Achieving PL/SQL Excellence

Oracle PL/SQL Advanced Techniques
Oracle7 thru Oracle8i
Steven Feuerstein
www.StevenFeuerstein.com www.Quest.com www.OReilly.com
and contributions most excellent from Bill Pribyl and Dick Bolz

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 1

Objective & Outline 

Objective
± Expand your knowledge and awareness of important and new features of the PL/SQL language. 

Outline
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± Building with Packages (Oracle7+) PL/SQL Collections (Oracle7 and Oracle8+) Cursor Variables (Oracle7 and Oracle8+) Dynamic SQL: DBMS_SQL and Native Dynamic SQL (8i) Calling Java from PL/SQL (Oracle8i) and C (Oracle8) Oracle Advanced Queuing with DBMS_AQ (Oracle8) Managing Large Objects with DBMS_LOB (Oracle8) Other Oracle8i New Features
» Autonomous Transactions (Oracle8i) » Invoker Rights Model (Oracle8i) » Row Level Security: DBMS_RLS

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Software Used in Training 

PL/Vision: a library of packages installed on top of PL/SQL.
± PL/Vision Lite - use it, copy, change it for free -- unless you build software to be sold commercially. ± Active PL/SQL Knowledge Base: contains PL/Vision Professional, the fully supported and enhanced version. 

Demonstration scripts executed in the training can be found on the RevealNet PL/SQL Pipeline:
± http://www.revealnet.com/Pipelines/PLSQL/index.htm ± Archives surfboard, Miscellaneous, PL/SQL Seminar Files ± See filedesc.doc for a listing of many of the files.
plsql_ides.txt 

The PL/SQL IDE (Integrated Development Environment).
± You no longer have to use SQL*Plus and a crude editor! Choose from among the many listed in plsql_ides.txt.

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Achieving PL/SQL Excellence

Building with PL/SQL Packages 
 

Overview Initialization section Overloading

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What is a Package? 

A collection of code elements, from procedures and functions to TYPE, variable and cursor declarations.
± Single-most important structure within PL/SQL, and almost certainly one of the most under-utilized. ± Conceptually very simple, it can take some time to fully grasp the implications and potential of the package. 

The method of choice by Oracle and other software developers for extending the PL/SQL language.
± You will find packages in the database, in Oracle Developer/2000, in Oracle Application Server. 

Let¶s review some of the benefits of packages.
tmr.pkg dbparm.pkg

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When to Build a Package  Join physically logically-related code. te_employee. package-based "component". ± Can lead to performance improvements.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .pkg insga. ± Puts more structure and organization in your body of code. you call the packaged procedures and functions instead. ± Instead of writing SQL directly in your programs. ± There's a big difference between a bunch of separate programs and a coherent. custrules.pkg  Improve transaction integrity by hiding data structures behind the package interface.pks te_employee. watch.page 6 .pkb  Construct very flexible and usable utilities for developers.

Package Initialization  The initialization section is a block of code at the end of the package body that is executed once per session. ± The PL/SQL runtime engine determines when and if this code should be run.page 7 . the first time any package element is referenced. Does the package have an init section? yes Run initialization code. Program references package element the first time in each session. no Complete request for packaged element. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

± Is not required.  Useful for: ± Performing complex setting of default or initial values.page 8 . ± Setting up package data which does not change for the duration of a session. ± Can have its own exception handling section. most packages you build won't have one. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein BEGIN after/outside of any program defined in the pkg. ± Confirming that package is properly instantiated. BEGIN END pkg. PACKAGE BODY pkg IS PROCEDURE proc IS BEGIN END. In fact. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Package Initialization Structure  The initialization section: ± Is defined after and outside of any programs in the package. FUNCTION func RETURN BEGIN END.

EXCEPTION WHEN NO_DATA_FOUND THEN /* No record for show_lov := show_toolbar := printer := PACKAGE sessinit IS show_lov CHAR(1). printer FROM user_config WHERE user_id = USER.. 'Y'. ± Body contains only initialization section. END sessinit. show_toolbar. PACKAGE BODY sessinit IS /* No declared package elements at all! */ BEGIN /* Get user preferences for this user. */ SELECT lov_flag.pkg init. WHEN OTHERS THEN RAISE_APPLICATION_ERROR (-20000. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . show_toolbar CHAR(1). Section  An unusual package! ± Specification contains only variables.Configure Session with Init. 'No profile for ' || USER). defprinter INTO show_lov. 'lpt1'.  Also a package with many design flaws. printer VARCHAR2(60). END sessinit.tst this user. */ 'Y'.page 9 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .. init. tb_flag.

. fmts(4) := 'MM/DD'. ± This increases the flexibility of the date conversion process.Populate Collections  The PL/Vision Date package. employs several PL/SQL tables to convert strings and to perform date arithmetic. END dt. fmts(3) := 'DD-MON'.page 10 .sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . PLVdate. Initialization section populates a PL/SQL table. fmts(10) := 'MMDDYYYY'. fmts(2) := 'DD-MON-YYYY'. ± The datemgr. fmt_count := 12. fmts(11) := 'YYYYMMDD'. datemgr.pkg file demonstrates the basic technique (and the reliance on an initialization section) used to achieve this flexibility. fmts(9) := 'MM/DD/YYYY'.. fmts(12) := 'RRMMDD'. .pkg dates. BEGIN fmts(1) := 'DD-MON-RR'.

myproc myproc 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . you need to make that code as smart and as easy to use as possible.page 11 . you give two or more programs the same name. ± Overloading transfers the "need to know" from the user to the overloaded program. myproc  Overloading is a critical feature when building comprehensive programmatic interfaces (APIs) or components using packages. ± If you want others to use your code.Program Overloading  When you overload programs. ± You can overload modules in any declaration section and in packages.

Overloading in PL/SQL Built-ins  PL/SQL uses overloading in many common functions. and took functions like TO_CHAR and TO_DATE totally for granted. ± But Oracle couldn't offer that level of convenience without overloading. number_string := TO_CHAR (10000). 'MMDDYY'). date_string := TO_CHAR (SYSDATE. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 'MMDDYY'). ± You just probably never gave it a thought. number_string := TO_CHAR_FROM_NUMBER (10000). you would have to deal with something like this: date_string := TO_CHAR_FROM_DATE (SYSDATE. Without overloading.page 12 .

How Overloading Works  For two or more modules to be overloaded.page 13 . When you compile the package or block containing the overloaded code. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . There are two different "compile times": ± 1. order or datatype family (CHAR vs. ± Arguments differ only in their mode (IN. the compiler must be able to distinguish between the two calls at compile-time. ± The programs are of different types: procedure and function. IN OUT). When you compile programs that use the overloaded code. ± Their formal parameters differ only in datatype and the datatypes are in the same family.  Distinguishing characteristics: ± The formal parameters of overloaded modules must differ in number.  Undistinguishing characteristics: ± Functions differ only in their RETURN datatype. ± 2. OUT. VARCHAR2 is not different enough).

Examples of Invalid Overloadings PACKAGE too_similar IS PROCEDURE calc (reg_in IN CHAR). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . which one? param_modes. END too_many_cals. FUNCTION func1 (val IN VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2. END only_returns. END param_modes. Only difference is parameter mode. PROCEDURE calc (reg_in IN VARCHAR2).page 14 . which one? too_similar. Parameter data types cause conflict. which one? DBMS_OUTPUT.proc1 (v_value). Only difference is function RETURN type. PACKAGE param_modes IS PROCEDURE proc1 (val IN VARCHAR2). PROCEDURE proc1 (val IN OUT VARCHAR2).PUT_LINE (only_returns.func1 (v_value)). PACKAGE only_returns IS FUNCTION func1 (val IN VARCHAR2) RETURN DATE.calc ('123').

Overload Wherever Possible  Supporting Many Data Combinations ± Apply the same action to different kinds or combinations of data. you may construct different versions of the ³same´ program which correspond to different patterns of use.l substitute does an even better job. ± The DBMS_OUTPUT.  Overloading by Type.  Fitting the Program to the User ± To make your code as useful as possible. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . the overloading does not provide a single name for different activities.PUT_LINE procedure illustrates this technique -and the PL/Vision p. You use the type of data and not its value to determine which of the overloaded programs should be executed. so much as providing different ways of requesting the same activity. not Value ± A less common application of overloading. In this case.page 15 .

PROCEDURE l (number_in IN NUMBER). PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . date_in IN DATE.A "Classic" Overloaded Package  Many different datatype combinations.HH:MI:SS PM').HH:MI:SS PM').sps p. mask_in IN VARCHAR2 := 'Month DD. boolean_in IN BOOLEAN). p. allowing the user to pass data to the "display engine" without writing "pre-processing" code. YYYY . PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2.page 16 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2. PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2). END p. YYYY . number_in IN NUMBER).spb PROCEDURE l (boolean_in IN BOOLEAN). mask_in IN VARCHAR2 := µMonth DD. PACKAGE p IS PROCEDURE l (date_in IN DATE.

DBMS_OUTPUT.l (print_report_fl).l (SYSDATE).page 17 .PUT_LINE (TO_CHAR (SYSDATE.PUT_LINE ('TRUE'). p.l (SQLERRM. p. END IF. 'MM/DD/YY HH:MI:SS')).PUT_LINE (SQLERRM || ': ' || TO_CHAR (SQLCODE)). IF print_report_fl THEN DBMS_OUTPUT..PUT_LINE ('So what is different?'). DBMS_OUTPUT. p. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .. ELSE DBMS_OUTPUT.l ('So what is different?'). DBMS_OUTPUT. p. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein ‡Extended overloadings are more likely to meet user needs.Advantage of Extended Overloading ‡ Minimal overloading means lots of extra coding. SQLCODE).PUT_LINE ('FALSE').

such as "display data" or "create a file".and taken completely for granted. think about the way it will be used.page 18   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . If you take these different circumstances into account when you design your package specification. the user of your package can benefit from writing less code. appreciated. can be applied or needed under very different circumstances. In my experience.Fitting the Program to the User Writing "unnecessary" code? Time to overload!  A single piece of functionality.. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .. ± If you want to write software that is admired. ± Your code is a a more natural "fit" under a variety of requirements. few developers are considerate enough of their users to try to anticipate their needs.

± She doesn't care what's in it. It just needs to be present.Creating a File for a Quick Touch  Suppose a developer needs to create a file to be used as a "flag" in the operating system. UTL_FILE. 'exists.flg'. UTL_FILE.FILE_TYPE. ± Here is the code required by UTL_FILE: DECLARE fid UTL_FILE. END.FCLOSE (fid). sometimes you will want to create a file and then perform additional operations. right? WRONG! PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . so this is just the way it has to be. you have to declare the record to hold the file handle. even though you are simply going to close the file immediately after opening it. Of course.PUT_LINE (fid.FOPEN ('tmp/flags'.page 19  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .  In other words. 'W'). 'blah'). BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE.

TO_CHAR (SYSDATE)). Use as Procedure BEGIN PLVfile.FILE_TYPE.fcreate ('exists. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Use as Function DECLARE fid UTL_FILE. /* Function */ FUNCTION fcreate (file_in IN VARCHAR2.FILE_TYPE. END.fcreate ('temp. BEGIN fid := PLVfile. PLVfile. v_user).flg').Procedure and Function Overloaded  Why not overload a "create file" program so that you can pick the one that most closely fits your situation? Consider the PLVfile package of PL/Vision.put_line (fid. custrules. line_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) RETURN UTL_FILE.ini'. END PLVfile. line_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL).page 20 .  Overloading of FCreate PACKAGE PLVfile IS /* Procedure */ PROCEDURE fcreate (file_in IN VARCHAR2.pkg PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

"By-Type" Overloading  In some situations. ± For example. you must call the DEFINE_COLUMN procedure to define the datatype of the Nth column in the cursor. ± Pass a piece of data of the right type. but the type of data. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  There are three ways to accomplish this: ± Don't overload. when you use DBMS_SQL to set up a dynamic query. the user does not need to pass data. ± Pass a string ³name´ of the datatype. Define a different program name for each datatype.page 21 .

Lotsa typing. ± DBMS_SQL. BEGIN DBMS_SQL...DEFINE_VARCHAR2_COLUMN (cur.func 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . BEGIN DBMS_SQL. 2. lotsa names.DEFINE_INTEGER_COLUMN (cur.  Nasty hard-coding. Pass a named constant. 'STRING'.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. 2.DEFINE_COLUMN ± PLVgen.  Now let's look at two examples of overloading by datatype. 'NUMBER'). BEGIN DBMS_SQL. 1).. 1. 30).DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. 30).Options for Specifying Column Type  Don't even bother overloading.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. DBMS_SQL. 2..NUMBER_TYPE).VARCHAR2_TYPE.. DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL.. 30). DBMS_SQL... 1... DBMS_SQL.  So many program names to remember! Pass a literal value..DEFINE_COLUMN (cur..page 22 .

1. 2. ± To make it easier to accomplish this task.Defining Dynamic SQL Columns  The DBMS_SQL. DBMS_UTILITY. DBMS_SQL. ± The three code blocks below are equivalent.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.page 23 . v_ename.of the correct type. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. 2.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN. 1). DBMS_SQL. 30). 30). 1. DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN procedure defines the datatype of a column. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 30). 1. 'a'.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. you only need to pass a value -. USER.any value -. 2.GET_TIME). v_empno). from the perspective of DBMS_SQL. BEGIN DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.

Generating Functions by Value  In PLVgen. PROCEDURE func (name_in IN VARCHAR2. SYSDATE) SQL> exec plvgen. the user indicates the type of function to be generated by providing a value. please! 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . type_in IN DATE). ± The particular value itself is of no importance. any string. Any number. any date. please! A number function. PACKAGE PLVgen IS PROCEDURE func (name_in IN VARCHAR2. SQL> exec plvgen.func ('total_salary'.page 24 . PROCEDURE func (name_in IN VARCHAR2.func ('last_date'. 1) A date function. any Boolean will do. type_in IN VARCHAR2). type_in IN NUMBER).

± When I compile profits.page 25 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .The Frustrations of Overloading  Watch out! An overloading can compile successfully. PL/SQL does not sense a conflict with above overloading even though comp_id is a numeric column. PACKAGE profits IS PROCEDURE calc (comp_id_IN IN NUMBER). PROCEDURE calc (comp_id_IN IN company. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END.comp_id%TYPE). I rely on an anchored type (%TYPE) to establish the datatype of the second calc¶s parameter. but you might later found out that you cannot actually call any of the overloaded programs.  In the above example.

 Can I overload two programs which have parameters that differ only by name. like calc_totals shown above? ± If not.calc_total ('NORTHWEST'). sales. PROCEDURE calc_total (reg_in IN VARCHAR2). END. why not? ± If so. how would you do it? (Don't peek at the next page!) BEGIN sales.pkg ? 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . sales.calc_total ('ZONE2').page 26 . END sales.Quiz! Nuances of Overloading PACKAGE sales IS PROCEDURE calc_total (zone_in IN VARCHAR2).

ANALYZE_OBJECT ' || '(''TABLE''.''TENK''' || '.null. That way you don't have to know and pass default values. interval => 'TRUNC(SYSDATE+1)'). ± You can skip over (not specify values for) any IN parameters that have default values. next_date => TRUNC (SYSDATE + 1). DBMS_JOB.submit ( job => v_jobno.page 27 . what => 'DBMS_DDL. namednot. of named notation include: ± Code is more "self-documenting".'.''LOAD1''.sql  Advantages 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . This is especially useful when working with infrequently used built-in programs.Using Named Notation <formal parameter name> => <expression>  Explicit association between the formal parameter (the "name") with the actual parameter (the "value").estimate_percent=>50).''ESTIMATE''.

Oracle8 and above) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 28 .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence PL/SQL Collections   Collections are single-dimensioned lists of information. originally called PL/SQL tables) ± Nested tables (Oracle8 and above) ± Variable arrays (VARRAYs. Three types of collections: ± Index-by tables (Oracle7 only.

 Emulate bi-directional cursors. which are otherwise not supported in PL/SQL Cache data in session-level memory for faster access. Avoid mutating table errors in database triggers. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Improve query performance by avoiding joins.page 29     1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . Build hash tables (custom indexing structures).When to Use Collections  Maintain any kind of list of related information for use in your programs.

