Achieving PL/SQL Excellence

Oracle PL/SQL Advanced Techniques
Oracle7 thru Oracle8i
Steven Feuerstein
www.StevenFeuerstein.com www.Quest.com www.OReilly.com
and contributions most excellent from Bill Pribyl and Dick Bolz

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 1

Objective & Outline 

Objective
± Expand your knowledge and awareness of important and new features of the PL/SQL language. 

Outline
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± Building with Packages (Oracle7+) PL/SQL Collections (Oracle7 and Oracle8+) Cursor Variables (Oracle7 and Oracle8+) Dynamic SQL: DBMS_SQL and Native Dynamic SQL (8i) Calling Java from PL/SQL (Oracle8i) and C (Oracle8) Oracle Advanced Queuing with DBMS_AQ (Oracle8) Managing Large Objects with DBMS_LOB (Oracle8) Other Oracle8i New Features
» Autonomous Transactions (Oracle8i) » Invoker Rights Model (Oracle8i) » Row Level Security: DBMS_RLS

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Software Used in Training 

PL/Vision: a library of packages installed on top of PL/SQL.
± PL/Vision Lite - use it, copy, change it for free -- unless you build software to be sold commercially. ± Active PL/SQL Knowledge Base: contains PL/Vision Professional, the fully supported and enhanced version. 

Demonstration scripts executed in the training can be found on the RevealNet PL/SQL Pipeline:
± http://www.revealnet.com/Pipelines/PLSQL/index.htm ± Archives surfboard, Miscellaneous, PL/SQL Seminar Files ± See filedesc.doc for a listing of many of the files.
plsql_ides.txt 

The PL/SQL IDE (Integrated Development Environment).
± You no longer have to use SQL*Plus and a crude editor! Choose from among the many listed in plsql_ides.txt.

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Achieving PL/SQL Excellence

Building with PL/SQL Packages 
 

Overview Initialization section Overloading

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What is a Package? 

A collection of code elements, from procedures and functions to TYPE, variable and cursor declarations.
± Single-most important structure within PL/SQL, and almost certainly one of the most under-utilized. ± Conceptually very simple, it can take some time to fully grasp the implications and potential of the package. 

The method of choice by Oracle and other software developers for extending the PL/SQL language.
± You will find packages in the database, in Oracle Developer/2000, in Oracle Application Server. 

Let¶s review some of the benefits of packages.
tmr.pkg dbparm.pkg

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When to Build a Package  Join physically logically-related code. watch. custrules.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .pks te_employee. you call the packaged procedures and functions instead. ± There's a big difference between a bunch of separate programs and a coherent. ± Can lead to performance improvements. ± Instead of writing SQL directly in your programs. package-based "component".pkb  Construct very flexible and usable utilities for developers.pkg  Improve transaction integrity by hiding data structures behind the package interface. te_employee. ± Puts more structure and organization in your body of code.pkg insga.page 6 .

the first time any package element is referenced.page 7 . Does the package have an init section? yes Run initialization code. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± The PL/SQL runtime engine determines when and if this code should be run. Program references package element the first time in each session. no Complete request for packaged element.Package Initialization  The initialization section is a block of code at the end of the package body that is executed once per session.

± Is not required.  Useful for: ± Performing complex setting of default or initial values. ± Can have its own exception handling section. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein BEGIN after/outside of any program defined in the pkg.Package Initialization Structure  The initialization section: ± Is defined after and outside of any programs in the package. In fact. FUNCTION func RETURN BEGIN END. most packages you build won't have one. BEGIN END pkg. PACKAGE BODY pkg IS PROCEDURE proc IS BEGIN END. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Setting up package data which does not change for the duration of a session. ± Confirming that package is properly instantiated.page 8 .

init. show_toolbar. printer FROM user_config WHERE user_id = USER. END sessinit.. Section  An unusual package! ± Specification contains only variables. END sessinit.Configure Session with Init. */ 'Y'.tst this user. 'lpt1'. ± Body contains only initialization section. show_toolbar CHAR(1). tb_flag. EXCEPTION WHEN NO_DATA_FOUND THEN /* No record for show_lov := show_toolbar := printer := PACKAGE sessinit IS show_lov CHAR(1)..page 9 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . PACKAGE BODY sessinit IS /* No declared package elements at all! */ BEGIN /* Get user preferences for this user. 'Y'. printer VARCHAR2(60). 'No profile for ' || USER). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . WHEN OTHERS THEN RAISE_APPLICATION_ERROR (-20000. */ SELECT lov_flag.pkg init.  Also a package with many design flaws. defprinter INTO show_lov.

Initialization section populates a PL/SQL table.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . fmts(2) := 'DD-MON-YYYY'. fmts(4) := 'MM/DD'. fmts(11) := 'YYYYMMDD'. fmts(10) := 'MMDDYYYY'. END dt. ± This increases the flexibility of the date conversion process. employs several PL/SQL tables to convert strings and to perform date arithmetic. fmts(9) := 'MM/DD/YYYY'.page 10 . fmts(12) := 'RRMMDD'. BEGIN fmts(1) := 'DD-MON-RR'. fmts(3) := 'DD-MON'. PLVdate.Populate Collections  The PL/Vision Date package.pkg dates.pkg file demonstrates the basic technique (and the reliance on an initialization section) used to achieve this flexibility. datemgr.. fmt_count := 12. ± The datemgr. ..

Program Overloading  When you overload programs. ± If you want others to use your code. myproc  Overloading is a critical feature when building comprehensive programmatic interfaces (APIs) or components using packages. myproc myproc 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Overloading transfers the "need to know" from the user to the overloaded program.page 11 . ± You can overload modules in any declaration section and in packages. you give two or more programs the same name. you need to make that code as smart and as easy to use as possible.

± You just probably never gave it a thought. number_string := TO_CHAR (10000). number_string := TO_CHAR_FROM_NUMBER (10000).page 12 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . you would have to deal with something like this: date_string := TO_CHAR_FROM_DATE (SYSDATE. and took functions like TO_CHAR and TO_DATE totally for granted. date_string := TO_CHAR (SYSDATE.Overloading in PL/SQL Built-ins  PL/SQL uses overloading in many common functions. 'MMDDYY'). ± But Oracle couldn't offer that level of convenience without overloading. 'MMDDYY'). Without overloading.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Arguments differ only in their mode (IN. ± 2. When you compile the package or block containing the overloaded code.page 13 . OUT. ± The programs are of different types: procedure and function.  Distinguishing characteristics: ± The formal parameters of overloaded modules must differ in number.  Undistinguishing characteristics: ± Functions differ only in their RETURN datatype. VARCHAR2 is not different enough). When you compile programs that use the overloaded code. the compiler must be able to distinguish between the two calls at compile-time. There are two different "compile times": ± 1. ± Their formal parameters differ only in datatype and the datatypes are in the same family.How Overloading Works  For two or more modules to be overloaded. IN OUT). order or datatype family (CHAR vs.

Examples of Invalid Overloadings PACKAGE too_similar IS PROCEDURE calc (reg_in IN CHAR). PROCEDURE proc1 (val IN OUT VARCHAR2). which one? too_similar.proc1 (v_value). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END param_modes.PUT_LINE (only_returns.page 14 . Only difference is function RETURN type. Parameter data types cause conflict. which one? DBMS_OUTPUT. PROCEDURE calc (reg_in IN VARCHAR2). which one? param_modes. FUNCTION func1 (val IN VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2. PACKAGE param_modes IS PROCEDURE proc1 (val IN VARCHAR2). END only_returns. PACKAGE only_returns IS FUNCTION func1 (val IN VARCHAR2) RETURN DATE.func1 (v_value)).calc ('123'). Only difference is parameter mode. END too_many_cals.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . You use the type of data and not its value to determine which of the overloaded programs should be executed.l substitute does an even better job.  Overloading by Type.Overload Wherever Possible  Supporting Many Data Combinations ± Apply the same action to different kinds or combinations of data. ± The DBMS_OUTPUT. you may construct different versions of the ³same´ program which correspond to different patterns of use. so much as providing different ways of requesting the same activity.  Fitting the Program to the User ± To make your code as useful as possible. not Value ± A less common application of overloading. In this case. the overloading does not provide a single name for different activities.page 15 .PUT_LINE procedure illustrates this technique -and the PL/Vision p.

PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2.HH:MI:SS PM'). PACKAGE p IS PROCEDURE l (date_in IN DATE. p. PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2). YYYY .sps p. YYYY . number_in IN NUMBER). PROCEDURE l (number_in IN NUMBER).page 16 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .spb PROCEDURE l (boolean_in IN BOOLEAN). PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2. PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2. mask_in IN VARCHAR2 := µMonth DD.A "Classic" Overloaded Package  Many different datatype combinations. allowing the user to pass data to the "display engine" without writing "pre-processing" code.HH:MI:SS PM'). date_in IN DATE. mask_in IN VARCHAR2 := 'Month DD. END p. boolean_in IN BOOLEAN). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

IF print_report_fl THEN DBMS_OUTPUT.l (SQLERRM. END IF. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..l (print_report_fl).l ('So what is different?'). DBMS_OUTPUT.l (SYSDATE). 'MM/DD/YY HH:MI:SS')). p. ELSE DBMS_OUTPUT. p. p. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein ‡Extended overloadings are more likely to meet user needs. SQLCODE).Advantage of Extended Overloading ‡ Minimal overloading means lots of extra coding.PUT_LINE ('FALSE').page 17 .PUT_LINE (SQLERRM || ': ' || TO_CHAR (SQLCODE)). DBMS_OUTPUT..PUT_LINE ('So what is different?').PUT_LINE (TO_CHAR (SYSDATE. DBMS_OUTPUT. p.PUT_LINE ('TRUE').

Fitting the Program to the User Writing "unnecessary" code? Time to overload!  A single piece of functionality.. can be applied or needed under very different circumstances. think about the way it will be used. ± Your code is a a more natural "fit" under a variety of requirements. such as "display data" or "create a file". few developers are considerate enough of their users to try to anticipate their needs.page 18   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . the user of your package can benefit from writing less code.and taken completely for granted. In my experience. appreciated. ± If you want to write software that is admired.. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . If you take these different circumstances into account when you design your package specification.

'exists.Creating a File for a Quick Touch  Suppose a developer needs to create a file to be used as a "flag" in the operating system.FILE_TYPE. 'W'). UTL_FILE.  In other words. even though you are simply going to close the file immediately after opening it. 'blah'). ± She doesn't care what's in it. Of course. sometimes you will want to create a file and then perform additional operations. BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE.FOPEN ('tmp/flags'. right? WRONG! PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .PUT_LINE (fid. It just needs to be present. so this is just the way it has to be. ± Here is the code required by UTL_FILE: DECLARE fid UTL_FILE. END.flg'.FCLOSE (fid).page 19  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . you have to declare the record to hold the file handle. UTL_FILE.

pkg PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . line_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) RETURN UTL_FILE. /* Function */ FUNCTION fcreate (file_in IN VARCHAR2. v_user).FILE_TYPE.FILE_TYPE. line_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL).ini'. END PLVfile. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Use as Function DECLARE fid UTL_FILE. END. Use as Procedure BEGIN PLVfile.fcreate ('exists.  Overloading of FCreate PACKAGE PLVfile IS /* Procedure */ PROCEDURE fcreate (file_in IN VARCHAR2. custrules. BEGIN fid := PLVfile.fcreate ('temp. TO_CHAR (SYSDATE)).put_line (fid.Procedure and Function Overloaded  Why not overload a "create file" program so that you can pick the one that most closely fits your situation? Consider the PLVfile package of PL/Vision.flg'). PLVfile.page 20 .

"By-Type" Overloading  In some situations. ± Pass a string ³name´ of the datatype. you must call the DEFINE_COLUMN procedure to define the datatype of the Nth column in the cursor. but the type of data. the user does not need to pass data. Define a different program name for each datatype.page 21 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± For example. when you use DBMS_SQL to set up a dynamic query. ± Pass a piece of data of the right type.  There are three ways to accomplish this: ± Don't overload.

. lotsa names. 1). 'STRING'.DEFINE_COLUMN ± PLVgen. 2.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. DBMS_SQL..DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.func 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . DBMS_SQL. 'NUMBER').. Lotsa typing.  Nasty hard-coding. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.. 2.. DBMS_SQL.. DBMS_SQL. 1.Options for Specifying Column Type  Don't even bother overloading. 2.page 22 . 30).DEFINE_VARCHAR2_COLUMN (cur..VARCHAR2_TYPE. 30). 30).. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.  Now let's look at two examples of overloading by datatype.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.  So many program names to remember! Pass a literal value. 1.NUMBER_TYPE)... ± DBMS_SQL..DEFINE_INTEGER_COLUMN (cur. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. Pass a named constant. DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur..

DEFINE_COLUMN. 30).DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. from the perspective of DBMS_SQL. v_ename. 1). 1. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 2. 1. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN procedure defines the datatype of a column. ± To make it easier to accomplish this task.GET_TIME). v_empno). 'a'.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. USER.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.any value -. 1. 2. DBMS_SQL. 30).page 23 .DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. 30).Defining Dynamic SQL Columns  The DBMS_SQL. 2. DBMS_UTILITY. ± The three code blocks below are equivalent. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL.of the correct type. you only need to pass a value -.

Generating Functions by Value  In PLVgen. any string. type_in IN NUMBER). ± The particular value itself is of no importance. type_in IN DATE). SYSDATE) SQL> exec plvgen. any date. 1) A date function. please! A number function. please! 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .func ('last_date'. PACKAGE PLVgen IS PROCEDURE func (name_in IN VARCHAR2. SQL> exec plvgen. PROCEDURE func (name_in IN VARCHAR2. the user indicates the type of function to be generated by providing a value. any Boolean will do. PROCEDURE func (name_in IN VARCHAR2.page 24 . Any number.func ('total_salary'. type_in IN VARCHAR2).

I rely on an anchored type (%TYPE) to establish the datatype of the second calc¶s parameter. ± When I compile profits. PROCEDURE calc (comp_id_IN IN company.page 25 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . but you might later found out that you cannot actually call any of the overloaded programs. END. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  In the above example. PL/SQL does not sense a conflict with above overloading even though comp_id is a numeric column.The Frustrations of Overloading  Watch out! An overloading can compile successfully.comp_id%TYPE). PACKAGE profits IS PROCEDURE calc (comp_id_IN IN NUMBER).

calc_total ('ZONE2'). END.pkg ? 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . why not? ± If so.Quiz! Nuances of Overloading PACKAGE sales IS PROCEDURE calc_total (zone_in IN VARCHAR2). like calc_totals shown above? ± If not.  Can I overload two programs which have parameters that differ only by name.page 26 . sales. PROCEDURE calc_total (reg_in IN VARCHAR2). sales. END sales.calc_total ('NORTHWEST'). how would you do it? (Don't peek at the next page!) BEGIN sales.

ANALYZE_OBJECT ' || '(''TABLE''.Using Named Notation <formal parameter name> => <expression>  Explicit association between the formal parameter (the "name") with the actual parameter (the "value").''TENK''' || '.submit ( job => v_jobno. ± You can skip over (not specify values for) any IN parameters that have default values. This is especially useful when working with infrequently used built-in programs.''LOAD1''.''ESTIMATE''. DBMS_JOB.null. interval => 'TRUNC(SYSDATE+1)').page 27 . of named notation include: ± Code is more "self-documenting". namednot.'.estimate_percent=>50). That way you don't have to know and pass default values. what => 'DBMS_DDL.sql  Advantages 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . next_date => TRUNC (SYSDATE + 1).

Oracle8 and above) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Three types of collections: ± Index-by tables (Oracle7 only. originally called PL/SQL tables) ± Nested tables (Oracle8 and above) ± Variable arrays (VARRAYs.page 28 .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence PL/SQL Collections   Collections are single-dimensioned lists of information.

page 29     1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .  Emulate bi-directional cursors. Improve query performance by avoiding joins. which are otherwise not supported in PL/SQL Cache data in session-level memory for faster access.When to Use Collections  Maintain any kind of list of related information for use in your programs. Build hash tables (custom indexing structures). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Avoid mutating table errors in database triggers.

647 to 2.147.647 » You will not actually create tables this large. emp_copy inmem_emp_t. this broad range allows you to employ the row number as an intelligent key.Index-By Tables TYPE <table_type> IS TABLE OF <datatype> INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. ± Homogeneous » Data in each row has the same structure.page 30 . Instead.147. DECLARE TYPE inmem_emp_t IS TABLE OF emp%ROWTYPE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. Valid row numbers range: -2. ± Available only in PL/SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Sparse » Data does not have to be stored in consecutive rows of information.  Characteristics of an index-by table: ± Unbounded » Practically speaking.483.483.

Variable declaration children child_list_type. children 6306 6412 6810 6904 µBarbara Anne¶ µGary Richard¶ µAdam Russell¶ µLisa Nadezhka¶ datemgr. Component Selection kid := children (4).page 31 .pkg children 6306 6412 6904 µBarbara Anne¶ µGary Richard¶ µLisa Marie¶ children (6810) := µAdam Russell. children (6904) := 'Lisa Nadezhka'.Index_by Tables TYPE declaration PACKAGE BODY family IS TYPE child_list_type IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2 (30) INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. Error: NO_DATA_FOUND 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Nested Tables [CREATE OR REPLACE] TYPE <table_type> IS TABLE OF <datatype> [NOT NULL].147. but only with explicit EXTEND requests » Practically speaking. Valid row numbers range: 1 to 2. birthdays when_t.483. but can become sparse if you DELETE inner rows ± Available both in PL/SQL and SQL (as a column in a table) ± The order of elements is not preserved in the database 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Nested table characteristics ± Homogeneous » Each row contains the same structure of data.page 32 . ± Unbounded. DECLARE TYPE when_t IS TABLE OF DATE.647 ± Initially dense.

