialization section: ± Is defined after and outside of any programs in the package. ± Setting up package data which does not change for the duration of a session.

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . EXCEPTION WHEN NO_DATA_FOUND THEN /* No record for show_lov := show_toolbar := printer := PACKAGE sessinit IS show_lov CHAR(1). END sessinit. defprinter INTO show_lov. ± Body contains only initialization section. 'Y'. tb_flag. 'lpt1'. Section  An unusual package! ± Specification contains only variables.. PACKAGE BODY sessinit IS /* No declared package elements at all! */ BEGIN /* Get user preferences for this user. */ 'Y'.Configure Session with Init..pkg init. show_toolbar CHAR(1). WHEN OTHERS THEN RAISE_APPLICATION_ERROR (-20000. 'No profile for ' || USER). show_toolbar. printer VARCHAR2(60).page 9 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .tst this user. */ SELECT lov_flag. init. END sessinit.  Also a package with many design flaws. printer FROM user_config WHERE user_id = USER.

pkg dates.Populate Collections  The PL/Vision Date package. fmts(10) := 'MMDDYYYY'.. datemgr. ± This increases the flexibility of the date conversion process. BEGIN fmts(1) := 'DD-MON-RR'. employs several PL/SQL tables to convert strings and to perform date arithmetic. ± The datemgr. END dt.page 10 ..pkg file demonstrates the basic technique (and the reliance on an initialization section) used to achieve this flexibility. fmts(11) := 'YYYYMMDD'. fmts(3) := 'DD-MON'. fmts(9) := 'MM/DD/YYYY'. fmts(2) := 'DD-MON-YYYY'. fmt_count := 12. fmts(4) := 'MM/DD'. . Initialization section populates a PL/SQL table.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . fmts(12) := 'RRMMDD'. PLVdate.

± Overloading transfers the "need to know" from the user to the overloaded program. myproc myproc 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 11 .Program Overloading  When you overload programs. ± If you want others to use your code. ± You can overload modules in any declaration section and in packages. you need to make that code as smart and as easy to use as possible. you give two or more programs the same name. myproc  Overloading is a critical feature when building comprehensive programmatic interfaces (APIs) or components using packages.

number_string := TO_CHAR (10000). number_string := TO_CHAR_FROM_NUMBER (10000). ± But Oracle couldn't offer that level of convenience without overloading. you would have to deal with something like this: date_string := TO_CHAR_FROM_DATE (SYSDATE.page 12 . Without overloading. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Overloading in PL/SQL Built-ins  PL/SQL uses overloading in many common functions. 'MMDDYY'). and took functions like TO_CHAR and TO_DATE totally for granted. date_string := TO_CHAR (SYSDATE. ± You just probably never gave it a thought. 'MMDDYY').

the compiler must be able to distinguish between the two calls at compile-time. There are two different "compile times": ± 1. IN OUT). OUT. ± Their formal parameters differ only in datatype and the datatypes are in the same family.  Distinguishing characteristics: ± The formal parameters of overloaded modules must differ in number. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . When you compile the package or block containing the overloaded code. VARCHAR2 is not different enough). When you compile programs that use the overloaded code.How Overloading Works  For two or more modules to be overloaded. order or datatype family (CHAR vs. ± Arguments differ only in their mode (IN.page 13 .  Undistinguishing characteristics: ± Functions differ only in their RETURN datatype. ± 2. ± The programs are of different types: procedure and function.

proc1 (v_value). PROCEDURE proc1 (val IN OUT VARCHAR2). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Parameter data types cause conflict. which one? DBMS_OUTPUT.calc ('123'). END param_modes.PUT_LINE (only_returns.func1 (v_value)). END only_returns.page 14 . FUNCTION func1 (val IN VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2. END too_many_cals. PACKAGE param_modes IS PROCEDURE proc1 (val IN VARCHAR2). which one? too_similar. PACKAGE only_returns IS FUNCTION func1 (val IN VARCHAR2) RETURN DATE. Only difference is function RETURN type. which one? param_modes. Only difference is parameter mode. PROCEDURE calc (reg_in IN VARCHAR2).Examples of Invalid Overloadings PACKAGE too_similar IS PROCEDURE calc (reg_in IN CHAR).

PUT_LINE procedure illustrates this technique -and the PL/Vision p.  Overloading by Type.Overload Wherever Possible  Supporting Many Data Combinations ± Apply the same action to different kinds or combinations of data. the overloading does not provide a single name for different activities. In this case.page 15 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .l substitute does an even better job. ± The DBMS_OUTPUT. so much as providing different ways of requesting the same activity. You use the type of data and not its value to determine which of the overloaded programs should be executed. not Value ± A less common application of overloading.  Fitting the Program to the User ± To make your code as useful as possible. you may construct different versions of the ³same´ program which correspond to different patterns of use.

spb PROCEDURE l (boolean_in IN BOOLEAN). PACKAGE p IS PROCEDURE l (date_in IN DATE. YYYY . PROCEDURE l (number_in IN NUMBER). PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2).sps p. mask_in IN VARCHAR2 := µMonth DD. mask_in IN VARCHAR2 := 'Month DD. allowing the user to pass data to the "display engine" without writing "pre-processing" code. boolean_in IN BOOLEAN). YYYY .page 16 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2. PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2. number_in IN NUMBER). p. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END p. date_in IN DATE.HH:MI:SS PM').A "Classic" Overloaded Package  Many different datatype combinations. PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2.HH:MI:SS PM').

. SQLCODE). IF print_report_fl THEN DBMS_OUTPUT.l (SQLERRM. ELSE DBMS_OUTPUT.l ('So what is different?'). DBMS_OUTPUT. p. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein ‡Extended overloadings are more likely to meet user needs.PUT_LINE (SQLERRM || ': ' || TO_CHAR (SQLCODE)).PUT_LINE ('TRUE').page 17 .l (print_report_fl). p.PUT_LINE ('So what is different?'). p. END IF. 'MM/DD/YY HH:MI:SS')). DBMS_OUTPUT. p..PUT_LINE ('FALSE').l (SYSDATE).Advantage of Extended Overloading ‡ Minimal overloading means lots of extra coding. DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE (TO_CHAR (SYSDATE.

In my experience. such as "display data" or "create a file". think about the way it will be used. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .. appreciated.Fitting the Program to the User Writing "unnecessary" code? Time to overload!  A single piece of functionality. few developers are considerate enough of their users to try to anticipate their needs. ± Your code is a a more natural "fit" under a variety of requirements.and taken completely for granted.page 18   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .. ± If you want to write software that is admired. If you take these different circumstances into account when you design your package specification. can be applied or needed under very different circumstances. the user of your package can benefit from writing less code.

BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE.Creating a File for a Quick Touch  Suppose a developer needs to create a file to be used as a "flag" in the operating system. UTL_FILE. sometimes you will want to create a file and then perform additional operations. It just needs to be present. ± Here is the code required by UTL_FILE: DECLARE fid UTL_FILE. Of course.flg'.PUT_LINE (fid.FOPEN ('tmp/flags'.page 19  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . 'W').  In other words. 'exists. 'blah'). you have to declare the record to hold the file handle. END.FCLOSE (fid). so this is just the way it has to be. right? WRONG! PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .FILE_TYPE. even though you are simply going to close the file immediately after opening it. UTL_FILE. ± She doesn't care what's in it.

fcreate ('exists. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Use as Function DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.ini'. v_user). Use as Procedure BEGIN PLVfile.  Overloading of FCreate PACKAGE PLVfile IS /* Procedure */ PROCEDURE fcreate (file_in IN VARCHAR2.pkg PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . line_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL). END PLVfile.fcreate ('temp. BEGIN fid := PLVfile.put_line (fid. /* Function */ FUNCTION fcreate (file_in IN VARCHAR2.flg'). line_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) RETURN UTL_FILE. TO_CHAR (SYSDATE)).FILE_TYPE.page 20 .Procedure and Function Overloaded  Why not overload a "create file" program so that you can pick the one that most closely fits your situation? Consider the PLVfile package of PL/Vision. END.FILE_TYPE. custrules. PLVfile.

page 21 . the user does not need to pass data. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Pass a piece of data of the right type. Define a different program name for each datatype. but the type of data. ± Pass a string ³name´ of the datatype.  There are three ways to accomplish this: ± Don't overload. when you use DBMS_SQL to set up a dynamic query. ± For example."By-Type" Overloading  In some situations. you must call the DEFINE_COLUMN procedure to define the datatype of the Nth column in the cursor.

. 'STRING'.Options for Specifying Column Type  Don't even bother overloading.DEFINE_VARCHAR2_COLUMN (cur. 2.. DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. 2. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL..  So many program names to remember! Pass a literal value.DEFINE_COLUMN ± PLVgen. 30). ± DBMS_SQL... DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. 30).page 22 . lotsa names. Pass a named constant. 1). 2.. 'NUMBER'). 30). 1..DEFINE_INTEGER_COLUMN (cur..  Nasty hard-coding.NUMBER_TYPE).DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.func 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .DEFINE_COLUMN (cur...VARCHAR2_TYPE. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. 1... BEGIN DBMS_SQL. Lotsa typing.  Now let's look at two examples of overloading by datatype.

30).of the correct type. 2. ± To make it easier to accomplish this task. v_ename. from the perspective of DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.DEFINE_COLUMN. you only need to pass a value -.Defining Dynamic SQL Columns  The DBMS_SQL. 30).DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. 1.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. DBMS_SQL. USER. v_empno). BEGIN DBMS_SQL. DBMS_UTILITY.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.DEFINE_COLUMN procedure defines the datatype of a column. 2. 'a'. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL.GET_TIME). 1).any value -. ± The three code blocks below are equivalent. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 1. 1. DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. 30). 2. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.page 23 .

func ('total_salary'. any string. please! 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Any number. PACKAGE PLVgen IS PROCEDURE func (name_in IN VARCHAR2. ± The particular value itself is of no importance. any date.page 24 . type_in IN VARCHAR2). any Boolean will do. PROCEDURE func (name_in IN VARCHAR2.func ('last_date'. type_in IN NUMBER). the user indicates the type of function to be generated by providing a value. SQL> exec plvgen. 1) A date function. please! A number function. PROCEDURE func (name_in IN VARCHAR2. type_in IN DATE). SYSDATE) SQL> exec plvgen.Generating Functions by Value  In PLVgen.

 In the above example. PL/SQL does not sense a conflict with above overloading even though comp_id is a numeric column. PROCEDURE calc (comp_id_IN IN company. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . PACKAGE profits IS PROCEDURE calc (comp_id_IN IN NUMBER). END.page 25 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . I rely on an anchored type (%TYPE) to establish the datatype of the second calc¶s parameter. ± When I compile profits.The Frustrations of Overloading  Watch out! An overloading can compile successfully.comp_id%TYPE). but you might later found out that you cannot actually call any of the overloaded programs.

sales. why not? ± If so. sales.calc_total ('NORTHWEST').calc_total ('ZONE2'). END sales. how would you do it? (Don't peek at the next page!) BEGIN sales.  Can I overload two programs which have parameters that differ only by name.Quiz! Nuances of Overloading PACKAGE sales IS PROCEDURE calc_total (zone_in IN VARCHAR2).pkg ? 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . PROCEDURE calc_total (reg_in IN VARCHAR2). END. like calc_totals shown above? ± If not.page 26 .

± You can skip over (not specify values for) any IN parameters that have default values.null. DBMS_JOB.ANALYZE_OBJECT ' || '(''TABLE''.estimate_percent=>50).''ESTIMATE''.submit ( job => v_jobno.''TENK''' || '. interval => 'TRUNC(SYSDATE+1)').sql  Advantages 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 27 . next_date => TRUNC (SYSDATE + 1). of named notation include: ± Code is more "self-documenting". what => 'DBMS_DDL. namednot. This is especially useful when working with infrequently used built-in programs.''LOAD1''. That way you don't have to know and pass default values.'.Using Named Notation <formal parameter name> => <expression>  Explicit association between the formal parameter (the "name") with the actual parameter (the "value").

page 28 .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence PL/SQL Collections   Collections are single-dimensioned lists of information. Oracle8 and above) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Three types of collections: ± Index-by tables (Oracle7 only. originally called PL/SQL tables) ± Nested tables (Oracle8 and above) ± Variable arrays (VARRAYs.

Improve query performance by avoiding joins. which are otherwise not supported in PL/SQL Cache data in session-level memory for faster access. Avoid mutating table errors in database triggers.page 29     1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .When to Use Collections  Maintain any kind of list of related information for use in your programs. Build hash tables (custom indexing structures). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Emulate bi-directional cursors.

page 30 .  Characteristics of an index-by table: ± Unbounded » Practically speaking.147.483.647 to 2. ± Sparse » Data does not have to be stored in consecutive rows of information.Index-By Tables TYPE <table_type> IS TABLE OF <datatype> INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. DECLARE TYPE inmem_emp_t IS TABLE OF emp%ROWTYPE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. Instead. Valid row numbers range: -2.147. ± Homogeneous » Data in each row has the same structure. this broad range allows you to employ the row number as an intelligent key.647 » You will not actually create tables this large. ± Available only in PL/SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . emp_copy inmem_emp_t.483.

Component Selection kid := children (4). children 6306 6412 6810 6904 µBarbara Anne¶ µGary Richard¶ µAdam Russell¶ µLisa Nadezhka¶ datemgr.page 31 . Variable declaration children child_list_type. Error: NO_DATA_FOUND 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Index_by Tables TYPE declaration PACKAGE BODY family IS TYPE child_list_type IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2 (30) INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER.pkg children 6306 6412 6904 µBarbara Anne¶ µGary Richard¶ µLisa Marie¶ children (6810) := µAdam Russell. children (6904) := 'Lisa Nadezhka'.

Valid row numbers range: 1 to 2.647 ± Initially dense.147. but only with explicit EXTEND requests » Practically speaking.Nested Tables [CREATE OR REPLACE] TYPE <table_type> IS TABLE OF <datatype> [NOT NULL]. ± Unbounded.page 32 .  Nested table characteristics ± Homogeneous » Each row contains the same structure of data. but can become sparse if you DELETE inner rows ± Available both in PL/SQL and SQL (as a column in a table) ± The order of elements is not preserved in the database 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . birthdays when_t. DECLARE TYPE when_t IS TABLE OF DATE.483.

kids child_table_type) NESTED TABLE kids STORE AS kids_ntab.page 33 . For ORACLE's use only db_family surname kids BOLZ BOND Eric Thomas Max Richard Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Marie ntdemo.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . CREATE TABLE db_family (surname VARCHAR2 (30).Nested Tables CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE child_table_type IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2 (30).

DECLARE TYPE numbers_t IS VARRAY (10) OF NUMBER. Maximum value: 2.647 ± Dense » Never any gaps between defined rows.page 34 .147.  Characteristics of variable arrays: ± Homogeneous » Each row contains the same structure of data. ± Variable arrays are actually stored in the DB table 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . salaries numbers_t. ± Available both in PL/SQL and SQL (as a column in a table) » And the order of elements are preserved in the database.483. ± Bounded » Upper limit established when the TYPE is defined. can be EXTENDed or TRIMmed.Variable Arrays [CREATE OR REPLACE] TYPE <table_type> IS VARRAY (N) OF <datatype> [NOT NULL].

db_family surname kids BOLZ BOND 1 Barbara Anne 2 Gary Richard 3 Lisa Marie 1 Eric Thomas 2 Max Richard vademo. kids child_va_type).Variable Arrays CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE child_va_type IS VARRAY (8) OF VARCHAR2 (30).sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 35 . CREATE TABLE db_family (surname VARCHAR2 (30).

.  Then you declare an instance of that type. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . a collection. from the TYPE. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE tabtypes IS TYPE integer_ibt IS TABLE OF INTEGER INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. ± You can declare multiple collections from that TYPE. you can define the TYPE in the database with a CREATE statement.page 36 . ± For index-by tables.. END tabtypes. TYPE integer_nt IS TABLE OF INTEGER. ± For nested tables and VARRAYs. you define the TYPE of the collection. Best option: package specification. this can only occur in a PL/SQL declaration section. or in a PL/SQL declaration section. TYPE integer_vat IS VARRAY(10) OF INTEGER..Defining Collections  First.

± The code used to define the collection TYPE  There is no information in the data dictionary available for index-by tables.attr_name || ' . all_type_attrs A T.owner T.elem_type_name = A.attr_type_name Attributes all_coll_types T. colldd.owner = A.owner = USER T.' || A.  ALL_COLL_TYPES ± The types you have created (or have access to) in the database  ALL_TYPE_ATTRS ± Attributes of the data type used in the TYPE definition.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 'TMRS_VT') T.type_name IN ('NAMES_VT'.type_name.Obtaining Collection Information SELECT FROM WHERE AND AND AND A.page 37 .