483.page 30 . Valid row numbers range: -2. emp_copy inmem_emp_t. Instead.  Characteristics of an index-by table: ± Unbounded » Practically speaking. DECLARE TYPE inmem_emp_t IS TABLE OF emp%ROWTYPE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER.Index-By Tables TYPE <table_type> IS TABLE OF <datatype> INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER.483.147.647 » You will not actually create tables this large.647 to 2.147. ± Sparse » Data does not have to be stored in consecutive rows of information. ± Available only in PL/SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . this broad range allows you to employ the row number as an intelligent key. ± Homogeneous » Data in each row has the same structure.

page 31 . Component Selection kid := children (4).pkg children 6306 6412 6904 µBarbara Anne¶ µGary Richard¶ µLisa Marie¶ children (6810) := µAdam Russell. children 6306 6412 6810 6904 µBarbara Anne¶ µGary Richard¶ µAdam Russell¶ µLisa Nadezhka¶ datemgr. Variable declaration children child_list_type. children (6904) := 'Lisa Nadezhka'.Index_by Tables TYPE declaration PACKAGE BODY family IS TYPE child_list_type IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2 (30) INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. Error: NO_DATA_FOUND 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

but can become sparse if you DELETE inner rows ± Available both in PL/SQL and SQL (as a column in a table) ± The order of elements is not preserved in the database 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 32 .Nested Tables [CREATE OR REPLACE] TYPE <table_type> IS TABLE OF <datatype> [NOT NULL]. DECLARE TYPE when_t IS TABLE OF DATE.647 ± Initially dense. but only with explicit EXTEND requests » Practically speaking.  Nested table characteristics ± Homogeneous » Each row contains the same structure of data.483.147. ± Unbounded. birthdays when_t. Valid row numbers range: 1 to 2.

Nested Tables CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE child_table_type IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2 (30).page 33 .sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . kids child_table_type) NESTED TABLE kids STORE AS kids_ntab. For ORACLE's use only db_family surname kids BOLZ BOND Eric Thomas Max Richard Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Marie ntdemo. CREATE TABLE db_family (surname VARCHAR2 (30).

Maximum value: 2.483.147.  Characteristics of variable arrays: ± Homogeneous » Each row contains the same structure of data. ± Available both in PL/SQL and SQL (as a column in a table) » And the order of elements are preserved in the database. ± Variable arrays are actually stored in the DB table 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . salaries numbers_t.647 ± Dense » Never any gaps between defined rows. can be EXTENDed or TRIMmed. ± Bounded » Upper limit established when the TYPE is defined.Variable Arrays [CREATE OR REPLACE] TYPE <table_type> IS VARRAY (N) OF <datatype> [NOT NULL]. DECLARE TYPE numbers_t IS VARRAY (10) OF NUMBER.page 34 .

sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 35 . db_family surname kids BOLZ BOND 1 Barbara Anne 2 Gary Richard 3 Lisa Marie 1 Eric Thomas 2 Max Richard vademo. kids child_va_type).Variable Arrays CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE child_va_type IS VARRAY (8) OF VARCHAR2 (30). CREATE TABLE db_family (surname VARCHAR2 (30).

you define the TYPE of the collection. or in a PL/SQL declaration section. TYPE integer_vat IS VARRAY(10) OF INTEGER.  Then you declare an instance of that type. this can only occur in a PL/SQL declaration section. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE tabtypes IS TYPE integer_ibt IS TABLE OF INTEGER INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER.. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . . ± You can declare multiple collections from that TYPE. TYPE integer_nt IS TABLE OF INTEGER.page 36 .. END tabtypes.Defining Collections  First. ± For nested tables and VARRAYs. you can define the TYPE in the database with a CREATE statement. ± For index-by tables. Best option: package specification. from the TYPE. a collection.

'TMRS_VT') T.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .type_name. colldd.elem_type_name = A.attr_type_name Attributes all_coll_types T.attr_name || ' . ± The code used to define the collection TYPE  There is no information in the data dictionary available for index-by tables.  ALL_COLL_TYPES ± The types you have created (or have access to) in the database  ALL_TYPE_ATTRS ± Attributes of the data type used in the TYPE definition.owner = USER T. all_type_attrs A T.' || A.owner = A.page 37 .Obtaining Collection Information SELECT FROM WHERE AND AND AND A.type_name IN ('NAMES_VT'.owner T.

300). ± Index-by tables are initialized automatically. TYPE defined in PL/SQL TYPE defined in the database Collection used in a table PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Nested tables and VARRAYs are atomically null. salary_history numbers_t).page 38 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . it must be initialized. DECLARE TYPE numbers_t IS VARRAY (10) OF NUMBER. BEGIN CREATE TYPE numbers_t IS VARRAY (10) OF NUMBER. BEGIN CREATE TABLE employee_denorm ( employee_id INTEGER. 200.Initializing Collections  Before you can use a collection. / DECLARE -. 200. salaries numbers_t := numbers_t (100. salaries numbers_t := numbers_t (100. empty when declared.Initialize the collection. 300). You must initialize them explicitly with a constructor.

3. the datatype for any of the collection types can also be an object. Here we have a three step process. DECLARE TYPE comp_rectype IS RECORD (comp_id company. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .comp_id := 1005. comp_tab comp_tabtype. total_rev NUMBER).  Starting with Oracle8.page 39 . BEGIN comp_tab(1). consider putting TYPEs in database or packages. Again.Collections of Composites  Starting with Oracle 7. TYPE comp_tabtype IS TABLE OF comp_rectype INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER.company_id%TYPE. the ³homogeneous´ contents of an index-by table's row can be a record . ± Can easily create an index-by table with the same structure as a database table by declaring a record with %ROWTYPE. ± But you cannot have nested composite datatypes.

it is very similar to a database table. consider using the row value as "smart data" for your application (primary key.  Rows do not have to be defined sequentially.page 40 . etc. ± In an index-by table. your collections will contain a row's worth of information. ± You should not fill sequentially.  Especially handy when caching data from relational tables in user memory. a row exists in the table only when a value is assigned to that row. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Sparse is Nice  The sparse characteristic of index-by tables and nested tables can be put to good use. ± In almost every case. order by date.). ± Instead. unless the order in which items are selected is of importance. In this way.

Initialization section of package 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein  This package moves the entire contents of the emp table into its corresponding collection.Transferring DB Table to Collection CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE psemp IS TYPE emp_tabtype IS TABLE OF emp%ROWTYPE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. emp_tab emp_tabtype. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY psemp IS BEGIN FOR rec IN (SELECT * FROM emp) LOOP emp_tab (rec. Some questions: ± Why would I put this collection table in a package? ± When is the collection loaded with the data? ± What rows in that collection are utilized? psemp. END.page 41 .pkg psemp.empno) := rec. END.tst  PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END LOOP.

/ Error -6533! You've got to EXTEND first!  EXTEND before assigning a value to a row.page 42 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END.  For index-by tables. but you must do it for VARRAYs and nested tables. ± Use the EXISTS method to determine if a row existed. / DECLARE greedy_ceos names_t := names_t (). you must reference existing rows or a NO_DATA_FOUND exception is raised. Jordan'. even if you haven't assigned a value explicitly. BEGIN greedy_ceos(1) := 'Hamilton. once extended.Collection Gotchas CREATE TYPE names_t IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2(30). the row exists. ± For VARRAYs and nested tables. ± Not necessary for index-by tables.

'). salaries.EXTEND (10.tst  Include a handler for NO_DATA_FOUND or use the EXISTS method to avoid these exceptions. END IF.Extend by 10 since I know I will need that many. -.We are OK. ± Pre-extending a large number of rows in advance can improve performance.page 43 .EXISTS (v_employee_id) THEN -. ELSE DBMS_OUTPUT.Handling Collection Gotchas BEGIN -. BEGIN IF salaries.FIRST)). salaries(salaries. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .PUT_LINE ('Data for employee not available.  You can EXTEND one or more rows. optional argument.Set the value of each new row to the contents of the first row. preextend. ± Assign a default value with a second.

Collection Methods  Obtain information about the collection COUNT returns number of rows currently defined in the table.  The built-in package plitblm (PL/sql Index-TaBLe Methods) defines these methods. FIRST/LAST return lowest/highest numbers of defined rows. EXISTS returns TRUE if the specified row is defined. ± TRIM removes rows from a VARRAY. number of elements allowed in a VARRAY.page 44 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . ± LIMIT tells you the max. ± ± ± ±  Modify the contents of the collection ± DELETE deletes one or more rows from the index-by table. NEXT/PRIOR return the closest defined row after/before the specified row. ± EXTEND adds rows to a nested table or VARRAY. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

but you may also want to call DBMS_SESSION. -.Delete a range of rows myCollection.DELETE (myCollection. END. DELETE releases memory.FREE_UNUSED_USER_MEMORY. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 17255).The DELETE Method  You can delete one or more rows from a collection using DELETE: BEGIN -.Delete all rows myCollection.page 45 .DELETE.LAST). -.DELETE (1400.Delete one (the last) row myCollection.

Navigating Through Collections 


Use FIRST and NEXT to move from beginning to end. Use LAST and PRIOR to move from end to beginning.
rowind PLS_INTEGER := birthdays.FIRST; -- birthdays.LAST BEGIN LOOP EXIT WHEN rowind IS NULL; DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE (birthdays(rowind).best_present); rowind := birthdays.NEXT (rowind); -- birthdays.PRIOR END LOOP; END;

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Using Collections Inside SQL 

Nested tables and VARRAYs can be defined as columns of a table and referenced directly within SQL. You can also apply SQL operations to the contents of nested tables and VARRAYs with these operators:
± THE - Maps a single column value in a single row to a virtual database table ± CAST - Maps a collection of one type to a collection of another type ± MULTISET - Maps a database table to a collection ± TABLE - Maps a collection to a database table  

Index-by tables are programmatic constructs only.
± You cannot make a direct reference to an index-by table in SQL. ± Instead, so do indirectly with a PL/SQL function.

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Using Collections inside SQL
SELECT column_value FROM TABLE (SELECT children FROM db_family WHERE surname = 'BOLZ'); db_family surname children BOLZ BOND Eric Thomas Max Richard UPDATE TABLE (SELECT children FROM db_family WHERE SURNAME = 'BOLZ) SET column_value = 'Lisa Nadezhka' WHERE column_value = 'Lisa Marie'); db_family surname children BOLZ ...
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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 48

Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Marie

column_value Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Marie

Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Nadezhka

Using the THE Operator 

Use THE to manipulate (retrieve, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE) contents of a nested table in a database table.
± Can only use with nested tables, not VARRAYs or index-by tables. ± Only accessible from within SQL statements in PL/SQL.
CREATE TYPE action_list_t IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2(100); / CREATE TABLE inflation_beater ( focus_area VARCHAR2(100), activities action_list_t) NESTED TABLE activities STORE AS activities_tab; SELECT VALUE (act) FROM THE (SELECT activities FROM inflation_beater WHERE focus_area = 'FORTUNE 100') act; UPDATE THE (SELECT activities FROM inflation_beater WHERE focus_area = 'FORTUNE 100') SET COLUMN_VALUE = 'DISBAND OSHA' WHERE COLUMN_VALUE = 'SIDESTEP OSHA';

the.sql

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Using the TABLE and CAST Operators 

Use CAST to convert a collection from one type to another, TABLE to convert a TYPE into a database table.
± Cannot use with index-by tables. ± Useful when you would like to apply SQL operations against a PL/SQL collection (ie, one not stored in a database table).
DECLARE nyc_devolution cutbacks_for_taxcuts := cutbacks_for_taxcuts ('Stop rat extermination programs', 'Fire building inspectors', 'Close public hospitals'); BEGIN DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE ( 'How to Make the NYC Rich Much, Much Richer:'); FOR rec IN (SELECT COLUMN_VALUE ohmy FROM TABLE (CAST (nyc_devolution AS cutbacks_for_taxcuts))) LOOP DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE (rec.ohmy); END LOOP; cast.sql END;

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converting a set of data (table.species) AS country_tab_t) FROM birds b. view.Using the MULTISET Operator  MULTISET is the inverse of TABLE.genus = b. b.genus AND bh.species = b. END.species.page 51 . OPEN bird_curs. information for the BEGIN master in one trip.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . CAST(MULTISET(SELECT bh. ± You can use MULTISET to emulate or transform relational joins into collections.country FROM bird_habitats bh WHERE bh. multiset. Retrieves all detail bird_row bird_curs%ROWTYPE. ± Cannot use with index-by tables.genus. DECLARE CURSOR bird_curs IS SELECT b. query) into a VARRAY or nested table. FETCH bird_curs into bird_row. with potential client-server performance impact.

sql PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . WNDS). hiredates date_tab. FUNCTION rowval (indx IN PLS_INTEGER) RETURN DATE IS BEGIN RETURN hiredates (indx).page 52 . END. END. WNPS. call functions that retrieve the table's data. Instead. END. Make accessible in SQL for Oracle8 and below. but hide the index-by table structure. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein ibtab_in_sql.Referencing IB Tables inside SQL  You can't directly reference an index-by table's contents inside SQL. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY ibtab IS TYPE date_tab IS TABLE OF DATE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER.  CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE ibtab IS FUNCTION rowval (indx IN PLS_INTEGER) RETURN DATE. PRAGMA RESTRICT_REFERENCES (rowval.

page 53 .  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Examples of Collections in Action  Emulation of bi-directional cursor operations Avoid mutating table problems in database triggers.

page 54 . END. FUNCTION getRow RETURN employee_plus%ROWTYPE. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE bidir IS /* Iterate through rows in the result set */ PROCEDURE setRow (nth IN PLS_INTEGER).pkg bidir. PROCEDURE prevRow.  bidir.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . This is particularly useful (read: efficient) when you need to perform multiple passes against the data. ± A talked-about feature for Oracle9i -.Bi-Directional Cursor Emulation  Oracle does not yet support the ability to move back and forth (and at random) through a cursor's result set. Notice that the collection itself is hidden. didn't make it!  Instead. deposit your data in a collection and then provide programs to access that data in the necessary fashion. PROCEDURE nextRow.nope.

So what are you supposed to do when a row-level operation needs to "touch" that table? mutating. it is "mutating".sql  Note: in Oracle8i. you can use autonomous transactions to relax restrictions associated with queries.The Mutating Table Problem  Database triggers can be attached to the SQL statement and/or the individual row operations on a table. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 55 . Statement Level UPDATE emp SET sal = 1000 UPDATE row 1 Row Level  UPDATE row N Row level triggers cannot query from or change the contents of the table to which it is attached.

A Solution Based on Index-by Tables  Since you cannot perform the processing desired in the row-level trigger. Statement Trigger 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . If you are going to defer the work. you need to defer the action until you get to the statement level. ± an index-by table is an ideal repository for this reminder list. you have to remember what you needed to do. 1st row trigger fires Nth row trigger fires Writes to list Writes to list Work List (PL/SQL Table)  Process data in the list.page 56 .

25 65011.91 109000. ± We might update more than one department within a statement so we must be able to retain multiple department numbers. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± As the sales amount is updated in this table.25 3 1 2 6 "Deferred work" is not only necessary. Department ID Salesperson ID Sales Amount Rank 1055 1055 1055 1047  64333 65709 65706 70904 74055.88 144533. ± By storing the salesperson¶s department ids as they change. but preferable. the rankings must also change to show the new standings for that department only.An Example: Ranking Salespeople  A table holds the rankings based on the amount of annual sales of salespeople within a department.page 57 . we then know which departments to re-rank.

Statement Level Trigger CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER Rank_Sales_Strg AFTER INSERT OR UPDATE OR DELETE ON rank_sales BEGIN rank. END.sales_amt) BEGIN rank.dept_id). END.add_dept (:new.sales_amt != NEW.pkg All details of the ranking are hidden in the package body. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Trigger Logic Required Row Level Trigger CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER Rank_Sales_Rtrg AFTER insert OR update OF sales_amt ON rank_sales FOR EACH ROW WHEN (OLD.page 58 . Doesn't fire unless the sales_amt is actually changed.rank_depts. ranking.

page 59 . Table holds indicator that department needs re-ranking. PACKAGE BODY rank IS in_process BOOLEAN := FALSE. END rank. dept_tab dept_tabtype. END IF. PROCEDURE add_dept (dept_id_in IN INTEGER) IS BEGIN IF NOT in_process THEN dept_tab (dept_id_in) := TRUE.The Ranking Package PACKAGE rank IS PROCEDURE add_dept (dept_id_in IN INTEGER). PROCEDURE rank_depts. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . TYPE dept_tabtype IS TABLE OF BOOLEAN INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER. END add_dept 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Create row to indicate department to be ranked.

BEGIN IF NOT in_process THEN in_process := TRUE.page 60 . v_deptid := dept_tab. END LOOP. LOOP EXIT WHEN v_deptid IS NULL. perform_ranking (v_deptid). in_process := FALSE. END rank_dept. dept_tab. END rank. Clean up for next time.The Ranking Package. Continued PROCEDURE rank_depts IS v_deptid PLS_INTEGER := dept_tab.DELETE.FIRST. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Avoid recursive execution of logic Row number is department number.NEXT (v_deptid). END IF.