For ORACLE's use only db_family surname kids BOLZ BOND Eric Thomas Max Richard Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Marie ntdemo.page 33 .Nested Tables CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE child_table_type IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2 (30). kids child_table_type) NESTED TABLE kids STORE AS kids_ntab. CREATE TABLE db_family (surname VARCHAR2 (30).sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

647 ± Dense » Never any gaps between defined rows. salaries numbers_t. DECLARE TYPE numbers_t IS VARRAY (10) OF NUMBER.483.147.  Characteristics of variable arrays: ± Homogeneous » Each row contains the same structure of data.Variable Arrays [CREATE OR REPLACE] TYPE <table_type> IS VARRAY (N) OF <datatype> [NOT NULL]. ± Available both in PL/SQL and SQL (as a column in a table) » And the order of elements are preserved in the database. can be EXTENDed or TRIMmed. Maximum value: 2.page 34 . ± Variable arrays are actually stored in the DB table 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Bounded » Upper limit established when the TYPE is defined.

sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 35 . kids child_va_type). CREATE TABLE db_family (surname VARCHAR2 (30). db_family surname kids BOLZ BOND 1 Barbara Anne 2 Gary Richard 3 Lisa Marie 1 Eric Thomas 2 Max Richard vademo.Variable Arrays CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE child_va_type IS VARRAY (8) OF VARCHAR2 (30).

.page 36 . ± You can declare multiple collections from that TYPE. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . a collection. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE tabtypes IS TYPE integer_ibt IS TABLE OF INTEGER INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER..  Then you declare an instance of that type. Best option: package specification. END tabtypes. ± For nested tables and VARRAYs. you define the TYPE of the collection.. ± For index-by tables. or in a PL/SQL declaration section. TYPE integer_nt IS TABLE OF INTEGER. this can only occur in a PL/SQL declaration section. from the TYPE.Defining Collections  First. TYPE integer_vat IS VARRAY(10) OF INTEGER. you can define the TYPE in the database with a CREATE statement.

colldd. ± The code used to define the collection TYPE  There is no information in the data dictionary available for index-by tables.page 37 .attr_type_name Attributes all_coll_types T.attr_name || ' . all_type_attrs A T.owner = USER T.' || A.owner = A.type_name IN ('NAMES_VT'.  ALL_COLL_TYPES ± The types you have created (or have access to) in the database  ALL_TYPE_ATTRS ± Attributes of the data type used in the TYPE definition.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Obtaining Collection Information SELECT FROM WHERE AND AND AND A.elem_type_name = A. 'TMRS_VT') T.owner T.type_name.

salary_history numbers_t). 200. / DECLARE -. 300). BEGIN CREATE TYPE numbers_t IS VARRAY (10) OF NUMBER. You must initialize them explicitly with a constructor. empty when declared.Initializing Collections  Before you can use a collection. ± Nested tables and VARRAYs are atomically null. salaries numbers_t := numbers_t (100. DECLARE TYPE numbers_t IS VARRAY (10) OF NUMBER. 300). 200. ± Index-by tables are initialized automatically. TYPE defined in PL/SQL TYPE defined in the database Collection used in a table PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . BEGIN CREATE TABLE employee_denorm ( employee_id INTEGER.page 38 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . salaries numbers_t := numbers_t (100. it must be initialized.Initialize the collection.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . the datatype for any of the collection types can also be an object. ± But you cannot have nested composite datatypes. consider putting TYPEs in database or packages.  Starting with Oracle8. DECLARE TYPE comp_rectype IS RECORD (comp_id company.Collections of Composites  Starting with Oracle 7. comp_tab comp_tabtype.3. TYPE comp_tabtype IS TABLE OF comp_rectype INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. ± Can easily create an index-by table with the same structure as a database table by declaring a record with %ROWTYPE.page 39 . total_rev NUMBER). Again. BEGIN comp_tab(1). Here we have a three step process.comp_id := 1005.company_id%TYPE. the ³homogeneous´ contents of an index-by table's row can be a record .

± You should not fill sequentially.Sparse is Nice  The sparse characteristic of index-by tables and nested tables can be put to good use. your collections will contain a row's worth of information.). order by date. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . a row exists in the table only when a value is assigned to that row. unless the order in which items are selected is of importance. ± Instead. consider using the row value as "smart data" for your application (primary key. it is very similar to a database table.  Especially handy when caching data from relational tables in user memory. In this way.page 40 . ± In almost every case. etc. ± In an index-by table.  Rows do not have to be defined sequentially.

CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY psemp IS BEGIN FOR rec IN (SELECT * FROM emp) LOOP emp_tab (rec. END LOOP.tst  PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .empno) := rec.pkg psemp.page 41 . Some questions: ± Why would I put this collection table in a package? ± When is the collection loaded with the data? ± What rows in that collection are utilized? psemp. END. emp_tab emp_tabtype.Transferring DB Table to Collection CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE psemp IS TYPE emp_tabtype IS TABLE OF emp%ROWTYPE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. END. Initialization section of package 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein  This package moves the entire contents of the emp table into its corresponding collection.

BEGIN greedy_ceos(1) := 'Hamilton. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Collection Gotchas CREATE TYPE names_t IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2(30). Jordan'.page 42 .  For index-by tables. the row exists. END. / DECLARE greedy_ceos names_t := names_t (). you must reference existing rows or a NO_DATA_FOUND exception is raised. even if you haven't assigned a value explicitly. but you must do it for VARRAYs and nested tables. ± Not necessary for index-by tables. ± Use the EXISTS method to determine if a row existed. / Error -6533! You've got to EXTEND first!  EXTEND before assigning a value to a row. ± For VARRAYs and nested tables. once extended.

EXTEND (10. preextend. ELSE DBMS_OUTPUT.').PUT_LINE ('Data for employee not available. BEGIN IF salaries.We are OK.EXISTS (v_employee_id) THEN -.FIRST)). salaries. ± Pre-extending a large number of rows in advance can improve performance.  You can EXTEND one or more rows. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Set the value of each new row to the contents of the first row.Extend by 10 since I know I will need that many. END IF. ± Assign a default value with a second.page 43 . optional argument. -.Handling Collection Gotchas BEGIN -.tst  Include a handler for NO_DATA_FOUND or use the EXISTS method to avoid these exceptions. salaries(salaries.

± ± ± ±  Modify the contents of the collection ± DELETE deletes one or more rows from the index-by table. ± TRIM removes rows from a VARRAY. number of elements allowed in a VARRAY. EXISTS returns TRUE if the specified row is defined. ± EXTEND adds rows to a nested table or VARRAY.page 44 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .Collection Methods  Obtain information about the collection COUNT returns number of rows currently defined in the table. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . FIRST/LAST return lowest/highest numbers of defined rows. NEXT/PRIOR return the closest defined row after/before the specified row. ± LIMIT tells you the max.  The built-in package plitblm (PL/sql Index-TaBLe Methods) defines these methods.

-.Delete one (the last) row myCollection.DELETE (1400.Delete all rows myCollection.DELETE.LAST). -. but you may also want to call DBMS_SESSION. DELETE releases memory. 17255).Delete a range of rows myCollection. END.page 45 .The DELETE Method  You can delete one or more rows from a collection using DELETE: BEGIN -.DELETE (myCollection. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .FREE_UNUSED_USER_MEMORY.

Navigating Through Collections 


Use FIRST and NEXT to move from beginning to end. Use LAST and PRIOR to move from end to beginning.
rowind PLS_INTEGER := birthdays.FIRST; -- birthdays.LAST BEGIN LOOP EXIT WHEN rowind IS NULL; DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE (birthdays(rowind).best_present); rowind := birthdays.NEXT (rowind); -- birthdays.PRIOR END LOOP; END;

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Using Collections Inside SQL 

Nested tables and VARRAYs can be defined as columns of a table and referenced directly within SQL. You can also apply SQL operations to the contents of nested tables and VARRAYs with these operators:
± THE - Maps a single column value in a single row to a virtual database table ± CAST - Maps a collection of one type to a collection of another type ± MULTISET - Maps a database table to a collection ± TABLE - Maps a collection to a database table  

Index-by tables are programmatic constructs only.
± You cannot make a direct reference to an index-by table in SQL. ± Instead, so do indirectly with a PL/SQL function.

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Using Collections inside SQL
SELECT column_value FROM TABLE (SELECT children FROM db_family WHERE surname = 'BOLZ'); db_family surname children BOLZ BOND Eric Thomas Max Richard UPDATE TABLE (SELECT children FROM db_family WHERE SURNAME = 'BOLZ) SET column_value = 'Lisa Nadezhka' WHERE column_value = 'Lisa Marie'); db_family surname children BOLZ ...
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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 48

Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Marie

column_value Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Marie

Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Nadezhka

Using the THE Operator 

Use THE to manipulate (retrieve, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE) contents of a nested table in a database table.
± Can only use with nested tables, not VARRAYs or index-by tables. ± Only accessible from within SQL statements in PL/SQL.
CREATE TYPE action_list_t IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2(100); / CREATE TABLE inflation_beater ( focus_area VARCHAR2(100), activities action_list_t) NESTED TABLE activities STORE AS activities_tab; SELECT VALUE (act) FROM THE (SELECT activities FROM inflation_beater WHERE focus_area = 'FORTUNE 100') act; UPDATE THE (SELECT activities FROM inflation_beater WHERE focus_area = 'FORTUNE 100') SET COLUMN_VALUE = 'DISBAND OSHA' WHERE COLUMN_VALUE = 'SIDESTEP OSHA';

the.sql

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Using the TABLE and CAST Operators 

Use CAST to convert a collection from one type to another, TABLE to convert a TYPE into a database table.
± Cannot use with index-by tables. ± Useful when you would like to apply SQL operations against a PL/SQL collection (ie, one not stored in a database table).
DECLARE nyc_devolution cutbacks_for_taxcuts := cutbacks_for_taxcuts ('Stop rat extermination programs', 'Fire building inspectors', 'Close public hospitals'); BEGIN DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE ( 'How to Make the NYC Rich Much, Much Richer:'); FOR rec IN (SELECT COLUMN_VALUE ohmy FROM TABLE (CAST (nyc_devolution AS cutbacks_for_taxcuts))) LOOP DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE (rec.ohmy); END LOOP; cast.sql END;

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country FROM bird_habitats bh WHERE bh. converting a set of data (table.genus. view.species. ± Cannot use with index-by tables. CAST(MULTISET(SELECT bh. information for the BEGIN master in one trip. FETCH bird_curs into bird_row. DECLARE CURSOR bird_curs IS SELECT b.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 51 .species = b. query) into a VARRAY or nested table.genus AND bh. END. OPEN bird_curs. multiset. ± You can use MULTISET to emulate or transform relational joins into collections.Using the MULTISET Operator  MULTISET is the inverse of TABLE. b. with potential client-server performance impact.species) AS country_tab_t) FROM birds b.genus = b. Retrieves all detail bird_row bird_curs%ROWTYPE.

call functions that retrieve the table's data.Referencing IB Tables inside SQL  You can't directly reference an index-by table's contents inside SQL. END. Instead.sql PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 52 . PRAGMA RESTRICT_REFERENCES (rowval. END. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY ibtab IS TYPE date_tab IS TABLE OF DATE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. but hide the index-by table structure. WNPS. END.  CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE ibtab IS FUNCTION rowval (indx IN PLS_INTEGER) RETURN DATE. Make accessible in SQL for Oracle8 and below. FUNCTION rowval (indx IN PLS_INTEGER) RETURN DATE IS BEGIN RETURN hiredates (indx). hiredates date_tab. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein ibtab_in_sql. WNDS).

Examples of Collections in Action  Emulation of bi-directional cursor operations Avoid mutating table problems in database triggers.  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 53 .

FUNCTION getRow RETURN employee_plus%ROWTYPE. Notice that the collection itself is hidden.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 54 .Bi-Directional Cursor Emulation  Oracle does not yet support the ability to move back and forth (and at random) through a cursor's result set. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE bidir IS /* Iterate through rows in the result set */ PROCEDURE setRow (nth IN PLS_INTEGER). PROCEDURE prevRow. This is particularly useful (read: efficient) when you need to perform multiple passes against the data. deposit your data in a collection and then provide programs to access that data in the necessary fashion.nope.pkg bidir. END. ± A talked-about feature for Oracle9i -. didn't make it!  Instead. PROCEDURE nextRow.  bidir.

Statement Level UPDATE emp SET sal = 1000 UPDATE row 1 Row Level  UPDATE row N Row level triggers cannot query from or change the contents of the table to which it is attached. So what are you supposed to do when a row-level operation needs to "touch" that table? mutating.The Mutating Table Problem  Database triggers can be attached to the SQL statement and/or the individual row operations on a table. you can use autonomous transactions to relax restrictions associated with queries.page 55 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . it is "mutating".sql  Note: in Oracle8i.

A Solution Based on Index-by Tables  Since you cannot perform the processing desired in the row-level trigger. you have to remember what you needed to do. If you are going to defer the work.page 56 . Statement Trigger 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 1st row trigger fires Nth row trigger fires Writes to list Writes to list Work List (PL/SQL Table)  Process data in the list. ± an index-by table is an ideal repository for this reminder list. you need to defer the action until you get to the statement level.

91 109000. we then know which departments to re-rank. but preferable. ± We might update more than one department within a statement so we must be able to retain multiple department numbers. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . the rankings must also change to show the new standings for that department only. ± As the sales amount is updated in this table.25 3 1 2 6 "Deferred work" is not only necessary. ± By storing the salesperson¶s department ids as they change.25 65011. Department ID Salesperson ID Sales Amount Rank 1055 1055 1055 1047  64333 65709 65706 70904 74055.page 57 .An Example: Ranking Salespeople  A table holds the rankings based on the amount of annual sales of salespeople within a department.88 144533.

Doesn't fire unless the sales_amt is actually changed.page 58 .pkg All details of the ranking are hidden in the package body. END.add_dept (:new. ranking.Trigger Logic Required Row Level Trigger CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER Rank_Sales_Rtrg AFTER insert OR update OF sales_amt ON rank_sales FOR EACH ROW WHEN (OLD.rank_depts.sales_amt) BEGIN rank. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .dept_id).sales_amt != NEW. Statement Level Trigger CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER Rank_Sales_Strg AFTER INSERT OR UPDATE OR DELETE ON rank_sales BEGIN rank. END.

TYPE dept_tabtype IS TABLE OF BOOLEAN INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER.page 59 . END IF. PACKAGE BODY rank IS in_process BOOLEAN := FALSE. Table holds indicator that department needs re-ranking. END add_dept 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Create row to indicate department to be ranked. dept_tab dept_tabtype.The Ranking Package PACKAGE rank IS PROCEDURE add_dept (dept_id_in IN INTEGER). END rank. PROCEDURE add_dept (dept_id_in IN INTEGER) IS BEGIN IF NOT in_process THEN dept_tab (dept_id_in) := TRUE. PROCEDURE rank_depts. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

END rank_dept. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Avoid recursive execution of logic Row number is department number.NEXT (v_deptid).FIRST. perform_ranking (v_deptid). dept_tab.DELETE. in_process := FALSE. BEGIN IF NOT in_process THEN in_process := TRUE. END IF. END LOOP. Continued PROCEDURE rank_depts IS v_deptid PLS_INTEGER := dept_tab. v_deptid := dept_tab. LOOP EXIT WHEN v_deptid IS NULL.page 60 . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END rank. Clean up for next time.The Ranking Package.

Which Collection Type Should I Use?  Index-by tables ± Need to use in both Oracle7 and Oracle8 applications ± Want to take advantage of sparse nature for "intelligent keys". 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Set of data is relatively small (avoid row chaining). You want to use inside SQL. ± You want to use inside SQL. You don't want to have to worry about sparseness.  Nested tables ± You want to store large amounts of persistent data in a column.page 61 .  VARRAYs ± ± ± ± You want to preserve the order in which elements are stored.

Tips for Using Collections 

Wrap access to your collections.
± In many cases, you will want to avoid direct access to (assigning and retrieving) rows in your collections. ± This will give you the flexibility to change your implementation. ± You can also hide complex rules for setting the row number. 

Get creative!
± Don't always fill and use the index-by table sequentially. ± If you can somehow translate your application data to an integer, it can be used as a row number, and therefore offers indexed access. ± Julian date formats and DBMS_UTILITY.GET_HASH_VALUE offer two different methods.

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Achieving PL/SQL Excellence

Cursor Variables

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 63

Architecture of Cursor Variables
With Hard-Coded Cursors
Hard-Coded Cursor

With Cursor Variables

PGA

Cursor Variable

Cursor Variable

Result Set

Shared Global Area

Cursor Object

Result Set 

A cursor variable points to an underlying cursor object in the database.
± The cursor object in turns points to (and keeps its place in) a result set. 