Initialize the collection. salaries numbers_t := numbers_t (100. BEGIN CREATE TABLE employee_denorm ( employee_id INTEGER.page 38 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . salaries numbers_t := numbers_t (100. ± Index-by tables are initialized automatically. salary_history numbers_t). 200.Initializing Collections  Before you can use a collection. it must be initialized. empty when declared. BEGIN CREATE TYPE numbers_t IS VARRAY (10) OF NUMBER. DECLARE TYPE numbers_t IS VARRAY (10) OF NUMBER. You must initialize them explicitly with a constructor. / DECLARE -. ± Nested tables and VARRAYs are atomically null. 300). 300). TYPE defined in PL/SQL TYPE defined in the database Collection used in a table PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 200.

Again. BEGIN comp_tab(1). total_rev NUMBER).page 39 . TYPE comp_tabtype IS TABLE OF comp_rectype INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. consider putting TYPEs in database or packages.company_id%TYPE.  Starting with Oracle8. ± But you cannot have nested composite datatypes. comp_tab comp_tabtype.Collections of Composites  Starting with Oracle 7. Here we have a three step process.comp_id := 1005. DECLARE TYPE comp_rectype IS RECORD (comp_id company. ± Can easily create an index-by table with the same structure as a database table by declaring a record with %ROWTYPE. the datatype for any of the collection types can also be an object. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .3. the ³homogeneous´ contents of an index-by table's row can be a record .

it is very similar to a database table. your collections will contain a row's worth of information. etc. ± In an index-by table.). ± In almost every case. In this way.  Rows do not have to be defined sequentially. consider using the row value as "smart data" for your application (primary key. order by date. a row exists in the table only when a value is assigned to that row. ± You should not fill sequentially.Sparse is Nice  The sparse characteristic of index-by tables and nested tables can be put to good use. unless the order in which items are selected is of importance. ± Instead. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Especially handy when caching data from relational tables in user memory.page 40 .

emp_tab emp_tabtype.pkg psemp. END LOOP. END. Some questions: ± Why would I put this collection table in a package? ± When is the collection loaded with the data? ± What rows in that collection are utilized? psemp.Transferring DB Table to Collection CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE psemp IS TYPE emp_tabtype IS TABLE OF emp%ROWTYPE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER.page 41 .empno) := rec. Initialization section of package 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein  This package moves the entire contents of the emp table into its corresponding collection.tst  PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY psemp IS BEGIN FOR rec IN (SELECT * FROM emp) LOOP emp_tab (rec.

END. / DECLARE greedy_ceos names_t := names_t ().page 42 . BEGIN greedy_ceos(1) := 'Hamilton. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . once extended. but you must do it for VARRAYs and nested tables.  For index-by tables. even if you haven't assigned a value explicitly. / Error -6533! You've got to EXTEND first!  EXTEND before assigning a value to a row. Jordan'. ± For VARRAYs and nested tables. ± Not necessary for index-by tables. ± Use the EXISTS method to determine if a row existed. the row exists. you must reference existing rows or a NO_DATA_FOUND exception is raised.Collection Gotchas CREATE TYPE names_t IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2(30).

FIRST)). preextend. optional argument.We are OK. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Assign a default value with a second. END IF. salaries(salaries. BEGIN IF salaries.page 43 .EXTEND (10.Handling Collection Gotchas BEGIN -. ± Pre-extending a large number of rows in advance can improve performance. -.  You can EXTEND one or more rows.EXISTS (v_employee_id) THEN -.Set the value of each new row to the contents of the first row.Extend by 10 since I know I will need that many.PUT_LINE ('Data for employee not available. salaries.'). ELSE DBMS_OUTPUT.tst  Include a handler for NO_DATA_FOUND or use the EXISTS method to avoid these exceptions.

FIRST/LAST return lowest/highest numbers of defined rows. ± LIMIT tells you the max.  The built-in package plitblm (PL/sql Index-TaBLe Methods) defines these methods. number of elements allowed in a VARRAY. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Collection Methods  Obtain information about the collection COUNT returns number of rows currently defined in the table. ± EXTEND adds rows to a nested table or VARRAY. ± ± ± ±  Modify the contents of the collection ± DELETE deletes one or more rows from the index-by table. ± TRIM removes rows from a VARRAY.page 44 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . NEXT/PRIOR return the closest defined row after/before the specified row. EXISTS returns TRUE if the specified row is defined.

DELETE (myCollection. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .LAST).page 45 . -.The DELETE Method  You can delete one or more rows from a collection using DELETE: BEGIN -.Delete one (the last) row myCollection. END. but you may also want to call DBMS_SESSION.DELETE (1400.DELETE. 17255).Delete a range of rows myCollection. DELETE releases memory.FREE_UNUSED_USER_MEMORY.Delete all rows myCollection. -.

Navigating Through Collections 


Use FIRST and NEXT to move from beginning to end. Use LAST and PRIOR to move from end to beginning.
rowind PLS_INTEGER := birthdays.FIRST; -- birthdays.LAST BEGIN LOOP EXIT WHEN rowind IS NULL; DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE (birthdays(rowind).best_present); rowind := birthdays.NEXT (rowind); -- birthdays.PRIOR END LOOP; END;

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Using Collections Inside SQL 

Nested tables and VARRAYs can be defined as columns of a table and referenced directly within SQL. You can also apply SQL operations to the contents of nested tables and VARRAYs with these operators:
± THE - Maps a single column value in a single row to a virtual database table ± CAST - Maps a collection of one type to a collection of another type ± MULTISET - Maps a database table to a collection ± TABLE - Maps a collection to a database table  

Index-by tables are programmatic constructs only.
± You cannot make a direct reference to an index-by table in SQL. ± Instead, so do indirectly with a PL/SQL function.

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Using Collections inside SQL
SELECT column_value FROM TABLE (SELECT children FROM db_family WHERE surname = 'BOLZ'); db_family surname children BOLZ BOND Eric Thomas Max Richard UPDATE TABLE (SELECT children FROM db_family WHERE SURNAME = 'BOLZ) SET column_value = 'Lisa Nadezhka' WHERE column_value = 'Lisa Marie'); db_family surname children BOLZ ...
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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 48

Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Marie

column_value Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Marie

Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Nadezhka

Using the THE Operator 

Use THE to manipulate (retrieve, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE) contents of a nested table in a database table.
± Can only use with nested tables, not VARRAYs or index-by tables. ± Only accessible from within SQL statements in PL/SQL.
CREATE TYPE action_list_t IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2(100); / CREATE TABLE inflation_beater ( focus_area VARCHAR2(100), activities action_list_t) NESTED TABLE activities STORE AS activities_tab; SELECT VALUE (act) FROM THE (SELECT activities FROM inflation_beater WHERE focus_area = 'FORTUNE 100') act; UPDATE THE (SELECT activities FROM inflation_beater WHERE focus_area = 'FORTUNE 100') SET COLUMN_VALUE = 'DISBAND OSHA' WHERE COLUMN_VALUE = 'SIDESTEP OSHA';

the.sql

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 49

Using the TABLE and CAST Operators 

Use CAST to convert a collection from one type to another, TABLE to convert a TYPE into a database table.
± Cannot use with index-by tables. ± Useful when you would like to apply SQL operations against a PL/SQL collection (ie, one not stored in a database table).
DECLARE nyc_devolution cutbacks_for_taxcuts := cutbacks_for_taxcuts ('Stop rat extermination programs', 'Fire building inspectors', 'Close public hospitals'); BEGIN DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE ( 'How to Make the NYC Rich Much, Much Richer:'); FOR rec IN (SELECT COLUMN_VALUE ohmy FROM TABLE (CAST (nyc_devolution AS cutbacks_for_taxcuts))) LOOP DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE (rec.ohmy); END LOOP; cast.sql END;

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species = b.country FROM bird_habitats bh WHERE bh.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . b.genus. with potential client-server performance impact.genus = b. ± You can use MULTISET to emulate or transform relational joins into collections.species.species) AS country_tab_t) FROM birds b. FETCH bird_curs into bird_row. view. information for the BEGIN master in one trip.genus AND bh. multiset. ± Cannot use with index-by tables. DECLARE CURSOR bird_curs IS SELECT b. CAST(MULTISET(SELECT bh. query) into a VARRAY or nested table. OPEN bird_curs. converting a set of data (table.Using the MULTISET Operator  MULTISET is the inverse of TABLE. Retrieves all detail bird_row bird_curs%ROWTYPE. END.page 51 .

page 52 . Make accessible in SQL for Oracle8 and below. Instead.  CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE ibtab IS FUNCTION rowval (indx IN PLS_INTEGER) RETURN DATE. END.sql PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY ibtab IS TYPE date_tab IS TABLE OF DATE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. hiredates date_tab. call functions that retrieve the table's data. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein ibtab_in_sql. WNDS).Referencing IB Tables inside SQL  You can't directly reference an index-by table's contents inside SQL. WNPS. END. PRAGMA RESTRICT_REFERENCES (rowval. but hide the index-by table structure. END. FUNCTION rowval (indx IN PLS_INTEGER) RETURN DATE IS BEGIN RETURN hiredates (indx).

page 53 .  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Examples of Collections in Action  Emulation of bi-directional cursor operations Avoid mutating table problems in database triggers.

END.nope.page 54 . CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE bidir IS /* Iterate through rows in the result set */ PROCEDURE setRow (nth IN PLS_INTEGER).Bi-Directional Cursor Emulation  Oracle does not yet support the ability to move back and forth (and at random) through a cursor's result set.  bidir. ± A talked-about feature for Oracle9i -. PROCEDURE nextRow.pkg bidir. PROCEDURE prevRow. deposit your data in a collection and then provide programs to access that data in the necessary fashion.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . FUNCTION getRow RETURN employee_plus%ROWTYPE. Notice that the collection itself is hidden. didn't make it!  Instead. This is particularly useful (read: efficient) when you need to perform multiple passes against the data.

sql  Note: in Oracle8i. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . you can use autonomous transactions to relax restrictions associated with queries. Statement Level UPDATE emp SET sal = 1000 UPDATE row 1 Row Level  UPDATE row N Row level triggers cannot query from or change the contents of the table to which it is attached. So what are you supposed to do when a row-level operation needs to "touch" that table? mutating.page 55 . it is "mutating".The Mutating Table Problem  Database triggers can be attached to the SQL statement and/or the individual row operations on a table.

± an index-by table is an ideal repository for this reminder list. you have to remember what you needed to do. If you are going to defer the work. Statement Trigger 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 56 .A Solution Based on Index-by Tables  Since you cannot perform the processing desired in the row-level trigger. you need to defer the action until you get to the statement level. 1st row trigger fires Nth row trigger fires Writes to list Writes to list Work List (PL/SQL Table)  Process data in the list.

88 144533. ± We might update more than one department within a statement so we must be able to retain multiple department numbers.25 65011. but preferable. we then know which departments to re-rank.page 57 .25 3 1 2 6 "Deferred work" is not only necessary. ± By storing the salesperson¶s department ids as they change.91 109000. Department ID Salesperson ID Sales Amount Rank 1055 1055 1055 1047  64333 65709 65706 70904 74055.An Example: Ranking Salespeople  A table holds the rankings based on the amount of annual sales of salespeople within a department. the rankings must also change to show the new standings for that department only. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± As the sales amount is updated in this table.

END. ranking.Trigger Logic Required Row Level Trigger CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER Rank_Sales_Rtrg AFTER insert OR update OF sales_amt ON rank_sales FOR EACH ROW WHEN (OLD. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Doesn't fire unless the sales_amt is actually changed.sales_amt != NEW.sales_amt) BEGIN rank.dept_id). END.pkg All details of the ranking are hidden in the package body.add_dept (:new. Statement Level Trigger CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER Rank_Sales_Strg AFTER INSERT OR UPDATE OR DELETE ON rank_sales BEGIN rank.page 58 .rank_depts.

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END IF.page 59 . PROCEDURE rank_depts. END add_dept 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Create row to indicate department to be ranked. dept_tab dept_tabtype. END rank. TYPE dept_tabtype IS TABLE OF BOOLEAN INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. PACKAGE BODY rank IS in_process BOOLEAN := FALSE.The Ranking Package PACKAGE rank IS PROCEDURE add_dept (dept_id_in IN INTEGER). PROCEDURE add_dept (dept_id_in IN INTEGER) IS BEGIN IF NOT in_process THEN dept_tab (dept_id_in) := TRUE. Table holds indicator that department needs re-ranking.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Avoid recursive execution of logic Row number is department number. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .FIRST.NEXT (v_deptid). LOOP EXIT WHEN v_deptid IS NULL. END rank.The Ranking Package. END LOOP. in_process := FALSE.DELETE. Continued PROCEDURE rank_depts IS v_deptid PLS_INTEGER := dept_tab. perform_ranking (v_deptid).page 60 . END rank_dept. BEGIN IF NOT in_process THEN in_process := TRUE. v_deptid := dept_tab. Clean up for next time. dept_tab. END IF.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Nested tables ± You want to store large amounts of persistent data in a column. You don't want to have to worry about sparseness. Set of data is relatively small (avoid row chaining).page 61 .Which Collection Type Should I Use?  Index-by tables ± Need to use in both Oracle7 and Oracle8 applications ± Want to take advantage of sparse nature for "intelligent keys". ± You want to use inside SQL. You want to use inside SQL.  VARRAYs ± ± ± ± You want to preserve the order in which elements are stored.

Tips for Using Collections 

Wrap access to your collections.
± In many cases, you will want to avoid direct access to (assigning and retrieving) rows in your collections. ± This will give you the flexibility to change your implementation. ± You can also hide complex rules for setting the row number. 

Get creative!
± Don't always fill and use the index-by table sequentially. ± If you can somehow translate your application data to an integer, it can be used as a row number, and therefore offers indexed access. ± Julian date formats and DBMS_UTILITY.GET_HASH_VALUE offer two different methods.

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Achieving PL/SQL Excellence

Cursor Variables

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 63

Architecture of Cursor Variables
With Hard-Coded Cursors
Hard-Coded Cursor

With Cursor Variables

PGA

Cursor Variable

Cursor Variable

Result Set

Shared Global Area

Cursor Object

Result Set 

A cursor variable points to an underlying cursor object in the database.
± The cursor object in turns points to (and keeps its place in) a result set. 

The cursor variable can be passed between programs (even between, say, a Java servlet and a PL/SQL stored procedure).
± Static SQL only -- until Oracle8i.
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1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

Benefits of Cursor Variables 

Share cursor management between programs, even across the client-server divide.
± You don't have to pass the result sets of a cursor in order to allow the client-side program to have direct access to the data in the result set. ± Oracle Developer 2.1 utilizes cursor variables when you choose to construct a "base table block" around stored procedures instead of a database table. 

Share the same code across multiple, different queries.
± Since the cursor name is no longer hard-coded, you can use a single block of code (say, a reporting program) against different queries. ± We will try out this technique at the end of the section.

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Cursor Variable Example
DECLARE TYPE company_curtype IS REF CURSOR RETURN company%ROWTYPE;
Declare a variable cursor TYPE.

company_curvar company_curtype;

Declare cursor variable based on that type. Declare a record from cursor variable. OPEN cursor variable, specifying the query. FETCH from the cursor variable.

company_rec company_curvar%ROWTYPE; BEGIN OPEN company_curvar FOR SELECT * FROM company;

FETCH company_curvar INTO company_rec;
Close the cursor variable.

CLOSE company_curvar; END;
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Explicit Cursors and Cursor Variables 

Both hard-coded cursors and cursor variables work with static SQL.
± The SQL is fixed at compile-time. ± The difference is that with cursor variables, you get to decide which static query is opened. 

Many cursor operations are the same:
± Close a variable cursor with the same syntax as that for static cursors. ± Use cursor attributes (%ISOPEN, %FOUND, %NOTFOUND, %ROWCOUNT) with cursor variables (as of Release 2.3). ± Fetch data from the cursor result set through a cursor variable with the same syntax as that of static cursors. 

Let¶s focus on the new and different capabilities of cursor variables.
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1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

Declaring Cursor Types and Variables 

Cursors are declared in two steps, just like programmerdefined records and PL/SQL tables.
± 1. Define a cursor TYPE -- either "weak" or "strong". ± 2. Define a cursor variable.
DECLARE TYPE weak_curtype IS REF CURSOR; TYPE comp_curtype IS REF CURSOR RETURN company%ROWTYPE; curcmp_new comp_curtype; cur_any weak_curtype; BEGIN
Declare cursor variables from the TYPEs. Declare a STRONG referenced cursor TYPE. Declare a WEAK referenced cursor TYPE.

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Strong vs. Weak Cursor Types 

A strong (or constrained) cursor type has a defined return data specification.
± Can only reference cursor objects which return the same data specification, which can be any single SQL datatype or any previously defined record structure. ± Datatype mismatches are identified at compile time.