Which Collection Type Should I Use?  Index-by tables ± Need to use in both Oracle7 and Oracle8 applications ± Want to take advantage of sparse nature for "intelligent keys". Set of data is relatively small (avoid row chaining).  Nested tables ± You want to store large amounts of persistent data in a column. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 61 . ± You want to use inside SQL. You want to use inside SQL. You don't want to have to worry about sparseness.  VARRAYs ± ± ± ± You want to preserve the order in which elements are stored.

Tips for Using Collections 

Wrap access to your collections.
± In many cases, you will want to avoid direct access to (assigning and retrieving) rows in your collections. ± This will give you the flexibility to change your implementation. ± You can also hide complex rules for setting the row number. 

Get creative!
± Don't always fill and use the index-by table sequentially. ± If you can somehow translate your application data to an integer, it can be used as a row number, and therefore offers indexed access. ± Julian date formats and DBMS_UTILITY.GET_HASH_VALUE offer two different methods.

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Achieving PL/SQL Excellence

Cursor Variables

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 63

Architecture of Cursor Variables
With Hard-Coded Cursors
Hard-Coded Cursor

With Cursor Variables

PGA

Cursor Variable

Cursor Variable

Result Set

Shared Global Area

Cursor Object

Result Set 

A cursor variable points to an underlying cursor object in the database.
± The cursor object in turns points to (and keeps its place in) a result set. 

The cursor variable can be passed between programs (even between, say, a Java servlet and a PL/SQL stored procedure).
± Static SQL only -- until Oracle8i.
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1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

Benefits of Cursor Variables 

Share cursor management between programs, even across the client-server divide.
± You don't have to pass the result sets of a cursor in order to allow the client-side program to have direct access to the data in the result set. ± Oracle Developer 2.1 utilizes cursor variables when you choose to construct a "base table block" around stored procedures instead of a database table. 

Share the same code across multiple, different queries.
± Since the cursor name is no longer hard-coded, you can use a single block of code (say, a reporting program) against different queries. ± We will try out this technique at the end of the section.

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Cursor Variable Example
DECLARE TYPE company_curtype IS REF CURSOR RETURN company%ROWTYPE;
Declare a variable cursor TYPE.

company_curvar company_curtype;

Declare cursor variable based on that type. Declare a record from cursor variable. OPEN cursor variable, specifying the query. FETCH from the cursor variable.

company_rec company_curvar%ROWTYPE; BEGIN OPEN company_curvar FOR SELECT * FROM company;

FETCH company_curvar INTO company_rec;
Close the cursor variable.

CLOSE company_curvar; END;
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Explicit Cursors and Cursor Variables 

Both hard-coded cursors and cursor variables work with static SQL.
± The SQL is fixed at compile-time. ± The difference is that with cursor variables, you get to decide which static query is opened. 

Many cursor operations are the same:
± Close a variable cursor with the same syntax as that for static cursors. ± Use cursor attributes (%ISOPEN, %FOUND, %NOTFOUND, %ROWCOUNT) with cursor variables (as of Release 2.3). ± Fetch data from the cursor result set through a cursor variable with the same syntax as that of static cursors. 

Let¶s focus on the new and different capabilities of cursor variables.
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1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

Declaring Cursor Types and Variables 

Cursors are declared in two steps, just like programmerdefined records and PL/SQL tables.
± 1. Define a cursor TYPE -- either "weak" or "strong". ± 2. Define a cursor variable.
DECLARE TYPE weak_curtype IS REF CURSOR; TYPE comp_curtype IS REF CURSOR RETURN company%ROWTYPE; curcmp_new comp_curtype; cur_any weak_curtype; BEGIN
Declare cursor variables from the TYPEs. Declare a STRONG referenced cursor TYPE. Declare a WEAK referenced cursor TYPE.

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Strong vs. Weak Cursor Types 

A strong (or constrained) cursor type has a defined return data specification.
± Can only reference cursor objects which return the same data specification, which can be any single SQL datatype or any previously defined record structure. ± Datatype mismatches are identified at compile time.

TYPE cur_typ_name IS REF CURSOR [ RETURN return_type ]; TYPE cur_typ_name IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE; /* Strong */ 

The weak (or unconstrained) cursor type does not have a RETURN clause.
± It can reference any cursor object, be opened FOR any query. ± Datatype mismatches can only be identified at runtime.

TYPE cur_typ_name IS REF CURSOR; /* Weak */
1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein
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Opening with the Cursor Variable
OPEN cursor_name FOR select_statement; 

When you open a cursor variable (whether of the weak or strong variety), you must provide the SQL query that identifies the result set.
± If the variable has not yet been assigned to cursor object, the OPEN FOR statement implicitly creates an object for the variable. ± If the variable is already pointing to a cursor object, the OPEN FOR reuses the existing object and attaches the new query to that cursor object. 

Remember, the cursor object is nothing more than a memory location.
± It is maintained independently of the query itself.
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± You can establish the return type based on a database table. Match Needed BEGIN OPEN emp_curvar FOR SELECT * from emp. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..  STRONG cursor data specifications must match or be compatible with the structure of the SELECT statement. a cursor or a programmer-defined record. emp_curvar emp_curtype.. .Opening with Strong Cursor Types DECLARE TYPE emp_curtype IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE.page 71 . END.

Verification will take ELSIF get_type_in = µDEPT¶ place at the FETCH.  A weak cursor TYPE doesn't define the RETURN structure. THEN OPEN retval FOR SELECT * FROM dept. you can associate any SELECT statement with a weak cursor variable.Opening with Weak Cursor Types PACKAGE pkg IS TYPE cv_type IS REF CURSOR. END IF. BEGIN IF get_type_in = µEMP¶ THEN Either query will "do".cv_type IS retval pkg. REF TYPE placed in package so that it is "globally" available.cv_type.page 72 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . END. OPEN retval FOR SELECT * FROM emp. END. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . RETURN retval. FUNCTION open_emp_or_dept (get_type_in IN VARCHAR2) RETURN pkg.

sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . FETCH cursor_var_name INTO var_name. it match the OPEN FOR statement structure.. var_name. The INTO structure must match in number and datatype to: ± FOR STRONG cursor types. ± The ROWTYPE_MISMATCH exception is raised on failure.   Compatibility checks are performed prior to fetching row. .Fetching from the Cursor Variable FETCH cursor_var_name INTO record_name.  Fetching with cursor variables follows the same rules as those with static cursors. mismatch.page 73 . ± Fetching can continue with a different INTO clause.. it match the cursor type data specification.. ± FOR WEAK cursor types.

When to Use Cursor Variables  Make it easier for calling programs (especially non-PL/SQL programs) to manipulate result sets. ± With explicit cursors.page 74 . since cursor names are "hard coded". ± JDBC recognizes cursor variables. you have to repeat the code for each cursor. Use a single block of code to manipulate multiple queries.  hccursor. ± You could use dynamic SQL to achieve this effect.  Define a base table block in Forms Builder (formerly Oracle Forms) on stored procedures rather than a table directly.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . but static cursors are more efficient than dynamic SQL and cursor variables are less complicated than DBMS_SQL.

pkg allcurs. TYPE cv_t IS REF CURSOR RETURN int_rt. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE allcurs IS bydept CONSTANT INTEGER := 1. FUNCTION open (type_in IN INTEGER) RETURN cv_t. / allcurrs.Consolidating Different Cursors  The following package specification hides the SQL behind a single open function.page 75 .tst explcv. END. bysal CONSTANT INTEGER := 2. ± It also creates the data structures you will need to call the function. TYPE int_rt IS RECORD (key INTEGER).sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

page 76 .Consolidating Different Cursors  The open function simply opens FOR a different SELECT based on the criteria passed to it. END. BEGIN IF type_in = bydept THEN OPEN retval FOR SELECT empno FROM emp ORDER BY deptno. RETURN retval. END IF. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY allcurs IS FUNCTION open (type_in IN INTEGER) RETURN cv_t IS retval cv_t. ELSIF type_in = bysal THEN OPEN retval FOR SELECT empno FROM emp ORDER BY SAL.

CLOSE cv. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . p.empno%TYPE.cv_t. END LOOP.l (v_empno).page 77 "Report processor" is independent of the particular SELECT . change the ORDER BY clause -without having to change the code you write. v_empno emp. DECLARE cv allcurs. END.Hiding SQL Variations in Resulting Code  The following block demonstrates that you can alter which SQL statement to query -.open (&1). BEGIN cv := allcurs.in this case. LOOP FETCH cv INTO v_empno. EXIT WHEN cv%NOTFOUND.

unconstrained type.  Hide Variations in Underlying SQL ± You no longer have to repeat the same code for different cursors.Cursor Variables Let's summarize  Flexibility ± Choose which static SQL statement is executed at run-time.  Improve Client-Side Access to Data ± At least in Oracle Developer 2. or a more general. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Strong and Weak Types ± Create REF CURSORs for specific queries.page 78 .1. you can build screens that access data using a cursor variable-based procedural API.

page 79 .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Dynamic SQL  Dynamic SQL and dynamic PL/SQL: ± The DBMS_SQL package ± Native dynamic SQL in Oracle8i 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

1 and DBMS_SQL. you no longer have to write SQL to generate SQL to get your job done. What can you do with Dynamic SQL?  Build ad-hoc query and update applications.  Execute DDL inside PL/SQL programs. ± Available in PL/SQL since Release 2.page 80 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Also supported with "native dynamic SQL" in Oracle8i.Dynamic SQL and PL/SQL Execution  "Dynamic SQL" mean that you construct the SQL statement or PL/SQL block at runtime and then execute it. ± One example: implement indirect referencing in PL/SQL. ± Construct powerful DBA utilities. ± Very common requirement on the Web.  Execute dynamically-constructed PL/SQL programs.

executed a single time. Method 4: queries with a variable number of items in the SELECT list and/or non-queries with a variable number of host variables. execute one or more times. ± Different methods require the use of different programs in DBMS_SQL.page 81 . ± NDS does not support method 4.Four Methods of Dynamic SQL   Method 1: non-queries without host variables. Method 3: queries with a fixed number of items in the SELECT list and a fixed number of host variables. These methods are in increasing order of complexity. Method 2: non-queries with a fixed number of host variables.    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . If you can recognize the types. you can more quickly figure out how to code your solution.

± But this package is very complex. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . used for DDL. and relatively slow (performance did improve significantly as of Oracle8). used for multi-row queries.Native Dynamic SQL  Prior to Oracle8i.page 82 . ± OPEN FOR <sql string>. difficult to use. you would use the DBMS_SQL built-in package to execute dynamic SQL. DML and single row fetches.  The new "native dynamic SQL" or NDS of Oracle8i offers two native statements in the PL/SQL language to implement most of your dynamic SQL requirements: ± EXECUTE IMMEDIATE <sql string>.

define_variables]. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . {IN | OUT | IN OUT] bind argument]... The INTO clause allows you to pass values from the select list of a single row query into local variables. | record }] [USING {IN | OUT | IN OUT] bind argument [.]. collections and records. including objects. The USING clause allows you to specify bind arguments or variables to be passed into the SQL string before execution...  Use this statement to execute any dynamic SQL statement (including a PL/SQL block) except for multi-row queries.page 83   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .EXECUTE IMMEDIATE EXECUTE IMMEDIATE sql-string [INTO {define_variable[.

RETURN retval. sch IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) RETURN INTEGER IS Specify schema. '1=1') INTO retval.' || tab || ' WHERE ' || NVL (whr..sf compare with: tabcount.PUT_LINE ( 'Not the best health care system in the world. USER) || '.page 84 .. whr IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. and not much of a democracy either!')..000.COUNT(*) For Any Table  Here's a handy and simple utility based on NDS: CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION tabCount ( tab IN VARCHAR2. table and retval INTEGER.sf PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . BEGIN EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'SELECT COUNT(*) FROM ' || NVL (sch. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein tabcount81. END IF. END. 'insured = ''NO''') > 40. WHERE clause.000 THEN DBMS_OUTPUT.. IF tabCount ('citizens'.

END. end_in. END. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE updnumval ( tab_in IN VARCHAR2.. BEGIN v_str := 'BEGIN ' || pkg_in || '. start_in IN DATE. end_in IN DATE. END. Pass in bind variables with USING clause.. name_in IN VARCHAR2) IS v_str VARCHAR2 (100). EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN pl ('Compile Error "' || SQLERRM || '" on: ' || v_str).page 85 .' || name_in || '.  Execute a stored procedure.Other Execute Immediate Examples  Perform an update. PROCEDURE runprog (pkg_in IN VARCHAR2. val_in IN NUMBER) IS BEGIN EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'UPDATE ' || tab_in || ' SET ' || col_in || ' = :val WHERE hiredate BETWEEN :lodate AND :hidate' USING val_in. EXECUTE IMMEDIATE v_str. col_in IN VARCHAR2. start_in..'..

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein health$. :revenue_inhibitors)' USING pers. cond.Using Objects and Collections in NDS  One of the key advantages to NDS over DBMS_SQL is that it works with Oracle8 datatypes. pers IN Person. PROCEDURE add_profit_source ( hosp_name IN VARCHAR2.page 86 .pkg PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .. including objects and collections. the USING clause allows me to pass an object and nested table to an INSERT statement with a variable table name. cond IN preexisting_conditions) IS BEGIN EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'INSERT INTO ' || tabname (hosp_name) || ' VALUES (:revenue_generator. ± In the following example. ± No special syntax needed. END..

pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . showcol. whr IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) IS TYPE cv_type IS REF CURSOR. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE showcol ( tab IN VARCHAR2. END LOOP. cv cv_type. variable syntax! EXIT WHEN cv%NOTFOUND. '1 = 1'). DBMS_OUTPUT. ± Here is a simple utility the displays the values of any date.Multiple Row Queries and NDS  Oracle extends the cursor variable feature of Oracle7 to support multi-row dynamic queries.page 87 . LOOP Familiar cursor FETCH cv INTO val. col IN VARCHAR2. BEGIN OPEN cv FOR 'SELECT ' || col || ' FROM ' || tab || ' WHERE ' || NVL (whr. ndsutil. CLOSE cv.PUT_LINE (val).sp END. val VARCHAR2(32767). number or string column in any table.

You cannot pass the NULL literal directly in the USING clause. column names. etc. then you provide a value for each placeholder (by position). str2list. The USING clause for a query can only have IN bind arguments.Some Fine Print for NDS  You cannot pass schema elements (table names. ± If dynamic PL/SQL. Instead. You can have duplicate placeholders (for bind arguments). pass a variable with a NULL value.pkg    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . provide a value for each distinct placeholder (by name). ± If dynamic SQL.) through the USING clause.page 88 .

Dynamic SQL using DBMS_SQL  Prior to Oracle8i. You should only use DBMS_SQL when you cannot use NDS. in particular method 4. with many rules to follow and lots of code to write. the only way to perform dynamic SQL was with the DBMS_SQL package. The overhead for using DBMS_SQL has decreased significantly in Oracle8 and again in Oracle8i. DBMS_SQL is a very large and complex package.page 89 .     1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Supports all four methods of dynamic SQL.

page 90 .Learning Through Examples  DDL ± Create an index from within PL/SQL  DML ± Update rows in a table  DML with binding ± Update rows using bind variables  Queries ± Method 3 and a dynamic WHERE clause  PL/SQL Version of "SELECT *" ± Example of Method 4  PL/SQL ± Create a generic calculation program 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

OPEN_CURSOR.page 91 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . END. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . DBMS_SQL. ± Construct the DDL statement as a string.PARSE (cur.sp Creates an index on any column(s) in any table in your schema. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. ± Parse and execute that DDL statement.EXECUTE (cur).NATIVE). fdbk := DBMS_SQL. which will be used to execute the DDL statement. fdbk INTEGER.CLOSE_CURSOR (cur). DBMS_SQL.  creind.DDL with Dynamic SQL PROCEDURE create_index (index_in IN VARCHAR2. ± Open a cursor. tab_in IN VARCHAR2. col_in IN VARCHAR2) IS cur INTEGER := DBMS_SQL. DDL_statement VARCHAR2(200) := 'CREATE INDEX ' || index_in || ' ON ' || tab_in || ' ( ' || col_in || ')'. DDL_statement.

NATIVE).EXECUTE (cur). DBMS_OUTPUT. DBMS_SQL. updnval1. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. fdbk := DBMS_SQL.CLOSE_CURSOR (cur).page 92 .ename%TYPE. val_in IN NUMBER) IS cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL.PUT_LINE ('Rows updated: ' || TO_CHAR (fdbk)). CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE updnumval ( col_in IN VARCHAR2. DBMS_SQL. ename_in IN emp. END.PARSE (cur.OPEN_CURSOR.Updates with Dynamic SQL  Update numeric column for specified employees.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . fdbk PLS_INTEGER. 'UPDATE emp SET ' || col_in || ' = ' || val_in || ' WHERE ename LIKE UPPER (''' || ename_in || ''')'.