The cursor variable can be passed between programs (even between, say, a Java servlet and a PL/SQL stored procedure).
± Static SQL only -- until Oracle8i.
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1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

Benefits of Cursor Variables 

Share cursor management between programs, even across the client-server divide.
± You don't have to pass the result sets of a cursor in order to allow the client-side program to have direct access to the data in the result set. ± Oracle Developer 2.1 utilizes cursor variables when you choose to construct a "base table block" around stored procedures instead of a database table. 

Share the same code across multiple, different queries.
± Since the cursor name is no longer hard-coded, you can use a single block of code (say, a reporting program) against different queries. ± We will try out this technique at the end of the section.

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Cursor Variable Example
DECLARE TYPE company_curtype IS REF CURSOR RETURN company%ROWTYPE;
Declare a variable cursor TYPE.

company_curvar company_curtype;

Declare cursor variable based on that type. Declare a record from cursor variable. OPEN cursor variable, specifying the query. FETCH from the cursor variable.

company_rec company_curvar%ROWTYPE; BEGIN OPEN company_curvar FOR SELECT * FROM company;

FETCH company_curvar INTO company_rec;
Close the cursor variable.

CLOSE company_curvar; END;
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Explicit Cursors and Cursor Variables 

Both hard-coded cursors and cursor variables work with static SQL.
± The SQL is fixed at compile-time. ± The difference is that with cursor variables, you get to decide which static query is opened. 

Many cursor operations are the same:
± Close a variable cursor with the same syntax as that for static cursors. ± Use cursor attributes (%ISOPEN, %FOUND, %NOTFOUND, %ROWCOUNT) with cursor variables (as of Release 2.3). ± Fetch data from the cursor result set through a cursor variable with the same syntax as that of static cursors. 

Let¶s focus on the new and different capabilities of cursor variables.
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Declaring Cursor Types and Variables 

Cursors are declared in two steps, just like programmerdefined records and PL/SQL tables.
± 1. Define a cursor TYPE -- either "weak" or "strong". ± 2. Define a cursor variable.
DECLARE TYPE weak_curtype IS REF CURSOR; TYPE comp_curtype IS REF CURSOR RETURN company%ROWTYPE; curcmp_new comp_curtype; cur_any weak_curtype; BEGIN
Declare cursor variables from the TYPEs. Declare a STRONG referenced cursor TYPE. Declare a WEAK referenced cursor TYPE.

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Strong vs. Weak Cursor Types 

A strong (or constrained) cursor type has a defined return data specification.
± Can only reference cursor objects which return the same data specification, which can be any single SQL datatype or any previously defined record structure. ± Datatype mismatches are identified at compile time.

TYPE cur_typ_name IS REF CURSOR [ RETURN return_type ]; TYPE cur_typ_name IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE; /* Strong */ 

The weak (or unconstrained) cursor type does not have a RETURN clause.
± It can reference any cursor object, be opened FOR any query. ± Datatype mismatches can only be identified at runtime.

TYPE cur_typ_name IS REF CURSOR; /* Weak */
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Opening with the Cursor Variable
OPEN cursor_name FOR select_statement; 

When you open a cursor variable (whether of the weak or strong variety), you must provide the SQL query that identifies the result set.
± If the variable has not yet been assigned to cursor object, the OPEN FOR statement implicitly creates an object for the variable. ± If the variable is already pointing to a cursor object, the OPEN FOR reuses the existing object and attaches the new query to that cursor object. 

Remember, the cursor object is nothing more than a memory location.
± It is maintained independently of the query itself.
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page 71 . a cursor or a programmer-defined record. . Match Needed BEGIN OPEN emp_curvar FOR SELECT * from emp. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  STRONG cursor data specifications must match or be compatible with the structure of the SELECT statement...Opening with Strong Cursor Types DECLARE TYPE emp_curtype IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE. ± You can establish the return type based on a database table. END. emp_curvar emp_curtype.

END.Opening with Weak Cursor Types PACKAGE pkg IS TYPE cv_type IS REF CURSOR. RETURN retval. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 72 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . FUNCTION open_emp_or_dept (get_type_in IN VARCHAR2) RETURN pkg. you can associate any SELECT statement with a weak cursor variable.cv_type. END IF. END. REF TYPE placed in package so that it is "globally" available. OPEN retval FOR SELECT * FROM emp. Verification will take ELSIF get_type_in = µDEPT¶ place at the FETCH.  A weak cursor TYPE doesn't define the RETURN structure. BEGIN IF get_type_in = µEMP¶ THEN Either query will "do". THEN OPEN retval FOR SELECT * FROM dept.cv_type IS retval pkg.

sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Fetching can continue with a different INTO clause.   Compatibility checks are performed prior to fetching row.Fetching from the Cursor Variable FETCH cursor_var_name INTO record_name. mismatch. it match the cursor type data specification. . The INTO structure must match in number and datatype to: ± FOR STRONG cursor types.  Fetching with cursor variables follows the same rules as those with static cursors. it match the OPEN FOR statement structure. ± FOR WEAK cursor types.. var_name. FETCH cursor_var_name INTO var_name. ± The ROWTYPE_MISMATCH exception is raised on failure...page 73 .

Use a single block of code to manipulate multiple queries.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . but static cursors are more efficient than dynamic SQL and cursor variables are less complicated than DBMS_SQL. you have to repeat the code for each cursor.  hccursor. ± JDBC recognizes cursor variables.  Define a base table block in Forms Builder (formerly Oracle Forms) on stored procedures rather than a table directly. ± With explicit cursors. since cursor names are "hard coded".page 74 .When to Use Cursor Variables  Make it easier for calling programs (especially non-PL/SQL programs) to manipulate result sets. ± You could use dynamic SQL to achieve this effect.

FUNCTION open (type_in IN INTEGER) RETURN cv_t. / allcurrs. ± It also creates the data structures you will need to call the function.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .pkg allcurs. TYPE cv_t IS REF CURSOR RETURN int_rt.page 75 .tst explcv. END. bysal CONSTANT INTEGER := 2. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE allcurs IS bydept CONSTANT INTEGER := 1. TYPE int_rt IS RECORD (key INTEGER).Consolidating Different Cursors  The following package specification hides the SQL behind a single open function.

BEGIN IF type_in = bydept THEN OPEN retval FOR SELECT empno FROM emp ORDER BY deptno.page 76 . ELSIF type_in = bysal THEN OPEN retval FOR SELECT empno FROM emp ORDER BY SAL. END. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Consolidating Different Cursors  The open function simply opens FOR a different SELECT based on the criteria passed to it. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY allcurs IS FUNCTION open (type_in IN INTEGER) RETURN cv_t IS retval cv_t. END. RETURN retval. END IF.

END. change the ORDER BY clause -without having to change the code you write. CLOSE cv.l (v_empno).open (&1).empno%TYPE. DECLARE cv allcurs.cv_t. p. LOOP FETCH cv INTO v_empno. END LOOP.page 77 "Report processor" is independent of the particular SELECT .in this case. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Hiding SQL Variations in Resulting Code  The following block demonstrates that you can alter which SQL statement to query -. v_empno emp. BEGIN cv := allcurs. EXIT WHEN cv%NOTFOUND.

unconstrained type. or a more general.page 78 .Cursor Variables Let's summarize  Flexibility ± Choose which static SQL statement is executed at run-time.  Strong and Weak Types ± Create REF CURSORs for specific queries. you can build screens that access data using a cursor variable-based procedural API.  Hide Variations in Underlying SQL ± You no longer have to repeat the same code for different cursors. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Improve Client-Side Access to Data ± At least in Oracle Developer 2.1.

page 79 .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Dynamic SQL  Dynamic SQL and dynamic PL/SQL: ± The DBMS_SQL package ± Native dynamic SQL in Oracle8i 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

± Available in PL/SQL since Release 2. ± Also supported with "native dynamic SQL" in Oracle8i. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Execute dynamically-constructed PL/SQL programs.1 and DBMS_SQL.Dynamic SQL and PL/SQL Execution  "Dynamic SQL" mean that you construct the SQL statement or PL/SQL block at runtime and then execute it. What can you do with Dynamic SQL?  Build ad-hoc query and update applications. ± One example: implement indirect referencing in PL/SQL. you no longer have to write SQL to generate SQL to get your job done.  Execute DDL inside PL/SQL programs. ± Construct powerful DBA utilities. ± Very common requirement on the Web.page 80 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .

executed a single time.page 81 . Method 4: queries with a variable number of items in the SELECT list and/or non-queries with a variable number of host variables. These methods are in increasing order of complexity. ± NDS does not support method 4. execute one or more times. you can more quickly figure out how to code your solution. ± Different methods require the use of different programs in DBMS_SQL. Method 2: non-queries with a fixed number of host variables. Method 3: queries with a fixed number of items in the SELECT list and a fixed number of host variables.    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . If you can recognize the types.Four Methods of Dynamic SQL   Method 1: non-queries without host variables.

used for DDL. and relatively slow (performance did improve significantly as of Oracle8).page 82 . ± But this package is very complex.  The new "native dynamic SQL" or NDS of Oracle8i offers two native statements in the PL/SQL language to implement most of your dynamic SQL requirements: ± EXECUTE IMMEDIATE <sql string>. ± OPEN FOR <sql string>. DML and single row fetches.Native Dynamic SQL  Prior to Oracle8i. difficult to use. you would use the DBMS_SQL built-in package to execute dynamic SQL. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . used for multi-row queries.

page 83   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .  Use this statement to execute any dynamic SQL statement (including a PL/SQL block) except for multi-row queries. The USING clause allows you to specify bind arguments or variables to be passed into the SQL string before execution. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . {IN | OUT | IN OUT] bind argument]. | record }] [USING {IN | OUT | IN OUT] bind argument [.. The INTO clause allows you to pass values from the select list of a single row query into local variables....EXECUTE IMMEDIATE EXECUTE IMMEDIATE sql-string [INTO {define_variable[. including objects.]. collections and records. define_variables].

table and retval INTEGER.page 84 . END IF. BEGIN EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'SELECT COUNT(*) FROM ' || NVL (sch.' || tab || ' WHERE ' || NVL (whr. USER) || '. '1=1') INTO retval..sf PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . IF tabCount ('citizens'..000.COUNT(*) For Any Table  Here's a handy and simple utility based on NDS: CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION tabCount ( tab IN VARCHAR2. END. and not much of a democracy either!').PUT_LINE ( 'Not the best health care system in the world. sch IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) RETURN INTEGER IS Specify schema.sf compare with: tabcount. WHERE clause. RETURN retval.000 THEN DBMS_OUTPUT. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein tabcount81... 'insured = ''NO''') > 40. whr IN VARCHAR2 := NULL.

end_in.. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . end_in IN DATE.. END.page 85 .Other Execute Immediate Examples  Perform an update. EXECUTE IMMEDIATE v_str..  Execute a stored procedure. name_in IN VARCHAR2) IS v_str VARCHAR2 (100). BEGIN v_str := 'BEGIN ' || pkg_in || '. start_in. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN pl ('Compile Error "' || SQLERRM || '" on: ' || v_str). PROCEDURE runprog (pkg_in IN VARCHAR2. start_in IN DATE. Pass in bind variables with USING clause.'. col_in IN VARCHAR2. END. END. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE updnumval ( tab_in IN VARCHAR2.' || name_in || '. val_in IN NUMBER) IS BEGIN EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'UPDATE ' || tab_in || ' SET ' || col_in || ' = :val WHERE hiredate BETWEEN :lodate AND :hidate' USING val_in..

the USING clause allows me to pass an object and nested table to an INSERT statement with a variable table name.page 86 . cond. :revenue_inhibitors)' USING pers.pkg PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± No special syntax needed. cond IN preexisting_conditions) IS BEGIN EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'INSERT INTO ' || tabname (hosp_name) || ' VALUES (:revenue_generator. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein health$. END. pers IN Person.Using Objects and Collections in NDS  One of the key advantages to NDS over DBMS_SQL is that it works with Oracle8 datatypes. PROCEDURE add_profit_source ( hosp_name IN VARCHAR2... ± In the following example. including objects and collections.

pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . cv cv_type. number or string column in any table.page 87 .PUT_LINE (val).Multiple Row Queries and NDS  Oracle extends the cursor variable feature of Oracle7 to support multi-row dynamic queries. END LOOP.sp END. val VARCHAR2(32767). col IN VARCHAR2. variable syntax! EXIT WHEN cv%NOTFOUND. BEGIN OPEN cv FOR 'SELECT ' || col || ' FROM ' || tab || ' WHERE ' || NVL (whr. DBMS_OUTPUT. ndsutil. CLOSE cv. LOOP Familiar cursor FETCH cv INTO val. '1 = 1'). whr IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) IS TYPE cv_type IS REF CURSOR. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE showcol ( tab IN VARCHAR2. showcol. ± Here is a simple utility the displays the values of any date.

Instead. ± If dynamic SQL. The USING clause for a query can only have IN bind arguments. column names. pass a variable with a NULL value.pkg    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . You cannot pass the NULL literal directly in the USING clause.) through the USING clause. provide a value for each distinct placeholder (by name). then you provide a value for each placeholder (by position). ± If dynamic PL/SQL.Some Fine Print for NDS  You cannot pass schema elements (table names. etc. str2list.page 88 . You can have duplicate placeholders (for bind arguments).

The overhead for using DBMS_SQL has decreased significantly in Oracle8 and again in Oracle8i. the only way to perform dynamic SQL was with the DBMS_SQL package.page 89 . with many rules to follow and lots of code to write. You should only use DBMS_SQL when you cannot use NDS. DBMS_SQL is a very large and complex package.     1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . in particular method 4. Supports all four methods of dynamic SQL.Dynamic SQL using DBMS_SQL  Prior to Oracle8i.

Learning Through Examples  DDL ± Create an index from within PL/SQL  DML ± Update rows in a table  DML with binding ± Update rows using bind variables  Queries ± Method 3 and a dynamic WHERE clause  PL/SQL Version of "SELECT *" ± Example of Method 4  PL/SQL ± Create a generic calculation program 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 90 .

DDL with Dynamic SQL PROCEDURE create_index (index_in IN VARCHAR2. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL.NATIVE).CLOSE_CURSOR (cur). ± Parse and execute that DDL statement.OPEN_CURSOR. fdbk INTEGER.page 91 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . DDL_statement.  creind. DBMS_SQL. ± Open a cursor. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . which will be used to execute the DDL statement. fdbk := DBMS_SQL. tab_in IN VARCHAR2. END. col_in IN VARCHAR2) IS cur INTEGER := DBMS_SQL.PARSE (cur. DDL_statement VARCHAR2(200) := 'CREATE INDEX ' || index_in || ' ON ' || tab_in || ' ( ' || col_in || ')'.sp Creates an index on any column(s) in any table in your schema.EXECUTE (cur). ± Construct the DDL statement as a string.

sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . fdbk PLS_INTEGER. fdbk := DBMS_SQL.PUT_LINE ('Rows updated: ' || TO_CHAR (fdbk)). ename_in IN emp.Updates with Dynamic SQL  Update numeric column for specified employees. DBMS_SQL.CLOSE_CURSOR (cur). CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE updnumval ( col_in IN VARCHAR2.EXECUTE (cur).OPEN_CURSOR.PARSE (cur. updnval1.page 92 .NATIVE). DBMS_SQL. DBMS_OUTPUT. 'UPDATE emp SET ' || col_in || ' = ' || val_in || ' WHERE ename LIKE UPPER (''' || ename_in || ''')'.ename%TYPE. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. val_in IN NUMBER) IS cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL. END.

DBMS_SQL.BIND_VARIABLE (cur.CLOSE_CURSOR (cur). BEGIN DBMS_SQL.page 93 . 'UPDATE emp SET ' || col_in || ' = ' || val_in || ' WHERE hiredate BETWEEN :lodate AND :hidate'. val_in IN NUMBER) IS cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . fdbk PLS_INTEGER. DBMS_SQL. end_in IN DATE. 'hidate'. start_in). CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE updnumval ( col_in IN VARCHAR2. 'lodate'. updnval2.sp updnval3.Updates with Bind Variables  Update salaries for date range using binding. DBMS_OUTPUT.NATIVE).EXECUTE (cur). fdbk := DBMS_SQL.PUT_LINE ('Rows updated: ' || TO_CHAR (fdbk)). start_in IN DATE.PARSE (cur.BIND_VARIABLE (cur. DBMS_SQL. end_in).OPEN_CURSOR. END. DBMS_SQL.

page 94 .Processing Flow for a Dynamic Query Allocate cursor memory (OPEN_CURSOR) Fill cursor with data (EXECUTE) Make sure SELECT is well formed (PARSE) Fill buffer with data (FETCH_ROWS) (EXECUTE_AND_FETCH) Bind any variables (BIND_VARIABLE) (BIND_ARRAY) Retrieve the data (COLUMN_VALUE) Give cursor structure (DEFINE_COLUMN) (DEFINE_ARRAY) Release cursor memory (CLOSE_CURSOR) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. fdbk := DBMS_SQL.Queries with Dynamic SQL  Show employees using a dynamic WHERE clause. 1.sp showemp2. fdbk INTEGER.. 1).NATIVE). DBMS_SQL.OPEN_CURSOR.. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. 'a'. DBMS_SQL. DBMS_OUTPUT. 60). DBMS_SQL.FETCH_ROWS (cur) = 0. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE showemps (where_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) IS cur INTEGER := DBMS_SQL. rec. ename FROM emp ' || ' WHERE ' || NVL (where_in. END LOOP.empno) || '=' || rec. LOOP EXIT WHEN DBMS_SQL.ename). rec emp%ROWTYPE.empno). 2.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.COLUMN_VALUE (cur. DBMS_SQL.CLOSE_CURSOR (cur).PARSE (cur. 'SELECT empno. END. rec.ename).page 95 . '1=1').EXECUTE (cur). 1. 2. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein showemps. DBMS_SQL.COLUMN_VALUE (cur. DBMS_SQL.tst PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .sp showemps.PUT_LINE (TO_CHAR (rec.

datatype).sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. END LOOP. ± The resulting code is much more complicated. DBMS_SQL.page 96 Very simplified pseudo-code intab. END LOOP. LOOP fetch-a-row.COLUMN_VALUE (cur. FOR each-column-in-table LOOP DBMS_SQL. END LOOP. nth_col. FOR each-column-in-table LOOP DBMS_SQL. BEGIN FOR each-column-in-table LOOP add-column-to-select-list.PARSE (cur.Dynamic SELECT * FROM Any Table  Method 4 example: the number of columns queried changes with each table. select_string. nth_col. END LOOP.NATIVE). DBMS_SQL. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END. val).