TYPE cur_typ_name IS REF CURSOR [ RETURN return_type ]; TYPE cur_typ_name IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE; /* Strong */ 

The weak (or unconstrained) cursor type does not have a RETURN clause.
± It can reference any cursor object, be opened FOR any query. ± Datatype mismatches can only be identified at runtime.

TYPE cur_typ_name IS REF CURSOR; /* Weak */
1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein
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Opening with the Cursor Variable
OPEN cursor_name FOR select_statement; 

When you open a cursor variable (whether of the weak or strong variety), you must provide the SQL query that identifies the result set.
± If the variable has not yet been assigned to cursor object, the OPEN FOR statement implicitly creates an object for the variable. ± If the variable is already pointing to a cursor object, the OPEN FOR reuses the existing object and attaches the new query to that cursor object. 

Remember, the cursor object is nothing more than a memory location.
± It is maintained independently of the query itself.
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a cursor or a programmer-defined record.Opening with Strong Cursor Types DECLARE TYPE emp_curtype IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE.. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Match Needed BEGIN OPEN emp_curvar FOR SELECT * from emp.. emp_curvar emp_curtype.page 71 . . ± You can establish the return type based on a database table.  STRONG cursor data specifications must match or be compatible with the structure of the SELECT statement. END.

cv_type IS retval pkg. OPEN retval FOR SELECT * FROM emp. THEN OPEN retval FOR SELECT * FROM dept.page 72 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . END. END IF. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  A weak cursor TYPE doesn't define the RETURN structure. FUNCTION open_emp_or_dept (get_type_in IN VARCHAR2) RETURN pkg.Opening with Weak Cursor Types PACKAGE pkg IS TYPE cv_type IS REF CURSOR.cv_type. you can associate any SELECT statement with a weak cursor variable. REF TYPE placed in package so that it is "globally" available. Verification will take ELSIF get_type_in = µDEPT¶ place at the FETCH. RETURN retval. END. BEGIN IF get_type_in = µEMP¶ THEN Either query will "do".

it match the cursor type data specification. mismatch.page 73 . ± Fetching can continue with a different INTO clause. var_name.   Compatibility checks are performed prior to fetching row. it match the OPEN FOR statement structure. . The INTO structure must match in number and datatype to: ± FOR STRONG cursor types..  Fetching with cursor variables follows the same rules as those with static cursors.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . FETCH cursor_var_name INTO var_name. ± FOR WEAK cursor types..Fetching from the Cursor Variable FETCH cursor_var_name INTO record_name. ± The ROWTYPE_MISMATCH exception is raised on failure..

± JDBC recognizes cursor variables. ± You could use dynamic SQL to achieve this effect. you have to repeat the code for each cursor.  Define a base table block in Forms Builder (formerly Oracle Forms) on stored procedures rather than a table directly. ± With explicit cursors.  hccursor.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . since cursor names are "hard coded". but static cursors are more efficient than dynamic SQL and cursor variables are less complicated than DBMS_SQL. Use a single block of code to manipulate multiple queries.When to Use Cursor Variables  Make it easier for calling programs (especially non-PL/SQL programs) to manipulate result sets.page 74 .

END.pkg allcurs.page 75 . / allcurrs. TYPE cv_t IS REF CURSOR RETURN int_rt. FUNCTION open (type_in IN INTEGER) RETURN cv_t. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE allcurs IS bydept CONSTANT INTEGER := 1. ± It also creates the data structures you will need to call the function.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Consolidating Different Cursors  The following package specification hides the SQL behind a single open function. bysal CONSTANT INTEGER := 2. TYPE int_rt IS RECORD (key INTEGER).tst explcv.

ELSIF type_in = bysal THEN OPEN retval FOR SELECT empno FROM emp ORDER BY SAL. END IF. END. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY allcurs IS FUNCTION open (type_in IN INTEGER) RETURN cv_t IS retval cv_t. RETURN retval. BEGIN IF type_in = bydept THEN OPEN retval FOR SELECT empno FROM emp ORDER BY deptno. END. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Consolidating Different Cursors  The open function simply opens FOR a different SELECT based on the criteria passed to it.page 76 .

END LOOP. DECLARE cv allcurs.l (v_empno).open (&1). change the ORDER BY clause -without having to change the code you write.page 77 "Report processor" is independent of the particular SELECT .in this case. p. BEGIN cv := allcurs.cv_t. END. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . LOOP FETCH cv INTO v_empno.Hiding SQL Variations in Resulting Code  The following block demonstrates that you can alter which SQL statement to query -. EXIT WHEN cv%NOTFOUND.empno%TYPE. CLOSE cv. v_empno emp.

Cursor Variables Let's summarize  Flexibility ± Choose which static SQL statement is executed at run-time.page 78 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . or a more general. you can build screens that access data using a cursor variable-based procedural API. unconstrained type.1.  Strong and Weak Types ± Create REF CURSORs for specific queries.  Improve Client-Side Access to Data ± At least in Oracle Developer 2.  Hide Variations in Underlying SQL ± You no longer have to repeat the same code for different cursors.

Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Dynamic SQL  Dynamic SQL and dynamic PL/SQL: ± The DBMS_SQL package ± Native dynamic SQL in Oracle8i 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 79 .

 Execute dynamically-constructed PL/SQL programs. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . What can you do with Dynamic SQL?  Build ad-hoc query and update applications. ± One example: implement indirect referencing in PL/SQL. ± Construct powerful DBA utilities.  Execute DDL inside PL/SQL programs.Dynamic SQL and PL/SQL Execution  "Dynamic SQL" mean that you construct the SQL statement or PL/SQL block at runtime and then execute it. you no longer have to write SQL to generate SQL to get your job done. ± Very common requirement on the Web.1 and DBMS_SQL.page 80 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . ± Available in PL/SQL since Release 2. ± Also supported with "native dynamic SQL" in Oracle8i.

page 81 . ± Different methods require the use of different programs in DBMS_SQL. Method 4: queries with a variable number of items in the SELECT list and/or non-queries with a variable number of host variables. ± NDS does not support method 4. execute one or more times. Method 3: queries with a fixed number of items in the SELECT list and a fixed number of host variables. executed a single time. Method 2: non-queries with a fixed number of host variables. These methods are in increasing order of complexity.    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Four Methods of Dynamic SQL   Method 1: non-queries without host variables. you can more quickly figure out how to code your solution. If you can recognize the types.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Native Dynamic SQL  Prior to Oracle8i. ± OPEN FOR <sql string>. ± But this package is very complex. DML and single row fetches. difficult to use. used for DDL. used for multi-row queries. you would use the DBMS_SQL built-in package to execute dynamic SQL.  The new "native dynamic SQL" or NDS of Oracle8i offers two native statements in the PL/SQL language to implement most of your dynamic SQL requirements: ± EXECUTE IMMEDIATE <sql string>.page 82 . and relatively slow (performance did improve significantly as of Oracle8).

{IN | OUT | IN OUT] bind argument].EXECUTE IMMEDIATE EXECUTE IMMEDIATE sql-string [INTO {define_variable[...  Use this statement to execute any dynamic SQL statement (including a PL/SQL block) except for multi-row queries. | record }] [USING {IN | OUT | IN OUT] bind argument [. collections and records. including objects.page 83   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .. The INTO clause allows you to pass values from the select list of a single row query into local variables. The USING clause allows you to specify bind arguments or variables to be passed into the SQL string before execution.]. define_variables]. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..

END IF.. USER) || '.PUT_LINE ( 'Not the best health care system in the world. RETURN retval..COUNT(*) For Any Table  Here's a handy and simple utility based on NDS: CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION tabCount ( tab IN VARCHAR2. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein tabcount81.sf PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . sch IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) RETURN INTEGER IS Specify schema.000.. END.sf compare with: tabcount.000 THEN DBMS_OUTPUT. and not much of a democracy either!').' || tab || ' WHERE ' || NVL (whr. IF tabCount ('citizens'. 'insured = ''NO''') > 40. BEGIN EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'SELECT COUNT(*) FROM ' || NVL (sch. table and retval INTEGER. WHERE clause. whr IN VARCHAR2 := NULL..page 84 . '1=1') INTO retval.

END. end_in.. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .'. start_in. EXECUTE IMMEDIATE v_str. name_in IN VARCHAR2) IS v_str VARCHAR2 (100).' || name_in || '.  Execute a stored procedure. PROCEDURE runprog (pkg_in IN VARCHAR2. END. Pass in bind variables with USING clause.. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN pl ('Compile Error "' || SQLERRM || '" on: ' || v_str). CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE updnumval ( tab_in IN VARCHAR2.. BEGIN v_str := 'BEGIN ' || pkg_in || '. END. end_in IN DATE.Other Execute Immediate Examples  Perform an update.page 85 . start_in IN DATE. val_in IN NUMBER) IS BEGIN EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'UPDATE ' || tab_in || ' SET ' || col_in || ' = :val WHERE hiredate BETWEEN :lodate AND :hidate' USING val_in.. col_in IN VARCHAR2.

:revenue_inhibitors)' USING pers. END. cond IN preexisting_conditions) IS BEGIN EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'INSERT INTO ' || tabname (hosp_name) || ' VALUES (:revenue_generator... ± In the following example.Using Objects and Collections in NDS  One of the key advantages to NDS over DBMS_SQL is that it works with Oracle8 datatypes. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein health$. PROCEDURE add_profit_source ( hosp_name IN VARCHAR2. pers IN Person. including objects and collections.pkg PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . cond.page 86 . the USING clause allows me to pass an object and nested table to an INSERT statement with a variable table name. ± No special syntax needed.

BEGIN OPEN cv FOR 'SELECT ' || col || ' FROM ' || tab || ' WHERE ' || NVL (whr.Multiple Row Queries and NDS  Oracle extends the cursor variable feature of Oracle7 to support multi-row dynamic queries. showcol. END LOOP. '1 = 1'). col IN VARCHAR2. number or string column in any table. val VARCHAR2(32767). DBMS_OUTPUT. ndsutil.PUT_LINE (val). LOOP Familiar cursor FETCH cv INTO val. whr IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) IS TYPE cv_type IS REF CURSOR. variable syntax! EXIT WHEN cv%NOTFOUND. cv cv_type.sp END. ± Here is a simple utility the displays the values of any date. CLOSE cv. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE showcol ( tab IN VARCHAR2.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 87 .

± If dynamic SQL. Instead. then you provide a value for each placeholder (by position). etc. column names.) through the USING clause. provide a value for each distinct placeholder (by name).pkg    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . You cannot pass the NULL literal directly in the USING clause. The USING clause for a query can only have IN bind arguments.Some Fine Print for NDS  You cannot pass schema elements (table names. pass a variable with a NULL value.page 88 . ± If dynamic PL/SQL. str2list. You can have duplicate placeholders (for bind arguments).

in particular method 4.page 89 . Supports all four methods of dynamic SQL. DBMS_SQL is a very large and complex package. You should only use DBMS_SQL when you cannot use NDS. with many rules to follow and lots of code to write.Dynamic SQL using DBMS_SQL  Prior to Oracle8i.     1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . The overhead for using DBMS_SQL has decreased significantly in Oracle8 and again in Oracle8i. the only way to perform dynamic SQL was with the DBMS_SQL package.

Learning Through Examples  DDL ± Create an index from within PL/SQL  DML ± Update rows in a table  DML with binding ± Update rows using bind variables  Queries ± Method 3 and a dynamic WHERE clause  PL/SQL Version of "SELECT *" ± Example of Method 4  PL/SQL ± Create a generic calculation program 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 90 .

DDL_statement.sp Creates an index on any column(s) in any table in your schema. ± Open a cursor. DBMS_SQL.NATIVE). END.PARSE (cur. col_in IN VARCHAR2) IS cur INTEGER := DBMS_SQL. fdbk INTEGER. DBMS_SQL.DDL with Dynamic SQL PROCEDURE create_index (index_in IN VARCHAR2.EXECUTE (cur).CLOSE_CURSOR (cur).OPEN_CURSOR. ± Construct the DDL statement as a string.  creind. ± Parse and execute that DDL statement.page 91 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . fdbk := DBMS_SQL. tab_in IN VARCHAR2. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . BEGIN DBMS_SQL. DDL_statement VARCHAR2(200) := 'CREATE INDEX ' || index_in || ' ON ' || tab_in || ' ( ' || col_in || ')'. which will be used to execute the DDL statement.

fdbk PLS_INTEGER. DBMS_SQL.OPEN_CURSOR. updnval1. fdbk := DBMS_SQL.ename%TYPE. ename_in IN emp.EXECUTE (cur).Updates with Dynamic SQL  Update numeric column for specified employees. val_in IN NUMBER) IS cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL.page 92 . DBMS_SQL.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .PUT_LINE ('Rows updated: ' || TO_CHAR (fdbk)).NATIVE). END.CLOSE_CURSOR (cur). BEGIN DBMS_SQL. DBMS_OUTPUT. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE updnumval ( col_in IN VARCHAR2.PARSE (cur. 'UPDATE emp SET ' || col_in || ' = ' || val_in || ' WHERE ename LIKE UPPER (''' || ename_in || ''')'.

page 93 . 'hidate'. updnval2. start_in IN DATE. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE updnumval ( col_in IN VARCHAR2.BIND_VARIABLE (cur.OPEN_CURSOR.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . DBMS_SQL. end_in IN DATE.sp updnval3.CLOSE_CURSOR (cur). fdbk := DBMS_SQL.PUT_LINE ('Rows updated: ' || TO_CHAR (fdbk)).BIND_VARIABLE (cur. start_in). val_in IN NUMBER) IS cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL. END. 'UPDATE emp SET ' || col_in || ' = ' || val_in || ' WHERE hiredate BETWEEN :lodate AND :hidate'. DBMS_SQL. end_in). DBMS_SQL. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.PARSE (cur. 'lodate'.NATIVE). DBMS_SQL. fdbk PLS_INTEGER. DBMS_OUTPUT.EXECUTE (cur).Updates with Bind Variables  Update salaries for date range using binding.

Processing Flow for a Dynamic Query Allocate cursor memory (OPEN_CURSOR) Fill cursor with data (EXECUTE) Make sure SELECT is well formed (PARSE) Fill buffer with data (FETCH_ROWS) (EXECUTE_AND_FETCH) Bind any variables (BIND_VARIABLE) (BIND_ARRAY) Retrieve the data (COLUMN_VALUE) Give cursor structure (DEFINE_COLUMN) (DEFINE_ARRAY) Release cursor memory (CLOSE_CURSOR) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 94 .

PUT_LINE (TO_CHAR (rec. rec emp%ROWTYPE.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.EXECUTE (cur). DBMS_SQL. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein showemps.NATIVE).OPEN_CURSOR. 2.page 95 .. 2. 60).ename). 1). ename FROM emp ' || ' WHERE ' || NVL (where_in. 1. END.COLUMN_VALUE (cur..FETCH_ROWS (cur) = 0. fdbk := DBMS_SQL. END LOOP.Queries with Dynamic SQL  Show employees using a dynamic WHERE clause. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE showemps (where_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) IS cur INTEGER := DBMS_SQL. '1=1'). 'a'.tst PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . rec.empno). LOOP EXIT WHEN DBMS_SQL. 'SELECT empno. DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. DBMS_SQL. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL.sp showemp2. DBMS_SQL.sp showemps. fdbk INTEGER.COLUMN_VALUE (cur.ename). rec.empno) || '=' || rec. 1.PARSE (cur. DBMS_SQL.CLOSE_CURSOR (cur). DBMS_OUTPUT.

select_string. FOR each-column-in-table LOOP DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL. END LOOP. FOR each-column-in-table LOOP DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. ± The resulting code is much more complicated. END LOOP. END. LOOP fetch-a-row. nth_col. val).NATIVE). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Dynamic SELECT * FROM Any Table  Method 4 example: the number of columns queried changes with each table. datatype).page 96 Very simplified pseudo-code intab. BEGIN FOR each-column-in-table LOOP add-column-to-select-list.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . nth_col. END LOOP.COLUMN_VALUE (cur.PARSE (cur. DBMS_SQL. END LOOP.

then EXECUTE_AND_FETCH will raise the TOO_MANY_ROWS exception if more than one row is fetched by the SELECT. TRUE). the first row will still be fetched and available. ± If exact_match is TRUE. exact_match IN BOOLEAN DEFAULT FALSE) RETURN INTEGER.  Makes it easy to execute and fetch a single row from a query. ± Even if the exception is raised. which returns a single row.page 97 .Using EXECUTE_AND_FETCH FUNCTION execute_and_fetch (cursor_in IN INTEGER. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Very similar to the implicit SELECT cursor in native PL/SQL.EXECUTE_AND_FETCH (cur). raises NO_DATA_FOUND or raises the TOO_MANY_ROWS exception.EXECUTE_AND_FETCH (cur. numrows := DBMS_SQL. numrows := DBMS_SQL.

arg6_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. 0. I would have to modify my screen every time a new formula was added.Dynamic Formula Execution  Suppose I am building a user interface that allows a user to select a formula for execution. ± Using static PL/SQL.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . nargs_in IN INTEGER := arg1_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg3_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg5_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg7_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg9_in IN VARCHAR2 := ) RETURN VARCHAR2. arg2_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. arg4_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL.page 98 . NULL. ± With DBMS_SQL. arg10_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL dyncalc.sf dyncalc. NULL. NULL. NULL. NULL. FUNCTION dyncalc ( oper_in IN VARCHAR2. a single function will do the trick. arg8_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. and enter the arguments.