CLOSE_CURSOR (cur). DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL. fdbk PLS_INTEGER. DBMS_SQL. END. 'UPDATE emp SET ' || col_in || ' = ' || val_in || ' WHERE hiredate BETWEEN :lodate AND :hidate'.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .PARSE (cur. end_in IN DATE.NATIVE).BIND_VARIABLE (cur.EXECUTE (cur).page 93 . CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE updnumval ( col_in IN VARCHAR2. start_in). BEGIN DBMS_SQL. updnval2. val_in IN NUMBER) IS cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL. fdbk := DBMS_SQL.sp updnval3. start_in IN DATE.BIND_VARIABLE (cur. 'lodate'. DBMS_SQL.Updates with Bind Variables  Update salaries for date range using binding. 'hidate'.PUT_LINE ('Rows updated: ' || TO_CHAR (fdbk)). DBMS_OUTPUT. end_in).OPEN_CURSOR.

Processing Flow for a Dynamic Query Allocate cursor memory (OPEN_CURSOR) Fill cursor with data (EXECUTE) Make sure SELECT is well formed (PARSE) Fill buffer with data (FETCH_ROWS) (EXECUTE_AND_FETCH) Bind any variables (BIND_VARIABLE) (BIND_ARRAY) Retrieve the data (COLUMN_VALUE) Give cursor structure (DEFINE_COLUMN) (DEFINE_ARRAY) Release cursor memory (CLOSE_CURSOR) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 94 .

empno).Queries with Dynamic SQL  Show employees using a dynamic WHERE clause.COLUMN_VALUE (cur.PUT_LINE (TO_CHAR (rec.NATIVE). BEGIN DBMS_SQL.COLUMN_VALUE (cur.EXECUTE (cur). 'a'. 1.FETCH_ROWS (cur) = 0. END.. DBMS_SQL..ename).ename). DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL.OPEN_CURSOR.empno) || '=' || rec. LOOP EXIT WHEN DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. 60). fdbk := DBMS_SQL.PARSE (cur. rec emp%ROWTYPE. 1. DBMS_SQL. 2.page 95 . rec.CLOSE_CURSOR (cur). DBMS_SQL. 2. 1).DEFINE_COLUMN (cur. rec. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE showemps (where_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) IS cur INTEGER := DBMS_SQL. ename FROM emp ' || ' WHERE ' || NVL (where_in.sp showemps. fdbk INTEGER. 'SELECT empno.sp showemp2. '1=1'). DBMS_OUTPUT. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein showemps.tst PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END LOOP.

BEGIN FOR each-column-in-table LOOP add-column-to-select-list.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur.page 96 Very simplified pseudo-code intab. LOOP fetch-a-row.PARSE (cur.COLUMN_VALUE (cur.Dynamic SELECT * FROM Any Table  Method 4 example: the number of columns queried changes with each table. END LOOP. nth_col. ± The resulting code is much more complicated. FOR each-column-in-table LOOP DBMS_SQL.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . DBMS_SQL. val). END LOOP. select_string. nth_col. datatype). END. DBMS_SQL. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . FOR each-column-in-table LOOP DBMS_SQL. END LOOP. END LOOP.NATIVE).

± Even if the exception is raised. raises NO_DATA_FOUND or raises the TOO_MANY_ROWS exception.EXECUTE_AND_FETCH (cur. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Makes it easy to execute and fetch a single row from a query. ± If exact_match is TRUE. numrows := DBMS_SQL. numrows := DBMS_SQL.EXECUTE_AND_FETCH (cur).page 97 . ± Very similar to the implicit SELECT cursor in native PL/SQL. the first row will still be fetched and available. which returns a single row. exact_match IN BOOLEAN DEFAULT FALSE) RETURN INTEGER. TRUE). then EXECUTE_AND_FETCH will raise the TOO_MANY_ROWS exception if more than one row is fetched by the SELECT.Using EXECUTE_AND_FETCH FUNCTION execute_and_fetch (cursor_in IN INTEGER.

NULL. NULL. FUNCTION dyncalc ( oper_in IN VARCHAR2.Dynamic Formula Execution  Suppose I am building a user interface that allows a user to select a formula for execution.sf dyncalc. arg4_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL.page 98 . I would have to modify my screen every time a new formula was added. NULL. nargs_in IN INTEGER := arg1_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg3_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg5_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg7_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg9_in IN VARCHAR2 := ) RETURN VARCHAR2. arg10_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL dyncalc. arg8_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. ± With DBMS_SQL.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . NULL. arg6_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. NULL. and enter the arguments. a single function will do the trick. 0. arg2_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. ± Using static PL/SQL.

You must have a BEGIN-END around the code. DBMS_SQL. µdeptin¶.page 99 .EXECUTE (cur). fdbk := DBMS_SQL. µsalout¶.even OUT arguments which are not being bound to any values. END. v_deptin). my_salary).  Use BIND_VARIABLE to bind any placeholders in the string -. DBMS_SQL. Possibilities inherent in dynamic PL/SQL are mind-boggling! dynplsql. :salout). DBMS_SQL. µsalout¶.sql dynplsql. my_salary).sp dynplsql.BIND_VARIABLE (cur.More on Dynamic PL/SQL BEGIN cur := open_and_parse ('BEGIN get_max_sal (:deptin. Use VARIABLE_VALUE to extract a value from any variable you have bound.VARIABLE_VALUE (cur.tst    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END.').BIND_VARIABLE (cur.

'val'.PARSE (v_cur.VARIABLE_VALUE (v_cur. DBMS_SQL. RETURN retval.CLOSE_CURSOR (v_cur).Indirect Referencing with Dyn PL/SQL  Oracle Forms offers support for indirect referencing with the NAME_IN and COPY built-ins.BIND_VARIABLE (v_cur. DBMS_SQL. PL/SQL does not support indirect referencing. fdbk PLS_INTEGER. 'val'.EXECUTE (v_cur). BEGIN DBMS_SQL. DBMS_SQL. END. END. Here is an example of a "PL/SQL NAME_IN": FUNCTION valbyname (nm IN VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2 IS v_cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL. but you can accomplish much of the same thing with dynamic PL/SQL execution. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .NATIVE).OPEN_CURSOR.'.pkg dynvar.dbmaxvc2. DBMS_SQL. 'a'. retval). retval PLV. 'BEGIN :val := ' || nm || '. fdbk := DBMS_SQL.page 100  dynvar. 2000).

DBMS_SQL Status Built-ins  The package offers a set of modules to return information about the lastoperated cursor in your session. ± Call these immediately after your usage to make sure they refer to your cursor. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 101 .  IS_OPEN ± Is the cursor already open?  LAST_ERROR_POSITION ± Returns relative column position in cursor of text causing error condition.  LAST_SQL_FUNCTION_CODE ± Returns SQL function code of cursor.  LAST_ROW_COUNT ± Returns the cumulative count of rows fetched from the cursor.  LAST_ROW_ID ± Returns the ROWID of last row processed.

pkg dumplong.Working with LONG Values  DBMS_SQL provides special procedures so that you can extract values from a LONG column in a table. dumplong.DEFINE_COLUMN_LONG ± DBMS_SQL.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . you define the column as a LONG. Then you retrieve the column using the special COLUMN_VALUE_LONG variant. ± Transfer the LONG contents into an index-by table so that you can transfer a value of more than 32K bytes into your PL/SQL program.COLUMN_VALUE_LONG   First.page 102 . ± DBMS_SQL.

page 103 .New DBMS_SQL Features PL/SQL8 Extensions to DBMS_SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

± Support for RETURNING clause to avoid unnecessary queries.New Features in DBMS_SQL  The functionality of DBMS_SQL has been extended in Oracle8 in several ways: ± Parse very long SQL strings ± Describe cursor columns ± Use "array processing" to perform bulk updates. inserts.page 104 . deletes and fetches. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

DESC_TAB).  Before PL/SQL8. ± The record TYPE is also defined in DBMS_SQL.DESCRIBE_COLUMNS.Describing Cursor Columns PROCEDURE DBMS_SQL.page 105 . ± Now you can call the DBMS_SQL. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . desc_t OUT DBMS_SQL. it was not possible to determine the datatypes of the columns defined in a cursor.  Returns all of the column information in an index table of records. col_cnt OUT INTEGER.DESCRIBE_COLUMNS (c IN INTEGER.

page 106 . END LOOP.PARSE (cur.DESCRIBE_COLUMNS (cur. desccols. cols).pkg desccols.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .col_name).CLOSE_CURSOR (cur). ncols LOOP DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE (cols(colind).DESC_TAB. empno FROM emp'.NATIVE). 'SELECT hiredate. END.OPEN_CURSOR. DBMS_SQL.. DBMS_SQL. BEGIN DBMS_SQL. ncols PLS_INTEGER. cols DBMS_SQL. ncols. DBMS_SQL.tst showcols. FOR colind IN 1 . CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE show_columns IS cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL.Basic Steps to Describe Columns  The following script shows the individual steps you will need to perform in order to use this feature.

page 107 . Instead of providing a scalar value for an operation. when you perform updates.e. can offer a significant performance boost over Oracle7 dynamic SQL. i. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . however.. index tables. ± In actuality. DBMS_SQL is executing the specified SQL statement N times."Array Processing" in DBMS_SQL  PL/SQL8 now allows you to specify the use of "arrays". you specify an index table. inserts. It really isn't "array processing".    This technique still. deletes and fetches. DBMS_SQL then repeats your action for every row in the table. where N is the number of rows in the table.

± Otherwise that SQL will be executed under the authority of the owner of the code. column names.page 108 . ± Encapsulate DBMS_SQL. not the invoker of the code.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .pkg whichsch. ± With NDS.PARSE so that you include the trace in that program.  Encapsulate statements to improve error handling.Recommendations for Dynamic SQL  Bind (vs. etc. only possible for statements that do not need USING and INTO clauses. concatenate) whenever possible.  Use the Oracle8i invoker rights model whenever you want to share your dynamic SQL programs among multiple schemas. though you could write variations for those as well.) through the USING clause. ± Increased chance of reusing parsed SQL. and easier code to write.sql openprse. ± But remember: you cannot pass schema elements (table names. effdsql.

but DBMS_SQL is hard to use.. of course. you have upgraded to Oracle8i!  Major Advantages of NDS: ± Ease of use ± Performance ± Works with all SQL datatypes (including userdefined object and collection types) ± Fetch into records  When You'd Use DBMS_SQL: ± ± ± ± ± ± ± Method 4 Dynamic SQL DESCRIBE columns of cursor SQL statements larger than 32K RETURNING into an array Reuse of parsed SQL statements Bulk dynamic SQL Available from client-side PL/SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Both implementations will still come in handy.page 109 .NDS or DBMS_SQL: Which is Best?  Dynamic SQL and PL/SQL is very useful. ± If..

asynchronous.page 110 .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Oracle Advanced Queuing  The high performance. persistent messaging subsytem of Oracle 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Distribution Center Coffee Beans Producer Shipping Service Retailer Consumer 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Who Needs Messaging? Everyone!  In the distributed world of the Internet. consistent manner.page 111 . systems are now heavily reliant on the ability of components to communicate with each other in a dependable.

page 112 .Applications Relying on Messaging     Stock trading system Airline reservation system Auction portals Any e-commerce application 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

message propagation.page 113 . AQ now offers a publish/subscribe style of messaging between applications. scalability and reliability all carry over to queues ± Strong history and retention ± Backup and recovery ± Comprehensive journaliing  Rich message content increases usefulness of queueing ± Use object types to define highly structured payloads  New to Oracle8i. the listen feature and notification capabilities. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Key Features of Oracle AQ  Leverage full power of SQL ± Messages are stored in database tables  Database high availability. ± Rule-based subscribers.

AQ architectural overview Queue Monitor process Queue table Queue ³Producers´ Enqueued messages Message 4 Message 3 Message 2 Message1 ³Consumers´ Dequeued messages Messages include both control information and ³payload´ (content) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 114 .

0.page 115 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .Oracle AQ Highlights  In 8. AQ supports: ± ± ± ± ± Multiple queues Resetting order and priority of queued items Queue management using only SQL & PL/SQL Multiple message recipients Propagation of queue to remote servers  Oracle8i adds: ± ± ± ± Rules-based publish & subscribe Listening on multiple queues Easier monitoring Native Java interface PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Underlying database tables and views The queue monitor (background process) ± Set # of processes with the AQ_TM_PROCESSES initialization parameter.AQ Components  The DBMS_AQ package offers enqueue and dequeue capabilities The DBMS_AQADM package provides administrative functionality to manage queues and queue tables.    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 116 .

sort column.page 117 .DBMS_AQADM Highlights CREATE_QUEUE_TABLE DROP_QUEUE_TABLE CREATE_QUEUE DROP_QUEUE START_QUEUE STOP_QUEUE ADD_SUBSCRIBER Assigns name. storage clause. assigns retry and retention properties to queue Drops a stopped queue Can also turn on/off enqueue and dequeue operations Stops queue. optionally waiting for outstanding transactions Adds an ³agent´ as a subscriber 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . payload type. whether multiple consumers Drops table if all queues in the table have been stopped Associates queue table with queue.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein aq. queue_table => 'msg').Creating Queue Tables and Queues CREATE TYPE message_type AS OBJECT (title VARCHAR2(30).CREATE_QUEUE (queue_name => 'msgqueue'. / BEGIN DBMS_AQADM. Define a queue in the queue table DBMS_AQADM.page 118 .pkg Start the queue PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .CREATE_QUEUE_TABLE (queue_table => 'msg'. Define the "payload" Create the queue table DBMS_AQADM.START_QUEUE (queue_name => 'msgqueue'). text VARCHAR2(2000)). queue_payload_type => 'message_type'). END.

sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .page 119   aq.  ENQUEUE puts a message into a specified queue. ± Only two procedures.The "operational package": DBMS_AQ  DBMS_AQ is deceptively simple. and returns a RAW message handle DEQUEUE extracts a message from a specified queue Parameters control message properties such as: ± Visibility (ON_COMMIT or IMMEDIATE) ± ± ± ± Priority Delay Expiration Locking behavior PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . but lots of complexity buried inside the parameters of these procedures.

END. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Declare records to hold various enqueue and msg properties. DBMS_AQ. aqenq*. msgprops. msgid aq. 'May there be many more. my_msg.* Place the message on the specified queue and get a msg ID in return.ENQUEUE ( 'msgqueue'. Set up the payload with an object constructor.. my_msg message_type.Simple Enqueue Example DECLARE queueopts DBMS_AQ.').MESSAGE_PROPERTIES_T. queueopts. msgid). BEGIN my_msg := message_type ( 'First Enqueue'.msgid_type.ENQUEUE_OPTIONS_T. msgprops DBMS_AQ..page 120 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .

my_msg. msgprops. msgid1).. queueopts. my_msg. DBMS_AQ. queueopts.ENQUEUE ( 'msgqueue'. Modify the dequeue sequence by changing the deviation field and relative msg ID. msgid2).. msgprops. BEGIN my_msg := message_type ( 'First Enqueue'. 'May there be many more.delay := 3 * 60 * 60 * 24. END. queueopts...ENQUEUE ('msgqueue'. msgprops.sequence_deviation := DBMS_AQ. DBMS_AQ. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 'And this one goes first. queueopts. my_msg := message_type ( 'Second Enqueue'.relative_msgid := msgid1.More Interesting Enqueue Example DECLARE . Same setup as previous page ..... 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Specify a delay before the payload is available.BEFORE.').').page 121 .

msgid_type.dequeue_mode := mode_in. Demonstrates destructive and non-destructive dequeuing.pkg */ my_msg message_type. aqdeq*. msgprops. END. queueopts. Dequeue operation isolated in local module.page 122 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .MESSAGE_PROPERTIES_T.REMOVE). getmsg (DBMS_AQ. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .REMOVE). BEGIN getmsg (DBMS_AQ.DEQUEUE ( 'msgqueue'. msgprops DBMS_AQ. my_msg. /* defined in aq. msgid).* Declare records to hold various dequeue and msg properties.DEQUEUE_OPTIONS_T. END. msgid aq.BROWSE). PROCEDURE getmsg (mode_in IN INTEGER) IS BEGIN queueopts. DBMS_AQ. getmsg (DBMS_AQ.Dequeue Example DECLARE queueopts DBMS_AQ.

msgid aq.MESSAGE_PROPERTIES_T.* 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . the higher the priority.pkg aqstk2. msgid). queueopts. ± The lower the numeric priority value.1. queueopts. BEGIN item_obj := aqstk_objtype (item).visibility := DBMS_AQ. item_obj.Prioritized Payloads  You can assign priorities to individual payloads and then dequeue according to those priorities. END. g_priority := g_priority . PROCEDURE push (item IN VARCHAR2) IS queueopts DBMS_AQ.  A stack implementation using AQ demonstrates this well. item_obj aqstk_objtype. aqstk.ENQUEUE_OPTIONS_T. DBMS_AQ.priority := g_priority.pkg priority.page 123 . msgprops DBMS_AQ.IMMEDIATE. msgprops. msgprops.ENQUEUE ( c_queue.msgid_type.