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .EXECUTE_AND_FETCH (cur). TRUE).  Makes it easy to execute and fetch a single row from a query. numrows := DBMS_SQL. which returns a single row. ± If exact_match is TRUE. the first row will still be fetched and available. ± Even if the exception is raised. raises NO_DATA_FOUND or raises the TOO_MANY_ROWS exception. numrows := DBMS_SQL. then EXECUTE_AND_FETCH will raise the TOO_MANY_ROWS exception if more than one row is fetched by the SELECT. ± Very similar to the implicit SELECT cursor in native PL/SQL.Using EXECUTE_AND_FETCH FUNCTION execute_and_fetch (cursor_in IN INTEGER. exact_match IN BOOLEAN DEFAULT FALSE) RETURN INTEGER.EXECUTE_AND_FETCH (cur.page 97 .

I would have to modify my screen every time a new formula was added. ± Using static PL/SQL. nargs_in IN INTEGER := arg1_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg3_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg5_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg7_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg9_in IN VARCHAR2 := ) RETURN VARCHAR2. NULL. NULL. NULL. arg10_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL dyncalc. NULL. FUNCTION dyncalc ( oper_in IN VARCHAR2.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± With DBMS_SQL. arg8_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL.sf dyncalc. arg2_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. NULL. arg6_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. arg4_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL.page 98 . a single function will do the trick. 0.Dynamic Formula Execution  Suppose I am building a user interface that allows a user to select a formula for execution. and enter the arguments.

:salout).VARIABLE_VALUE (cur.tst    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Possibilities inherent in dynamic PL/SQL are mind-boggling! dynplsql. my_salary). DBMS_SQL.sql dynplsql. END.sp dynplsql. fdbk := DBMS_SQL.even OUT arguments which are not being bound to any values.EXECUTE (cur). v_deptin).BIND_VARIABLE (cur. You must have a BEGIN-END around the code. µsalout¶.More on Dynamic PL/SQL BEGIN cur := open_and_parse ('BEGIN get_max_sal (:deptin. µsalout¶. END.page 99 .  Use BIND_VARIABLE to bind any placeholders in the string -. my_salary).').BIND_VARIABLE (cur. DBMS_SQL. Use VARIABLE_VALUE to extract a value from any variable you have bound. µdeptin¶. DBMS_SQL.

retval).PARSE (v_cur. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . retval PLV.page 100  dynvar.CLOSE_CURSOR (v_cur). Here is an example of a "PL/SQL NAME_IN": FUNCTION valbyname (nm IN VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2 IS v_cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL.VARIABLE_VALUE (v_cur. 'val'.EXECUTE (v_cur). END. PL/SQL does not support indirect referencing.'.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . 'BEGIN :val := ' || nm || '. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. 'a'. DBMS_SQL. but you can accomplish much of the same thing with dynamic PL/SQL execution. DBMS_SQL.dbmaxvc2. fdbk PLS_INTEGER.Indirect Referencing with Dyn PL/SQL  Oracle Forms offers support for indirect referencing with the NAME_IN and COPY built-ins. DBMS_SQL.pkg dynvar. END. fdbk := DBMS_SQL. 'val'.BIND_VARIABLE (v_cur.OPEN_CURSOR. RETURN retval.NATIVE). DBMS_SQL. 2000).

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  LAST_ROW_ID ± Returns the ROWID of last row processed.  LAST_SQL_FUNCTION_CODE ± Returns SQL function code of cursor.  LAST_ROW_COUNT ± Returns the cumulative count of rows fetched from the cursor.  IS_OPEN ± Is the cursor already open?  LAST_ERROR_POSITION ± Returns relative column position in cursor of text causing error condition. ± Call these immediately after your usage to make sure they refer to your cursor.DBMS_SQL Status Built-ins  The package offers a set of modules to return information about the lastoperated cursor in your session.page 101 .

Then you retrieve the column using the special COLUMN_VALUE_LONG variant.page 102 .Working with LONG Values  DBMS_SQL provides special procedures so that you can extract values from a LONG column in a table.COLUMN_VALUE_LONG   First. you define the column as a LONG.DEFINE_COLUMN_LONG ± DBMS_SQL. ± Transfer the LONG contents into an index-by table so that you can transfer a value of more than 32K bytes into your PL/SQL program. dumplong.pkg dumplong. ± DBMS_SQL.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

New DBMS_SQL Features PL/SQL8 Extensions to DBMS_SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 103 .

page 104 . inserts. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . deletes and fetches.New Features in DBMS_SQL  The functionality of DBMS_SQL has been extended in Oracle8 in several ways: ± Parse very long SQL strings ± Describe cursor columns ± Use "array processing" to perform bulk updates. ± Support for RETURNING clause to avoid unnecessary queries.

DESCRIBE_COLUMNS (c IN INTEGER.DESC_TAB). desc_t OUT DBMS_SQL.Describing Cursor Columns PROCEDURE DBMS_SQL. ± The record TYPE is also defined in DBMS_SQL. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . col_cnt OUT INTEGER. ± Now you can call the DBMS_SQL.  Returns all of the column information in an index table of records.page 105 . it was not possible to determine the datatypes of the columns defined in a cursor.DESCRIBE_COLUMNS.  Before PL/SQL8.

col_name).DESC_TAB.CLOSE_CURSOR (cur). cols).page 106 .OPEN_CURSOR. empno FROM emp'.tst showcols.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .PARSE (cur.pkg desccols. DBMS_SQL.NATIVE). BEGIN DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL. ncols LOOP DBMS_OUTPUT.DESCRIBE_COLUMNS (cur. ncols PLS_INTEGER.Basic Steps to Describe Columns  The following script shows the individual steps you will need to perform in order to use this feature. desccols. END LOOP. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE show_columns IS cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL.PUT_LINE (cols(colind). ncols. 'SELECT hiredate. END. FOR colind IN 1 .. cols DBMS_SQL.

Instead of providing a scalar value for an operation. can offer a significant performance boost over Oracle7 dynamic SQL.    This technique still. It really isn't "array processing".page 107 . index tables. deletes and fetches."Array Processing" in DBMS_SQL  PL/SQL8 now allows you to specify the use of "arrays". 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . however. when you perform updates. inserts. you specify an index table. ± In actuality.e.. DBMS_SQL then repeats your action for every row in the table. i. where N is the number of rows in the table. DBMS_SQL is executing the specified SQL statement N times.

only possible for statements that do not need USING and INTO clauses. ± Otherwise that SQL will be executed under the authority of the owner of the code.PARSE so that you include the trace in that program. column names.) through the USING clause. effdsql.Recommendations for Dynamic SQL  Bind (vs.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . etc. not the invoker of the code. concatenate) whenever possible.  Encapsulate statements to improve error handling.page 108 . ± Increased chance of reusing parsed SQL.  Use the Oracle8i invoker rights model whenever you want to share your dynamic SQL programs among multiple schemas. ± With NDS. and easier code to write. ± But remember: you cannot pass schema elements (table names.sql openprse.pkg whichsch. ± Encapsulate DBMS_SQL. though you could write variations for those as well.

. but DBMS_SQL is hard to use. ± If.page 109 . Both implementations will still come in handy.. of course.NDS or DBMS_SQL: Which is Best?  Dynamic SQL and PL/SQL is very useful. you have upgraded to Oracle8i!  Major Advantages of NDS: ± Ease of use ± Performance ± Works with all SQL datatypes (including userdefined object and collection types) ± Fetch into records  When You'd Use DBMS_SQL: ± ± ± ± ± ± ± Method 4 Dynamic SQL DESCRIBE columns of cursor SQL statements larger than 32K RETURNING into an array Reuse of parsed SQL statements Bulk dynamic SQL Available from client-side PL/SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Oracle Advanced Queuing  The high performance. asynchronous. persistent messaging subsytem of Oracle 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 110 .

page 111 . Distribution Center Coffee Beans Producer Shipping Service Retailer Consumer 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Who Needs Messaging? Everyone!  In the distributed world of the Internet. consistent manner. systems are now heavily reliant on the ability of components to communicate with each other in a dependable.

page 112 .Applications Relying on Messaging     Stock trading system Airline reservation system Auction portals Any e-commerce application 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Key Features of Oracle AQ  Leverage full power of SQL ± Messages are stored in database tables  Database high availability. scalability and reliability all carry over to queues ± Strong history and retention ± Backup and recovery ± Comprehensive journaliing  Rich message content increases usefulness of queueing ± Use object types to define highly structured payloads  New to Oracle8i.page 113 . ± Rule-based subscribers. AQ now offers a publish/subscribe style of messaging between applications. message propagation. the listen feature and notification capabilities.

AQ architectural overview Queue Monitor process Queue table Queue ³Producers´ Enqueued messages Message 4 Message 3 Message 2 Message1 ³Consumers´ Dequeued messages Messages include both control information and ³payload´ (content) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 114 .

Oracle AQ Highlights  In 8. AQ supports: ± ± ± ± ± Multiple queues Resetting order and priority of queued items Queue management using only SQL & PL/SQL Multiple message recipients Propagation of queue to remote servers  Oracle8i adds: ± ± ± ± Rules-based publish & subscribe Listening on multiple queues Easier monitoring Native Java interface PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .0.page 115 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .

AQ Components  The DBMS_AQ package offers enqueue and dequeue capabilities The DBMS_AQADM package provides administrative functionality to manage queues and queue tables. Underlying database tables and views The queue monitor (background process) ± Set # of processes with the AQ_TM_PROCESSES initialization parameter.    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 116 .

page 117 . optionally waiting for outstanding transactions Adds an ³agent´ as a subscriber 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . storage clause. assigns retry and retention properties to queue Drops a stopped queue Can also turn on/off enqueue and dequeue operations Stops queue. sort column. payload type.DBMS_AQADM Highlights CREATE_QUEUE_TABLE DROP_QUEUE_TABLE CREATE_QUEUE DROP_QUEUE START_QUEUE STOP_QUEUE ADD_SUBSCRIBER Assigns name. whether multiple consumers Drops table if all queues in the table have been stopped Associates queue table with queue.

/ BEGIN DBMS_AQADM. queue_payload_type => 'message_type').START_QUEUE (queue_name => 'msgqueue'). queue_table => 'msg'). Define a queue in the queue table DBMS_AQADM. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein aq.pkg Start the queue PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 118 .Creating Queue Tables and Queues CREATE TYPE message_type AS OBJECT (title VARCHAR2(30). Define the "payload" Create the queue table DBMS_AQADM. END. text VARCHAR2(2000)).CREATE_QUEUE_TABLE (queue_table => 'msg'.CREATE_QUEUE (queue_name => 'msgqueue'.

and returns a RAW message handle DEQUEUE extracts a message from a specified queue Parameters control message properties such as: ± Visibility (ON_COMMIT or IMMEDIATE) ± ± ± ± Priority Delay Expiration Locking behavior PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  ENQUEUE puts a message into a specified queue. but lots of complexity buried inside the parameters of these procedures.page 119   aq. ± Only two procedures.The "operational package": DBMS_AQ  DBMS_AQ is deceptively simple.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .

ENQUEUE ( 'msgqueue'. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . msgprops DBMS_AQ. msgprops.page 120 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . Declare records to hold various enqueue and msg properties. my_msg message_type. aqenq*. 'May there be many more.MESSAGE_PROPERTIES_T.msgid_type.Simple Enqueue Example DECLARE queueopts DBMS_AQ. queueopts.. Set up the payload with an object constructor.'). msgid). msgid aq. DBMS_AQ.ENQUEUE_OPTIONS_T..* Place the message on the specified queue and get a msg ID in return. my_msg. BEGIN my_msg := message_type ( 'First Enqueue'. END.

delay := 3 * 60 * 60 * 24... queueopts. Modify the dequeue sequence by changing the deviation field and relative msg ID. 'And this one goes first. DBMS_AQ. msgprops.More Interesting Enqueue Example DECLARE .ENQUEUE ('msgqueue'. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Specify a delay before the payload is available.. msgid2). Same setup as previous page .page 121 . my_msg. queueopts. BEGIN my_msg := message_type ( 'First Enqueue'. msgprops. my_msg.. queueopts.'). queueopts. my_msg := message_type ( 'Second Enqueue'... 'May there be many more. msgprops.'). msgid1).sequence_deviation := DBMS_AQ. END.ENQUEUE ( 'msgqueue'..BEFORE. DBMS_AQ..relative_msgid := msgid1.

dequeue_mode := mode_in.REMOVE). PROCEDURE getmsg (mode_in IN INTEGER) IS BEGIN queueopts. Demonstrates destructive and non-destructive dequeuing.DEQUEUE ( 'msgqueue'. BEGIN getmsg (DBMS_AQ. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . DBMS_AQ.DEQUEUE_OPTIONS_T. msgprops.* Declare records to hold various dequeue and msg properties. msgid).pkg */ my_msg message_type. getmsg (DBMS_AQ.REMOVE).BROWSE).msgid_type. END. /* defined in aq. my_msg. msgid aq. getmsg (DBMS_AQ. aqdeq*. msgprops DBMS_AQ. Dequeue operation isolated in local module.page 122 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . END.MESSAGE_PROPERTIES_T. queueopts.Dequeue Example DECLARE queueopts DBMS_AQ.

pkg aqstk2. aqstk.MESSAGE_PROPERTIES_T.page 123 . queueopts. the higher the priority.ENQUEUE ( c_queue. END. item_obj aqstk_objtype. msgprops DBMS_AQ.* 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . queueopts. item_obj. msgid aq. msgid). msgprops.  A stack implementation using AQ demonstrates this well. msgprops. DBMS_AQ.Prioritized Payloads  You can assign priorities to individual payloads and then dequeue according to those priorities.visibility := DBMS_AQ. g_priority := g_priority .pkg priority.ENQUEUE_OPTIONS_T.IMMEDIATE.1. ± The lower the numeric priority value.msgid_type. PROCEDURE push (item IN VARCHAR2) IS queueopts DBMS_AQ.priority := g_priority. BEGIN item_obj := aqstk_objtype (item).

page 124 . NULL.CREATE_QUEUE_TABLE ( queue_table => 'major_qtable'. DBMS_AQADM. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein aqmult*.Defining Message Subscribers  You can specify that a message is to be enqueued for a list of subscribers. queue_payload_type => 'student_major_t'. The queue table must be defined to support multiple subscribers or consumers.* PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .ADD_SUBSCRIBER ( c_queue. multiple_consumers => TRUE). BEGIN DBMS_AQADM. NULL)). SYS. ± The message is then not removed from the queue until all subscribers have dequeued the message.AQ$_AGENT (name_in. Add subscribers for the queue. ± 2.  Steps to working with a subscriber list: ± 1.

± Should be strongly supported "down the road".page 125 . ± Crucial for Oracle to have a message-oriented middleware in order to offer an all-Oracle solution.  Considered by Oracle to be a core component of its overall solution. LISTEN capability. supporting a publish-subscribe model. ± Much more robust that DBMS_PIPE. ± Significant enhancements in Oracle8i. improved security. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Oracle AQ .Summary  Very powerful and flexible architecture.

Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Managing Large Objects with DBMS_LOB 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 126 .

sounds. Images.  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . though they will probably not be actually desupported. video.page 127 . they should no longer be used.LOB Terms  LOB = Large OBject: a category of datatype allowing storage of ³unstructured´ data up to 4 gigabytes LOB datatype can be: ± Column in table ± Attribute in object type ± Element in nested table   Possible applications include office documents. etc. LOB datatypes are the successor to LONGs. ± Oracle has announced deprecation of LONGs.

improving performance.Types of Large Objects  ³Internal´ LOBs ± BLOB: unstructured binary data ± CLOB: single-byte fixedwidth character data ± NCLOB: multi-byte fixedwidth character data (or varying width in )  ³External´ LOBs ± BFILE: pointer to an operating system file  Temporary LOBs ± Internal LOBs that do not participate in transactions.page 128 . external do not ± External LOBs are read-only from within Oracle 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Key programming differences: ± Internal LOBs participate in transactions.

trim ± For external LOBs: File existence test. comparison and length checking ± For internal LOBs: Write. copy. open.page 129 . substring and instring searches. append. EMPTY_CLOB() ± BFILENAME 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .PL/SQL built-ins for LOBs  Package DBMS_LOB ± Supports for all LOBs: Reading. erase. close  Other built-in functions ± LOADFROMFILE (load an external BFILE into a BLOB) ± EMPTY_LOB().

page 130 . fax BLOB). CLOSE fax_cur. END.Deceptively simple example  BLOB-typed column in a table CREATE TABLE incoming_faxes (fax_id INTEGER. the_fax BLOB.  Retrieve record with BLOB into PL/SQL variable DECLARE CURSOR fax_cur IS SELECT fax FROM incoming_faxes. received DATE. BEGIN OPEN fax_cur. Question: What¶s in the_fax? 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . FETCH fax_cur INTO the_fax.