µdeptin¶. DBMS_SQL.BIND_VARIABLE (cur.page 99 . END.VARIABLE_VALUE (cur. v_deptin). my_salary).More on Dynamic PL/SQL BEGIN cur := open_and_parse ('BEGIN get_max_sal (:deptin. µsalout¶.').even OUT arguments which are not being bound to any values.sql dynplsql. Possibilities inherent in dynamic PL/SQL are mind-boggling! dynplsql. DBMS_SQL. :salout).tst    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .BIND_VARIABLE (cur. Use VARIABLE_VALUE to extract a value from any variable you have bound. END. my_salary).sp dynplsql. fdbk := DBMS_SQL.  Use BIND_VARIABLE to bind any placeholders in the string -. µsalout¶.EXECUTE (cur). DBMS_SQL. You must have a BEGIN-END around the code.

fdbk PLS_INTEGER. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.CLOSE_CURSOR (v_cur).Indirect Referencing with Dyn PL/SQL  Oracle Forms offers support for indirect referencing with the NAME_IN and COPY built-ins. Here is an example of a "PL/SQL NAME_IN": FUNCTION valbyname (nm IN VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2 IS v_cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL.NATIVE). retval PLV.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . END.EXECUTE (v_cur). 'BEGIN :val := ' || nm || '.OPEN_CURSOR. PL/SQL does not support indirect referencing. DBMS_SQL. RETURN retval. 2000). END.VARIABLE_VALUE (v_cur. 'a'. fdbk := DBMS_SQL.dbmaxvc2. retval). but you can accomplish much of the same thing with dynamic PL/SQL execution.PARSE (v_cur.page 100  dynvar. DBMS_SQL.'.pkg dynvar. 'val'. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . DBMS_SQL. 'val'.BIND_VARIABLE (v_cur.

 IS_OPEN ± Is the cursor already open?  LAST_ERROR_POSITION ± Returns relative column position in cursor of text causing error condition.  LAST_SQL_FUNCTION_CODE ± Returns SQL function code of cursor.page 101 . ± Call these immediately after your usage to make sure they refer to your cursor. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  LAST_ROW_COUNT ± Returns the cumulative count of rows fetched from the cursor.  LAST_ROW_ID ± Returns the ROWID of last row processed.DBMS_SQL Status Built-ins  The package offers a set of modules to return information about the lastoperated cursor in your session.

dumplong.page 102 .COLUMN_VALUE_LONG   First.Working with LONG Values  DBMS_SQL provides special procedures so that you can extract values from a LONG column in a table. ± Transfer the LONG contents into an index-by table so that you can transfer a value of more than 32K bytes into your PL/SQL program.DEFINE_COLUMN_LONG ± DBMS_SQL. Then you retrieve the column using the special COLUMN_VALUE_LONG variant. you define the column as a LONG.pkg dumplong.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± DBMS_SQL.

page 103 .New DBMS_SQL Features PL/SQL8 Extensions to DBMS_SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

page 104 .New Features in DBMS_SQL  The functionality of DBMS_SQL has been extended in Oracle8 in several ways: ± Parse very long SQL strings ± Describe cursor columns ± Use "array processing" to perform bulk updates. ± Support for RETURNING clause to avoid unnecessary queries. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . deletes and fetches. inserts.

± Now you can call the DBMS_SQL.DESCRIBE_COLUMNS. ± The record TYPE is also defined in DBMS_SQL.Describing Cursor Columns PROCEDURE DBMS_SQL.DESCRIBE_COLUMNS (c IN INTEGER.DESC_TAB). col_cnt OUT INTEGER. desc_t OUT DBMS_SQL.page 105 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Returns all of the column information in an index table of records.  Before PL/SQL8. it was not possible to determine the datatypes of the columns defined in a cursor.

desccols.DESCRIBE_COLUMNS (cur. ncols.page 106 . DBMS_SQL. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. ncols PLS_INTEGER.OPEN_CURSOR.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . cols DBMS_SQL.Basic Steps to Describe Columns  The following script shows the individual steps you will need to perform in order to use this feature.tst showcols. DBMS_SQL. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE show_columns IS cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL. empno FROM emp'.DESC_TAB. END LOOP.. END.pkg desccols.PUT_LINE (cols(colind). cols). FOR colind IN 1 . DBMS_SQL. 'SELECT hiredate.PARSE (cur.CLOSE_CURSOR (cur).NATIVE).col_name). ncols LOOP DBMS_OUTPUT.

however.. DBMS_SQL then repeats your action for every row in the table. DBMS_SQL is executing the specified SQL statement N times.e. inserts. It really isn't "array processing". Instead of providing a scalar value for an operation. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± In actuality."Array Processing" in DBMS_SQL  PL/SQL8 now allows you to specify the use of "arrays".    This technique still. deletes and fetches. index tables. when you perform updates.page 107 . can offer a significant performance boost over Oracle7 dynamic SQL. i. you specify an index table. where N is the number of rows in the table.

column names.page 108 . only possible for statements that do not need USING and INTO clauses. ± With NDS. not the invoker of the code.  Use the Oracle8i invoker rights model whenever you want to share your dynamic SQL programs among multiple schemas.Recommendations for Dynamic SQL  Bind (vs. ± Otherwise that SQL will be executed under the authority of the owner of the code. ± Increased chance of reusing parsed SQL. etc.pkg whichsch.) through the USING clause. effdsql.sql openprse.PARSE so that you include the trace in that program.  Encapsulate statements to improve error handling. ± Encapsulate DBMS_SQL. though you could write variations for those as well. concatenate) whenever possible.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± But remember: you cannot pass schema elements (table names. and easier code to write.

but DBMS_SQL is hard to use.NDS or DBMS_SQL: Which is Best?  Dynamic SQL and PL/SQL is very useful. ± If... Both implementations will still come in handy. of course.page 109 . you have upgraded to Oracle8i!  Major Advantages of NDS: ± Ease of use ± Performance ± Works with all SQL datatypes (including userdefined object and collection types) ± Fetch into records  When You'd Use DBMS_SQL: ± ± ± ± ± ± ± Method 4 Dynamic SQL DESCRIBE columns of cursor SQL statements larger than 32K RETURNING into an array Reuse of parsed SQL statements Bulk dynamic SQL Available from client-side PL/SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

page 110 .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Oracle Advanced Queuing  The high performance. persistent messaging subsytem of Oracle 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . asynchronous.

Who Needs Messaging? Everyone!  In the distributed world of the Internet.page 111 . consistent manner. Distribution Center Coffee Beans Producer Shipping Service Retailer Consumer 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . systems are now heavily reliant on the ability of components to communicate with each other in a dependable.

page 112 .Applications Relying on Messaging     Stock trading system Airline reservation system Auction portals Any e-commerce application 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

± Rule-based subscribers.page 113 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Key Features of Oracle AQ  Leverage full power of SQL ± Messages are stored in database tables  Database high availability. AQ now offers a publish/subscribe style of messaging between applications. the listen feature and notification capabilities. message propagation. scalability and reliability all carry over to queues ± Strong history and retention ± Backup and recovery ± Comprehensive journaliing  Rich message content increases usefulness of queueing ± Use object types to define highly structured payloads  New to Oracle8i.

AQ architectural overview Queue Monitor process Queue table Queue ³Producers´ Enqueued messages Message 4 Message 3 Message 2 Message1 ³Consumers´ Dequeued messages Messages include both control information and ³payload´ (content) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 114 .

0.page 115 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . AQ supports: ± ± ± ± ± Multiple queues Resetting order and priority of queued items Queue management using only SQL & PL/SQL Multiple message recipients Propagation of queue to remote servers  Oracle8i adds: ± ± ± ± Rules-based publish & subscribe Listening on multiple queues Easier monitoring Native Java interface PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Oracle AQ Highlights  In 8.

   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .AQ Components  The DBMS_AQ package offers enqueue and dequeue capabilities The DBMS_AQADM package provides administrative functionality to manage queues and queue tables.page 116 . Underlying database tables and views The queue monitor (background process) ± Set # of processes with the AQ_TM_PROCESSES initialization parameter.

whether multiple consumers Drops table if all queues in the table have been stopped Associates queue table with queue. assigns retry and retention properties to queue Drops a stopped queue Can also turn on/off enqueue and dequeue operations Stops queue.DBMS_AQADM Highlights CREATE_QUEUE_TABLE DROP_QUEUE_TABLE CREATE_QUEUE DROP_QUEUE START_QUEUE STOP_QUEUE ADD_SUBSCRIBER Assigns name.page 117 . optionally waiting for outstanding transactions Adds an ³agent´ as a subscriber 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . sort column. storage clause. payload type.

Creating Queue Tables and Queues CREATE TYPE message_type AS OBJECT (title VARCHAR2(30).CREATE_QUEUE_TABLE (queue_table => 'msg'. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein aq.CREATE_QUEUE (queue_name => 'msgqueue'. Define a queue in the queue table DBMS_AQADM. END.START_QUEUE (queue_name => 'msgqueue'). / BEGIN DBMS_AQADM. queue_payload_type => 'message_type'). Define the "payload" Create the queue table DBMS_AQADM.pkg Start the queue PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 118 . queue_table => 'msg'). text VARCHAR2(2000)).

page 119   aq.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . but lots of complexity buried inside the parameters of these procedures. and returns a RAW message handle DEQUEUE extracts a message from a specified queue Parameters control message properties such as: ± Visibility (ON_COMMIT or IMMEDIATE) ± ± ± ± Priority Delay Expiration Locking behavior PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .The "operational package": DBMS_AQ  DBMS_AQ is deceptively simple.  ENQUEUE puts a message into a specified queue. ± Only two procedures.

'May there be many more.ENQUEUE_OPTIONS_T.page 120 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . Set up the payload with an object constructor. aqenq*.msgid_type.').Simple Enqueue Example DECLARE queueopts DBMS_AQ.* Place the message on the specified queue and get a msg ID in return. queueopts.. DBMS_AQ. Declare records to hold various enqueue and msg properties. BEGIN my_msg := message_type ( 'First Enqueue'. msgid). msgid aq. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . my_msg.ENQUEUE ( 'msgqueue'.. my_msg message_type.MESSAGE_PROPERTIES_T. msgprops DBMS_AQ. msgprops. END.

. Modify the dequeue sequence by changing the deviation field and relative msg ID.ENQUEUE ('msgqueue'.. msgprops.'). queueopts. 'May there be many more... PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .').relative_msgid := msgid1. my_msg. queueopts.BEFORE... DBMS_AQ. 'And this one goes first. queueopts. END. my_msg.. Same setup as previous page .ENQUEUE ( 'msgqueue'. my_msg := message_type ( 'Second Enqueue'. msgid1). BEGIN my_msg := message_type ( 'First Enqueue'. msgprops.. msgprops. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Specify a delay before the payload is available.page 121 .sequence_deviation := DBMS_AQ. DBMS_AQ. msgid2).More Interesting Enqueue Example DECLARE .delay := 3 * 60 * 60 * 24. queueopts.

* Declare records to hold various dequeue and msg properties.DEQUEUE_OPTIONS_T.MESSAGE_PROPERTIES_T.BROWSE). END. /* defined in aq.msgid_type. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . msgid aq. DBMS_AQ. PROCEDURE getmsg (mode_in IN INTEGER) IS BEGIN queueopts.Dequeue Example DECLARE queueopts DBMS_AQ. getmsg (DBMS_AQ.REMOVE).pkg */ my_msg message_type. BEGIN getmsg (DBMS_AQ. aqdeq*.dequeue_mode := mode_in. my_msg. getmsg (DBMS_AQ. Demonstrates destructive and non-destructive dequeuing. END.page 122 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .DEQUEUE ( 'msgqueue'. Dequeue operation isolated in local module. msgid). msgprops DBMS_AQ. msgprops.REMOVE). queueopts.

msgid). msgid aq. END.IMMEDIATE.* 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . PROCEDURE push (item IN VARCHAR2) IS queueopts DBMS_AQ. DBMS_AQ. item_obj.ENQUEUE_OPTIONS_T. item_obj aqstk_objtype. queueopts.ENQUEUE ( c_queue. queueopts.msgid_type.pkg priority. ± The lower the numeric priority value. msgprops DBMS_AQ. msgprops. msgprops.  A stack implementation using AQ demonstrates this well.priority := g_priority. BEGIN item_obj := aqstk_objtype (item).Prioritized Payloads  You can assign priorities to individual payloads and then dequeue according to those priorities. the higher the priority.1.MESSAGE_PROPERTIES_T.visibility := DBMS_AQ. aqstk. g_priority := g_priority .pkg aqstk2.page 123 .

multiple_consumers => TRUE). queue_payload_type => 'student_major_t'. SYS.CREATE_QUEUE_TABLE ( queue_table => 'major_qtable'.Defining Message Subscribers  You can specify that a message is to be enqueued for a list of subscribers.* PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Add subscribers for the queue. DBMS_AQADM. NULL)). ± The message is then not removed from the queue until all subscribers have dequeued the message. NULL. ± 2.page 124 .  Steps to working with a subscriber list: ± 1.ADD_SUBSCRIBER ( c_queue. The queue table must be defined to support multiple subscribers or consumers. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein aqmult*.AQ$_AGENT (name_in. BEGIN DBMS_AQADM.

± Crucial for Oracle to have a message-oriented middleware in order to offer an all-Oracle solution. ± Significant enhancements in Oracle8i.Oracle AQ . supporting a publish-subscribe model.page 125 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . improved security. LISTEN capability.Summary  Very powerful and flexible architecture.  Considered by Oracle to be a core component of its overall solution. ± Much more robust that DBMS_PIPE. ± Should be strongly supported "down the road".

page 126 .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Managing Large Objects with DBMS_LOB 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

± Oracle has announced deprecation of LONGs. LOB datatypes are the successor to LONGs.  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . video.LOB Terms  LOB = Large OBject: a category of datatype allowing storage of ³unstructured´ data up to 4 gigabytes LOB datatype can be: ± Column in table ± Attribute in object type ± Element in nested table   Possible applications include office documents. sounds.page 127 . Images. etc. though they will probably not be actually desupported. they should no longer be used.

improving performance.Types of Large Objects  ³Internal´ LOBs ± BLOB: unstructured binary data ± CLOB: single-byte fixedwidth character data ± NCLOB: multi-byte fixedwidth character data (or varying width in )  ³External´ LOBs ± BFILE: pointer to an operating system file  Temporary LOBs ± Internal LOBs that do not participate in transactions. external do not ± External LOBs are read-only from within Oracle 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 128 .  Key programming differences: ± Internal LOBs participate in transactions.

append. copy. trim ± For external LOBs: File existence test. EMPTY_CLOB() ± BFILENAME 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . erase. close  Other built-in functions ± LOADFROMFILE (load an external BFILE into a BLOB) ± EMPTY_LOB(). open.PL/SQL built-ins for LOBs  Package DBMS_LOB ± Supports for all LOBs: Reading. substring and instring searches.page 129 . comparison and length checking ± For internal LOBs: Write.

 Retrieve record with BLOB into PL/SQL variable DECLARE CURSOR fax_cur IS SELECT fax FROM incoming_faxes. received DATE. BEGIN OPEN fax_cur. the_fax BLOB. END. fax BLOB). FETCH fax_cur INTO the_fax.page 130 .Deceptively simple example  BLOB-typed column in a table CREATE TABLE incoming_faxes (fax_id INTEGER. Question: What¶s in the_fax? 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . CLOSE fax_cur.

page 131 .The ³LOB locator´ LOB t l sel es [ ll ] t i i t r . tt LOBs <lob segment> fax_id 281937 received 12-JAN-98 fax <lob locator> Updati  t e LOB anges t e pointer is ompli ates se of LOBs ± LOB locators cannot span transactions ± Programs must lock records containing LOBs efore updating ± Programs performing L must accommodate dynamic LOB locator alues 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

BEGIN INSERT INTO web_pages VALUES (the_url. the_loc CLOB. EMPTY_CLOB()) RETURNING htmlloc INTO the_loc.page 132 . ..url%TYPE := 'http://www. 1 of 2  Must get a new LOB locator before writing into the LOB: DECLARE the_url web_pages. htmlloc CLOB).oodb.com'. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Example: Piecewise CLOB programmatic insert  Create a table CREATE TABLE web_pages ( url VARCHAR2(512) PRIMARY KEY..