AQ$_AGENT (name_in.page 124 . ± 2. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein aqmult*. The queue table must be defined to support multiple subscribers or consumers. BEGIN DBMS_AQADM. ± The message is then not removed from the queue until all subscribers have dequeued the message. Add subscribers for the queue.ADD_SUBSCRIBER ( c_queue. multiple_consumers => TRUE).* PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . NULL)). SYS. queue_payload_type => 'student_major_t'. NULL. DBMS_AQADM.CREATE_QUEUE_TABLE ( queue_table => 'major_qtable'.Defining Message Subscribers  You can specify that a message is to be enqueued for a list of subscribers.  Steps to working with a subscriber list: ± 1.

± Much more robust that DBMS_PIPE. ± Crucial for Oracle to have a message-oriented middleware in order to offer an all-Oracle solution.  Considered by Oracle to be a core component of its overall solution.Oracle AQ . supporting a publish-subscribe model. ± Should be strongly supported "down the road". improved security. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . LISTEN capability.Summary  Very powerful and flexible architecture. ± Significant enhancements in Oracle8i.page 125 .

Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Managing Large Objects with DBMS_LOB 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 126 .

± Oracle has announced deprecation of LONGs. Images.page 127 .  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . LOB datatypes are the successor to LONGs. sounds.LOB Terms  LOB = Large OBject: a category of datatype allowing storage of ³unstructured´ data up to 4 gigabytes LOB datatype can be: ± Column in table ± Attribute in object type ± Element in nested table   Possible applications include office documents. etc. they should no longer be used. video. though they will probably not be actually desupported.

external do not ± External LOBs are read-only from within Oracle 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 128 .  Key programming differences: ± Internal LOBs participate in transactions. improving performance.Types of Large Objects  ³Internal´ LOBs ± BLOB: unstructured binary data ± CLOB: single-byte fixedwidth character data ± NCLOB: multi-byte fixedwidth character data (or varying width in )  ³External´ LOBs ± BFILE: pointer to an operating system file  Temporary LOBs ± Internal LOBs that do not participate in transactions.

substring and instring searches. EMPTY_CLOB() ± BFILENAME 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . erase.page 129 . close  Other built-in functions ± LOADFROMFILE (load an external BFILE into a BLOB) ± EMPTY_LOB(). trim ± For external LOBs: File existence test.PL/SQL built-ins for LOBs  Package DBMS_LOB ± Supports for all LOBs: Reading. copy. comparison and length checking ± For internal LOBs: Write. open. append.

CLOSE fax_cur. END. Question: What¶s in the_fax? 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Deceptively simple example  BLOB-typed column in a table CREATE TABLE incoming_faxes (fax_id INTEGER. BEGIN OPEN fax_cur. fax BLOB).page 130 . the_fax BLOB.  Retrieve record with BLOB into PL/SQL variable DECLARE CURSOR fax_cur IS SELECT fax FROM incoming_faxes. FETCH fax_cur INTO the_fax. received DATE.

tt LOBs <lob segment> fax_id 281937 received 12-JAN-98 fax <lob locator> Updati  t e LOB anges t e pointer is ompli ates se of LOBs ± LOB locators cannot span transactions ± Programs must lock records containing LOBs efore updating ± Programs performing L must accommodate dynamic LOB locator alues 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .The ³LOB locator´ LOB t l sel es [ ll ] t i i t r .page 131 .

com'. BEGIN INSERT INTO web_pages VALUES (the_url.. EMPTY_CLOB()) RETURNING htmlloc INTO the_loc. the_loc CLOB.. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . .url%TYPE := 'http://www. 1 of 2  Must get a new LOB locator before writing into the LOB: DECLARE the_url web_pages.oodb.Example: Piecewise CLOB programmatic insert  Create a table CREATE TABLE web_pages ( url VARCHAR2(512) PRIMARY KEY.page 132 . htmlloc CLOB).

Note: We are ignoring amount => piece_length.WRITE(lob_loc => the_loc.page 133 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein BEGIN . FOR the_piece_no IN 1. END LOOP. EMPTY_CLOB()) and loads a web page RETURNING htmlloc INTO the_loc. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .COUNT LOOP piece_length := LENGTH(html_tab(the_piece_no)).html_tab. piece_length PLS_INTEGER. DBMS_LOB.url%TYPE := 'http://www. running_total PLS_INTEGER := 1. running_total := running_total + piece_length. END. html_tab UTL_HTTP.oodb. several likely exceptions offset => running_total.REQUEST_PIECES(url => the_url). This block retrieves INSERT INTO web_pages VALUES (the_url.. the_loc CLOB.HTML_PIECES. buffer => html_tab(the_piece_no)).Example: Piecewise CLOB programmatic insert DECLARE the_url web_pages. into a CLOB column html_tab := UTL_HTTP.com'.

oodb. pattern => 'oodb').Example: Piecewise CLOB programmatic update DECLARE Program must lock the record explicitly CURSOR hcur IS SELECT htmlloc FROM web_pages WHERE url = 'http://www. str_offset := DBMS_LOB.INSTR(lob_loc => the_loc. the_loc CLOB. BEGIN OPEN hcur. END. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . str_offset INTEGER. FETCH hcur INTO the_loc. END IF. offset => str_offset.page 134 .WRITE(lob_loc => the_loc. buffer => 'cool'). amount => 4. IF str_offset != 0 THEN DBMS_LOB. CLOSE hcur.com' FOR UPDATE.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 135 .Preparing to use BFILEs  You must first create an Oracle I ORY´ ± Creates logical alias for full directory pat ± imilar to LIBRARY (used for C "external procedures"). ut IRECTORY namespace is global  Syntax: CREATE OR REPLACE DIRECTORY <directory name> AS '<full path to directory>'.  Example: CREATE DIRECTORY web_pix AS 'D:\bill\training\pix'.

scanned_card_image BFILE )..Using BFILE datatype in DDL  In a table.  In an object type... CREATE TABLE web_graphics ( image_id INTEGER. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .. CREATE TYPE Business_card_t AS OBJECT ( name Name_t. addresses Address_tab_t. phones Phone_tab_t.page 136 . image BFILE).

Spec: FUNCTION BFILENAME(directory_exprn. BEGIN INSERT INTO web_graphics VALUES (100015. 'prodicon.  Example: DECLARE picture BFILE := BFILENAME('WEB_PIX'. picture).The built-in BFILENAME function  Returns value of datatype BFILE.gif'). file_exprn) RETURN BFILE. END.page 137 . /  Notes: ± No automatic file checking or synchronization ± No participation in transactions 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

amount => DBMS_LOB.FILE_READONLY). src_lob => pic_file.page 138 . image BLOB). BEGIN INSERT INTO web_graphic_blobs VALUES (1. DBMS_LOB. DBMS_LOB. DBMS_LOB.Loading File into Database BLOB CREATE TABLE web_graphic_blobs ( image_id INTEGER.gif').FILEOPEN(pic_file. END.GETLENGTH(pic_file)).sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . / loadblob.LOADFROMFILE(dest_lob => pic_blob_loc. pic_blob_loc BLOB := EMPTY_BLOB(). DECLARE pic_file BFILE := BFILENAME('WEB_PIX'. 'prodicon. pic_blob_loc) RETURNING image INTO pic_blob_loc.FILECLOSE(pic_file). DBMS_LOB.

New DBMS_LOB APIs in 8i  Support for temporary LOBs ± No logging or rollback faster! ± Lifespan: session. or transaction  Ability to retrieve LOB ³chunk size´ ± Allows programmer to tune READs and WRITEs  For all internal LOBs ± OPEN & CLOSE allow control over timing.page 139 . call. that can mean less I/O » Trigger will not fire until CLOSE » Indexes will not update until CLOSE ± ISOPEN 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Large Object . ± LOB locator behavior slightly abstruse ± Inability to modify BFILEs directly from within PL/SQL..page 140 . ± Complete support in PL/SQL (and other APIs) ± Much better performance and control than with LONGs ± Usable in object types HOT  Some weaknesses. COLD 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..Summary  LOB support in Oracle is now significantly improved.

Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Leveraging Java Inside PL/SQL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 141 .

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 142 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .Overview of Java interoperability  Java inside or outside 8i server can call PL/SQL ± Standard JDBC and SQLJ calls with Oracle extensions ± Same Java on client..a BRIEF introduction to Java. or server Not covered in this seminar  PL/SQL can call Java inside 8i server ± ± ± ± Command-line tools load Java classes DDL extensions publish Java classes Writing stored procedures.... mid-tier. functions. triggers in Java Distinct Java & PL/SQL namespaces  But first.

Question 1: What is Java?  Could it be. ± We just need to keep a firm grip on common sense and stay focused on delivering solutions. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .. ± The end of programming history as we know it? ± The easiest. fastest..page 143 . slickest piece of software ever designed by human beings? ± Just the latest in a series of "silver bullets" promoted by software vendors in order to prop up quarterly sales? ± The first and only successful O-O language? ± None of the above?  We don't really need to take a vote.

and very aggressively. PL/SQL will still be: ± Faster and more productive than Java for database operations.page 144 . it is very unlikely and totally unthinkable for years to come.Question 2: Will Java Replace PL/SQL?  While that scenario is certainly possible. ± A language in which hundreds of thousands of developers are trained. ± Ubiquitous in thousands of production applications and millions of lines of code. ± Supported and improved by Oracle -.  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . to boot.

.Some Important Things to Remember  Java is a case sensitive language. ± Before you can call a (non-static) class method... 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .. everything exception the primitive datatypes.  Everything is a class (or an object instantiated from a class).page 145 .  You don't have to know how to do everything with Java to get lots of value out of it.. ± string is definitely not the same as String.. ± Well. ± Don't get overwhelmed by all the classes and all the strange quirks. you have to instantiate an object from that class.

CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE hello IS BEGIN DBMS_OUTPUT. END.println ("Hello world!").out. no methods. } }  No members.PUT_LINE ('Hello world!'). ± Used to test or run stand-alone a class. Oh. except the "special" main method.Building a Java Class  Let's start from the very beginning. public class Hello { public static void main (String[] args) { System. by the way: the PL/SQL version 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 146 ...

SET CLASSPATH = d:\Oracle\Ora81\jdbc\lib\classes111.zip. ± This will convert the . ± You must also either have set the CLASSPATH or include it in your javac call.class file. ± It will also automatically recompile any classes used by your class that has not been compiled since last change.page 147 .java file to a . e:\jdk1.1. you must compile it with the javac command.java -classpath d:\java 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .7b\lib\classes.d:\java D:> javac Hello.zip.Compiling Classes  Before you can use a class.

java 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Running a Class  Run a class? What does that mean? It means that if your class contains a method with this header: public static void main (String[] args)  then you can "run" the main method with the java command: d:\java> java Hello  You can also pass one or more arguments on the command line: d:\java> java Hello mom Hello2.page 148 .

  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Usually. you will use a class by instantiating objects from the class and then invoking class methods on the object. however.page 149 .Using a Class  The main method is handy for providing a built-in test mechanism of your class. Let's build a performance analyzer class to explore these ideas.

} } p.currentTimeMillis() .page 150 .java InFile. } public void showElapsed () { p. } public long elapsed () { return (System.java 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .currentTimeMillis().Gstart).currentTimeMillis() .java Tmr.Gstart).Compare Performance of Methods  Use System. System.l ("Elapsed time for " + context. } public void showElapsed (String context) { p. class Tmr { private long Gstart = 0.l ("Elapsed time ". public void capture () { Gstart = System.currentTimeMillis to calculate elapsed time to nearest thousandth of a second. elapsed()).

 Inner class ± Classes that are defined inside other classes. but at least one method remains unimplemented.  Interface class ± The class only contains unimplemented methods.  Abstract class ± The class can contain members and methods. besides the "regular" kind we just saw. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..page 151 ..Types of Classes  There are several different kinds of classes in Java.

page 152 . ± Static polymorphism: form is chosen at compile-time (PL/SQL overloading). either as its own class or as any superclass. ± Dynamic polymorphism: form is determined at run-time. supertype/"wider" Citizen Person Employee Hourly Worker Salaried Worker subtype/"narrower" War Criminal Person.And Now for Some Scary Buzzwords!  Inheritance ± Subclasses inherit methods and variables from extended superclasses.java A Class Hierarchy Management NonManagement Corporation 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Polymorphism ± An object of a class can have "multiple" forms.

if you assign a new value to it.page 153 . you are actually allocating a new object. ± Can't do a direct == comparison.equals(YourName)) foundFamily().Language Basics  Comments // Single line comment /* Block comment */ /** Documentation comment */  Primitive datatypes ± So I lied. String myName. if (myName. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . these are not objects instantiated from classes. myName = "Steven". myName = "Feuerstein". boolean char byte short int long float double  Strings ± A String object is a read-only.

do-while and for ± Note: you need squiggly brackets only if there is more than one statement in the loop body. expression.nextElement()) } } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .println ( (String)enum.page 154 .Writing Loops in Java  Three kinds of loops: while. step) { lotsaStuff } while (expression) { lostsaStuff } do { lostsaStuff } while (expression). for (initialize.out. indx < args. indx++) System.println (args[indx]).NextElement()).length.hasMoreElements ()) { processIt (enum. static void processAll (Enumeration enum) { while (enum. Examples: for (indx indx=0.out. System.

. } } class LotsALingos { public static void main (String args[]) { PuterLingo Java = new PuterLingo("Java").. ± Only positional notation is supported. } public String name () { return mname.println (Java.out.name()). ± No default values for arguments. public PuterLingo (String name) { mname = name. you still include the open and close parentheses. class PuterLingo { private String mname. you must supply a value for each parameter. System. } } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± If a method has no arguments.page 155 .Passing Parameters  Some important differences from PL/SQL.

equals("")) throw new Exception ("Filename is NULL"). Throwing my own public static int numBytes (String filename) { exception try { if (filename. you "throw" and "catch" exceptions.Exception Handling in Java  Very similar to PL/SQL. "WHEN OTHERS" } in Java } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .println (e.page 156 .out. return myFile. Put inside try clause File myFile = new File (filename). } catch (Exception e) { System.length().toString()). rather than raise and handle. } File-related catch (SecurityException e) { exceptions return -1.

as in: public static int numBytes (String filename) throws SecurityException. NoSuchFile { . ± So you can pass them as arguments and do anything and everything else you can do with objects. ± Use the throws clause in your specification..  You must inform users of your method of which exceptions may be thrown..Differences Between Java & PL/SQL  Exceptions are objects derived directly or indirectly from the Exception class. } 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 157 .

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Now let's explore how you can put Java to work for you inside PL/SQL programs.page 158 .Java's Not So Tough!  You can learn enough Java in less than a week to: ± Build simple classes ± Leverage Java inside PL/SQL  Moving to the next level of expertise will be more of a challenge. ± Object oriented development (Java) is very different from procedural coding (PL/SQL).

using JDBC or SQLJ Oracle 8i server PL/SQL cover for Java method Java virtual machine running Java method Oracle Developer client (PL/SQL) Net8 OCI or Pro*C client VB or C++ via OO4O or ODBC 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 159 .Java Stored Procedures (JSPs) Java applet or app.

better file I/O ± RMI callouts.JSPs: Some sample uses PL/SQL extender ± For example. network communication in/out PL/SQL replacement ± More standard language ± Good performer for numeric processing tasks ± Beware database I/O & string manipulation performance Scaleable deployment of third party code ± Vertical application ± Web server ± XML parser/generator 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 160 .

Call from PL/SQL (or SQL) as if calling PL/SQL    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Grant privileges as desired 5..END 4. Create Java classes in your favorite IDE 2. rather than BEGIN.page 161 . Publish PL/SQL cover using AS LANGUAGE JAVA... Load into server using ³loadjava´ command-line tool 3..Creating JSP to call from PL/SQL   1.

paying its" + " Chief Executive Officer " + CEOCompensation. } public static void main (String[] args) { // A very scary company Corporation TheGlobalMonster = new Corporation ( "Northrup-Ford-Mattel-Yahoo-ATT". long PceoComp) { name = Pname.java Advanced Techniques . CEOCompensation = PceoComp.page 162 PL/SQL . }} 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Notes on Java classes  toString method automatically used by System.println main method is used to test the class.println (TheGlobalMonster). layoffs = Playoffs.out. } public String toString () { return name + " is a transnational entity with " + layoffs + " laid-off employees. long CEOCompensation. 5000000. 50000000). public Corporation ( String Pname. long Playoffs. System.out.Create Java class(es) class Corporation extends Person { long layoffs. Entry points must be public static in most cases Classes may call other classes Avoid GUI calls     person.