The ³LOB locator´ LOB t l sel es [ ll ] t i i t r . tt LOBs <lob segment> fax_id 281937 received 12-JAN-98 fax <lob locator> Updati  t e LOB anges t e pointer is ompli ates se of LOBs ± LOB locators cannot span transactions ± Programs must lock records containing LOBs efore updating ± Programs performing L must accommodate dynamic LOB locator alues 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 131 .

oodb.com'. . htmlloc CLOB).page 132 . 1 of 2  Must get a new LOB locator before writing into the LOB: DECLARE the_url web_pages.url%TYPE := 'http://www. BEGIN INSERT INTO web_pages VALUES (the_url. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .. EMPTY_CLOB()) RETURNING htmlloc INTO the_loc.Example: Piecewise CLOB programmatic insert  Create a table CREATE TABLE web_pages ( url VARCHAR2(512) PRIMARY KEY.. the_loc CLOB.

FOR the_piece_no IN 1. several likely exceptions offset => running_total. piece_length PLS_INTEGER.COUNT LOOP piece_length := LENGTH(html_tab(the_piece_no)).page 133 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein BEGIN . END. EMPTY_CLOB()) and loads a web page RETURNING htmlloc INTO the_loc.WRITE(lob_loc => the_loc.. DBMS_LOB.oodb.Example: Piecewise CLOB programmatic insert DECLARE the_url web_pages. into a CLOB column html_tab := UTL_HTTP. END LOOP. the_loc CLOB.html_tab. running_total PLS_INTEGER := 1. buffer => html_tab(the_piece_no)).HTML_PIECES.REQUEST_PIECES(url => the_url).com'. html_tab UTL_HTTP. This block retrieves INSERT INTO web_pages VALUES (the_url. running_total := running_total + piece_length. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Note: We are ignoring amount => piece_length.url%TYPE := 'http://www.

com' FOR UPDATE. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . CLOSE hcur.Example: Piecewise CLOB programmatic update DECLARE Program must lock the record explicitly CURSOR hcur IS SELECT htmlloc FROM web_pages WHERE url = 'http://www. END.page 134 . pattern => 'oodb'). str_offset := DBMS_LOB.INSTR(lob_loc => the_loc. str_offset INTEGER. END IF. FETCH hcur INTO the_loc.oodb.WRITE(lob_loc => the_loc. the_loc CLOB. amount => 4. BEGIN OPEN hcur. buffer => 'cool'). IF str_offset != 0 THEN DBMS_LOB. offset => str_offset.

ut IRECTORY namespace is global  Syntax: CREATE OR REPLACE DIRECTORY <directory name> AS '<full path to directory>'.page 135 .  Example: CREATE DIRECTORY web_pix AS 'D:\bill\training\pix'.Preparing to use BFILEs  You must first create an Oracle I ORY´ ± Creates logical alias for full directory pat ± imilar to LIBRARY (used for C "external procedures"). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

CREATE TYPE Business_card_t AS OBJECT ( name Name_t. image BFILE). addresses Address_tab_t.page 136 .Using BFILE datatype in DDL  In a table.  In an object type. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . CREATE TABLE web_graphics ( image_id INTEGER. scanned_card_image BFILE )... phones Phone_tab_t...

page 137 .The built-in BFILENAME function  Returns value of datatype BFILE.  Example: DECLARE picture BFILE := BFILENAME('WEB_PIX'. 'prodicon.gif'). /  Notes: ± No automatic file checking or synchronization ± No participation in transactions 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . BEGIN INSERT INTO web_graphics VALUES (100015. END. file_exprn) RETURN BFILE. Spec: FUNCTION BFILENAME(directory_exprn. picture).

DBMS_LOB.LOADFROMFILE(dest_lob => pic_blob_loc. / loadblob. src_lob => pic_file. amount => DBMS_LOB.page 138 . DBMS_LOB. END.FILEOPEN(pic_file.Loading File into Database BLOB CREATE TABLE web_graphic_blobs ( image_id INTEGER. pic_blob_loc) RETURNING image INTO pic_blob_loc. DBMS_LOB.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .GETLENGTH(pic_file)). BEGIN INSERT INTO web_graphic_blobs VALUES (1.FILECLOSE(pic_file). DBMS_LOB. image BLOB).FILE_READONLY). pic_blob_loc BLOB := EMPTY_BLOB(). 'prodicon.gif'). DECLARE pic_file BFILE := BFILENAME('WEB_PIX'.

or transaction  Ability to retrieve LOB ³chunk size´ ± Allows programmer to tune READs and WRITEs  For all internal LOBs ± OPEN & CLOSE allow control over timing. call.New DBMS_LOB APIs in 8i  Support for temporary LOBs ± No logging or rollback faster! ± Lifespan: session. that can mean less I/O » Trigger will not fire until CLOSE » Indexes will not update until CLOSE ± ISOPEN 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 139 .

Large Object .page 140 . COLD 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .. ± LOB locator behavior slightly abstruse ± Inability to modify BFILEs directly from within PL/SQL. ± Complete support in PL/SQL (and other APIs) ± Much better performance and control than with LONGs ± Usable in object types HOT  Some weaknesses.Summary  LOB support in Oracle is now significantly improved..

Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Leveraging Java Inside PL/SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 141 .

a BRIEF introduction to Java.. or server Not covered in this seminar  PL/SQL can call Java inside 8i server ± ± ± ± Command-line tools load Java classes DDL extensions publish Java classes Writing stored procedures.Overview of Java interoperability  Java inside or outside 8i server can call PL/SQL ± Standard JDBC and SQLJ calls with Oracle extensions ± Same Java on client. functions. mid-tier.page 142 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . triggers in Java Distinct Java & PL/SQL namespaces  But first...

slickest piece of software ever designed by human beings? ± Just the latest in a series of "silver bullets" promoted by software vendors in order to prop up quarterly sales? ± The first and only successful O-O language? ± None of the above?  We don't really need to take a vote.Question 1: What is Java?  Could it be...page 143 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . fastest. ± We just need to keep a firm grip on common sense and stay focused on delivering solutions. ± The end of programming history as we know it? ± The easiest.

it is very unlikely and totally unthinkable for years to come. PL/SQL will still be: ± Faster and more productive than Java for database operations. ± Ubiquitous in thousands of production applications and millions of lines of code.  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .and very aggressively.Question 2: Will Java Replace PL/SQL?  While that scenario is certainly possible. to boot.page 144 . ± Supported and improved by Oracle -. ± A language in which hundreds of thousands of developers are trained.

± Don't get overwhelmed by all the classes and all the strange quirks. everything exception the primitive datatypes..Some Important Things to Remember  Java is a case sensitive language.. ± string is definitely not the same as String. you have to instantiate an object from that class...  Everything is a class (or an object instantiated from a class).page 145 ..  You don't have to know how to do everything with Java to get lots of value out of it. ± Before you can call a (non-static) class method.. ± Well. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

. Oh.. no methods. public class Hello { public static void main (String[] args) { System.Building a Java Class  Let's start from the very beginning.out. END. ± Used to test or run stand-alone a class. except the "special" main method.page 146 . by the way: the PL/SQL version 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .PUT_LINE ('Hello world!').println ("Hello world!"). CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE hello IS BEGIN DBMS_OUTPUT. } }  No members.

± You must also either have set the CLASSPATH or include it in your javac call. ± This will convert the . you must compile it with the javac command. ± It will also automatically recompile any classes used by your class that has not been compiled since last change.Compiling Classes  Before you can use a class.java -classpath d:\java 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .zip.d:\java D:> javac Hello.class file. e:\jdk1. SET CLASSPATH = d:\Oracle\Ora81\jdbc\lib\classes111.7b\lib\classes.zip.1.page 147 .java file to a .

Running a Class  Run a class? What does that mean? It means that if your class contains a method with this header: public static void main (String[] args)  then you can "run" the main method with the java command: d:\java> java Hello  You can also pass one or more arguments on the command line: d:\java> java Hello mom Hello2.java 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 148 .

you will use a class by instantiating objects from the class and then invoking class methods on the object.page 149 . Usually.   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Let's build a performance analyzer class to explore these ideas.Using a Class  The main method is handy for providing a built-in test mechanism of your class. however.

java InFile. System.Gstart).currentTimeMillis() .currentTimeMillis() .java Tmr. elapsed()).currentTimeMillis to calculate elapsed time to nearest thousandth of a second.Compare Performance of Methods  Use System. class Tmr { private long Gstart = 0.java 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . } } p.currentTimeMillis(). public void capture () { Gstart = System.page 150 . } public void showElapsed (String context) { p.Gstart). } public void showElapsed () { p. } public long elapsed () { return (System.l ("Elapsed time ".l ("Elapsed time for " + context.

 Abstract class ± The class can contain members and methods. besides the "regular" kind we just saw.page 151 .. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..  Interface class ± The class only contains unimplemented methods. but at least one method remains unimplemented.Types of Classes  There are several different kinds of classes in Java.  Inner class ± Classes that are defined inside other classes.

supertype/"wider" Citizen Person Employee Hourly Worker Salaried Worker subtype/"narrower" War Criminal Person. either as its own class or as any superclass. ± Static polymorphism: form is chosen at compile-time (PL/SQL overloading). ± Dynamic polymorphism: form is determined at run-time.java A Class Hierarchy Management NonManagement Corporation 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .And Now for Some Scary Buzzwords!  Inheritance ± Subclasses inherit methods and variables from extended superclasses.  Polymorphism ± An object of a class can have "multiple" forms.page 152 .

myName = "Feuerstein".page 153 . if (myName.Language Basics  Comments // Single line comment /* Block comment */ /** Documentation comment */  Primitive datatypes ± So I lied. you are actually allocating a new object. boolean char byte short int long float double  Strings ± A String object is a read-only. ± Can't do a direct == comparison. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . if you assign a new value to it. String myName.equals(YourName)) foundFamily(). these are not objects instantiated from classes. myName = "Steven".

nextElement()) } } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . System.println (args[indx]). static void processAll (Enumeration enum) { while (enum. do-while and for ± Note: you need squiggly brackets only if there is more than one statement in the loop body.length.NextElement()).Writing Loops in Java  Three kinds of loops: while.hasMoreElements ()) { processIt (enum.out.out. for (initialize. Examples: for (indx indx=0.println ( (String)enum. step) { lotsaStuff } while (expression) { lostsaStuff } do { lostsaStuff } while (expression). indx++) System. indx < args.page 154 . expression.

public PuterLingo (String name) { mname = name. you must supply a value for each parameter. ± If a method has no arguments. ± No default values for arguments. class PuterLingo { private String mname. you still include the open and close parentheses. } public String name () { return mname.Passing Parameters  Some important differences from PL/SQL.. ± Only positional notation is supported.name()). } } class LotsALingos { public static void main (String args[]) { PuterLingo Java = new PuterLingo("Java"). System.out. } } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 155 ..println (Java.

} catch (Exception e) { System. Put inside try clause File myFile = new File (filename).length(). you "throw" and "catch" exceptions. "WHEN OTHERS" } in Java } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Throwing my own public static int numBytes (String filename) { exception try { if (filename. return myFile.page 156 .println (e. rather than raise and handle. } File-related catch (SecurityException e) { exceptions return -1.out.Exception Handling in Java  Very similar to PL/SQL.toString()).equals("")) throw new Exception ("Filename is NULL").

page 157 . ± Use the throws clause in your specification. as in: public static int numBytes (String filename) throws SecurityException.. NoSuchFile { .  You must inform users of your method of which exceptions may be thrown.Differences Between Java & PL/SQL  Exceptions are objects derived directly or indirectly from the Exception class.. } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± So you can pass them as arguments and do anything and everything else you can do with objects.

 Now let's explore how you can put Java to work for you inside PL/SQL programs. ± Object oriented development (Java) is very different from procedural coding (PL/SQL).page 158 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Java's Not So Tough!  You can learn enough Java in less than a week to: ± Build simple classes ± Leverage Java inside PL/SQL  Moving to the next level of expertise will be more of a challenge.

page 159 . using JDBC or SQLJ Oracle 8i server PL/SQL cover for Java method Java virtual machine running Java method Oracle Developer client (PL/SQL) Net8 OCI or Pro*C client VB or C++ via OO4O or ODBC 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Java Stored Procedures (JSPs) Java applet or app.

JSPs: Some sample uses PL/SQL extender ± For example. better file I/O ± RMI callouts.page 160 . network communication in/out PL/SQL replacement ± More standard language ± Good performer for numeric processing tasks ± Beware database I/O & string manipulation performance Scaleable deployment of third party code ± Vertical application ± Web server ± XML parser/generator 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

page 161 . Load into server using ³loadjava´ command-line tool 3...END 4. Grant privileges as desired 5.. Call from PL/SQL (or SQL) as if calling PL/SQL    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . rather than BEGIN.Creating JSP to call from PL/SQL   1.. Publish PL/SQL cover using AS LANGUAGE JAVA. Create Java classes in your favorite IDE 2.

page 162 PL/SQL .println (TheGlobalMonster). long CEOCompensation.java Advanced Techniques . layoffs = Playoffs. public Corporation ( String Pname.println main method is used to test the class. paying its" + " Chief Executive Officer " + CEOCompensation. long Playoffs.out. CEOCompensation = PceoComp. }} 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Notes on Java classes  toString method automatically used by System. System. } public static void main (String[] args) { // A very scary company Corporation TheGlobalMonster = new Corporation ( "Northrup-Ford-Mattel-Yahoo-ATT".Create Java class(es) class Corporation extends Person { long layoffs. } public String toString () { return name + " is a transnational entity with " + layoffs + " laid-off employees. Entry points must be public static in most cases Classes may call other classes Avoid GUI calls     person.out. 50000000). 5000000. long PceoComp) { name = Pname.

Upload using ³loadjava´ utility .java file Java resource file .class options (abbreviated) -oci8 -resolve loadjava will connect using OCI driver Resolves external class references at compile time -resolver (shown later) Search path like CLASSPATH 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .jar file Oracle 8i server Java class Java source Java resource loadjava Example: loadjava loadjava -user scott/tiger -oci8 -resolve datacraft/bill/Hello.class file .page 163 .

lang.) [ return <Ja a t pe fullname> ]'. /  Syntax (simplified) CREATE [ OR REPLACE PROCE URE FUNCTION <name> <sqlt pe> ] [ [ <ar s> ) ] [ AUTHID { DEFINER | CURRENT_USER } ] AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME '<met fullname> (<Ja a t pe fullname>.Publish  Example (top-level call spec) CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION hello_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2 AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft. .Emp(int) return java..Hello..page 164 .bill. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .String'.

for example. PRINT :thename ± CALL avoids overhead of SELECT fn FROM DUAL jsp.Call the wrapped method  Method 1: Call as if PL/SQL module BEGIN DBMS_OUTPUT.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END. from SQL*Plus: VARIABLE thename VARCHAR2(12) CALL hello_emp(7499) INTO :thename.page 165 .  Method 2: Use 8i SQL CALL statement.PUT_LINE(hello_emp(7499)).

Timestamp java.ARRAY 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .String java.page 166 .math.lang.sql.sql.STRUCT <named type> oracle.more concepts Shape mapping ± Java methods declared ³void´ become PL/SQL procedures ± Signature mismatches detected only at runtime Type mapping (typical) VARCHAR2 DATE NUMBER user-defined object type user-defined object type object REFerence user-defined collection type java.sql.sql.BigDecimal oracle.REF oracle.Publishing -.

lang. / (No package body required in this case) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .util.Hello. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE hello_pkg AS FUNCTION hi_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2 AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.Publish in PL/SQL Package Spec  Designate Java module in PL/SQL package spec.String'. END..Emp(int) return java.page 167 ..

Emp(int) return java.page 168 . / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .String'. END. END.. / CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY hello_pkg2 AS FUNCTION hi_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2 IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.or in package body CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE hello_pkg2 AS FUNCTION hi_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2.Hello..lang.util.Publish as module in package body  .

lang.util.String').Emp(int) return java.page 169 . MEMBER FUNCTION hello_emp RETURN VARCHAR2 IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.Publish as object type method  Either in spec: CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE foo_t AS OBJECT ( bar VARCHAR2(30).util.Emp(int) return java.Hello. MEMBER FUNCTION hello_emp RETURN VARCHAR2). END. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .String'.lang. / CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE BODY foo_t AS MEMBER FUNCTION hello_emp RETURN VARCHAR2 IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.Hello. / or in the body: CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE foo_t AS OBJECT ( bar VARCHAR2(30).

resolves Java class references. JAVAIDPRIV. DROP JAVA: drops a named Java library unit Several roles available for Java operations: ± JAVAUSERPRIV. or resource ± Can read file designated with BFILE() function  ALTER JAVA: compiles Java source. JAVASYSPRIV (needed for file IO operations).page 170 . JAVA_ADMIN. JAVADEBUGPRIV ± You can also grant specific privileges.   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .New DDL Statements and Roles  CREATE JAVA ± Alternative to ³loadjava´ utility ± Creates or replaces an Oracle ³library unit´ from Java source. class.

page 171 .Passing Oracle8 objects Oracle8i server Object in O-R table Java application Java object   Harder than you¶d think Three different interfacing techniques ± oracle.CustomDatum ± oracle.jdbc2.SQLData 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .sql.STRUCT ± oracle.sql.