END LOOP. FOR the_piece_no IN 1. DBMS_LOB. the_loc CLOB. into a CLOB column html_tab := UTL_HTTP. This block retrieves INSERT INTO web_pages VALUES (the_url. piece_length PLS_INTEGER. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Example: Piecewise CLOB programmatic insert DECLARE the_url web_pages.com'. running_total PLS_INTEGER := 1. running_total := running_total + piece_length.COUNT LOOP piece_length := LENGTH(html_tab(the_piece_no)). several likely exceptions offset => running_total.html_tab.url%TYPE := 'http://www. EMPTY_CLOB()) and loads a web page RETURNING htmlloc INTO the_loc.WRITE(lob_loc => the_loc.page 133 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein BEGIN .HTML_PIECES. Note: We are ignoring amount => piece_length.. END. html_tab UTL_HTTP. buffer => html_tab(the_piece_no)).oodb.REQUEST_PIECES(url => the_url).

amount => 4. CLOSE hcur.com' FOR UPDATE. the_loc CLOB.INSTR(lob_loc => the_loc. END. pattern => 'oodb'). buffer => 'cool'). END IF.Example: Piecewise CLOB programmatic update DECLARE Program must lock the record explicitly CURSOR hcur IS SELECT htmlloc FROM web_pages WHERE url = 'http://www.WRITE(lob_loc => the_loc.page 134 . FETCH hcur INTO the_loc. str_offset := DBMS_LOB. IF str_offset != 0 THEN DBMS_LOB. BEGIN OPEN hcur.oodb. offset => str_offset. str_offset INTEGER. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 135 .Preparing to use BFILEs  You must first create an Oracle I ORY´ ± Creates logical alias for full directory pat ± imilar to LIBRARY (used for C "external procedures").  Example: CREATE DIRECTORY web_pix AS 'D:\bill\training\pix'. ut IRECTORY namespace is global  Syntax: CREATE OR REPLACE DIRECTORY <directory name> AS '<full path to directory>'.

scanned_card_image BFILE ).Using BFILE datatype in DDL  In a table.. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  In an object type. image BFILE)... CREATE TABLE web_graphics ( image_id INTEGER.page 136 . addresses Address_tab_t.. CREATE TYPE Business_card_t AS OBJECT ( name Name_t. phones Phone_tab_t.

BEGIN INSERT INTO web_graphics VALUES (100015.gif'). END.The built-in BFILENAME function  Returns value of datatype BFILE. picture).page 137 . Spec: FUNCTION BFILENAME(directory_exprn.  Example: DECLARE picture BFILE := BFILENAME('WEB_PIX'. /  Notes: ± No automatic file checking or synchronization ± No participation in transactions 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . file_exprn) RETURN BFILE. 'prodicon.

src_lob => pic_file.gif'). image BLOB). END. DBMS_LOB.page 138 . pic_blob_loc) RETURNING image INTO pic_blob_loc. / loadblob.GETLENGTH(pic_file)).Loading File into Database BLOB CREATE TABLE web_graphic_blobs ( image_id INTEGER. DBMS_LOB. DBMS_LOB. DBMS_LOB. 'prodicon. DECLARE pic_file BFILE := BFILENAME('WEB_PIX'.FILECLOSE(pic_file).FILE_READONLY).FILEOPEN(pic_file. amount => DBMS_LOB.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .LOADFROMFILE(dest_lob => pic_blob_loc. BEGIN INSERT INTO web_graphic_blobs VALUES (1. pic_blob_loc BLOB := EMPTY_BLOB().

New DBMS_LOB APIs in 8i  Support for temporary LOBs ± No logging or rollback faster! ± Lifespan: session.page 139 . that can mean less I/O » Trigger will not fire until CLOSE » Indexes will not update until CLOSE ± ISOPEN 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . call. or transaction  Ability to retrieve LOB ³chunk size´ ± Allows programmer to tune READs and WRITEs  For all internal LOBs ± OPEN & CLOSE allow control over timing.

.. ± Complete support in PL/SQL (and other APIs) ± Much better performance and control than with LONGs ± Usable in object types HOT  Some weaknesses.page 140 . ± LOB locator behavior slightly abstruse ± Inability to modify BFILEs directly from within PL/SQL.Summary  LOB support in Oracle is now significantly improved.Large Object . COLD 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

page 141 .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Leveraging Java Inside PL/SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

. mid-tier. or server Not covered in this seminar  PL/SQL can call Java inside 8i server ± ± ± ± Command-line tools load Java classes DDL extensions publish Java classes Writing stored procedures. triggers in Java Distinct Java & PL/SQL namespaces  But first..Overview of Java interoperability  Java inside or outside 8i server can call PL/SQL ± Standard JDBC and SQLJ calls with Oracle extensions ± Same Java on client.. functions.. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 142 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .a BRIEF introduction to Java.

.. ± The end of programming history as we know it? ± The easiest.Question 1: What is Java?  Could it be. fastest. ± We just need to keep a firm grip on common sense and stay focused on delivering solutions.page 143 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . slickest piece of software ever designed by human beings? ± Just the latest in a series of "silver bullets" promoted by software vendors in order to prop up quarterly sales? ± The first and only successful O-O language? ± None of the above?  We don't really need to take a vote.

and very aggressively. it is very unlikely and totally unthinkable for years to come. ± Ubiquitous in thousands of production applications and millions of lines of code. ± A language in which hundreds of thousands of developers are trained.page 144 . to boot.Question 2: Will Java Replace PL/SQL?  While that scenario is certainly possible. PL/SQL will still be: ± Faster and more productive than Java for database operations. ± Supported and improved by Oracle -.  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

.page 145 .Some Important Things to Remember  Java is a case sensitive language. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Before you can call a (non-static) class method..  Everything is a class (or an object instantiated from a class). ± string is definitely not the same as String. you have to instantiate an object from that class.  You don't have to know how to do everything with Java to get lots of value out of it... everything exception the primitive datatypes. ± Don't get overwhelmed by all the classes and all the strange quirks.. ± Well..

Building a Java Class  Let's start from the very beginning.out. Oh. } }  No members..PUT_LINE ('Hello world!'). CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE hello IS BEGIN DBMS_OUTPUT. no methods.. public class Hello { public static void main (String[] args) { System. ± Used to test or run stand-alone a class.println ("Hello world!").page 146 . except the "special" main method. END. by the way: the PL/SQL version 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

d:\java D:> javac Hello.1. ± This will convert the . ± It will also automatically recompile any classes used by your class that has not been compiled since last change. ± You must also either have set the CLASSPATH or include it in your javac call.7b\lib\classes.java file to a . you must compile it with the javac command. SET CLASSPATH = d:\Oracle\Ora81\jdbc\lib\classes111.class file.Compiling Classes  Before you can use a class. e:\jdk1.page 147 .zip.zip.java -classpath d:\java 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Running a Class  Run a class? What does that mean? It means that if your class contains a method with this header: public static void main (String[] args)  then you can "run" the main method with the java command: d:\java> java Hello  You can also pass one or more arguments on the command line: d:\java> java Hello mom Hello2.java 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 148 .

Let's build a performance analyzer class to explore these ideas.page 149 . Usually. you will use a class by instantiating objects from the class and then invoking class methods on the object.Using a Class  The main method is handy for providing a built-in test mechanism of your class.   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . however.

java Tmr. } public void showElapsed () { p. public void capture () { Gstart = System. System. elapsed()).currentTimeMillis() .Gstart).Compare Performance of Methods  Use System.java 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .currentTimeMillis(). } public long elapsed () { return (System.Gstart). } } p. } public void showElapsed (String context) { p.l ("Elapsed time ".l ("Elapsed time for " + context.currentTimeMillis() .page 150 .java InFile.currentTimeMillis to calculate elapsed time to nearest thousandth of a second. class Tmr { private long Gstart = 0.

. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Types of Classes  There are several different kinds of classes in Java. but at least one method remains unimplemented..  Interface class ± The class only contains unimplemented methods.page 151 .  Inner class ± Classes that are defined inside other classes. besides the "regular" kind we just saw.  Abstract class ± The class can contain members and methods.

supertype/"wider" Citizen Person Employee Hourly Worker Salaried Worker subtype/"narrower" War Criminal Person.  Polymorphism ± An object of a class can have "multiple" forms.java A Class Hierarchy Management NonManagement Corporation 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . either as its own class or as any superclass.And Now for Some Scary Buzzwords!  Inheritance ± Subclasses inherit methods and variables from extended superclasses. ± Static polymorphism: form is chosen at compile-time (PL/SQL overloading).page 152 . ± Dynamic polymorphism: form is determined at run-time.

boolean char byte short int long float double  Strings ± A String object is a read-only. these are not objects instantiated from classes. myName = "Steven". if you assign a new value to it. String myName. if (myName. myName = "Feuerstein". 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 153 .Language Basics  Comments // Single line comment /* Block comment */ /** Documentation comment */  Primitive datatypes ± So I lied. you are actually allocating a new object. ± Can't do a direct == comparison.equals(YourName)) foundFamily().

for (initialize. indx < args.page 154 .NextElement()).println (args[indx]).println ( (String)enum.out. do-while and for ± Note: you need squiggly brackets only if there is more than one statement in the loop body.Writing Loops in Java  Three kinds of loops: while.out. step) { lotsaStuff } while (expression) { lostsaStuff } do { lostsaStuff } while (expression). expression. indx++) System.nextElement()) } } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Examples: for (indx indx=0.length. static void processAll (Enumeration enum) { while (enum. System.hasMoreElements ()) { processIt (enum.

page 155 . System. you must supply a value for each parameter. } public String name () { return mname. you still include the open and close parentheses.. } } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .name()). ± If a method has no arguments.out. } } class LotsALingos { public static void main (String args[]) { PuterLingo Java = new PuterLingo("Java"). ± No default values for arguments. class PuterLingo { private String mname. public PuterLingo (String name) { mname = name..println (Java.Passing Parameters  Some important differences from PL/SQL. ± Only positional notation is supported.

toString()). Throwing my own public static int numBytes (String filename) { exception try { if (filename.length().Exception Handling in Java  Very similar to PL/SQL.equals("")) throw new Exception ("Filename is NULL"). return myFile. "WHEN OTHERS" } in Java } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . rather than raise and handle.out. } catch (Exception e) { System. you "throw" and "catch" exceptions.page 156 . Put inside try clause File myFile = new File (filename). } File-related catch (SecurityException e) { exceptions return -1.println (e.

 You must inform users of your method of which exceptions may be thrown.. } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± So you can pass them as arguments and do anything and everything else you can do with objects.page 157 . NoSuchFile { .. as in: public static int numBytes (String filename) throws SecurityException.Differences Between Java & PL/SQL  Exceptions are objects derived directly or indirectly from the Exception class. ± Use the throws clause in your specification.

page 158 . ± Object oriented development (Java) is very different from procedural coding (PL/SQL).  Now let's explore how you can put Java to work for you inside PL/SQL programs. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Java's Not So Tough!  You can learn enough Java in less than a week to: ± Build simple classes ± Leverage Java inside PL/SQL  Moving to the next level of expertise will be more of a challenge.

page 159 .Java Stored Procedures (JSPs) Java applet or app. using JDBC or SQLJ Oracle 8i server PL/SQL cover for Java method Java virtual machine running Java method Oracle Developer client (PL/SQL) Net8 OCI or Pro*C client VB or C++ via OO4O or ODBC 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

JSPs: Some sample uses PL/SQL extender ± For example.page 160 . network communication in/out PL/SQL replacement ± More standard language ± Good performer for numeric processing tasks ± Beware database I/O & string manipulation performance Scaleable deployment of third party code ± Vertical application ± Web server ± XML parser/generator 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . better file I/O ± RMI callouts.

Publish PL/SQL cover using AS LANGUAGE JAVA...Creating JSP to call from PL/SQL   1..page 161 . Call from PL/SQL (or SQL) as if calling PL/SQL    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Load into server using ³loadjava´ command-line tool 3.. Grant privileges as desired 5. rather than BEGIN.END 4. Create Java classes in your favorite IDE 2.

Create Java class(es) class Corporation extends Person { long layoffs.out. public Corporation ( String Pname. layoffs = Playoffs. CEOCompensation = PceoComp.println main method is used to test the class.java Advanced Techniques . long Playoffs. }} 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Notes on Java classes  toString method automatically used by System. Entry points must be public static in most cases Classes may call other classes Avoid GUI calls     person. 50000000). long CEOCompensation. } public static void main (String[] args) { // A very scary company Corporation TheGlobalMonster = new Corporation ( "Northrup-Ford-Mattel-Yahoo-ATT".page 162 PL/SQL .println (TheGlobalMonster). } public String toString () { return name + " is a transnational entity with " + layoffs + " laid-off employees. paying its" + " Chief Executive Officer " + CEOCompensation. 5000000. long PceoComp) { name = Pname. System.out.

jar file Oracle 8i server Java class Java source Java resource loadjava Example: loadjava loadjava -user scott/tiger -oci8 -resolve datacraft/bill/Hello.class options (abbreviated) -oci8 -resolve loadjava will connect using OCI driver Resolves external class references at compile time -resolver (shown later) Search path like CLASSPATH 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 163 .java file Java resource file .class file .Upload using ³loadjava´ utility .

String'.Emp(int) return java.Publish  Example (top-level call spec) CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION hello_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2 AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . /  Syntax (simplified) CREATE [ OR REPLACE PROCE URE FUNCTION <name> <sqlt pe> ] [ [ <ar s> ) ] [ AUTHID { DEFINER | CURRENT_USER } ] AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME '<met fullname> (<Ja a t pe fullname>.bill.Hello.page 164 .. .) [ return <Ja a t pe fullname> ]'..lang.

sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .PUT_LINE(hello_emp(7499)).page 165 .  Method 2: Use 8i SQL CALL statement.Call the wrapped method  Method 1: Call as if PL/SQL module BEGIN DBMS_OUTPUT. PRINT :thename ± CALL avoids overhead of SELECT fn FROM DUAL jsp. from SQL*Plus: VARIABLE thename VARCHAR2(12) CALL hello_emp(7499) INTO :thename. END. for example.

page 166 .sql.STRUCT <named type> oracle.REF oracle.math.Timestamp java.sql.sql.more concepts Shape mapping ± Java methods declared ³void´ become PL/SQL procedures ± Signature mismatches detected only at runtime Type mapping (typical) VARCHAR2 DATE NUMBER user-defined object type user-defined object type object REFerence user-defined collection type java.ARRAY 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .lang.String java.BigDecimal oracle.sql.Publishing -.

CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE hello_pkg AS FUNCTION hi_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2 AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft. END..lang.Publish in PL/SQL Package Spec  Designate Java module in PL/SQL package spec.Hello.String'.. / (No package body required in this case) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Emp(int) return java.page 167 .util.

/ 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 168 .Emp(int) return java..Publish as module in package body  .lang.util. END..String'. / CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY hello_pkg2 AS FUNCTION hi_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2 IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.or in package body CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE hello_pkg2 AS FUNCTION hi_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2.Hello. END.

/ or in the body: CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE foo_t AS OBJECT ( bar VARCHAR2(30).Emp(int) return java. MEMBER FUNCTION hello_emp RETURN VARCHAR2 IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.Publish as object type method  Either in spec: CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE foo_t AS OBJECT ( bar VARCHAR2(30).Hello. END. MEMBER FUNCTION hello_emp RETURN VARCHAR2).lang.Hello.String'.lang.String').util.page 169 .util. / CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE BODY foo_t AS MEMBER FUNCTION hello_emp RETURN VARCHAR2 IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.Emp(int) return java. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . JAVA_ADMIN.page 170 . class. JAVASYSPRIV (needed for file IO operations). JAVADEBUGPRIV ± You can also grant specific privileges. DROP JAVA: drops a named Java library unit Several roles available for Java operations: ± JAVAUSERPRIV. JAVAIDPRIV. or resource ± Can read file designated with BFILE() function  ALTER JAVA: compiles Java source.New DDL Statements and Roles  CREATE JAVA ± Alternative to ³loadjava´ utility ± Creates or replaces an Oracle ³library unit´ from Java source. resolves Java class references.

Passing Oracle8 objects Oracle8i server Object in O-R table Java application Java object   Harder than you¶d think Three different interfacing techniques ± oracle.SQLData 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .jdbc2.sql.CustomDatum ± oracle.page 171 .STRUCT ± oracle.sql.

page 172 .JPublisher utility Database server Definition of type or REF in data dictionary User-supplied JPublisher input file What does it do? ± Generates Java that encapsulates type and REF types of mapping supported for methods JPublisher ± ³Oracle mapping´ ± ³JDBC mapping´ ± ³Object JDBC mapping´ Three Generated Java file(s) for use in Java programs 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

bill.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 173 .save (datacraft. /  jspobj.Account_t)'.bill.Passing object using JPub-generated Java  After generating and uploading classes with JPub. they become available to use in mapping Example of passing an Account_t object: CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE account_save (new_acct IN Account_t) IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.AccountRuntime.