Upload using ³loadjava´ utility .page 163 .java file Java resource file .jar file Oracle 8i server Java class Java source Java resource loadjava Example: loadjava loadjava -user scott/tiger -oci8 -resolve datacraft/bill/Hello.class options (abbreviated) -oci8 -resolve loadjava will connect using OCI driver Resolves external class references at compile time -resolver (shown later) Search path like CLASSPATH 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .class file .

.bill.String'. /  Syntax (simplified) CREATE [ OR REPLACE PROCE URE FUNCTION <name> <sqlt pe> ] [ [ <ar s> ) ] [ AUTHID { DEFINER | CURRENT_USER } ] AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME '<met fullname> (<Ja a t pe fullname>.) [ return <Ja a t pe fullname> ]'.lang.page 164 .. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..Emp(int) return java.Publish  Example (top-level call spec) CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION hello_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2 AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.Hello.

PRINT :thename ± CALL avoids overhead of SELECT fn FROM DUAL jsp. END.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . from SQL*Plus: VARIABLE thename VARCHAR2(12) CALL hello_emp(7499) INTO :thename.Call the wrapped method  Method 1: Call as if PL/SQL module BEGIN DBMS_OUTPUT. for example.  Method 2: Use 8i SQL CALL statement.PUT_LINE(hello_emp(7499)).page 165 .

page 166 .sql.more concepts Shape mapping ± Java methods declared ³void´ become PL/SQL procedures ± Signature mismatches detected only at runtime Type mapping (typical) VARCHAR2 DATE NUMBER user-defined object type user-defined object type object REFerence user-defined collection type java.sql.ARRAY 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .sql.String java.BigDecimal oracle.REF oracle.math.STRUCT <named type> oracle.lang.sql.Publishing -.Timestamp java.

/ (No package body required in this case) 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .. END.Hello.page 167 .Emp(int) return java. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE hello_pkg AS FUNCTION hi_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2 AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft..util.String'.Publish in PL/SQL Package Spec  Designate Java module in PL/SQL package spec.lang.

Publish as module in package body  .util.Hello.lang.or in package body CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE hello_pkg2 AS FUNCTION hi_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2. END.String'.. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . / CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY hello_pkg2 AS FUNCTION hi_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2 IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.Emp(int) return java. END.page 168 ..

util.lang. MEMBER FUNCTION hello_emp RETURN VARCHAR2 IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.Hello.util.page 169 . / or in the body: CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE foo_t AS OBJECT ( bar VARCHAR2(30).String'. / CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE BODY foo_t AS MEMBER FUNCTION hello_emp RETURN VARCHAR2 IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.lang. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Hello. END.String'). MEMBER FUNCTION hello_emp RETURN VARCHAR2).Publish as object type method  Either in spec: CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE foo_t AS OBJECT ( bar VARCHAR2(30).Emp(int) return java.Emp(int) return java.

or resource ± Can read file designated with BFILE() function  ALTER JAVA: compiles Java source. JAVA_ADMIN. JAVAIDPRIV. class.New DDL Statements and Roles  CREATE JAVA ± Alternative to ³loadjava´ utility ± Creates or replaces an Oracle ³library unit´ from Java source. JAVADEBUGPRIV ± You can also grant specific privileges.page 170 . DROP JAVA: drops a named Java library unit Several roles available for Java operations: ± JAVAUSERPRIV. resolves Java class references. JAVASYSPRIV (needed for file IO operations).   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

jdbc2.sql.Passing Oracle8 objects Oracle8i server Object in O-R table Java application Java object   Harder than you¶d think Three different interfacing techniques ± oracle.CustomDatum ± oracle.STRUCT ± oracle.sql.SQLData 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 171 .

page 172 .JPublisher utility Database server Definition of type or REF in data dictionary User-supplied JPublisher input file What does it do? ± Generates Java that encapsulates type and REF types of mapping supported for methods JPublisher ± ³Oracle mapping´ ± ³JDBC mapping´ ± ³Object JDBC mapping´ Three Generated Java file(s) for use in Java programs 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

bill. /  jspobj.Passing object using JPub-generated Java  After generating and uploading classes with JPub.save (datacraft.Account_t)'.AccountRuntime.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 173 . they become available to use in mapping Example of passing an Account_t object: CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE account_save (new_acct IN Account_t) IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.bill.

but that package is very limited.Example: Improving File I/O  You can read/write files in PL/SQL with UTL_FILE. Java offers many file-related classes with much greater capabilities.page 174 .   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Let's see how we can make that great Java stuff available from within PL/SQL.

± This is not available through UTL_FILE (though you can get it through DBMS_LOB)..  Let's start with something simple.page 175 . ± The File class offers a length method that returns the number of bytes in a file. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Instead build a static method that instantiates a Java object from the class and then invokes the relevant method against that object..Encapsulate Java Classes  You won't generally access native Java methods in your PL/SQL wrapper.

length().File. ± Call the method of choice against that object and return the value. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . import java.io. } } JFile2. ± Instantiate a File object for the specified name. public class JFile2 { public static long length (String fileName) { File myFile = new File (fileName).page 176 .My Own Java Class for File Manipulation  Accept the name of a file and return its length.java  Take each of these steps: ± Import the File class to resolve reference. return myFile.

length (java. END. ± I translate the Java long to a PL/SQL NUMBER. END. / CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY xfile IS FUNCTION length (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN NUMBER AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'JFile. / xfile2.String) return long'. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE xfile IS FUNCTION length (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN NUMBER.pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 177 .lang.Build a Package over Java Method  Let's put it in a package. we will certainly want to add more functionality over time.

page 178 . Not so! To pass a Boolean back from Java to PL/SQL. so you'd expect smooth sailing. ± 2. Convert the Java boolean to a String or number and return that value. Write a "hidden" PL/SQL wrapper function that returns the string or number. ± 3. you will need to take these steps: ± 1.  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Write a "public" PL/SQL wrapper function to convert that number to a true PL/SQL Boolean.Mapping the Boolean Datatype  Both Java and PL/SQL support a native Boolean datatype.

if (retval) return 1. import java. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . boolean retval = myFile.File.java  Translate TRUE to 1 and FALSE to 0. not a Boolean class. else return 0.page 179 .io. } } JFile3.Translate Boolean to Number  Accept the name of a file and return its length. ± And don't forget: this is a boolean primitive.canRead(). public class JFile3 { public static int canRead (String fileName) { File myFile = new File (fileName).

xfile4.String) return int'.canRead (java.pkg RETURN IcanRead (file) = 1.page 180 . FUNCTION canRead (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN BOOLEAN AS BEGIN xfile3..pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . JFile..java END.java / xfile. JFile4. END.Wrapper for Pseudo-Boolean function  Simple translation back to PL/SQL Boolean.lang. ± Avoid the hard-codings with named constants.pkg END. / CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY xfile IS FUNCTION IcanRead (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN NUMBER AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'JFile3. CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE xfile IS FUNCTION canRead (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN BOOLEAN.

throws java. System.tst PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . BigDecimal hourly_rate = (BigDecimal)(attribs[1]).sql. // starting with 0 String laborType = (String)(attribs[0]). } } Extract individual attribute values from the array.getAttributes().Passing Objects to Java with STRUCT  You can pass Oracle object information to Java without relying on JPub by using the STRUCT class.java passobj.page 181 .SQLException { // Get the attributes of the labor_source object.out. Object[] attribs = e. public class UnionBuster { Obtain attributes of public static void wageStrategy (STRUCT e) the Oracle object. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein UnionBuster.println ( "Pay " + laborType + " $" + hourly_rate + " per hour"). // Access individual attributes by array index.

STRUCT)'. / BEGIN bust_em_with ( labor_source ('Workfare'. 0)). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . The Oracle object type definition CREATE TYPE labor_source_t AS OBJECT ( labor_type VARCHAR2(30). '5')). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Fully specify the STRUCT class in parameter list. / CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE bust_em_with ( labor_source_in IN labor_source_t) AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'UnionBuster.page 182 . bust_em_with ( labor_source ('Prisoners'. hourly_rate NUMBER).Wrapping a STRUCT-based Method  You can pass Oracle object information to Java without relying on JPub by using the STRUCT class. END.wageStrategy (oracle.sql.

println.out. i < count.PUT_LINE: System.out. you can redirect the output to the DBMS_OUTPUT buffer.page 183 .sql file: SET SERVEROUTPUT ON SIZE 1000000 CALL DBMS_JAVA. ± Call it within methods and output will display in your Java environment. ± Here is a good nucleus for a login.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . public class HelloAll { public static void lotsaText ( int count) { for (int i = 0.SET_OUTPUT (1000000). HelloAll. i++) { System. }}}  When called within a PL/SQL wrapper.println ( "Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello All!").Viewing Output from Java Methods  Java provides a "print line" method similar to DBMS_OUTPUT.java HelloAll.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Error Handling with Java-PL/SQL  Java offers a very similar. ± Instead of raising and handling. getErrorCode() and getMessage() to obtain information about the error thrown. you "throw" and "catch". but more robust error handling mechanism than PL/SQL.SQLException. ± And also spew out the entire Java error stack! (at least through 8.sql.  Any error not caught by the JVM (Java virtual machine) will be thrown back to the PL/SQL block or SQL statement. such as java. ± Exceptions are objects instantiated from the Exception class or a subclass of it.5).page 184 .1. ± Use two methods.

jdbc.PUT_LINE (SQLERRM).OracleStatement.java) at oracle.driver.executeUpdate(OracleStatement. / SQL> 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 java. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN DBMS_OUTPUT.OracleStatement.java) at oracle.doExecuteOther(OracleStatement.check_error(KprbDBAccess.tst ORA-00942: table or view does not exist 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .tst ORA-29532: Java call terminated by uncaught Java exception: java.doExecuteWithTimeout(OracleStatement.java) at oracle.java:14) DropAny.jdbc.java) at oracle.object(DropAny.Trapping and Identifying Errors  Currently.KprbDBAccess. 'blip').driver.PUT_LINE (SQLCODE). the entire Java stack is displayed on your screen.OracleStatement.parseExecuteFetch(KprbDBAccess.kprb.sql.kprb.jdbc. END.doExecuteWithBatch(OracleStatement.OracleStatement.driver.OracleStatement.jdbc.SQLException: ORA-00942: table or view does not exist at oracle.sql.page 185 .driver.jdbc.java) at oracle.doExecute(OracleStatement.sp dropany2.java) at DropAny.java) at oracle.SQLException: getErrInfo. and you have to do some digging to extract the Oracle error information.jdbc.java -29532 dropany. DBMS_OUTPUT.driver.jdbc. BEGIN dropany ('TABLE'.KprbDBAccess.

 An Oracle8 feature that allowed relatively "native" callouts to C from PL/SQL for the first time. or method.page 186 . ± Must be a shared object library on Unix or a dynamically linked library (DLL) on Windows.Achieving PL/SQL Excellence External Procedures  An external procedure is a 3GL routine that can serve as the ³body´ of a PL/SQL function. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . procedure.

DLL or .Process & data flow Application Makes request Net8 External Procedure Listener spawns External Shared Library Calls PL/SQL Runtime Engine PL/SQL body Client or server-side application returns results calls routine from Routine in .so file extproc returns results returns results 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 187 .

External procedures: Sample uses      Send email Invoke operating system command Invoke custom or legacy application Call C runtime library function Perform admin tasks email.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 188 .sql diskspace.

Determine free disk space on NT (1/4)  Use pre-existing routine: ± GetDiskFreeSpaceA in kernel32.page 189 . this function returns: » » » » » sectors per cluster bytes per sector number of free clusters total number of clusters ³return code´ indicating success or failure  First. create an Oracle8 ³library´: CREATE OR REPLACE LIBRARY nt_kernel AS 'c:\winnt\system32\kernel32.dll ± For given drive letter. / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .dll'.

sectors_per_cluster OUT PLS_INTEGER. END disk_util. bytes_per_sector OUT PLS_INTEGER.Package spec (2/4)  Nothing unexpected here: CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE disk_util AS FUNCTION get_disk_free_space (root_path IN VARCHAR2. total_number_of_clusters OUT PLS_INTEGER) RETURN PLS_INTEGER.page 190 . / 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . number_of_free_clusters OUT PLS_INTEGER.

bytes_per_sector OUT PLS_INTEGER. total_number_of_clusters BY REFERENCE LONG. sectors_per_cluster OUT PLS_INTEGER.Package body in Oracle 8. number_of_free_clusters OUT pls_integer. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . number_of_free_clusters BY REFERENCE LONG. bytes_per_sector BY REFERENCE LONG. sectors_per_cluster BY REFERENCE LONG.page 191  All the magic is in the EXTERNAL section 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . total_number_of_clusters OUT PLS_INTEGER) RETURN PLS_INTEGER IS EXTERNAL LIBRARY nt_kernel NAME "GetDiskFreeSpaceA" LANGUAGE C CALLING STANDARD PASCAL PARAMETERS (root_path STRING.0 (3/4) CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY disk_util AS FUNCTION get_disk_free_space (root_path IN VARCHAR2. END disk_util. RETURN LONG).

Usage (4/4)
DECLARE lroot_path VARCHAR2(3) := 'C:\'; lsectors_per_cluster PLS_INTEGER; lbytes_per_sector PLS_INTEGER; lnumber_of_free_clusters PLS_INTEGER; ltotal_number_of_clusters PLS_INTEGER; return_code PLS_INTEGER; free_meg REAL; BEGIN return_code := disk_util.get_disk_free_space (lroot_path, lsectors_per_cluster, lbytes_per_sector, lnumber_of_free_clusters, ltotal_number_of_clusters); free_meg := lsectors_per_cluster * lbytes_per_sector * lnumber_of_free_clusters / 1024 / 1024; DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('free disk space, Mb = ' || free_meg); diskspace.sql END;
1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein
PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 192

Creating your own external procedure 

1. Identify or create shared library 2. Identify or CREATE LIBRARY within Oracle 3. Map the parameters using:
± EXTERNAL clause (Oracle8) or ± LANGUAGE clause (Oracle8i)  

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 193

1. Identify/create external routine 


Prerequisite: O/S must support shared libraries Some useful routines are pre-built in C runtime library
± On Unix: /lib/libc.so ± On NT: <systemroot>\system32\crtdll.dll 

Building a shared library of your own requires knowledge of:
± Appropriate language (typically C) ± Compiler & linker

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 194

2. Create the Oracle library 

Syntax:
CREATE OR REPLACE LIBRARY <library name> AS '<full path to file>'; 

Assigns a programmer-defined alias to a specific shared library file Notes
± Requires CREATE LIBRARY pri ilege ± Does not alidate directory ± Can¶t use symbolic link 

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 195

3. Map the parameters
This can get complicated, because«
± Must pass extra parameters to designate:
» NULL/NOT NULL state » String length » Maximum allocated length

± Six choices of parameter mode
» » » » » » IN RETURN IN BY REFERENCE RETURN BY REFERENCE OUT IN OUT

These details are better suited for close reading«
PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 196

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein

page 197 .Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Oracle8i New Features Autonomous Transactions Invoker Rights Model Row Level Security 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

page 198 .    Autonomous Transactions The Invoker Rights Model Row level security 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± And the learning curve to take advantage of these features is generally not too steep.Oracle8i New Features  Oracle8i offers a number of PL/SQL-specific features that give you tremendous additional flexibility and capability.

Autonomous Transactions  Prior to Oracle8i. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . you can now define a PL/SQL block to execute as an "autonomous transaction". a COMMIT or ROLLBACK in any program in your session committed or rolled back all changes in your session. ± There was only one transaction allowed per connection. ± Any changes made within that block can be saved or reversed without affecting the outer or main transaction. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE loginfo ( code IN PLS_INTEGER.page 199 . msg IN VARCHAR2) AS PRAGMA AUTONOMOUS_TRANSACTION.  With Oracle8i.