JPublisher utility Database server Definition of type or REF in data dictionary User-supplied JPublisher input file What does it do? ± Generates Java that encapsulates type and REF types of mapping supported for methods JPublisher ± ³Oracle mapping´ ± ³JDBC mapping´ ± ³Object JDBC mapping´ Three Generated Java file(s) for use in Java programs 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 172 .

AccountRuntime. they become available to use in mapping Example of passing an Account_t object: CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE account_save (new_acct IN Account_t) IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.page 173 .sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .bill.Passing object using JPub-generated Java  After generating and uploading classes with JPub. /  jspobj.bill.Account_t)'.save (datacraft.

Java offers many file-related classes with much greater capabilities.   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . but that package is very limited. Let's see how we can make that great Java stuff available from within PL/SQL.page 174 .Example: Improving File I/O  You can read/write files in PL/SQL with UTL_FILE.

Encapsulate Java Classes  You won't generally access native Java methods in your PL/SQL wrapper. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± This is not available through UTL_FILE (though you can get it through DBMS_LOB)..page 175 . ± The File class offers a length method that returns the number of bytes in a file.  Let's start with something simple.. ± Instead build a static method that instantiates a Java object from the class and then invokes the relevant method against that object.

return myFile.page 176 . } } JFile2.File. ± Call the method of choice against that object and return the value. ± Instantiate a File object for the specified name.My Own Java Class for File Manipulation  Accept the name of a file and return its length.java  Take each of these steps: ± Import the File class to resolve reference.length().io. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . public class JFile2 { public static long length (String fileName) { File myFile = new File (fileName). import java.

END. we will certainly want to add more functionality over time.Build a Package over Java Method  Let's put it in a package.lang.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± I translate the Java long to a PL/SQL NUMBER. / xfile2. / CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY xfile IS FUNCTION length (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN NUMBER AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'JFile.page 177 . END.String) return long'. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE xfile IS FUNCTION length (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN NUMBER.length (java.

Convert the Java boolean to a String or number and return that value. so you'd expect smooth sailing. Write a "hidden" PL/SQL wrapper function that returns the string or number. Not so! To pass a Boolean back from Java to PL/SQL.page 178 . ± 2. ± 3. you will need to take these steps: ± 1.Mapping the Boolean Datatype  Both Java and PL/SQL support a native Boolean datatype.  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Write a "public" PL/SQL wrapper function to convert that number to a true PL/SQL Boolean.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . } } JFile3. boolean retval = myFile. ± And don't forget: this is a boolean primitive. if (retval) return 1. import java.Translate Boolean to Number  Accept the name of a file and return its length.File. public class JFile3 { public static int canRead (String fileName) { File myFile = new File (fileName).canRead(). not a Boolean class. else return 0.page 179 .io.java  Translate TRUE to 1 and FALSE to 0.

java END. FUNCTION canRead (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN BOOLEAN AS BEGIN xfile3.java / xfile. ± Avoid the hard-codings with named constants. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE xfile IS FUNCTION canRead (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN BOOLEAN.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .. xfile4.. / CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY xfile IS FUNCTION IcanRead (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN NUMBER AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'JFile3.page 180 . JFile4.lang.pkg RETURN IcanRead (file) = 1.Wrapper for Pseudo-Boolean function  Simple translation back to PL/SQL Boolean. JFile.canRead (java. END.String) return int'.pkg END.

public class UnionBuster { Obtain attributes of public static void wageStrategy (STRUCT e) the Oracle object.sql. // starting with 0 String laborType = (String)(attribs[0]). throws java. System.tst PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Object[] attribs = e.out.SQLException { // Get the attributes of the labor_source object.page 181 .java passobj. BigDecimal hourly_rate = (BigDecimal)(attribs[1]).println ( "Pay " + laborType + " $" + hourly_rate + " per hour").getAttributes(). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein UnionBuster. // Access individual attributes by array index. } } Extract individual attribute values from the array.Passing Objects to Java with STRUCT  You can pass Oracle object information to Java without relying on JPub by using the STRUCT class.

END. hourly_rate NUMBER). '5')). bust_em_with ( labor_source ('Prisoners'.Wrapping a STRUCT-based Method  You can pass Oracle object information to Java without relying on JPub by using the STRUCT class.STRUCT)'. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Fully specify the STRUCT class in parameter list.page 182 . / BEGIN bust_em_with ( labor_source ('Workfare'.wageStrategy (oracle.sql. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 0)). The Oracle object type definition CREATE TYPE labor_source_t AS OBJECT ( labor_type VARCHAR2(30). / CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE bust_em_with ( labor_source_in IN labor_source_t) AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'UnionBuster.

println.PUT_LINE: System.out. ± Call it within methods and output will display in your Java environment. i++) { System.SET_OUTPUT (1000000).Viewing Output from Java Methods  Java provides a "print line" method similar to DBMS_OUTPUT. you can redirect the output to the DBMS_OUTPUT buffer.page 183 . HelloAll.java HelloAll. ± Here is a good nucleus for a login. i < count.out.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . public class HelloAll { public static void lotsaText ( int count) { for (int i = 0. }}}  When called within a PL/SQL wrapper.sql file: SET SERVEROUTPUT ON SIZE 1000000 CALL DBMS_JAVA.println ( "Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello All!").

 Any error not caught by the JVM (Java virtual machine) will be thrown back to the PL/SQL block or SQL statement. you "throw" and "catch".1.Error Handling with Java-PL/SQL  Java offers a very similar.SQLException. but more robust error handling mechanism than PL/SQL. getErrorCode() and getMessage() to obtain information about the error thrown.5). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± And also spew out the entire Java error stack! (at least through 8. such as java.page 184 .sql. ± Instead of raising and handling. ± Exceptions are objects instantiated from the Exception class or a subclass of it. ± Use two methods.

doExecuteWithTimeout(OracleStatement.check_error(KprbDBAccess.driver.parseExecuteFetch(KprbDBAccess.SQLException: ORA-00942: table or view does not exist at oracle.OracleStatement.jdbc.driver. BEGIN dropany ('TABLE'.jdbc. the entire Java stack is displayed on your screen.KprbDBAccess.doExecute(OracleStatement.page 185 .OracleStatement.java) at oracle.java) at DropAny.object(DropAny.PUT_LINE (SQLCODE).java) at oracle.KprbDBAccess.java) at oracle.jdbc.kprb. 'blip').tst ORA-00942: table or view does not exist 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .jdbc.OracleStatement.Trapping and Identifying Errors  Currently.java) at oracle. / SQL> 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 java. END.driver.OracleStatement.doExecuteOther(OracleStatement.OracleStatement.executeUpdate(OracleStatement.java) at oracle.java:14) DropAny.sp dropany2. DBMS_OUTPUT.doExecuteWithBatch(OracleStatement.java -29532 dropany.driver.SQLException: getErrInfo.kprb. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN DBMS_OUTPUT. and you have to do some digging to extract the Oracle error information.java) at oracle.sql.driver.tst ORA-29532: Java call terminated by uncaught Java exception: java.PUT_LINE (SQLERRM).sql.jdbc.jdbc.jdbc.

page 186 . ± Must be a shared object library on Unix or a dynamically linked library (DLL) on Windows.Achieving PL/SQL Excellence External Procedures  An external procedure is a 3GL routine that can serve as the ³body´ of a PL/SQL function. or method.  An Oracle8 feature that allowed relatively "native" callouts to C from PL/SQL for the first time. procedure. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

so file extproc returns results returns results 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Process & data flow Application Makes request Net8 External Procedure Listener spawns External Shared Library Calls PL/SQL Runtime Engine PL/SQL body Client or server-side application returns results calls routine from Routine in .DLL or .page 187 .

page 188 .sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .External procedures: Sample uses      Send email Invoke operating system command Invoke custom or legacy application Call C runtime library function Perform admin tasks email.sql diskspace.

this function returns: » » » » » sectors per cluster bytes per sector number of free clusters total number of clusters ³return code´ indicating success or failure  First. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . create an Oracle8 ³library´: CREATE OR REPLACE LIBRARY nt_kernel AS 'c:\winnt\system32\kernel32.dll ± For given drive letter.dll'.Determine free disk space on NT (1/4)  Use pre-existing routine: ± GetDiskFreeSpaceA in kernel32.page 189 .

number_of_free_clusters OUT PLS_INTEGER.Package spec (2/4)  Nothing unexpected here: CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE disk_util AS FUNCTION get_disk_free_space (root_path IN VARCHAR2. sectors_per_cluster OUT PLS_INTEGER. total_number_of_clusters OUT PLS_INTEGER) RETURN PLS_INTEGER. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END disk_util. bytes_per_sector OUT PLS_INTEGER.page 190 .

Package body in Oracle 8.page 191  All the magic is in the EXTERNAL section 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . bytes_per_sector BY REFERENCE LONG. sectors_per_cluster OUT PLS_INTEGER. RETURN LONG). total_number_of_clusters OUT PLS_INTEGER) RETURN PLS_INTEGER IS EXTERNAL LIBRARY nt_kernel NAME "GetDiskFreeSpaceA" LANGUAGE C CALLING STANDARD PASCAL PARAMETERS (root_path STRING. number_of_free_clusters OUT pls_integer. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . bytes_per_sector OUT PLS_INTEGER.0 (3/4) CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY disk_util AS FUNCTION get_disk_free_space (root_path IN VARCHAR2. number_of_free_clusters BY REFERENCE LONG. total_number_of_clusters BY REFERENCE LONG. sectors_per_cluster BY REFERENCE LONG. END disk_util.

Usage (4/4)
DECLARE lroot_path VARCHAR2(3) := 'C:\'; lsectors_per_cluster PLS_INTEGER; lbytes_per_sector PLS_INTEGER; lnumber_of_free_clusters PLS_INTEGER; ltotal_number_of_clusters PLS_INTEGER; return_code PLS_INTEGER; free_meg REAL; BEGIN return_code := disk_util.get_disk_free_space (lroot_path, lsectors_per_cluster, lbytes_per_sector, lnumber_of_free_clusters, ltotal_number_of_clusters); free_meg := lsectors_per_cluster * lbytes_per_sector * lnumber_of_free_clusters / 1024 / 1024; DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('free disk space, Mb = ' || free_meg); diskspace.sql END;
1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein
PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 192

Creating your own external procedure 

1. Identify or create shared library 2. Identify or CREATE LIBRARY within Oracle 3. Map the parameters using:
± EXTERNAL clause (Oracle8) or ± LANGUAGE clause (Oracle8i)  

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 193

1. Identify/create external routine 


Prerequisite: O/S must support shared libraries Some useful routines are pre-built in C runtime library
± On Unix: /lib/libc.so ± On NT: <systemroot>\system32\crtdll.dll 

Building a shared library of your own requires knowledge of:
± Appropriate language (typically C) ± Compiler & linker

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 194

2. Create the Oracle library 

Syntax:
CREATE OR REPLACE LIBRARY <library name> AS '<full path to file>'; 

Assigns a programmer-defined alias to a specific shared library file Notes
± Requires CREATE LIBRARY pri ilege ± Does not alidate directory ± Can¶t use symbolic link 

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 195

3. Map the parameters
This can get complicated, because«
± Must pass extra parameters to designate:
» NULL/NOT NULL state » String length » Maximum allocated length

± Six choices of parameter mode
» » » » » » IN RETURN IN BY REFERENCE RETURN BY REFERENCE OUT IN OUT

These details are better suited for close reading«
PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 196

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

page 197 .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Oracle8i New Features Autonomous Transactions Invoker Rights Model Row Level Security 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

± And the learning curve to take advantage of these features is generally not too steep.    Autonomous Transactions The Invoker Rights Model Row level security 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Oracle8i New Features  Oracle8i offers a number of PL/SQL-specific features that give you tremendous additional flexibility and capability.page 198 .

CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE loginfo ( code IN PLS_INTEGER. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Any changes made within that block can be saved or reversed without affecting the outer or main transaction. msg IN VARCHAR2) AS PRAGMA AUTONOMOUS_TRANSACTION. you can now define a PL/SQL block to execute as an "autonomous transaction".Autonomous Transactions  Prior to Oracle8i. a COMMIT or ROLLBACK in any program in your session committed or rolled back all changes in your session. ± There was only one transaction allowed per connection.page 199 .  With Oracle8i.

When to Use Autonomous Transactions  Reusable Application Components ± ATs are more or less required in the new distributed application architecture of the Internet.  Call functions within SQL that change the database. something like a COMMIT) on other components. which can cause all sorts of complications: your log entry becomes a part of your transaction. software usage meter.  Logging Mechanism ± Commonly developers lot to database tables. etc. ± One component should not have any impact (esp. ± Now you can avoid the complexities (need for ROLLBACK TO savepoints and so on).page 200 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Tracing Code Usage ± Build retry mechanisms.

END. BEGIN INSERT INTO logtab VALUES (code_in. let's add some session information. text_in. While we're at it.page 201 . USER. COMMIT. SYSDATE. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Avoid interdependencies with the main transaction.pkg retry. USER.program ).machine. SYSDATE.tst PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END. rec. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN ROLLBACK. text_in IN VARCHAR2 ) IS PRAGMA AUTONOMOUS_TRANSACTION. rec.sp log81.tst retry.Logging with ATs  Don't forget that ROLLBACK in the exception section! CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY log IS PROCEDURE putline ( code_in IN INTEGER. logger.pkg log81*.

autonserial.  Any changes committed in an AT are visible in the outer transaction.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .sql autontrigger*. The AT PRAGMA can be used only with individual programs and toplevel anonymous blocks. ± You cannot tell by looking at the package spec if you are calling ATs or not -and this info is not available in the data dictionary.Tips and Gotchas with ATs  An AT program must COMMIT or ROLLBACK before terminating. ± You cannot define a nested anonymous block to be an AT. or an error is raised.   The AT PRAGMA goes in the body of packages.sql auton_in_sql.page 202 . ± You cannot define an entire package as an AT. ± Place the SET TRANSACTION statement in the outer transaction. ± You can use the SET TRANSACTION ISOLATION LEVEL SERIALIZABLE to indicate that you do not want the changes visible until the outer transaction commits.

The Invoker Rights Model  Prior to Oracle8i. whenever you executed a stored program. you can now decide at compilation time whether your program or package will execute in the definer's schema (the default) or the schema of the invoker of the code.page 203 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . ± This is called the « Definer Rights Model  With Oracle8i. ± This is called the « Invoker Rights Model PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . it ran under the privileges of the account in which the program was defined.

But it can be a source of confusion and architectural problems. OE Code Order_Mgt Place Cancel Sam_Sales Close Old Orders  OE Data X  Orders Cannot alter table directly.About Definer Rights  Allows you to centralize access to and control of underlying data structures. Ignores roles and relies on directly-granted privileges. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Note: Oracle built-in packages have long had the capability of running under the invoker's authority.page 204 .

± Can bypass 8i¶s ³fine-grained´ access features (see the DBMS_RLS package) ± Difficult to audit privileges  Sure would be nice to have a choice. each user has own copy of table(s).and now you do! 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Problems with Definer Rights  Deployment & maintenance ± Must install module in all remote databases where needed ± In some databases...page 205 .it's all or nothing. unless you write code in the package to essentially recreate roles programmatically. requiring copy of stored module  Security ± No declarative way to restrict privileges on certain modules in a package -.

and must be at the package level. AUTHID goes only in spec. "dummy" objects.. do what it takes to get the code to compile. Synonyms may be necessary if modules use object names not qualified by schema. ± In other words.  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  For modules with separate spec and body. ± At run-time.page 206 . You could also create local.Oracle8i Invoker Rights Syntax  For top level modules: CREATE [ OR REPLACE ] <module type> [ AUTHID { DEFINER | CURRENT_USER } ] AS .. the objects referenced may well be different from those against which it compiled.