Java offers many file-related classes with much greater capabilities. Let's see how we can make that great Java stuff available from within PL/SQL.Example: Improving File I/O  You can read/write files in PL/SQL with UTL_FILE.   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 174 . but that package is very limited.

± The File class offers a length method that returns the number of bytes in a file.. ± Instead build a static method that instantiates a Java object from the class and then invokes the relevant method against that object. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .. ± This is not available through UTL_FILE (though you can get it through DBMS_LOB).page 175 .  Let's start with something simple.Encapsulate Java Classes  You won't generally access native Java methods in your PL/SQL wrapper.

java  Take each of these steps: ± Import the File class to resolve reference.File. ± Call the method of choice against that object and return the value. import java.io. public class JFile2 { public static long length (String fileName) { File myFile = new File (fileName). return myFile.My Own Java Class for File Manipulation  Accept the name of a file and return its length. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 176 . } } JFile2. ± Instantiate a File object for the specified name.length().

lang. / xfile2.String) return long'. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE xfile IS FUNCTION length (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN NUMBER. END.Build a Package over Java Method  Let's put it in a package.page 177 . ± I translate the Java long to a PL/SQL NUMBER. END. / CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY xfile IS FUNCTION length (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN NUMBER AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'JFile. we will certainly want to add more functionality over time.length (java.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

± 2. you will need to take these steps: ± 1. Convert the Java boolean to a String or number and return that value. so you'd expect smooth sailing.page 178 . Not so! To pass a Boolean back from Java to PL/SQL.Mapping the Boolean Datatype  Both Java and PL/SQL support a native Boolean datatype.  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Write a "hidden" PL/SQL wrapper function that returns the string or number. ± 3. Write a "public" PL/SQL wrapper function to convert that number to a true PL/SQL Boolean.

File. else return 0. } } JFile3. import java.Translate Boolean to Number  Accept the name of a file and return its length. not a Boolean class. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .java  Translate TRUE to 1 and FALSE to 0. if (retval) return 1.io. ± And don't forget: this is a boolean primitive. public class JFile3 { public static int canRead (String fileName) { File myFile = new File (fileName).canRead(). boolean retval = myFile.page 179 .

.pkg END.. JFile4. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE xfile IS FUNCTION canRead (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN BOOLEAN. JFile. FUNCTION canRead (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN BOOLEAN AS BEGIN xfile3.pkg RETURN IcanRead (file) = 1.page 180 .lang. END.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .java / xfile. / CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY xfile IS FUNCTION IcanRead (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN NUMBER AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'JFile3. ± Avoid the hard-codings with named constants. xfile4.java END.String) return int'.canRead (java.Wrapper for Pseudo-Boolean function  Simple translation back to PL/SQL Boolean.

java passobj. } } Extract individual attribute values from the array. // starting with 0 String laborType = (String)(attribs[0]).tst PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein UnionBuster.out. Object[] attribs = e.println ( "Pay " + laborType + " $" + hourly_rate + " per hour").page 181 . BigDecimal hourly_rate = (BigDecimal)(attribs[1]). public class UnionBuster { Obtain attributes of public static void wageStrategy (STRUCT e) the Oracle object.sql. // Access individual attributes by array index.SQLException { // Get the attributes of the labor_source object.getAttributes(). throws java. System.Passing Objects to Java with STRUCT  You can pass Oracle object information to Java without relying on JPub by using the STRUCT class.

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . / CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE bust_em_with ( labor_source_in IN labor_source_t) AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'UnionBuster. hourly_rate NUMBER).STRUCT)'. The Oracle object type definition CREATE TYPE labor_source_t AS OBJECT ( labor_type VARCHAR2(30). END. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Fully specify the STRUCT class in parameter list.page 182 .Wrapping a STRUCT-based Method  You can pass Oracle object information to Java without relying on JPub by using the STRUCT class.wageStrategy (oracle.sql. / BEGIN bust_em_with ( labor_source ('Workfare'. bust_em_with ( labor_source ('Prisoners'. 0)). '5')).

println. i < count. ± Call it within methods and output will display in your Java environment.println ( "Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello All!"). }}}  When called within a PL/SQL wrapper.java HelloAll. you can redirect the output to the DBMS_OUTPUT buffer.page 183 . i++) { System. ± Here is a good nucleus for a login.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .PUT_LINE: System. HelloAll.out.sql file: SET SERVEROUTPUT ON SIZE 1000000 CALL DBMS_JAVA.Viewing Output from Java Methods  Java provides a "print line" method similar to DBMS_OUTPUT. public class HelloAll { public static void lotsaText ( int count) { for (int i = 0.out.SET_OUTPUT (1000000).

SQLException.sql. getErrorCode() and getMessage() to obtain information about the error thrown.5).  Any error not caught by the JVM (Java virtual machine) will be thrown back to the PL/SQL block or SQL statement. you "throw" and "catch".Error Handling with Java-PL/SQL  Java offers a very similar. ± Instead of raising and handling. but more robust error handling mechanism than PL/SQL.1. ± Exceptions are objects instantiated from the Exception class or a subclass of it.page 184 . ± And also spew out the entire Java error stack! (at least through 8. ± Use two methods. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . such as java.

page 185 .kprb.PUT_LINE (SQLERRM).SQLException: getErrInfo.java) at oracle.java -29532 dropany.tst ORA-00942: table or view does not exist 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .OracleStatement.doExecuteWithTimeout(OracleStatement.tst ORA-29532: Java call terminated by uncaught Java exception: java.OracleStatement. and you have to do some digging to extract the Oracle error information.KprbDBAccess.OracleStatement.driver.java) at DropAny.java) at oracle.Trapping and Identifying Errors  Currently.driver.jdbc. DBMS_OUTPUT.driver. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN DBMS_OUTPUT.java) at oracle.doExecute(OracleStatement.jdbc.driver.sql.parseExecuteFetch(KprbDBAccess. 'blip').driver.java:14) DropAny.jdbc.OracleStatement.jdbc. the entire Java stack is displayed on your screen.jdbc.sp dropany2.object(DropAny.jdbc.check_error(KprbDBAccess.sql. END.PUT_LINE (SQLCODE). BEGIN dropany ('TABLE'.KprbDBAccess. / SQL> 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 java.java) at oracle.jdbc.OracleStatement.java) at oracle.doExecuteWithBatch(OracleStatement.java) at oracle.executeUpdate(OracleStatement.kprb.doExecuteOther(OracleStatement.SQLException: ORA-00942: table or view does not exist at oracle.

Achieving PL/SQL Excellence External Procedures  An external procedure is a 3GL routine that can serve as the ³body´ of a PL/SQL function.page 186 . procedure.  An Oracle8 feature that allowed relatively "native" callouts to C from PL/SQL for the first time. ± Must be a shared object library on Unix or a dynamically linked library (DLL) on Windows. or method. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

so file extproc returns results returns results 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .DLL or .Process & data flow Application Makes request Net8 External Procedure Listener spawns External Shared Library Calls PL/SQL Runtime Engine PL/SQL body Client or server-side application returns results calls routine from Routine in .page 187 .

sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .sql diskspace.External procedures: Sample uses      Send email Invoke operating system command Invoke custom or legacy application Call C runtime library function Perform admin tasks email.page 188 .

create an Oracle8 ³library´: CREATE OR REPLACE LIBRARY nt_kernel AS 'c:\winnt\system32\kernel32.dll'.dll ± For given drive letter.page 189 . this function returns: » » » » » sectors per cluster bytes per sector number of free clusters total number of clusters ³return code´ indicating success or failure  First.Determine free disk space on NT (1/4)  Use pre-existing routine: ± GetDiskFreeSpaceA in kernel32. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

/ 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . bytes_per_sector OUT PLS_INTEGER. END disk_util. total_number_of_clusters OUT PLS_INTEGER) RETURN PLS_INTEGER.page 190 . sectors_per_cluster OUT PLS_INTEGER. number_of_free_clusters OUT PLS_INTEGER.Package spec (2/4)  Nothing unexpected here: CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE disk_util AS FUNCTION get_disk_free_space (root_path IN VARCHAR2.

RETURN LONG). sectors_per_cluster OUT PLS_INTEGER. total_number_of_clusters BY REFERENCE LONG.0 (3/4) CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY disk_util AS FUNCTION get_disk_free_space (root_path IN VARCHAR2. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . bytes_per_sector BY REFERENCE LONG. total_number_of_clusters OUT PLS_INTEGER) RETURN PLS_INTEGER IS EXTERNAL LIBRARY nt_kernel NAME "GetDiskFreeSpaceA" LANGUAGE C CALLING STANDARD PASCAL PARAMETERS (root_path STRING. number_of_free_clusters OUT pls_integer.page 191  All the magic is in the EXTERNAL section 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . bytes_per_sector OUT PLS_INTEGER.Package body in Oracle 8. END disk_util. sectors_per_cluster BY REFERENCE LONG. number_of_free_clusters BY REFERENCE LONG.

Usage (4/4)
DECLARE lroot_path VARCHAR2(3) := 'C:\'; lsectors_per_cluster PLS_INTEGER; lbytes_per_sector PLS_INTEGER; lnumber_of_free_clusters PLS_INTEGER; ltotal_number_of_clusters PLS_INTEGER; return_code PLS_INTEGER; free_meg REAL; BEGIN return_code := disk_util.get_disk_free_space (lroot_path, lsectors_per_cluster, lbytes_per_sector, lnumber_of_free_clusters, ltotal_number_of_clusters); free_meg := lsectors_per_cluster * lbytes_per_sector * lnumber_of_free_clusters / 1024 / 1024; DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('free disk space, Mb = ' || free_meg); diskspace.sql END;
1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein
PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 192

Creating your own external procedure 

1. Identify or create shared library 2. Identify or CREATE LIBRARY within Oracle 3. Map the parameters using:
± EXTERNAL clause (Oracle8) or ± LANGUAGE clause (Oracle8i)  

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 193

1. Identify/create external routine 


Prerequisite: O/S must support shared libraries Some useful routines are pre-built in C runtime library
± On Unix: /lib/libc.so ± On NT: <systemroot>\system32\crtdll.dll 

Building a shared library of your own requires knowledge of:
± Appropriate language (typically C) ± Compiler & linker

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 194

2. Create the Oracle library 

Syntax:
CREATE OR REPLACE LIBRARY <library name> AS '<full path to file>'; 

Assigns a programmer-defined alias to a specific shared library file Notes
± Requires CREATE LIBRARY pri ilege ± Does not alidate directory ± Can¶t use symbolic link 

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 195

3. Map the parameters
This can get complicated, because«
± Must pass extra parameters to designate:
» NULL/NOT NULL state » String length » Maximum allocated length

± Six choices of parameter mode
» » » » » » IN RETURN IN BY REFERENCE RETURN BY REFERENCE OUT IN OUT

These details are better suited for close reading«
PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 196

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

page 197 .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Oracle8i New Features Autonomous Transactions Invoker Rights Model Row Level Security 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Oracle8i New Features  Oracle8i offers a number of PL/SQL-specific features that give you tremendous additional flexibility and capability.    Autonomous Transactions The Invoker Rights Model Row level security 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 198 . ± And the learning curve to take advantage of these features is generally not too steep.

page 199 . msg IN VARCHAR2) AS PRAGMA AUTONOMOUS_TRANSACTION.Autonomous Transactions  Prior to Oracle8i. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE loginfo ( code IN PLS_INTEGER. ± Any changes made within that block can be saved or reversed without affecting the outer or main transaction. a COMMIT or ROLLBACK in any program in your session committed or rolled back all changes in your session. you can now define a PL/SQL block to execute as an "autonomous transaction". ± There was only one transaction allowed per connection.  With Oracle8i. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

± One component should not have any impact (esp. something like a COMMIT) on other components. etc. software usage meter.  Call functions within SQL that change the database. ± Now you can avoid the complexities (need for ROLLBACK TO savepoints and so on).page 200 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . which can cause all sorts of complications: your log entry becomes a part of your transaction.  Tracing Code Usage ± Build retry mechanisms.  Logging Mechanism ± Commonly developers lot to database tables.When to Use Autonomous Transactions  Reusable Application Components ± ATs are more or less required in the new distributed application architecture of the Internet.

pkg retry. rec.pkg log81*. SYSDATE. While we're at it. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN ROLLBACK. BEGIN INSERT INTO logtab VALUES (code_in. END. rec.tst PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . SYSDATE.tst retry. logger.sp log81. text_in.program ).Logging with ATs  Don't forget that ROLLBACK in the exception section! CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY log IS PROCEDURE putline ( code_in IN INTEGER. COMMIT. END. USER. USER. let's add some session information.page 201 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Avoid interdependencies with the main transaction. text_in IN VARCHAR2 ) IS PRAGMA AUTONOMOUS_TRANSACTION.machine.

 Any changes committed in an AT are visible in the outer transaction.page 202 .sql auton_in_sql. ± You cannot define a nested anonymous block to be an AT. ± You cannot tell by looking at the package spec if you are calling ATs or not -and this info is not available in the data dictionary. ± Place the SET TRANSACTION statement in the outer transaction. autonserial.Tips and Gotchas with ATs  An AT program must COMMIT or ROLLBACK before terminating. The AT PRAGMA can be used only with individual programs and toplevel anonymous blocks.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . or an error is raised. ± You can use the SET TRANSACTION ISOLATION LEVEL SERIALIZABLE to indicate that you do not want the changes visible until the outer transaction commits. ± You cannot define an entire package as an AT.sql autontrigger*.   The AT PRAGMA goes in the body of packages.

The Invoker Rights Model  Prior to Oracle8i. ± This is called the « Invoker Rights Model PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± This is called the « Definer Rights Model  With Oracle8i. it ran under the privileges of the account in which the program was defined. whenever you executed a stored program. you can now decide at compilation time whether your program or package will execute in the definer's schema (the default) or the schema of the invoker of the code.page 203 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .

Ignores roles and relies on directly-granted privileges. Note: Oracle built-in packages have long had the capability of running under the invoker's authority.About Definer Rights  Allows you to centralize access to and control of underlying data structures. OE Code Order_Mgt Place Cancel Sam_Sales Close Old Orders  OE Data X  Orders Cannot alter table directly. But it can be a source of confusion and architectural problems. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 204 .

and now you do! 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .it's all or nothing. requiring copy of stored module  Security ± No declarative way to restrict privileges on certain modules in a package -..page 205 .Problems with Definer Rights  Deployment & maintenance ± Must install module in all remote databases where needed ± In some databases.. unless you write code in the package to essentially recreate roles programmatically. each user has own copy of table(s). ± Can bypass 8i¶s ³fine-grained´ access features (see the DBMS_RLS package) ± Difficult to audit privileges  Sure would be nice to have a choice.

 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Synonyms may be necessary if modules use object names not qualified by schema. You could also create local..Oracle8i Invoker Rights Syntax  For top level modules: CREATE [ OR REPLACE ] <module type> [ AUTHID { DEFINER | CURRENT_USER } ] AS . the objects referenced may well be different from those against which it compiled. ± In other words.page 206 . ± At run-time. "dummy" objects.. AUTHID goes only in spec.  For modules with separate spec and body. do what it takes to get the code to compile. and must be at the package level.

.acct_mgr.FROM accounts WHERE.. accounts table 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .destroy(. yet have all references to data structures "reflect back" into your own schema."Reflection" Capability of Invoker Rights  With invoker rights.. Central Code schema PACKAGE acct_mgr make AUTHID CURRENT_USER User/Data schema PROCEDURE mng_account IS BEGIN ... you can execute code owned by another schema..page 207 ..).. code. modify destroy . END.

only data ± When your stored code references another stored code element. ± Both static and dynamic SQL is supported.page 208 .sql  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . oneversion. Note: cannot use with wrapped code. the definer rights model is always applied to resolve the reference.sql handy. taking advantage of the invoker rights model whenever possible? ± A creative use of SQL*Plus substitution variables comes in very invdefinv.Tips and Gotchas for Invoker Rights  Does not apply to code objects.  Once a definer rights program is called. all other calls in stack are resolved according to definer rights. ± AUTHID CURRENT_USER is ignored.  Information about the rights model is not available in the data dictionary What if you want to maintain a single version of your code for both pre-Oracle8i and Oracle8i installations.

National HQ Check City Statistics New York Schema stolenlives Chicago Schema stolenlives  Especially handy with dynamic SQL. but you want their own directly-granted privileges to determine access. authid.When to Invoke Invoker Rights  You want to reuse the same code among many users.sql whichsch*. ± Share a program that uses dynamic SQL (whether DBMS_SQL or the new native implementation) and you end up taking the most unexpected DDL and DML detours.page 209 .sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

page 210 .Combining Invoker & Definer Rights  Rely on invoker rights to allow centralized code to work with schema-specific data. Rely on definer rights to access centralized data from any schema. HQ Chicago Check City Statistics  New York stolenlives Analyze Pattern stolenlives perpetrators perp.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

page 211 .Row Level Security DBMS_RLS Row-Level Security 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . The DBMS_RLS package (along with "system contexts") now allow you to do so in a foolproof manner. Row Level Security  The establishment of security policies on (restricted access to) individual rows of a table. Prior to Oracle8i.page 212   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . with which to implement automated row-level security (also referred to as "fine grained access control"). you could achieve this only partially through the use of views. DBMS_RLS.Row-Level Security with DBMS_RLS  Oracle8i offers a new package.