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Now you can avoid the complexities (need for ROLLBACK TO savepoints and so on).page 200 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .  Call functions within SQL that change the database. software usage meter.  Logging Mechanism ± Commonly developers lot to database tables.When to Use Autonomous Transactions  Reusable Application Components ± ATs are more or less required in the new distributed application architecture of the Internet. etc. something like a COMMIT) on other components. ± One component should not have any impact (esp.  Tracing Code Usage ± Build retry mechanisms. which can cause all sorts of complications: your log entry becomes a part of your transaction.

program ).tst PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . rec. rec. While we're at it. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Avoid interdependencies with the main transaction.machine.pkg retry. text_in IN VARCHAR2 ) IS PRAGMA AUTONOMOUS_TRANSACTION.pkg log81*. COMMIT. END. SYSDATE.page 201 . END. text_in. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN ROLLBACK. SYSDATE. USER. logger.tst retry.Logging with ATs  Don't forget that ROLLBACK in the exception section! CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY log IS PROCEDURE putline ( code_in IN INTEGER. let's add some session information. USER. BEGIN INSERT INTO logtab VALUES (code_in.sp log81.

sql auton_in_sql. ± Place the SET TRANSACTION statement in the outer transaction. ± You cannot define an entire package as an AT.   The AT PRAGMA goes in the body of packages.page 202 . The AT PRAGMA can be used only with individual programs and toplevel anonymous blocks.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± You cannot define a nested anonymous block to be an AT.  Any changes committed in an AT are visible in the outer transaction.sql autontrigger*. autonserial.Tips and Gotchas with ATs  An AT program must COMMIT or ROLLBACK before terminating. ± You can use the SET TRANSACTION ISOLATION LEVEL SERIALIZABLE to indicate that you do not want the changes visible until the outer transaction commits. or an error is raised. ± You cannot tell by looking at the package spec if you are calling ATs or not -and this info is not available in the data dictionary.

you can now decide at compilation time whether your program or package will execute in the definer's schema (the default) or the schema of the invoker of the code. whenever you executed a stored program.The Invoker Rights Model  Prior to Oracle8i. ± This is called the « Invoker Rights Model PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± This is called the « Definer Rights Model  With Oracle8i. it ran under the privileges of the account in which the program was defined.page 203 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .

page 204 . Note: Oracle built-in packages have long had the capability of running under the invoker's authority. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . But it can be a source of confusion and architectural problems. OE Code Order_Mgt Place Cancel Sam_Sales Close Old Orders  OE Data X  Orders Cannot alter table directly.About Definer Rights  Allows you to centralize access to and control of underlying data structures. Ignores roles and relies on directly-granted privileges.

requiring copy of stored module  Security ± No declarative way to restrict privileges on certain modules in a package -.Problems with Definer Rights  Deployment & maintenance ± Must install module in all remote databases where needed ± In some databases. ± Can bypass 8i¶s ³fine-grained´ access features (see the DBMS_RLS package) ± Difficult to audit privileges  Sure would be nice to have a choice.and now you do! 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..page 205 .it's all or nothing. each user has own copy of table(s).. unless you write code in the package to essentially recreate roles programmatically.

page 206 . and must be at the package level. AUTHID goes only in spec..  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . do what it takes to get the code to compile. Synonyms may be necessary if modules use object names not qualified by schema. "dummy" objects. the objects referenced may well be different from those against which it compiled..  For modules with separate spec and body. You could also create local. ± At run-time. ± In other words.Oracle8i Invoker Rights Syntax  For top level modules: CREATE [ OR REPLACE ] <module type> [ AUTHID { DEFINER | CURRENT_USER } ] AS .

Central Code schema PACKAGE acct_mgr make AUTHID CURRENT_USER User/Data schema PROCEDURE mng_account IS BEGIN .. yet have all references to data structures "reflect back" into your own schema.FROM accounts WHERE.. you can execute code owned by another schema."Reflection" Capability of Invoker Rights  With invoker rights.destroy(..page 207 .acct_mgr.. code.. modify destroy .).. accounts table 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END...

Note: cannot use with wrapped code. all other calls in stack are resolved according to definer rights.Tips and Gotchas for Invoker Rights  Does not apply to code objects.page 208 . ± AUTHID CURRENT_USER is ignored.sql handy. the definer rights model is always applied to resolve the reference. oneversion. only data ± When your stored code references another stored code element. taking advantage of the invoker rights model whenever possible? ± A creative use of SQL*Plus substitution variables comes in very invdefinv.  Once a definer rights program is called.  Information about the rights model is not available in the data dictionary What if you want to maintain a single version of your code for both pre-Oracle8i and Oracle8i installations. ± Both static and dynamic SQL is supported.sql  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

authid. National HQ Check City Statistics New York Schema stolenlives Chicago Schema stolenlives  Especially handy with dynamic SQL. ± Share a program that uses dynamic SQL (whether DBMS_SQL or the new native implementation) and you end up taking the most unexpected DDL and DML detours.When to Invoke Invoker Rights  You want to reuse the same code among many users.page 209 . but you want their own directly-granted privileges to determine access.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .sql whichsch*.

HQ Chicago Check City Statistics  New York stolenlives Analyze Pattern stolenlives perpetrators perp.Combining Invoker & Definer Rights  Rely on invoker rights to allow centralized code to work with schema-specific data. Rely on definer rights to access centralized data from any schema.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 210 .

page 211 .Row Level Security DBMS_RLS Row-Level Security 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

you could achieve this only partially through the use of views. with which to implement automated row-level security (also referred to as "fine grained access control").Row-Level Security with DBMS_RLS  Oracle8i offers a new package. The DBMS_RLS package (along with "system contexts") now allow you to do so in a foolproof manner. Prior to Oracle8i. DBMS_RLS. Row Level Security  The establishment of security policies on (restricted access to) individual rows of a table.page 212   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

Components Needed for RLS  System Contexts ± A new feature in Oracle8i.  Let's step through a simple example to see how all these pieces tie together.  DBMS_RLS ± Use programs in DBMS_RLS to associate your security policies with tables. the system context is a named set of attributevalue pairs global to your session. their context information is set properly.  Database Logon Triggers ± I want to make sure that when a person logs in.  Security Policy Packages ± You will need to write a package containing functions that establish the security policies to be applied to a particular table. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 213 .

A National Health Care System  The year is 2010. highly secure database for NHCS.page 214 . ± Regulators can only see patients who reside in the same state. clinic and regulator.sql  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . The main tables are patient. fgac. ± Patients can only see information about themselves. all pregnant women receive excellent prenatal care. ± A massive. no more private insurance companies soaking up 30 cents on the dollar. popular uprising in the United States has forced the establishment of a national healthcare system. No more for-profit hospitals pulling billions of dollars out of the system. doctor. all children are vaccinated. Here are some rules: ± Doctors can only see patients who are assigned to their clinic.  We need a top-notch.

DBMS_SESSION. doc_rec. END. sets the context accordingly.SET_CONTEXT ( 'patient_restriction'.Set the Context  Define a context in the database.doctor_id). BEGIN OPEN doc_cur. c_person_id_attr. c_person_type_attr.sql for logic that identifies SELECT doctor_id FROM doctor different types of people and WHERE schema_name = USER.SET_CONTEXT ( 'patient_restriction'. FETCH doc_cur INTO doc_rec. See CURSOR doc_cur IS fgac. and create a procedure that will set the context attributes (type and ID) upon login.page 215 . doc_rec doc_cur%ROWTYPE. 'DOCTOR'). DBMS_SESSION. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . CREATE CONTEXT patient_restriction USING nhc_pkg. PROCEDURE set_context IS This is a simplification.

name_in VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2 IS l_context VARCHAR2(100) := Extract the context SYS_CONTEXT (c_context. BEGIN IF l_context = 'DOCTOR' THEN retval := 'home_clinic_id IN (SELECT home_clinic_id FROM doctor We need a different string WHERE doctor_id = SYS_CONTEXT (''' || to modify the WHERE c_context || '''. c_person_type_attr).page 216 . person. FUNCTION person_predicate ( schema_in VARCHAR2. information for this retval VARCHAR2(2000).Define the Predicate  A predicate is a string that will be appended to the WHERE clause of the table to which this security policy is associated (see next page). ''' || clause for each type of c_person_id_attr || '''))'. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . connection.

ADD_POLICY procedure. 'patient_privacy'.UPDATE.PATIENT table will be modified by the string returned by the person_predicate function of the SCOTT.Create the Security Policy  Use the DBMS_RLS. 'nhc_pkg. 'SCOTT'. BEGIN DBMS_RLS. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .ADD_POLICY OBJECT_SCHEMA OBJECT_NAME POLICY_NAME FUNCTION_SCHEMA POLICY_FUNCTION STATEMENT_TYPES END. update or delete against the SCOTT.person_predicate'. ( => => => => => => 'SCOTT'. 'SELECT.nhc_pkg package. 'patient'.DELETE').page 217 . ± The following procedure call specifies that the WHERE clause of any query.

logon is disabled. fgac.sql Exception handling in trigger is critical! If you allow an exception to go unhandled.Create Logon Trigger. CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER set_id_on_logon AFTER LOGON ON DATABASE BEGIN nhc_pkg.page 218 . EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN DBMS_OUTPUT. Setting Context  By setting the context in the logon trigger. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . we guarantee that the context is set (and the predicate applied) no matter which product is the entry point to Oracle. END.set_context.PUT_LINE ( 'Error ' || SQLCODE || ' setting context for ' || USER').

IL 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Patient sees only himself.Veva Silva .page 219 . 'person_id')) Patients Visible to "SWALLACE": CSILVA .IL VSILVA .Chris Silva . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Queries Transparently Filtered  What you see is determined automatically by who you are. Context Information for "SWALLACE": Type: DOCTOR Doctor sees only her ID: 1060 patients.IL Context Information for "CSILVA": Type: PATIENT ID: Predicate: schema_name = 'CSILVA' Patients Visible to "CSILVA": CSILVA .Chris Silva . Predicate: home_clinic_id IN (SELECT home_clinic_id FROM doctor WHERE doctor_id = SYS_CONTEXT ('patient_restriction'.

and you use only what you know. May.... February. April.  ± You learn what you need to get the job done...and play a new tune with PL/SQL! 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Jump out of your rut ..Take Full Advantage of PL/SQL! January.page 220 .... It's so easy to fall into a rut with a programming language. March..

.a.k.Achieving PL/SQL Excellence Appendices (a.page 221 . If time permits«)     UTL_FILE ± file IO DBMS_JOB ± Job scheduling DBMS_PIPE ± Pipe-based communication DBMS_UTILITY ± the kitchen sink package 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

. Physical Files 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Built-in Packages: UTL_FILE UTL_FILE Server-side File I/O Application FOPEN GET_LINE PUT_LINE ..page 222 .

. A "version 1" (fairly primitive) utility.UTL_FILE: Server-side I/O  Allows you to read from and write to operating system files on the database server. ± Limitations on files you can access (no mapped files. ± No higher-level file operations supported (change privileges. when it jumps to 32K. ± Maximum of 1023 bytes per line (read or write) until Oracle 8.. no use of environmental variables).5.   But you can read lines from a file and write lines to a file. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . delete.0.page 223 . random access to contents). copy.

page 224 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . Puts formatted text into the buffer PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .UTL_FILE Module Outline FCLOSE FCLOSE_ALL FFLUSH FOPEN GET_LINE IS_OPEN NEW_LINE PUT PUT_LINE PUTF Close the specified file Close all open files in your session Flush all data from the UTL_FILE buffer to your file Open a file Get the next line from a file Returns TRUE if the file is open (sort of) Insert a new line character in file at the end of current line Puts text into the UTL_FILE buffer Puts text and new line character into UTL_FILE buffer.

 Follow these rules to avoid many headaches. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . utl_file_dir = /tmp utl_file_dir = /accounts/newdev  And don't do either of the following: utl_file_dir = . no trailing delimiter.page 225 Allows read & write for current directory. utl_file_dir = * Allows read & write for any directory. ± No single or double quotes around directory. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . there is no subdirectory recursion). ± You do this by adding lines to the instance parameter file. ± Use a separate entry for each directory (and subdirectory.Authorizing Directory Access  Oracle requires you to list explicitly those directories you wish to be able to read/write with UTL_FILE.

/ utlfile. restart your database. UTL_FILE.FILE_TYPE.txt'.Test UTL_FILE Access  About the hardest part to working with UTL_FILE is simply getting started. So before you write anything fancy.FOPEN ('c:\temp'. */ fid := UTL_FILE. 'hello'). modify your initialization file.page 226 . and then run the following test script (it can't get much simpler than this): DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.FCLOSE (fid). UTL_FILE.PUT_LINE (fid. BEGIN /* Change the directory name to one to which you at least || THINK you have read/write access. 'W'). 'test.tst  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END.

. this function simply returns TRUE if the file handle's id field is NOT NULL. ± In actuality. BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE. 'W').   Maximum of 10 files may be opened in each user session.page 227 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . 'W' for Write and 'A' for Append. name and operation type.  The FOPEN function returns a record ("file handle") based on the UTL_FILE. Test to see if file is open with the IS_OPEN function.FILE_TYPE.  Specify file location.FOPEN ('c:\temp'. Not much of a test. END. 'test. ± Currently contains a single ID field.txt'. ± Types are 'R' for Read.FILE_TYPE.Opening a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE..

the ceiling is raised to 32K.page 228 . UTL_FILE. ± In Oracle8 Release 8. 'R').Reading from a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE. ± You might want to build your own GET_LINE which handles the exception and returns an EOF Boolean status flag.0. BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE. myline).txt'.5 and above. 'test.FOPEN ('c:\temp'.GET_LINE (fid. UTL_FILE. END. getnext.sp 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .FILE_TYPE.FCLOSE (fid).  The NO_DATA_FOUND exception is raised if you read past the end of the file. Lines in the file cannot be longer than 1023 bytes in length.   Can only read from a file opened with the "R" mode.

UTL_FILE is so much fun that I never want to stop Resulting Text  You can use PUT.PUT_LINE (fid. 'test.page 229 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . 'UTL_FILE'). UTL_FILE. '&1').  Call FFLUSH to make sure that everything you have written to the buffer is flushed out to the file. ± The file buffers are automatically flushed when you close a file or exit your session. ± PUTF is like the C printf program. 'is so much fun'). PUT_LINE or PUTF. UTL_FILE. BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE.Writing to a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.PUT (fid.FOPEN ('c:\temp'. allowing for some formatting.FCLOSE (fid). UTL_FILE. ' that I never\nwant to %s'.FILE_TYPE. UTL_FILE. END.PUTF (fid. 'W'). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .txt'.

FCLOSE (fid). UTL_FILE.FILE_TYPE.page 230   1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .FOPEN ('c:\temp'. 'R'). You can close a single file with FCLOSE or all open files with FCLOSE_ALL. UTL_FILE. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . you will not see the data you have (supposedly) written to that file. BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE.  If you do not close the file. You should close files in exception handlers to make sure that files are not left "hanging" open. 'test.Closing a File DECLARE fid UTL_FILE. myline).txt'. EXCEPTION WHEN UTL_FILE.READ_ERROR THEN UTL_FILE.GET_LINE (fid. END.FCLOSE (fid).

Error Handling in UTL_FILE PACKAGE UTL_FILE IS invalid_path invalid_mode invalid_filehandle invalid_operation read_error write_error internal_error END. EXCEPTION. ± They all share a common SQLCODE of 1. EXCEPTION. ± NO_DATA_FOUND when you try to read past the end of the file. EXCEPTION. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . EXCEPTION.  UTL_FILE relies on a combination of user-defined exceptions and STANDARD exceptions to communicate errors. EXCEPTION. EXCEPTION.page 231 .  You have to take special care to trap and handle the named exceptions. ± UTL_FILE-named exceptions in other cases. EXCEPTION.

RAISE. WHEN UTL_FILE.page 232  1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .INVALID_PATH THEN recNgo (PLVfile.c_invalid_path). RAISE.c_invalid_filehandle).c_write_error). WHEN UTL_FILE. WHEN UTL_FILE.c_internal_error). RAISE. record the error. END.INVALID_FILEHANDLE THEN recNgo (PLVfile. WHEN UTL_FILE. Re-raise exception if you want it to propagate from that block. RAISE. translating the generic user-defined exception into an understandable message.INVALID_OPERATION THEN recNgo (PLVfile.sql  Trap locally by name.WRITE_ERROR THEN recNgo (PLVfile.Recommended Exception Section EXCEPTION WHEN UTL_FILE. WHEN UTL_FILE. WHEN UTL_FILE. RAISE. RAISE.READ_ERROR THEN recNgo (PLVfile.c_read_error). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . utlflexc. RAISE.c_invalid_operation).INVALID_MODE THEN recNgo (PLVfile.INTERNAL_ERROR THEN recNgo (PLVfile.c_invalid_mode).