. modify destroy ."Reflection" Capability of Invoker Rights  With invoker rights. you can execute code owned by another schema.FROM accounts WHERE..destroy(. END..acct_mgr. code.page 207 . accounts table 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .. Central Code schema PACKAGE acct_mgr make AUTHID CURRENT_USER User/Data schema PROCEDURE mng_account IS BEGIN .).. yet have all references to data structures "reflect back" into your own schema....

sql handy. Note: cannot use with wrapped code. all other calls in stack are resolved according to definer rights.sql  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Information about the rights model is not available in the data dictionary What if you want to maintain a single version of your code for both pre-Oracle8i and Oracle8i installations. ± AUTHID CURRENT_USER is ignored.page 208 .Tips and Gotchas for Invoker Rights  Does not apply to code objects. taking advantage of the invoker rights model whenever possible? ± A creative use of SQL*Plus substitution variables comes in very invdefinv. only data ± When your stored code references another stored code element. ± Both static and dynamic SQL is supported. the definer rights model is always applied to resolve the reference.  Once a definer rights program is called. oneversion.

authid.sql whichsch*.page 209 . ± Share a program that uses dynamic SQL (whether DBMS_SQL or the new native implementation) and you end up taking the most unexpected DDL and DML detours. National HQ Check City Statistics New York Schema stolenlives Chicago Schema stolenlives  Especially handy with dynamic SQL.When to Invoke Invoker Rights  You want to reuse the same code among many users. but you want their own directly-granted privileges to determine access.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

HQ Chicago Check City Statistics  New York stolenlives Analyze Pattern stolenlives perpetrators perp. Rely on definer rights to access centralized data from any schema.Combining Invoker & Definer Rights  Rely on invoker rights to allow centralized code to work with schema-specific data.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 210 .

Row Level Security DBMS_RLS Row-Level Security 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 211 .

Row-Level Security with DBMS_RLS  Oracle8i offers a new package.page 212   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . Prior to Oracle8i. Row Level Security  The establishment of security policies on (restricted access to) individual rows of a table. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . DBMS_RLS. you could achieve this only partially through the use of views. with which to implement automated row-level security (also referred to as "fine grained access control"). The DBMS_RLS package (along with "system contexts") now allow you to do so in a foolproof manner.

 Security Policy Packages ± You will need to write a package containing functions that establish the security policies to be applied to a particular table.  Database Logon Triggers ± I want to make sure that when a person logs in.  DBMS_RLS ± Use programs in DBMS_RLS to associate your security policies with tables. the system context is a named set of attributevalue pairs global to your session.Components Needed for RLS  System Contexts ± A new feature in Oracle8i. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 213 . their context information is set properly.  Let's step through a simple example to see how all these pieces tie together.

No more for-profit hospitals pulling billions of dollars out of the system. ± Patients can only see information about themselves. clinic and regulator.page 214 .sql  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± A massive.A National Health Care System  The year is 2010. The main tables are patient. popular uprising in the United States has forced the establishment of a national healthcare system. fgac.  We need a top-notch. all children are vaccinated. ± Regulators can only see patients who reside in the same state. Here are some rules: ± Doctors can only see patients who are assigned to their clinic. highly secure database for NHCS. all pregnant women receive excellent prenatal care. doctor. no more private insurance companies soaking up 30 cents on the dollar.

doc_rec doc_cur%ROWTYPE.page 215 . CREATE CONTEXT patient_restriction USING nhc_pkg.SET_CONTEXT ( 'patient_restriction'. DBMS_SESSION. See CURSOR doc_cur IS fgac. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END. and create a procedure that will set the context attributes (type and ID) upon login. c_person_id_attr. FETCH doc_cur INTO doc_rec.Set the Context  Define a context in the database. 'DOCTOR').SET_CONTEXT ( 'patient_restriction'. c_person_type_attr. PROCEDURE set_context IS This is a simplification. DBMS_SESSION. sets the context accordingly. doc_rec.sql for logic that identifies SELECT doctor_id FROM doctor different types of people and WHERE schema_name = USER. BEGIN OPEN doc_cur.doctor_id).

Define the Predicate  A predicate is a string that will be appended to the WHERE clause of the table to which this security policy is associated (see next page). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ''' || clause for each type of c_person_id_attr || '''))'.page 216 . BEGIN IF l_context = 'DOCTOR' THEN retval := 'home_clinic_id IN (SELECT home_clinic_id FROM doctor We need a different string WHERE doctor_id = SYS_CONTEXT (''' || to modify the WHERE c_context || '''. FUNCTION person_predicate ( schema_in VARCHAR2. information for this retval VARCHAR2(2000). name_in VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2 IS l_context VARCHAR2(100) := Extract the context SYS_CONTEXT (c_context. person. connection. c_person_type_attr).

nhc_pkg package.UPDATE. update or delete against the SCOTT.PATIENT table will be modified by the string returned by the person_predicate function of the SCOTT.ADD_POLICY OBJECT_SCHEMA OBJECT_NAME POLICY_NAME FUNCTION_SCHEMA POLICY_FUNCTION STATEMENT_TYPES END.ADD_POLICY procedure.DELETE'). 'nhc_pkg. 'patient'.Create the Security Policy  Use the DBMS_RLS. ± The following procedure call specifies that the WHERE clause of any query.page 217 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 'SCOTT'. 'SELECT. BEGIN DBMS_RLS.person_predicate'. ( => => => => => => 'SCOTT'. 'patient_privacy'.

fgac. logon is disabled.page 218 .PUT_LINE ( 'Error ' || SQLCODE || ' setting context for ' || USER').set_context.sql Exception handling in trigger is critical! If you allow an exception to go unhandled. Setting Context  By setting the context in the logon trigger. we guarantee that the context is set (and the predicate applied) no matter which product is the entry point to Oracle. CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER set_id_on_logon AFTER LOGON ON DATABASE BEGIN nhc_pkg.Create Logon Trigger. END. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN DBMS_OUTPUT.

Chris Silva .IL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Patient sees only himself.page 219 .Chris Silva .IL Context Information for "CSILVA": Type: PATIENT ID: Predicate: schema_name = 'CSILVA' Patients Visible to "CSILVA": CSILVA .IL VSILVA . Context Information for "SWALLACE": Type: DOCTOR Doctor sees only her ID: 1060 patients.Queries Transparently Filtered  What you see is determined automatically by who you are. Predicate: home_clinic_id IN (SELECT home_clinic_id FROM doctor WHERE doctor_id = SYS_CONTEXT ('patient_restriction'. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Veva Silva . 'person_id')) Patients Visible to "SWALLACE": CSILVA .

and play a new tune with PL/SQL! 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . February.... and you use only what you know.. May.... It's so easy to fall into a rut with a programming language.Take Full Advantage of PL/SQL! January. March.  ± You learn what you need to get the job done..page 220 . Jump out of your rut ... April.

a.Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Appendices (a.page 221 . If time permits«)     UTL_FILE ± file IO DBMS_JOB ± Job scheduling DBMS_PIPE ± Pipe-based communication DBMS_UTILITY ± the kitchen sink package 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .k..

Physical Files 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ...Built-in Packages: UTL_FILE UTL_FILE Server-side File I/O Application FOPEN GET_LINE PUT_LINE .page 222 .

A "version 1" (fairly primitive) utility. copy. ± No higher-level file operations supported (change privileges.0. ± Limitations on files you can access (no mapped files. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . when it jumps to 32K. no use of environmental variables). delete.   But you can read lines from a file and write lines to a file. ± Maximum of 1023 bytes per line (read or write) until Oracle 8. random access to contents).UTL_FILE: Server-side I/O  Allows you to read from and write to operating system files on the database server.page 223 ..5..

UTL_FILE Module Outline FCLOSE FCLOSE_ALL FFLUSH FOPEN GET_LINE IS_OPEN NEW_LINE PUT PUT_LINE PUTF Close the specified file Close all open files in your session Flush all data from the UTL_FILE buffer to your file Open a file Get the next line from a file Returns TRUE if the file is open (sort of) Insert a new line character in file at the end of current line Puts text into the UTL_FILE buffer Puts text and new line character into UTL_FILE buffer.page 224 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . Puts formatted text into the buffer PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Authorizing Directory Access  Oracle requires you to list explicitly those directories you wish to be able to read/write with UTL_FILE. ± You do this by adding lines to the instance parameter file. ± Use a separate entry for each directory (and subdirectory. utl_file_dir = * Allows read & write for any directory. there is no subdirectory recursion). utl_file_dir = /tmp utl_file_dir = /accounts/newdev  And don't do either of the following: utl_file_dir = . ± No single or double quotes around directory. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .page 225 Allows read & write for current directory.  Follow these rules to avoid many headaches. no trailing delimiter.

FILE_TYPE. So before you write anything fancy.txt'.page 226 . 'W'). and then run the following test script (it can't get much simpler than this): DECLARE fid UTL_FILE. 'hello'). restart your database.FCLOSE (fid).Test UTL_FILE Access  About the hardest part to working with UTL_FILE is simply getting started. 'test. END. modify your initialization file. UTL_FILE. */ fid := UTL_FILE. UTL_FILE. BEGIN /* Change the directory name to one to which you at least || THINK you have read/write access. / utlfile.FOPEN ('c:\temp'.tst  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .PUT_LINE (fid.

 The FOPEN function returns a record ("file handle") based on the UTL_FILE. ± Currently contains a single ID field. ± Types are 'R' for Read. this function simply returns TRUE if the file handle's id field is NOT NULL. ± In actuality.  Specify file location. 'W' for Write and 'A' for Append. Test to see if file is open with the IS_OPEN function.txt'. Not much of a test.Opening a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.   Maximum of 10 files may be opened in each user session.FILE_TYPE. END.FOPEN ('c:\temp'. name and operation type.FILE_TYPE. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 227 . 'W').. 'test. BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE..

UTL_FILE. 'R'). ± In Oracle8 Release 8. the ceiling is raised to 32K.  The NO_DATA_FOUND exception is raised if you read past the end of the file. getnext.FCLOSE (fid).txt'.FILE_TYPE. BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE.page 228 .   Can only read from a file opened with the "R" mode. Lines in the file cannot be longer than 1023 bytes in length.GET_LINE (fid. 'test.Reading from a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE. ± You might want to build your own GET_LINE which handles the exception and returns an EOF Boolean status flag. UTL_FILE.0.5 and above. myline). END.FOPEN ('c:\temp'.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Writing to a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.page 229 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . ± The file buffers are automatically flushed when you close a file or exit your session.FCLOSE (fid). allowing for some formatting. 'UTL_FILE').FOPEN ('c:\temp'. UTL_FILE.PUT_LINE (fid. PUT_LINE or PUTF. UTL_FILE.PUTF (fid. UTL_FILE. UTL_FILE is so much fun that I never want to stop Resulting Text  You can use PUT. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 'test.FILE_TYPE.  Call FFLUSH to make sure that everything you have written to the buffer is flushed out to the file. END. BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE. 'W'). '&1'). ' that I never\nwant to %s'. UTL_FILE.txt'. 'is so much fun'). ± PUTF is like the C printf program.PUT (fid.

txt'. 'R'). 'test.  If you do not close the file.FILE_TYPE. UTL_FILE. You can close a single file with FCLOSE or all open files with FCLOSE_ALL. UTL_FILE. BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE.FCLOSE (fid). You should close files in exception handlers to make sure that files are not left "hanging" open.FCLOSE (fid).READ_ERROR THEN UTL_FILE.page 230   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .FOPEN ('c:\temp'. END.GET_LINE (fid. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . myline).Closing a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE. EXCEPTION WHEN UTL_FILE. you will not see the data you have (supposedly) written to that file.

EXCEPTION.  You have to take special care to trap and handle the named exceptions.Error Handling in UTL_FILE PACKAGE UTL_FILE IS invalid_path invalid_mode invalid_filehandle invalid_operation read_error write_error internal_error END. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± NO_DATA_FOUND when you try to read past the end of the file. EXCEPTION.  UTL_FILE relies on a combination of user-defined exceptions and STANDARD exceptions to communicate errors. ± They all share a common SQLCODE of 1. EXCEPTION. EXCEPTION. EXCEPTION. EXCEPTION. ± UTL_FILE-named exceptions in other cases.page 231 . EXCEPTION.

c_invalid_path).c_invalid_filehandle). WHEN UTL_FILE.INVALID_FILEHANDLE THEN recNgo (PLVfile.Recommended Exception Section EXCEPTION WHEN UTL_FILE. END. RAISE.c_invalid_operation). WHEN UTL_FILE.c_write_error). WHEN UTL_FILE. RAISE. WHEN UTL_FILE.INVALID_OPERATION THEN recNgo (PLVfile. utlflexc. RAISE. WHEN UTL_FILE.WRITE_ERROR THEN recNgo (PLVfile. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . RAISE.INVALID_MODE THEN recNgo (PLVfile. RAISE. translating the generic user-defined exception into an understandable message.c_internal_error).c_read_error).c_invalid_mode). Re-raise exception if you want it to propagate from that block.INVALID_PATH THEN recNgo (PLVfile.page 232  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . WHEN UTL_FILE.INTERNAL_ERROR THEN recNgo (PLVfile.sql  Trap locally by name. RAISE. record the error. RAISE.READ_ERROR THEN recNgo (PLVfile.

.. Background Process DBA_JOBS Oracle Job Queue Subsystem 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 233 .Built-in Packages: DBMS_JOB DBMS_JOB Scheduled Execution of Stored Procedures Application SUBMIT RUN REMOVE .

page 234 . ± ± ± ±    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .2. Create a listener program to poll the contents of a pipe and take action. Schedule large batch jobs to run on "off hours".Overview of DBMS_JOB  DBMS_JOB provides an API to the Oracle job queues. ± Spawn background processes to avoid blocking client process. Made its debut in PL/SQL Release 2. Built by Oracle to support snapshots and replication. You can use DBMS_JOB to: Replicate data between different database instances. Schedule regular maintenance on instances. but only ³publicly available´ and supported in PL/SQL Release 2. which in turn offers job scheduling capabilities within the Oracle Server.1.

Returns the job string for a job number. Changes when a queued job will run. Submits a job to the queue using a predefined job number. Forces immediate execution of the specified job number. Removes the job from the queue.DBMS_JOB Module Outline BROKEN Marks the job as either FIXED or BROKEN. Submits a job to the queue returning a unique job number. Changes one or all attributes of a job. Broken jobs will not run as scheduled. Changes the job string of a job.page 235 CHANGE INTERVAL ISUBMIT NEXT_DATE REMOVE RUN SUBMIT USER_EXPORT WHAT 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Changes the interval between executions of a job.

Submitting a Job DECLARE job# BINARY_INTEGER.  When you submit a job. I run calculate_totals immediately and then on a daily basis thereafter. BEGIN DBMS_JOB. you specify the date on which it should next execute.'. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END. SYSDATE. while the interval is a string (this is dynamic PL/SQL!)  You can also call DBMS_JOB.page 236 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . ± In the above example. instead of having DBMS_JOB generate one for you.SUBMIT (job#.  A job is a call to a stored procedure or an anonymous block ± It must end with a semi-colon and can contain ³hard-coded´ arguments. Notice that the start time is a DATE expression.ISUBMIT and supply the job number. 'SYSDATE + 1'). 'calculate_totals. and then the job¶s execution interval (frequency of execution).

estimate_percent=>50).l (v_jobno). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .submit ( job => v_jobno. BEGIN DBMS_JOB. to analyze a specific table every evening at midnight.''TENK''' || '. END.page 237 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .Submit Job Example DECLARE v_jobno INTEGER.ANALYZE_OBJECT ' || '(''TABLE''. interval => 'TRUNC(SYSDATE+1)' ). what => 'DBMS_DDL. p. next_date => TRUNC (SYSDATE + 1). DBMS_DDL.''ESTIMATE''.null.'. /  This block submits a job that uses a built-in procedure.''LOAD1''.ANALYZE_OBJECT.

± Job 1 passes a string and number into procedure MY_JOB1. 'my_job2(date_IN=>SYSDATE). and will be removed from the queue automatically. numbered 1.ISUBMIT(3.next_date => SYSDATE + 1/24 .ISUBMIT (job => 1 .interval => 'SYSDATE +1').ISubmit Job Example BEGIN DBMS_JOB.'SYSDATE+10/1440').' .120).DBMS_JOB. /  This block submits three jobs to the job queue. END.SYSDATE+1.' . runs it in one hour and executes every day thereafter. executes for the first time tomorrow and every 10 minutes thereafter. and 3.'BEGIN null.2.page 238 .SYSDATE.what => 'my_job1(''string_parm_value''. DBMS_JOB.null).'. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .ISUBMIT (2. ± Job 3 is a PL/SQL block which does nothing. ± Job 2 passes a date into procedure MY_JOB2. END. DBMS_JOB. executes immediately.

Specifying Job Times & Frequencies  Probably the most complicated part of using DBMS_JOB is to get the string expression of the job interval right. Every hour Every Sunday at 2 AM First Monday of each quarter. NEXT_DAY (SYSDATE. NEXT_DAY (SYSDATE. ''FRIDAY''))) + 18/24' PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ''MONDAY'') + 9/24' 'TRUNC (LEAST ( NEXT_DAY (SYSDATE. ''SATURDAY'') 2/24' 'NEXT_DAY ( ADD_MONTHS (TRUNC (SYSDATE. ± Since it's a string. at 9 AM Every Monday. 3). you must use 2 single quotes to embed strings. ± Use date arithmetic to request intervals smaller than a day. ''MONDAY''). ''WEDNESDAY''). ''Q''). Wednesday and Friday at 6 PM 'SYSDATE + 1/24' 'NEXT_DAY (TRUNC (SYSDATE).page 239 + 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .

RUN (my_job#). END LOOP.job).  Export jobs from the queue.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Other Job Queue Operations  Remove a job from the queue. ± Only if the job was submitted from same schema BEGIN FOR rec IN (SELECT * FROM USER_JOBS) LOOP DBMS_JOB. DBMS_JOB. ± Produces a string that can be used to recreate an existing job in the job queue.  Run a job immediately. retaining current job number. Remove all jobs for current schema.page 240 . ± Performs an implicit COMMIT in current session.REMOVE (rec.ISUBMIT. ± Uses DBMS_JOB. expjob.