 Let's step through a simple example to see how all these pieces tie together.  Database Logon Triggers ± I want to make sure that when a person logs in. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 213 . their context information is set properly.Components Needed for RLS  System Contexts ± A new feature in Oracle8i. the system context is a named set of attributevalue pairs global to your session.  Security Policy Packages ± You will need to write a package containing functions that establish the security policies to be applied to a particular table.  DBMS_RLS ± Use programs in DBMS_RLS to associate your security policies with tables.

all children are vaccinated. The main tables are patient. highly secure database for NHCS.  We need a top-notch. Here are some rules: ± Doctors can only see patients who are assigned to their clinic. fgac. clinic and regulator. all pregnant women receive excellent prenatal care. popular uprising in the United States has forced the establishment of a national healthcare system. ± A massive. no more private insurance companies soaking up 30 cents on the dollar.A National Health Care System  The year is 2010. ± Regulators can only see patients who reside in the same state.sql  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . doctor.page 214 . ± Patients can only see information about themselves. No more for-profit hospitals pulling billions of dollars out of the system.

SET_CONTEXT ( 'patient_restriction'.Set the Context  Define a context in the database.page 215 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 'DOCTOR'). c_person_id_attr. DBMS_SESSION. doc_rec. See CURSOR doc_cur IS fgac. CREATE CONTEXT patient_restriction USING nhc_pkg.doctor_id). END. DBMS_SESSION.sql for logic that identifies SELECT doctor_id FROM doctor different types of people and WHERE schema_name = USER. sets the context accordingly. BEGIN OPEN doc_cur. FETCH doc_cur INTO doc_rec. doc_rec doc_cur%ROWTYPE. and create a procedure that will set the context attributes (type and ID) upon login. PROCEDURE set_context IS This is a simplification. c_person_type_attr.SET_CONTEXT ( 'patient_restriction'.

name_in VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2 IS l_context VARCHAR2(100) := Extract the context SYS_CONTEXT (c_context. ''' || clause for each type of c_person_id_attr || '''))'. c_person_type_attr).page 216 .Define the Predicate  A predicate is a string that will be appended to the WHERE clause of the table to which this security policy is associated (see next page). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . person. connection. FUNCTION person_predicate ( schema_in VARCHAR2. BEGIN IF l_context = 'DOCTOR' THEN retval := 'home_clinic_id IN (SELECT home_clinic_id FROM doctor We need a different string WHERE doctor_id = SYS_CONTEXT (''' || to modify the WHERE c_context || '''. information for this retval VARCHAR2(2000).

'SELECT. ( => => => => => => 'SCOTT'.page 217 . update or delete against the SCOTT.ADD_POLICY procedure. 'patient'.Create the Security Policy  Use the DBMS_RLS. 'SCOTT'. BEGIN DBMS_RLS.nhc_pkg package.ADD_POLICY OBJECT_SCHEMA OBJECT_NAME POLICY_NAME FUNCTION_SCHEMA POLICY_FUNCTION STATEMENT_TYPES END.PATIENT table will be modified by the string returned by the person_predicate function of the SCOTT.person_predicate'. 'nhc_pkg.DELETE'). 'patient_privacy'. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± The following procedure call specifies that the WHERE clause of any query.UPDATE.

PUT_LINE ( 'Error ' || SQLCODE || ' setting context for ' || USER'). Setting Context  By setting the context in the logon trigger. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN DBMS_OUTPUT. END. fgac.Create Logon Trigger.sql Exception handling in trigger is critical! If you allow an exception to go unhandled. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 218 . CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER set_id_on_logon AFTER LOGON ON DATABASE BEGIN nhc_pkg.set_context. we guarantee that the context is set (and the predicate applied) no matter which product is the entry point to Oracle. logon is disabled.

'person_id')) Patients Visible to "SWALLACE": CSILVA .Chris Silva . Predicate: home_clinic_id IN (SELECT home_clinic_id FROM doctor WHERE doctor_id = SYS_CONTEXT ('patient_restriction'.Queries Transparently Filtered  What you see is determined automatically by who you are. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .IL VSILVA .page 219 .IL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Patient sees only himself.Veva Silva .IL Context Information for "CSILVA": Type: PATIENT ID: Predicate: schema_name = 'CSILVA' Patients Visible to "CSILVA": CSILVA . Context Information for "SWALLACE": Type: DOCTOR Doctor sees only her ID: 1060 patients.Chris Silva .

It's so easy to fall into a rut with a programming language..  ± You learn what you need to get the job done...page 220 . April. March....Take Full Advantage of PL/SQL! January. May.. and you use only what you know....and play a new tune with PL/SQL! 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Jump out of your rut . February.

k.Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Appendices (a.page 221 ..a. If time permits«)     UTL_FILE ± file IO DBMS_JOB ± Job scheduling DBMS_PIPE ± Pipe-based communication DBMS_UTILITY ± the kitchen sink package 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Physical Files 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..Built-in Packages: UTL_FILE UTL_FILE Server-side File I/O Application FOPEN GET_LINE PUT_LINE .page 222 ..

  But you can read lines from a file and write lines to a file. A "version 1" (fairly primitive) utility. when it jumps to 32K. delete. ± Limitations on files you can access (no mapped files.. no use of environmental variables). copy.UTL_FILE: Server-side I/O  Allows you to read from and write to operating system files on the database server. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± No higher-level file operations supported (change privileges.0.5. random access to contents).. ± Maximum of 1023 bytes per line (read or write) until Oracle 8.page 223 .

page 224 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . Puts formatted text into the buffer PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .UTL_FILE Module Outline FCLOSE FCLOSE_ALL FFLUSH FOPEN GET_LINE IS_OPEN NEW_LINE PUT PUT_LINE PUTF Close the specified file Close all open files in your session Flush all data from the UTL_FILE buffer to your file Open a file Get the next line from a file Returns TRUE if the file is open (sort of) Insert a new line character in file at the end of current line Puts text into the UTL_FILE buffer Puts text and new line character into UTL_FILE buffer.

utl_file_dir = * Allows read & write for any directory.  Follow these rules to avoid many headaches. no trailing delimiter. ± Use a separate entry for each directory (and subdirectory. utl_file_dir = /tmp utl_file_dir = /accounts/newdev  And don't do either of the following: utl_file_dir = . ± No single or double quotes around directory.page 225 Allows read & write for current directory. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . there is no subdirectory recursion). ± You do this by adding lines to the instance parameter file.Authorizing Directory Access  Oracle requires you to list explicitly those directories you wish to be able to read/write with UTL_FILE.

modify your initialization file.txt'. */ fid := UTL_FILE. END.PUT_LINE (fid. restart your database. and then run the following test script (it can't get much simpler than this): DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.FILE_TYPE. / utlfile.page 226 . UTL_FILE.FCLOSE (fid).tst  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 'test. 'hello').FOPEN ('c:\temp'. 'W'). UTL_FILE.Test UTL_FILE Access  About the hardest part to working with UTL_FILE is simply getting started. BEGIN /* Change the directory name to one to which you at least || THINK you have read/write access. So before you write anything fancy.

.  The FOPEN function returns a record ("file handle") based on the UTL_FILE..   Maximum of 10 files may be opened in each user session. END. BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE. ± Currently contains a single ID field.Opening a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE. Test to see if file is open with the IS_OPEN function. 'W'). name and operation type. ± Types are 'R' for Read.page 227 . Not much of a test. this function simply returns TRUE if the file handle's id field is NOT NULL.FILE_TYPE. 'W' for Write and 'A' for Append.FILE_TYPE.  Specify file location.txt'. ± In actuality.FOPEN ('c:\temp'. 'test. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

0. getnext.  The NO_DATA_FOUND exception is raised if you read past the end of the file. 'test.Reading from a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.   Can only read from a file opened with the "R" mode.txt'. UTL_FILE. ± In Oracle8 Release 8. myline).page 228 .5 and above. BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE.FOPEN ('c:\temp'. ± You might want to build your own GET_LINE which handles the exception and returns an EOF Boolean status flag.GET_LINE (fid.FCLOSE (fid). the ceiling is raised to 32K. Lines in the file cannot be longer than 1023 bytes in length. 'R').FILE_TYPE.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END. UTL_FILE.

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . PUT_LINE or PUTF. 'W'). BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE.FILE_TYPE.txt'. UTL_FILE.PUT (fid. 'is so much fun').PUTF (fid. END.page 229 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . UTL_FILE.  Call FFLUSH to make sure that everything you have written to the buffer is flushed out to the file. 'test.FCLOSE (fid).Writing to a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE. UTL_FILE. ' that I never\nwant to %s'.PUT_LINE (fid. '&1'). allowing for some formatting. ± PUTF is like the C printf program. UTL_FILE is so much fun that I never want to stop Resulting Text  You can use PUT.FOPEN ('c:\temp'. UTL_FILE. ± The file buffers are automatically flushed when you close a file or exit your session. 'UTL_FILE').

GET_LINE (fid. UTL_FILE.Closing a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE. 'R').  If you do not close the file. END. You should close files in exception handlers to make sure that files are not left "hanging" open.FILE_TYPE.FCLOSE (fid). You can close a single file with FCLOSE or all open files with FCLOSE_ALL.FOPEN ('c:\temp'. you will not see the data you have (supposedly) written to that file.READ_ERROR THEN UTL_FILE. BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE. 'test. EXCEPTION WHEN UTL_FILE.page 230   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .FCLOSE (fid). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . UTL_FILE. myline).txt'.

EXCEPTION. EXCEPTION.page 231 .  UTL_FILE relies on a combination of user-defined exceptions and STANDARD exceptions to communicate errors. ± UTL_FILE-named exceptions in other cases. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Error Handling in UTL_FILE PACKAGE UTL_FILE IS invalid_path invalid_mode invalid_filehandle invalid_operation read_error write_error internal_error END. EXCEPTION. EXCEPTION. EXCEPTION. ± They all share a common SQLCODE of 1. ± NO_DATA_FOUND when you try to read past the end of the file. EXCEPTION.  You have to take special care to trap and handle the named exceptions. EXCEPTION.

RAISE.INVALID_OPERATION THEN recNgo (PLVfile.READ_ERROR THEN recNgo (PLVfile. Re-raise exception if you want it to propagate from that block. RAISE.c_invalid_path). RAISE. WHEN UTL_FILE.WRITE_ERROR THEN recNgo (PLVfile.Recommended Exception Section EXCEPTION WHEN UTL_FILE. RAISE. WHEN UTL_FILE.INVALID_MODE THEN recNgo (PLVfile.c_write_error). record the error. RAISE. WHEN UTL_FILE.sql  Trap locally by name. RAISE.c_invalid_mode).c_read_error). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .c_invalid_filehandle).INVALID_FILEHANDLE THEN recNgo (PLVfile. WHEN UTL_FILE. utlflexc. END.c_invalid_operation).page 232  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . WHEN UTL_FILE.INTERNAL_ERROR THEN recNgo (PLVfile.INVALID_PATH THEN recNgo (PLVfile.c_internal_error). translating the generic user-defined exception into an understandable message. RAISE. WHEN UTL_FILE.

.. Background Process DBA_JOBS Oracle Job Queue Subsystem 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 233 .Built-in Packages: DBMS_JOB DBMS_JOB Scheduled Execution of Stored Procedures Application SUBMIT RUN REMOVE .

page 234 . Schedule large batch jobs to run on "off hours". which in turn offers job scheduling capabilities within the Oracle Server. but only ³publicly available´ and supported in PL/SQL Release 2. Built by Oracle to support snapshots and replication. Schedule regular maintenance on instances.1.2. Create a listener program to poll the contents of a pipe and take action.Overview of DBMS_JOB  DBMS_JOB provides an API to the Oracle job queues. You can use DBMS_JOB to: Replicate data between different database instances. ± ± ± ±    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Made its debut in PL/SQL Release 2. ± Spawn background processes to avoid blocking client process.

Forces immediate execution of the specified job number. Changes when a queued job will run. Broken jobs will not run as scheduled. Submits a job to the queue using a predefined job number. Changes the job string of a job. Returns the job string for a job number. Removes the job from the queue.DBMS_JOB Module Outline BROKEN Marks the job as either FIXED or BROKEN.page 235 CHANGE INTERVAL ISUBMIT NEXT_DATE REMOVE RUN SUBMIT USER_EXPORT WHAT 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . Submits a job to the queue returning a unique job number. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Changes one or all attributes of a job. Changes the interval between executions of a job.

'calculate_totals.ISUBMIT and supply the job number. 'SYSDATE + 1').Submitting a Job DECLARE job# BINARY_INTEGER. Notice that the start time is a DATE expression.SUBMIT (job#. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . instead of having DBMS_JOB generate one for you. ± In the above example. I run calculate_totals immediately and then on a daily basis thereafter.  A job is a call to a stored procedure or an anonymous block ± It must end with a semi-colon and can contain ³hard-coded´ arguments.page 236 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . SYSDATE. BEGIN DBMS_JOB. END. you specify the date on which it should next execute. and then the job¶s execution interval (frequency of execution).'.  When you submit a job. while the interval is a string (this is dynamic PL/SQL!)  You can also call DBMS_JOB.

'.Submit Job Example DECLARE v_jobno INTEGER.''TENK''' || '.null.estimate_percent=>50). END. DBMS_DDL. interval => 'TRUNC(SYSDATE+1)' ).ANALYZE_OBJECT. to analyze a specific table every evening at midnight. BEGIN DBMS_JOB. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .submit ( job => v_jobno.ANALYZE_OBJECT ' || '(''TABLE''.''ESTIMATE''. next_date => TRUNC (SYSDATE + 1). /  This block submits a job that uses a built-in procedure.''LOAD1''.page 237 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . what => 'DBMS_DDL. p.l (v_jobno).

next_date => SYSDATE + 1/24 .what => 'my_job1(''string_parm_value''. executes immediately.interval => 'SYSDATE +1').120).ISUBMIT(3.SYSDATE+1. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . DBMS_JOB.'SYSDATE+10/1440').'.SYSDATE. ± Job 2 passes a date into procedure MY_JOB2. numbered 1. and 3. ± Job 1 passes a string and number into procedure MY_JOB1. executes for the first time tomorrow and every 10 minutes thereafter.2.null).page 238 .ISUBMIT (job => 1 .'BEGIN null.DBMS_JOB.ISubmit Job Example BEGIN DBMS_JOB. runs it in one hour and executes every day thereafter. 'my_job2(date_IN=>SYSDATE). and will be removed from the queue automatically. END.ISUBMIT (2. DBMS_JOB.' . /  This block submits three jobs to the job queue. ± Job 3 is a PL/SQL block which does nothing. END.' .

''MONDAY''). NEXT_DAY (SYSDATE. NEXT_DAY (SYSDATE. at 9 AM Every Monday. ''SATURDAY'') 2/24' 'NEXT_DAY ( ADD_MONTHS (TRUNC (SYSDATE. Wednesday and Friday at 6 PM 'SYSDATE + 1/24' 'NEXT_DAY (TRUNC (SYSDATE). ''Q''). 3). ''WEDNESDAY''). Every hour Every Sunday at 2 AM First Monday of each quarter.Specifying Job Times & Frequencies  Probably the most complicated part of using DBMS_JOB is to get the string expression of the job interval right. ''MONDAY'') + 9/24' 'TRUNC (LEAST ( NEXT_DAY (SYSDATE. ''FRIDAY''))) + 18/24' PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Since it's a string. ± Use date arithmetic to request intervals smaller than a day.page 239 + 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . you must use 2 single quotes to embed strings.

END LOOP.Other Job Queue Operations  Remove a job from the queue. Remove all jobs for current schema.  Run a job immediately.job).  Export jobs from the queue.ISUBMIT. DBMS_JOB.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . retaining current job number. ± Only if the job was submitted from same schema BEGIN FOR rec IN (SELECT * FROM USER_JOBS) LOOP DBMS_JOB.page 240 . ± Produces a string that can be used to recreate an existing job in the job queue. ± Performs an implicit COMMIT in current session.REMOVE (rec. ± Uses DBMS_JOB.RUN (my_job#). expjob.

jr.sid AND jr. who owns them and when they began.Job Queue Views  You can also view the job queue by looking at the DBA_JOBS_RUNNING.job ORDER BY jr. SELECT jr.sql FROM DBA_JOBS_RUNNING .job .sid = jr. ± The following query blends job information with session information to display currently-executing jobs.job = j.this_date .what job_id username start_date job_definition jr j s showjobs. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .V$SESSION WHERE s.this_date.DBA_JOBS . DBA_JOBS and USER_JOBS views.page 241 .username .