Job Queue Views  You can also view the job queue by looking at the DBA_JOBS_RUNNING. SELECT jr.DBA_JOBS .sid = jr.page 241 .what job_id username start_date job_definition jr j s showjobs.username .this_date .jr.this_date. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .job ORDER BY jr.sid AND jr.job = j. DBA_JOBS and USER_JOBS views.V$SESSION WHERE s. who owns them and when they began. ± The following query blends job information with session information to display currently-executing jobs.job .sql FROM DBA_JOBS_RUNNING .

Setting up the Job Facility  Make sure that the correct access is set up for the DBMS_JOB package. of one hour). The valid range is 1 to 3600 (a maximum. therefore.page 242 .ora (initialization) file for your database instance: ± job_queue_processes=N where n is the number of concurrent background processes permitted. ± job_queue_interval=N where N is the interval in seconds to check the job queue. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . You will have to take special DBA action if you want to restrict who can run jobs. ± The default is PUBLIC access. The valid range is 0 through 36.  You will need to set three parameters in the init.

Error Handling with DBMS_JOB  What if your stored procedure fails? ± After 16 attempts. ± Always include a WHEN OTHERS exception handler in your job program which traps any and all problems and automatically sets the job status to broken. it may cause the background processes to fail and no longer run any jobs at all.  To avoid unexpected and unhandled failures of scheduled jobs: ± Always use the RUN built-in to execute your job in a ³test´ mode. Then you can go ahead and submit it. ± Do you want it to try 16 times? ± In addition. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . if your failure raises an unhandled exception. the job facility will mark your job as broken.page 243 .

± Now the job facility will not try to run this program again. µFAIL¶). job_pkg.job (µcalc_totals¶) DBMS_JOB. ± Uses a call to BROKEN to set the status of the job to ³broken´. spacelog.Stopping the Job When It Fails PROCEDURE calc_totals IS BEGIN . END. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN job# := job_pkg. ± Obtains the job number from a packaged function by passing the name of the procedure.sql showspc..page 244 . ± Calls log program of package to record that failure took place.log (µcalc_totals¶.sql  The WHEN OTHERS exception handler of the calc_totals procedure traps any kind of failure. TRUE). You can go in and fix the problem.BROKEN (job#.

If you find that you submit a job to run immediately and it does not start.page 245 .  You will need to fully-qualify all database links (with user name and password) to get them to work properly. You can use the DBMS_IJOB to manage the jobs of other users. difficult to reproduce behavior at times with "straight" procedure calls."Good to Knows" for DBMS_JOB  You may find it useful to always wrap your stored procedure call (the what) inside a BEGIN-END block. ± DBMS_JOB only allows you to modify characteristics and behavior of jobs submitted by the current schema. perform a COMMIT after your submit. When a job runs.    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± We've noticed some aberrant. it picks up the current execution environment for the user.

Built-in Packages: DBMS_PIPE DBMS_PIPE Inter-session Communication 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 246 .

± Operates outside of database transaction limitations. ± Perform and commit DML in a separate transaction space from your main transaction. ± More sophisticated debugging inside PL/SQL programs (work around fundamental limitations of DBMS_OUTPUT). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Oracle uses database pipes to parallelize database operations.  Uses for DBMS_PIPE include: ± Parallelization of program execution.page 247 . You can parallelize your own code. ± Interface PL/SQL-database activities with operating system functions and programs written in other languages.DBMS_PIPE Overview  Allows communication between different Oracle sessions through a pipe in the RDBMS Shared Global Area.

which can be composed of one or more separate packets.Architecture of DBMS_PIPE Shared Global Area ³Sue´ ³Bob´ Message Buffer Message Buffer Session A  Session B A pipe is a named object that uses the System Global Area to provide a non-transaction based conduit of information. ± Names can be up to 128 chars long (do not use names beginning with ³ORA$´. using a maximum of 4096 bytes. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . They are reserved for Oracle use).page 248 . ± The pipe sends/receives a message.

so you should always specify a timeout period.  Receive a message from that pipe. ± Separate out the individual packets in the message (again: string.sql PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . you can wait for up to 1000 days (or 86400000 seconds) for the pipe to be cleared. ± Each packet can be a string. ± If there isn¶t currently room in the pipe. ROWID or RAW. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein pipex1. date or number).sql pipex2. number. ± There is just one message buffer per session. ± You can wait for up to 1000 days for a message. ± This is the default.  Send the message to a named pipe.page 249 . date.  Unpack the message packets and take action.Processing Flow of DBMS_PIPE  Construct a message from packets of information.

UNPACK_MESSAGE Unpacks the next item from the local message buffer and deposits it into the specified local variable. UNIQUE_SESSION_NAME Returns name that is unique among all sessions in the database. REMOVE_PIPE RESET_BUFFER Removes a pipe explicitly created via CREATE_PIPE. making it a candidate for removal with a LRU algorithm. SEND_MESSAGE Sends contents of message buffer to the specified pipe. NEXT_ITEM_TYPE Returns the datatype of the next item in the piped message.DBMS_PIPE Module Outline Module Name CREATE_PIPE Description Creates a PUBLIC or PRIVATE pipe.page 250 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . PACK_MESSAGE Packs an item into the message buffer for your session. RECEIVE_MESSAGE Receives a message from pipe and copies to local buffer. PURGE Empties the contents of a pipe into your local buffer freeing it for removal. Clears your buffer so that PACK_MESSAGE and UNPACK_MESSAGE can work from the first item.

page 251 . BEGIN stat := DBMS_PIPE. ± Use CREATE_PIPE to create a pipe explicitly. private => TRUE). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  A public pipe is accessible as long as you know its name. maxpipesize => 20000. ± Specify TRUE for private argument of CREATE_PIPE. ± Send messages to non-existent pipe implicitly create it.Creating Public and Private Pipes  There are two ways to create pipes: implicitly and explicitly.  An explicit pipe can be private (accessible only to sessions with matching userID or SYSDBA privileges). ± Implicitly-created pipes are always public. PROCEDURE newpipe IS stat INTEGER.CREATE_PIPE ( pipename => 'bbs'.

expanding pipe size to 40 Kbytes. waiting up to 1 minute.PACK_MESSAGE ( total_sales (month_num)). 10 * 4096). pipe_stat := DBMS_PIPE. but not smaller). FUNCTION send_message (pipename IN VARCHAR2. Status of 0 means message was sent. 12 LOOP DBMS_PIPE.page 252 . IF pipe_stat != 0 THEN RAISE could_not_send. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Fill your message buffer with packets of data. seconds you will wait. 60. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Sending a Message Provide pipe name. Send to "monthly" pipe. FOR month_num IN 1 . and new max pipe size (you can make it bigger. timeout IN INTEGER DEFAULT maxwait. END LOOP. maxpipesize IN INTEGER DEFAULT 8192) RETURN INTEGER..SEND_MESSAGE ( µmonthly¶.

 First you pull the message from the pipe and place it in buffer with RECEIVE_MESSAGE.page 253 . PROCEDURE unpack_message (item OUT VARCHAR2). ± You need to know the datatype of packet or check it using NEXT_ITEM_TYPE. PROCEDURE unpack_message (item OUT DATE). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . PROCEDURE unpack_message (item OUT NUMBER). ± Pipe status of 0 means the message was read successfully.  Then you call UNPACK_MESSAGE to extract individual packets from the message. timeout IN INTEGER DEFAULT maxwait) RETURN INTEGER.Receiving and Unpack a Message FUNCTION receive_message (pipename IN VARCHAR2. ± Specify pipe and number of seconds you will wait before you time out.

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END. seconds for the BEGIN next report. ELSE RAISE_APPLICATION_ERROR ( Stop process if -20000. analyze_production (SYSDATE.page 254 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . END IF. If I got something. Wait up to N prod_total NUMBER. DBMS_PIPE.UNPACK_MESSAGE (prod_total). prod_total). data not received. 'Production data unavailable. PROCEDURE analyze_assembly_data (every_n_secs IN INTEGER) IS pipe_status INTEGER.A Pipe-based Listener Program  Program wakes up every N seconds to read the data from the pipe and analyze results from assembly line (an intentional "infinite loop"!). END LOOP.'). every_n_secs). pass it on to the IF pipe_status = 0 computation THEN program. LOOP pipe_status := DBMS_PIPE.RECEIVE_MESSAGE ( 'production'.

sql dbpipe.Unpacking the Message FUNCTION next_item_type RETURN INTEGER. you have to make sure that you unpack a packet into the right kind of variable. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Returns one of the following values: Value 0 6 9 11 12 23 Description or Data type No more items in buffer NUMBER VARCHAR2 ROWID DATE RAW dbpipe.page 255 . ± Or you use the built-in NEXT_ITEM_TYPE to tell you in advance the datatype of the next packet in the message and take appropriate action. Either: ± You know the datatype and therefore can ³hard-code´ the correct variable into the call to UNPACK_MESSAGE.tst  Since a message can be composed of packets of different datatypes.

 Without pipes.  Suppose I want to calculate my net profit. I must execute them sequentially and incur an elapsed time of 45 minutes before I calculate the profits. ± You have processes which can run in parallel.Parallelizing Your Code with Pipes  Oracle uses DBMS_PIPE to improve RDBMS performance. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . but are not dependent on each other. ± The CEO is decidedly unhappy about the delay. In order to do so I must first compute total sales. you can do the same for your application if: ± You have multiple CPUs available. total office expenses and total compensation. ± These programs each take 15 minutes.page 256 .

page 257 . Parallel Execution Sequential Execution: Maximum Elapsed Time S t a r t E n d Process A Process B Process C Parallel Execution: Minimum Elapsed Time Start Process A Process B Process C End 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Sequential vs.

kick_off_exp_calc. ± Other programs running in the background grab the messages and start their corresponding calculation program. kick_off_totcomp_calc.  The ³kick off´ programs pass their messages to separate pipes. END.  The ³wait´ program waits till it receives a message from each program.page 258 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .Parallelizing PL/SQL Execution BEGIN kick_off_sales_calc. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .in a muchdecreased elapsed time. calculate_net_profits. Then net profits can be computed -. it puts a message (perhaps even a value) into the pipe. ± When each program is complete. wait_for_confirmation.

PROCEDURE calculate_sales IS stat INTEGER. calculate sales.PACK_MESSAGE (1995).PACK_MESSAGE (NULL). END. stat := DBMS_PIPE. IF stat = 0 THEN lots_of_number_crunching.Code to Kick Off and Calculate PROCEDURE kick_off_sales_calc IS stat INTEGER. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Send message to start calculations.SEND_MESSAGE (µsales¶).SEND_MESSAGE (µsales¶). BEGIN DBMS_PIPE.page 259 .RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µsales¶). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .PACK_MESSAGE (sales$). ELSE DBMS_PIPE. BEGIN stat := DBMS_PIPE. END IF. END. and send back the results.SEND_MESSAGE (µsales¶). Receive the year. DBMS_PIPE. stat := DBMS_PIPE. stat := DBMS_PIPE.

UNPACK_MESSAGE (offexp$). stat := DBMS_PIPE. DBMS_PIPE. Wait for all calculations to finish.UNPACK_MESSAGE (sales$).page 260 . DBMS_PIPE.RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µoffexp¶). DBMS_PIPE.offexp$ . stat := DBMS_PIPE. Perform final calculation. The order in which you wait is insignificant. BEGIN stat := DBMS_PIPE.Waiting for Confirmation PROCEDURE wait_for_confirmation IS stat INTEGER. END. PROCEDURE calculate_net_profits IS BEGIN net_profits := sales$ .RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µsales¶).RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µcomp¶).UNPACK_MESSAGE (comp$).sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . parallel.comp$. END.

watch. in-memory cache. ± The requester reads the information from the pipe. obtains the data. syscache. ± A request for data is passed to a "central" pipe. ± A listener program grabs the request (including the return pipe name).page 261 .pkg syscache. ± Demonstrates the use of toggles and switches in packages.Other DBMS_PIPE Examples  Simple trace package that sends it output either to screen or to pipe.pkg  Implementation of a system-wide. and sends it to the pipe.pkg p_and_l.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

A µgrab-bag¶ of miscellaneous operations SCHEMA 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Built-in Packages: DBMS_UTILITY DBMS_UTILITY Application GET_TIME GET_HASH_VALUE FORMAT_CALL_STACK ...page 262 .

Returns hash value for string. Returns execution call stack. Recompile INVALID objects in specified schema. Returns error stack.pkg COMMA_TO_TABLE COMPILE_SCHEMA DATA_BLOCK_ADDRESS_BLOCK DATA_BLOCK_ADDRESS_FILE DB_VERSION EXEC_DDL_STATEMENT FORMAT_CALL_STACK FORMAT_ERROR_STACK GET_HASH_VALUE 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . Gets file number part of data block address. Returns database version (Oracle8) Executes DDL statement (Oracle8).pkg dbparm.page 263 dbver. Parses comma-delimited list to index-by table.DBMS_UTILITY Module Outline ANALYZE_DATABASE ANALYZE_PART_OBJECT Analyze objects in database Runs ANALYZE TABLE or ANALYZE INDEX for each partition of the object (Oracle8). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Gets block number part of data block address.

Creates data block address from block & file numbers. Returns "current time" down to hundredth of second. cont. Parses string object designator into components. Resolves name of object into component parts. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Returns platform and version of database. GET_PARAMETER_VALUE GET_TIME IS_PARALLEL_SERVER MAKE_DATA_BLOCK_ADDRESS NAME_RESOLVE NAME_TOKENIZE PORT_STRING TABLE_TO_COMMA Retrieves value of database parameter (Oracle8). Converts list (in index-by-table) of elements into a comma-delimited list (string).DBMS_UTILITY Module Outline. Returns TRUE if in parallel server mode.page 264 .

especially those that run in sub-second time. DBMS_OUTPUT. Basic steps necessary to convert GET_TIME into a performance analysis tool. BEGIN v_start := DBMS_UTILITY. ± SYSDATE only reflects times down to the nearest second.GET_TIME.  Compare results from consecutive calls to GET_TIME to determine the elapsed time of PL/SQL code execution. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END. calc_totals.v_start).page 265 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .GET_TIME .PUT_LINE (DBMS_UTILITY. DECLARE v_start BINARY_INTEGER. so GET_TIME offers significant additional granularity.Sub-Second Timings with GET_TIME  GET_TIME returns the number of 100ths of seconds that have elapsed since an arbitrary point in time. ± Useful when analyzing individual PL/SQL programs.

reset_in IN BOOLEAN := TRUE).sps plvtmr. BEGIN PLVtmr. PROCEDURE capture ( context_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) PROCEDURE show_elapsed (prefix_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. PROCEDURE turn_off.page 266 .spb 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END PLVtmr. adjust_in IN NUMBER := 0.capture. calc_totals.Building a Layer Over GET_TIME Partial package specification PACKAGE PLVtmr IS PROCEDURE turn_on. Clean and lean timing code ovrhead.show_elapsed. PLVtmr.sql plvtmr. PROCEDURE set_factor (factor_in IN NUMBER). END.

PUT_LINE ( DBMS_UTILITY. only the package name.FORMAT_CALL_STACK). ± Most recent program at beginning of "report". ± Does not show package elements.VALIDATE_REQUEST function STEVEN.page 267 . equivalent to CHR(10).PL/SQL Call Stack ----object line object handle number name 88ce3f74 88e49fc4 88e49390 88e2bd20 8 2 1 1 package STEVEN. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN DBMS_OUTPUT. ----.CALC_NET_WORTH anonymous block  "Little known facts" about FORMAT_CALL_STACK: ± Contains embedded new-line characters. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .COMPANY_TYPE procedure STEVEN. END.Accessing the Execution Call Stack Use in the exception section to show context of error.

END LOOP. startpos. LOOP next_newline := INSTR (stk. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE dispcs IS stk VARCHAR2(10000). next_newline INTEGER. CHR(10).sp dispcs.FORMAT_CALL_STACK || CHR(10). startpos INTEGER := 1. use a loop to read through the stack. dispcs. which means you cannot pass it to DBMS_OUTPUT directly.startpos + 1).Accessing Call Stack Contents  The call stack length can easily exceed 255 bytes.PUT_LINE (next_line).page 268 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . startpos. next_line := SUBSTR ( stk. startpos := next_newline + 1. next_line VARCHAR2(255).sps DBMS_OUTPUT. EXIT WHEN next_newline = 0. END. next_newline . Instead. 1).pkg plvcs. BEGIN stk := DBMS_UTILITY.tst callstack.

± Use NAME_RESOLVE to break down an identifier string into its components easily.Resolving Names of Stored Code  Code names have many components.but don't see it as a problem.. part1_type OUT NUMBER.for encapsulation! showcomp. schema OUT VARCHAR2.page 269 .  Possible "Part 1" Types 5 7 8 9 Synonym Procedure Function Package What a chore! All those arguments.sp snc. part2 OUT VARCHAR2. PROCEDURE DBMS_UTILITY..NAME_RESOLVE (name IN VARCHAR2.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . part1 OUT VARCHAR2.. see it as an opportunity. context IN NUMBER. the way they are attached also follows a complicated syntax.. object_number OUT NUMBER). dblink OUT VARCHAR2.