The valid range is 1 to 3600 (a maximum.page 242 . of one hour). You will have to take special DBA action if you want to restrict who can run jobs. ± job_queue_interval=N where N is the interval in seconds to check the job queue. The valid range is 0 through 36. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . therefore.  You will need to set three parameters in the init.Setting up the Job Facility  Make sure that the correct access is set up for the DBMS_JOB package.ora (initialization) file for your database instance: ± job_queue_processes=N where n is the number of concurrent background processes permitted. ± The default is PUBLIC access.

 To avoid unexpected and unhandled failures of scheduled jobs: ± Always use the RUN built-in to execute your job in a ³test´ mode. ± Always include a WHEN OTHERS exception handler in your job program which traps any and all problems and automatically sets the job status to broken. it may cause the background processes to fail and no longer run any jobs at all. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Error Handling with DBMS_JOB  What if your stored procedure fails? ± After 16 attempts.page 243 . Then you can go ahead and submit it. ± Do you want it to try 16 times? ± In addition. if your failure raises an unhandled exception. the job facility will mark your job as broken.

µFAIL¶)..BROKEN (job#. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN job# := job_pkg.page 244 .sql showspc.job (µcalc_totals¶) DBMS_JOB.Stopping the Job When It Fails PROCEDURE calc_totals IS BEGIN . job_pkg. END. You can go in and fix the problem.sql  The WHEN OTHERS exception handler of the calc_totals procedure traps any kind of failure. spacelog.log (µcalc_totals¶. ± Calls log program of package to record that failure took place. ± Obtains the job number from a packaged function by passing the name of the procedure. ± Uses a call to BROKEN to set the status of the job to ³broken´.. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . TRUE). ± Now the job facility will not try to run this program again.

perform a COMMIT after your submit. ± We've noticed some aberrant.    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  You will need to fully-qualify all database links (with user name and password) to get them to work properly. When a job runs. ± DBMS_JOB only allows you to modify characteristics and behavior of jobs submitted by the current schema.page 245 . difficult to reproduce behavior at times with "straight" procedure calls. it picks up the current execution environment for the user. You can use the DBMS_IJOB to manage the jobs of other users."Good to Knows" for DBMS_JOB  You may find it useful to always wrap your stored procedure call (the what) inside a BEGIN-END block. If you find that you submit a job to run immediately and it does not start.

page 246 .Built-in Packages: DBMS_PIPE DBMS_PIPE Inter-session Communication 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

± More sophisticated debugging inside PL/SQL programs (work around fundamental limitations of DBMS_OUTPUT).page 247 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Uses for DBMS_PIPE include: ± Parallelization of program execution. You can parallelize your own code. ± Perform and commit DML in a separate transaction space from your main transaction. ± Operates outside of database transaction limitations. Oracle uses database pipes to parallelize database operations. ± Interface PL/SQL-database activities with operating system functions and programs written in other languages.DBMS_PIPE Overview  Allows communication between different Oracle sessions through a pipe in the RDBMS Shared Global Area.

± The pipe sends/receives a message. which can be composed of one or more separate packets. using a maximum of 4096 bytes.page 248 . They are reserved for Oracle use).Architecture of DBMS_PIPE Shared Global Area ³Sue´ ³Bob´ Message Buffer Message Buffer Session A  Session B A pipe is a named object that uses the System Global Area to provide a non-transaction based conduit of information. ± Names can be up to 128 chars long (do not use names beginning with ³ORA$´. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Processing Flow of DBMS_PIPE  Construct a message from packets of information. ± If there isn¶t currently room in the pipe.  Unpack the message packets and take action. date.sql PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . date or number). you can wait for up to 1000 days (or 86400000 seconds) for the pipe to be cleared. so you should always specify a timeout period. ± Separate out the individual packets in the message (again: string.sql pipex2.page 249 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein pipex1. ± Each packet can be a string. ± There is just one message buffer per session.  Send the message to a named pipe. ROWID or RAW.  Receive a message from that pipe. ± You can wait for up to 1000 days for a message. number. ± This is the default.

making it a candidate for removal with a LRU algorithm. SEND_MESSAGE Sends contents of message buffer to the specified pipe.DBMS_PIPE Module Outline Module Name CREATE_PIPE Description Creates a PUBLIC or PRIVATE pipe. RECEIVE_MESSAGE Receives a message from pipe and copies to local buffer. Clears your buffer so that PACK_MESSAGE and UNPACK_MESSAGE can work from the first item. NEXT_ITEM_TYPE Returns the datatype of the next item in the piped message.page 250 . REMOVE_PIPE RESET_BUFFER Removes a pipe explicitly created via CREATE_PIPE. UNPACK_MESSAGE Unpacks the next item from the local message buffer and deposits it into the specified local variable. UNIQUE_SESSION_NAME Returns name that is unique among all sessions in the database. PURGE Empties the contents of a pipe into your local buffer freeing it for removal. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . PACK_MESSAGE Packs an item into the message buffer for your session.

± Use CREATE_PIPE to create a pipe explicitly. BEGIN stat := DBMS_PIPE.CREATE_PIPE ( pipename => 'bbs'. ± Send messages to non-existent pipe implicitly create it. ± Specify TRUE for private argument of CREATE_PIPE. maxpipesize => 20000. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  A public pipe is accessible as long as you know its name. ± Implicitly-created pipes are always public.page 251 .Creating Public and Private Pipes  There are two ways to create pipes: implicitly and explicitly. PROCEDURE newpipe IS stat INTEGER. private => TRUE).  An explicit pipe can be private (accessible only to sessions with matching userID or SYSDBA privileges).

60. expanding pipe size to 40 Kbytes. 10 * 4096). and new max pipe size (you can make it bigger.. but not smaller). waiting up to 1 minute. IF pipe_stat != 0 THEN RAISE could_not_send. FOR month_num IN 1 . Send to "monthly" pipe. Status of 0 means message was sent. FUNCTION send_message (pipename IN VARCHAR2.Sending a Message Provide pipe name. maxpipesize IN INTEGER DEFAULT 8192) RETURN INTEGER.page 252 .PACK_MESSAGE ( total_sales (month_num)). END LOOP. pipe_stat := DBMS_PIPE. timeout IN INTEGER DEFAULT maxwait. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Fill your message buffer with packets of data. seconds you will wait. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 12 LOOP DBMS_PIPE.SEND_MESSAGE ( µmonthly¶.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± You need to know the datatype of packet or check it using NEXT_ITEM_TYPE. PROCEDURE unpack_message (item OUT VARCHAR2). timeout IN INTEGER DEFAULT maxwait) RETURN INTEGER. PROCEDURE unpack_message (item OUT NUMBER).page 253 .  First you pull the message from the pipe and place it in buffer with RECEIVE_MESSAGE. ± Pipe status of 0 means the message was read successfully.  Then you call UNPACK_MESSAGE to extract individual packets from the message. PROCEDURE unpack_message (item OUT DATE).Receiving and Unpack a Message FUNCTION receive_message (pipename IN VARCHAR2. ± Specify pipe and number of seconds you will wait before you time out.

If I got something. PROCEDURE analyze_assembly_data (every_n_secs IN INTEGER) IS pipe_status INTEGER.RECEIVE_MESSAGE ( 'production'. prod_total). ELSE RAISE_APPLICATION_ERROR ( Stop process if -20000.A Pipe-based Listener Program  Program wakes up every N seconds to read the data from the pipe and analyze results from assembly line (an intentional "infinite loop"!). END LOOP. DBMS_PIPE. pass it on to the IF pipe_status = 0 computation THEN program. END IF. data not received. analyze_production (SYSDATE. END. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . every_n_secs). Wait up to N prod_total NUMBER. 'Production data unavailable.').UNPACK_MESSAGE (prod_total). seconds for the BEGIN next report.page 254 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . LOOP pipe_status := DBMS_PIPE.

you have to make sure that you unpack a packet into the right kind of variable.tst  Since a message can be composed of packets of different datatypes.Unpacking the Message FUNCTION next_item_type RETURN INTEGER. Returns one of the following values: Value 0 6 9 11 12 23 Description or Data type No more items in buffer NUMBER VARCHAR2 ROWID DATE RAW dbpipe. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 255 . Either: ± You know the datatype and therefore can ³hard-code´ the correct variable into the call to UNPACK_MESSAGE.sql dbpipe. ± Or you use the built-in NEXT_ITEM_TYPE to tell you in advance the datatype of the next packet in the message and take appropriate action.

but are not dependent on each other. In order to do so I must first compute total sales.  Suppose I want to calculate my net profit. total office expenses and total compensation. ± These programs each take 15 minutes.page 256 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . I must execute them sequentially and incur an elapsed time of 45 minutes before I calculate the profits. you can do the same for your application if: ± You have multiple CPUs available.  Without pipes.Parallelizing Your Code with Pipes  Oracle uses DBMS_PIPE to improve RDBMS performance. ± You have processes which can run in parallel. ± The CEO is decidedly unhappy about the delay.

page 257 .Sequential vs. Parallel Execution Sequential Execution: Maximum Elapsed Time S t a r t E n d Process A Process B Process C Parallel Execution: Minimum Elapsed Time Start Process A Process B Process C End 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

calculate_net_profits.Parallelizing PL/SQL Execution BEGIN kick_off_sales_calc.in a muchdecreased elapsed time. Then net profits can be computed -. kick_off_exp_calc.page 258 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . it puts a message (perhaps even a value) into the pipe. kick_off_totcomp_calc. wait_for_confirmation. END. ± Other programs running in the background grab the messages and start their corresponding calculation program.  The ³kick off´ programs pass their messages to separate pipes. ± When each program is complete. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  The ³wait´ program waits till it receives a message from each program.

page 259 . stat := DBMS_PIPE.PACK_MESSAGE (NULL). stat := DBMS_PIPE. calculate sales.SEND_MESSAGE (µsales¶). IF stat = 0 THEN lots_of_number_crunching.PACK_MESSAGE (1995). DBMS_PIPE. END. Receive the year.Code to Kick Off and Calculate PROCEDURE kick_off_sales_calc IS stat INTEGER. BEGIN stat := DBMS_PIPE. stat := DBMS_PIPE.RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µsales¶).SEND_MESSAGE (µsales¶). and send back the results. BEGIN DBMS_PIPE. END IF. PROCEDURE calculate_sales IS stat INTEGER. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Send message to start calculations. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .SEND_MESSAGE (µsales¶). END.PACK_MESSAGE (sales$). ELSE DBMS_PIPE.

UNPACK_MESSAGE (comp$). Perform final calculation.UNPACK_MESSAGE (sales$).UNPACK_MESSAGE (offexp$).Waiting for Confirmation PROCEDURE wait_for_confirmation IS stat INTEGER. stat := DBMS_PIPE. DBMS_PIPE.RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µcomp¶).page 260 . END. PROCEDURE calculate_net_profits IS BEGIN net_profits := sales$ .RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µsales¶). parallel.offexp$ . The order in which you wait is insignificant. DBMS_PIPE. END. BEGIN stat := DBMS_PIPE.comp$. stat := DBMS_PIPE. Wait for all calculations to finish.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . DBMS_PIPE.RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µoffexp¶).

page 261 .tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Other DBMS_PIPE Examples  Simple trace package that sends it output either to screen or to pipe. obtains the data.pkg  Implementation of a system-wide. ± A request for data is passed to a "central" pipe.pkg syscache. syscache. and sends it to the pipe. ± Demonstrates the use of toggles and switches in packages. watch. ± A listener program grabs the request (including the return pipe name). in-memory cache. ± The requester reads the information from the pipe.pkg p_and_l.

A µgrab-bag¶ of miscellaneous operations SCHEMA 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ...page 262 .Built-in Packages: DBMS_UTILITY DBMS_UTILITY Application GET_TIME GET_HASH_VALUE FORMAT_CALL_STACK .

Parses comma-delimited list to index-by table.pkg dbparm. Returns database version (Oracle8) Executes DDL statement (Oracle8). Gets file number part of data block address. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .DBMS_UTILITY Module Outline ANALYZE_DATABASE ANALYZE_PART_OBJECT Analyze objects in database Runs ANALYZE TABLE or ANALYZE INDEX for each partition of the object (Oracle8). Returns error stack. Gets block number part of data block address. Recompile INVALID objects in specified schema. Returns execution call stack.pkg COMMA_TO_TABLE COMPILE_SCHEMA DATA_BLOCK_ADDRESS_BLOCK DATA_BLOCK_ADDRESS_FILE DB_VERSION EXEC_DDL_STATEMENT FORMAT_CALL_STACK FORMAT_ERROR_STACK GET_HASH_VALUE 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . Returns hash value for string.page 263 dbver.

page 264 . cont. GET_PARAMETER_VALUE GET_TIME IS_PARALLEL_SERVER MAKE_DATA_BLOCK_ADDRESS NAME_RESOLVE NAME_TOKENIZE PORT_STRING TABLE_TO_COMMA Retrieves value of database parameter (Oracle8).DBMS_UTILITY Module Outline. Resolves name of object into component parts. Returns platform and version of database. Returns "current time" down to hundredth of second. Converts list (in index-by-table) of elements into a comma-delimited list (string). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Parses string object designator into components. Creates data block address from block & file numbers. Returns TRUE if in parallel server mode.

Basic steps necessary to convert GET_TIME into a performance analysis tool.GET_TIME . DECLARE v_start BINARY_INTEGER. especially those that run in sub-second time. ± SYSDATE only reflects times down to the nearest second. DBMS_OUTPUT.Sub-Second Timings with GET_TIME  GET_TIME returns the number of 100ths of seconds that have elapsed since an arbitrary point in time.v_start). so GET_TIME offers significant additional granularity. END.page 265 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . BEGIN v_start := DBMS_UTILITY. calc_totals.  Compare results from consecutive calls to GET_TIME to determine the elapsed time of PL/SQL code execution.GET_TIME. ± Useful when analyzing individual PL/SQL programs.PUT_LINE (DBMS_UTILITY.

capture. PROCEDURE turn_off.sps plvtmr.Building a Layer Over GET_TIME Partial package specification PACKAGE PLVtmr IS PROCEDURE turn_on. calc_totals. END. PROCEDURE capture ( context_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) PROCEDURE show_elapsed (prefix_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL.page 266 . END PLVtmr. reset_in IN BOOLEAN := TRUE).spb 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . PROCEDURE set_factor (factor_in IN NUMBER).sql plvtmr. adjust_in IN NUMBER := 0.show_elapsed. BEGIN PLVtmr. Clean and lean timing code ovrhead. PLVtmr.

COMPANY_TYPE procedure STEVEN.VALIDATE_REQUEST function STEVEN.CALC_NET_WORTH anonymous block  "Little known facts" about FORMAT_CALL_STACK: ± Contains embedded new-line characters. ± Most recent program at beginning of "report". ± Does not show package elements. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN DBMS_OUTPUT.page 267 . ----.FORMAT_CALL_STACK). equivalent to CHR(10).Accessing the Execution Call Stack Use in the exception section to show context of error.PUT_LINE ( DBMS_UTILITY. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END. only the package name.PL/SQL Call Stack ----object line object handle number name 88ce3f74 88e49fc4 88e49390 88e2bd20 8 2 1 1 package STEVEN.

END LOOP. Instead. startpos INTEGER := 1. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE dispcs IS stk VARCHAR2(10000). END. startpos. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 1).Accessing Call Stack Contents  The call stack length can easily exceed 255 bytes. CHR(10).page 268 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . dispcs. next_line := SUBSTR ( stk.startpos + 1). next_newline . which means you cannot pass it to DBMS_OUTPUT directly.sp dispcs. next_line VARCHAR2(255).tst callstack. BEGIN stk := DBMS_UTILITY.PUT_LINE (next_line). next_newline INTEGER. EXIT WHEN next_newline = 0. use a loop to read through the stack.sps DBMS_OUTPUT.pkg plvcs. startpos. startpos := next_newline + 1.FORMAT_CALL_STACK || CHR(10). LOOP next_newline := INSTR (stk.

part1_type OUT NUMBER.. part2 OUT VARCHAR2. PROCEDURE DBMS_UTILITY. see it as an opportunity..for encapsulation! showcomp.NAME_RESOLVE (name IN VARCHAR2. schema OUT VARCHAR2.page 269 . ± Use NAME_RESOLVE to break down an identifier string into its components easily.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . the way they are attached also follows a complicated syntax.but don't see it as a problem.. dblink OUT VARCHAR2. part1 OUT VARCHAR2..Resolving Names of Stored Code  Code names have many components. object_number OUT NUMBER).  Possible "Part 1" Types 5 7 8 9 Synonym Procedure Function Package What a chore! All those arguments.sp snc. context IN NUMBER.

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