..page 233 .Built-in Packages: DBMS_JOB DBMS_JOB Scheduled Execution of Stored Procedures Application SUBMIT RUN REMOVE . Background Process DBA_JOBS Oracle Job Queue Subsystem 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

page 234 .Overview of DBMS_JOB  DBMS_JOB provides an API to the Oracle job queues. Schedule large batch jobs to run on "off hours". ± Spawn background processes to avoid blocking client process. which in turn offers job scheduling capabilities within the Oracle Server. Schedule regular maintenance on instances. ± ± ± ±    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Built by Oracle to support snapshots and replication. Create a listener program to poll the contents of a pipe and take action.1.2. You can use DBMS_JOB to: Replicate data between different database instances. but only ³publicly available´ and supported in PL/SQL Release 2. Made its debut in PL/SQL Release 2.

Changes the job string of a job. Forces immediate execution of the specified job number.page 235 CHANGE INTERVAL ISUBMIT NEXT_DATE REMOVE RUN SUBMIT USER_EXPORT WHAT 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . Returns the job string for a job number. Broken jobs will not run as scheduled. Changes one or all attributes of a job. Submits a job to the queue using a predefined job number. Removes the job from the queue. Changes the interval between executions of a job. Changes when a queued job will run. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Submits a job to the queue returning a unique job number.DBMS_JOB Module Outline BROKEN Marks the job as either FIXED or BROKEN.

'SYSDATE + 1'). SYSDATE.  When you submit a job. END. Notice that the start time is a DATE expression.SUBMIT (job#.  A job is a call to a stored procedure or an anonymous block ± It must end with a semi-colon and can contain ³hard-coded´ arguments. BEGIN DBMS_JOB.ISUBMIT and supply the job number. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . and then the job¶s execution interval (frequency of execution).'. I run calculate_totals immediately and then on a daily basis thereafter.page 236 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . instead of having DBMS_JOB generate one for you.Submitting a Job DECLARE job# BINARY_INTEGER. ± In the above example. 'calculate_totals. while the interval is a string (this is dynamic PL/SQL!)  You can also call DBMS_JOB. you specify the date on which it should next execute.

ANALYZE_OBJECT. BEGIN DBMS_JOB. p.l (v_jobno).Submit Job Example DECLARE v_jobno INTEGER.''ESTIMATE''. to analyze a specific table every evening at midnight.ANALYZE_OBJECT ' || '(''TABLE''.submit ( job => v_jobno.''LOAD1''. next_date => TRUNC (SYSDATE + 1).estimate_percent=>50).null.page 237 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . END. what => 'DBMS_DDL. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . interval => 'TRUNC(SYSDATE+1)' ).'.''TENK''' || '. DBMS_DDL. /  This block submits a job that uses a built-in procedure.

END.next_date => SYSDATE + 1/24 .120). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . runs it in one hour and executes every day thereafter. executes for the first time tomorrow and every 10 minutes thereafter. executes immediately.SYSDATE.what => 'my_job1(''string_parm_value''.ISUBMIT(3. and will be removed from the queue automatically. 'my_job2(date_IN=>SYSDATE).ISubmit Job Example BEGIN DBMS_JOB.interval => 'SYSDATE +1').' . ± Job 2 passes a date into procedure MY_JOB2.DBMS_JOB. DBMS_JOB. END.ISUBMIT (2. DBMS_JOB.' .2. ± Job 3 is a PL/SQL block which does nothing.SYSDATE+1.'SYSDATE+10/1440').'BEGIN null. ± Job 1 passes a string and number into procedure MY_JOB1. /  This block submits three jobs to the job queue.null).'. numbered 1. and 3.ISUBMIT (job => 1 .page 238 .

''Q'').page 239 + 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . ''FRIDAY''))) + 18/24' PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Use date arithmetic to request intervals smaller than a day. ± Since it's a string. you must use 2 single quotes to embed strings. ''SATURDAY'') 2/24' 'NEXT_DAY ( ADD_MONTHS (TRUNC (SYSDATE. ''WEDNESDAY''). ''MONDAY''). NEXT_DAY (SYSDATE. at 9 AM Every Monday. Every hour Every Sunday at 2 AM First Monday of each quarter.Specifying Job Times & Frequencies  Probably the most complicated part of using DBMS_JOB is to get the string expression of the job interval right. ''MONDAY'') + 9/24' 'TRUNC (LEAST ( NEXT_DAY (SYSDATE. Wednesday and Friday at 6 PM 'SYSDATE + 1/24' 'NEXT_DAY (TRUNC (SYSDATE). NEXT_DAY (SYSDATE. 3).

ISUBMIT.Other Job Queue Operations  Remove a job from the queue.job).page 240 . ± Performs an implicit COMMIT in current session. Remove all jobs for current schema. ± Only if the job was submitted from same schema BEGIN FOR rec IN (SELECT * FROM USER_JOBS) LOOP DBMS_JOB. retaining current job number.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Export jobs from the queue.  Run a job immediately. DBMS_JOB. ± Uses DBMS_JOB. END LOOP.RUN (my_job#). expjob. ± Produces a string that can be used to recreate an existing job in the job queue.REMOVE (rec.

sid AND jr.job . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .this_date.V$SESSION WHERE s.job ORDER BY jr.this_date .username .what job_id username start_date job_definition jr j s showjobs.jr.job = j.DBA_JOBS .page 241 . ± The following query blends job information with session information to display currently-executing jobs. SELECT jr.Job Queue Views  You can also view the job queue by looking at the DBA_JOBS_RUNNING. DBA_JOBS and USER_JOBS views.sql FROM DBA_JOBS_RUNNING .sid = jr. who owns them and when they began.

The valid range is 1 to 3600 (a maximum. You will have to take special DBA action if you want to restrict who can run jobs. ± The default is PUBLIC access.  You will need to set three parameters in the init.Setting up the Job Facility  Make sure that the correct access is set up for the DBMS_JOB package. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . of one hour).page 242 . The valid range is 0 through 36.ora (initialization) file for your database instance: ± job_queue_processes=N where n is the number of concurrent background processes permitted. therefore. ± job_queue_interval=N where N is the interval in seconds to check the job queue.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Then you can go ahead and submit it. the job facility will mark your job as broken.  To avoid unexpected and unhandled failures of scheduled jobs: ± Always use the RUN built-in to execute your job in a ³test´ mode.page 243 . ± Always include a WHEN OTHERS exception handler in your job program which traps any and all problems and automatically sets the job status to broken. it may cause the background processes to fail and no longer run any jobs at all.Error Handling with DBMS_JOB  What if your stored procedure fails? ± After 16 attempts. ± Do you want it to try 16 times? ± In addition. if your failure raises an unhandled exception.

TRUE). ± Now the job facility will not try to run this program again..job (µcalc_totals¶) DBMS_JOB. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN job# := job_pkg. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± Obtains the job number from a packaged function by passing the name of the procedure. µFAIL¶). ± Uses a call to BROKEN to set the status of the job to ³broken´. spacelog. END.log (µcalc_totals¶.page 244 .sql  The WHEN OTHERS exception handler of the calc_totals procedure traps any kind of failure. You can go in and fix the problem.Stopping the Job When It Fails PROCEDURE calc_totals IS BEGIN . job_pkg. ± Calls log program of package to record that failure took place.BROKEN (job#..sql showspc.

± We've noticed some aberrant."Good to Knows" for DBMS_JOB  You may find it useful to always wrap your stored procedure call (the what) inside a BEGIN-END block. If you find that you submit a job to run immediately and it does not start.page 245 . difficult to reproduce behavior at times with "straight" procedure calls.  You will need to fully-qualify all database links (with user name and password) to get them to work properly. ± DBMS_JOB only allows you to modify characteristics and behavior of jobs submitted by the current schema. When a job runs. perform a COMMIT after your submit. You can use the DBMS_IJOB to manage the jobs of other users.    1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . it picks up the current execution environment for the user.

page 246 .Built-in Packages: DBMS_PIPE DBMS_PIPE Inter-session Communication 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

You can parallelize your own code.page 247 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Uses for DBMS_PIPE include: ± Parallelization of program execution. Oracle uses database pipes to parallelize database operations. ± Perform and commit DML in a separate transaction space from your main transaction. ± More sophisticated debugging inside PL/SQL programs (work around fundamental limitations of DBMS_OUTPUT). ± Interface PL/SQL-database activities with operating system functions and programs written in other languages.DBMS_PIPE Overview  Allows communication between different Oracle sessions through a pipe in the RDBMS Shared Global Area. ± Operates outside of database transaction limitations.

They are reserved for Oracle use). ± The pipe sends/receives a message.Architecture of DBMS_PIPE Shared Global Area ³Sue´ ³Bob´ Message Buffer Message Buffer Session A  Session B A pipe is a named object that uses the System Global Area to provide a non-transaction based conduit of information. which can be composed of one or more separate packets.page 248 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . using a maximum of 4096 bytes. ± Names can be up to 128 chars long (do not use names beginning with ³ORA$´.

 Unpack the message packets and take action.sql pipex2.  Receive a message from that pipe. ± There is just one message buffer per session. date or number).page 249 . ± If there isn¶t currently room in the pipe. so you should always specify a timeout period. ± Each packet can be a string.Processing Flow of DBMS_PIPE  Construct a message from packets of information.sql PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . ± This is the default. you can wait for up to 1000 days (or 86400000 seconds) for the pipe to be cleared. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein pipex1. date. ± You can wait for up to 1000 days for a message.  Send the message to a named pipe. ROWID or RAW. number. ± Separate out the individual packets in the message (again: string.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . UNIQUE_SESSION_NAME Returns name that is unique among all sessions in the database. Clears your buffer so that PACK_MESSAGE and UNPACK_MESSAGE can work from the first item. REMOVE_PIPE RESET_BUFFER Removes a pipe explicitly created via CREATE_PIPE. SEND_MESSAGE Sends contents of message buffer to the specified pipe.DBMS_PIPE Module Outline Module Name CREATE_PIPE Description Creates a PUBLIC or PRIVATE pipe. PACK_MESSAGE Packs an item into the message buffer for your session. RECEIVE_MESSAGE Receives a message from pipe and copies to local buffer.page 250 . NEXT_ITEM_TYPE Returns the datatype of the next item in the piped message. UNPACK_MESSAGE Unpacks the next item from the local message buffer and deposits it into the specified local variable. PURGE Empties the contents of a pipe into your local buffer freeing it for removal. making it a candidate for removal with a LRU algorithm.

 A public pipe is accessible as long as you know its name. ± Specify TRUE for private argument of CREATE_PIPE. private => TRUE). ± Send messages to non-existent pipe implicitly create it. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 251 .Creating Public and Private Pipes  There are two ways to create pipes: implicitly and explicitly. BEGIN stat := DBMS_PIPE. maxpipesize => 20000.  An explicit pipe can be private (accessible only to sessions with matching userID or SYSDBA privileges). ± Implicitly-created pipes are always public. PROCEDURE newpipe IS stat INTEGER. ± Use CREATE_PIPE to create a pipe explicitly.CREATE_PIPE ( pipename => 'bbs'.

and new max pipe size (you can make it bigger. FUNCTION send_message (pipename IN VARCHAR2. timeout IN INTEGER DEFAULT maxwait. 12 LOOP DBMS_PIPE.page 252 . Send to "monthly" pipe.Sending a Message Provide pipe name.PACK_MESSAGE ( total_sales (month_num)). FOR month_num IN 1 . END LOOP.. waiting up to 1 minute. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Fill your message buffer with packets of data. 10 * 4096). pipe_stat := DBMS_PIPE. maxpipesize IN INTEGER DEFAULT 8192) RETURN INTEGER. but not smaller). 60. Status of 0 means message was sent. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . IF pipe_stat != 0 THEN RAISE could_not_send. expanding pipe size to 40 Kbytes. seconds you will wait.SEND_MESSAGE ( µmonthly¶.

1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . timeout IN INTEGER DEFAULT maxwait) RETURN INTEGER.  Then you call UNPACK_MESSAGE to extract individual packets from the message. PROCEDURE unpack_message (item OUT DATE).page 253 .Receiving and Unpack a Message FUNCTION receive_message (pipename IN VARCHAR2. ± You need to know the datatype of packet or check it using NEXT_ITEM_TYPE. PROCEDURE unpack_message (item OUT VARCHAR2). ± Specify pipe and number of seconds you will wait before you time out. ± Pipe status of 0 means the message was read successfully.  First you pull the message from the pipe and place it in buffer with RECEIVE_MESSAGE. PROCEDURE unpack_message (item OUT NUMBER).

Wait up to N prod_total NUMBER. every_n_secs). analyze_production (SYSDATE.RECEIVE_MESSAGE ( 'production'. If I got something. LOOP pipe_status := DBMS_PIPE. seconds for the BEGIN next report. DBMS_PIPE.page 254 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . END LOOP. ELSE RAISE_APPLICATION_ERROR ( Stop process if -20000. pass it on to the IF pipe_status = 0 computation THEN program.UNPACK_MESSAGE (prod_total).A Pipe-based Listener Program  Program wakes up every N seconds to read the data from the pipe and analyze results from assembly line (an intentional "infinite loop"!). PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END. END IF. 'Production data unavailable. PROCEDURE analyze_assembly_data (every_n_secs IN INTEGER) IS pipe_status INTEGER.'). prod_total). data not received.

page 255 . 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .sql dbpipe.Unpacking the Message FUNCTION next_item_type RETURN INTEGER. Returns one of the following values: Value 0 6 9 11 12 23 Description or Data type No more items in buffer NUMBER VARCHAR2 ROWID DATE RAW dbpipe. you have to make sure that you unpack a packet into the right kind of variable. Either: ± You know the datatype and therefore can ³hard-code´ the correct variable into the call to UNPACK_MESSAGE.tst  Since a message can be composed of packets of different datatypes. ± Or you use the built-in NEXT_ITEM_TYPE to tell you in advance the datatype of the next packet in the message and take appropriate action.

page 256 . you can do the same for your application if: ± You have multiple CPUs available. total office expenses and total compensation. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .  Without pipes. ± The CEO is decidedly unhappy about the delay.Parallelizing Your Code with Pipes  Oracle uses DBMS_PIPE to improve RDBMS performance. In order to do so I must first compute total sales. but are not dependent on each other. I must execute them sequentially and incur an elapsed time of 45 minutes before I calculate the profits.  Suppose I want to calculate my net profit. ± You have processes which can run in parallel. ± These programs each take 15 minutes.

Sequential vs.page 257 . Parallel Execution Sequential Execution: Maximum Elapsed Time S t a r t E n d Process A Process B Process C Parallel Execution: Minimum Elapsed Time Start Process A Process B Process C End 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .

kick_off_totcomp_calc. calculate_net_profits. ± Other programs running in the background grab the messages and start their corresponding calculation program. ± When each program is complete.in a muchdecreased elapsed time.page 258 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . wait_for_confirmation. END.  The ³kick off´ programs pass their messages to separate pipes. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Parallelizing PL/SQL Execution BEGIN kick_off_sales_calc. kick_off_exp_calc. it puts a message (perhaps even a value) into the pipe. Then net profits can be computed -.  The ³wait´ program waits till it receives a message from each program.

END IF. ELSE DBMS_PIPE.PACK_MESSAGE (NULL). stat := DBMS_PIPE. and send back the results. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .page 259 .SEND_MESSAGE (µsales¶). calculate sales. Receive the year. stat := DBMS_PIPE. IF stat = 0 THEN lots_of_number_crunching.Code to Kick Off and Calculate PROCEDURE kick_off_sales_calc IS stat INTEGER. PROCEDURE calculate_sales IS stat INTEGER.SEND_MESSAGE (µsales¶). DBMS_PIPE.PACK_MESSAGE (sales$). BEGIN stat := DBMS_PIPE. stat := DBMS_PIPE.PACK_MESSAGE (1995). 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein Send message to start calculations. END.SEND_MESSAGE (µsales¶). END.RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µsales¶). BEGIN DBMS_PIPE.

DBMS_PIPE.page 260 . stat := DBMS_PIPE. parallel. END. DBMS_PIPE.offexp$ .RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µoffexp¶). DBMS_PIPE.UNPACK_MESSAGE (sales$). BEGIN stat := DBMS_PIPE. stat := DBMS_PIPE.sql 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . The order in which you wait is insignificant. PROCEDURE calculate_net_profits IS BEGIN net_profits := sales$ .Waiting for Confirmation PROCEDURE wait_for_confirmation IS stat INTEGER.RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µcomp¶). END.UNPACK_MESSAGE (comp$).UNPACK_MESSAGE (offexp$). Wait for all calculations to finish. Perform final calculation.RECEIVE_MESSAGE (µsales¶).comp$.

syscache.Other DBMS_PIPE Examples  Simple trace package that sends it output either to screen or to pipe. obtains the data. and sends it to the pipe. watch.tst 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .pkg  Implementation of a system-wide. ± The requester reads the information from the pipe. in-memory cache.pkg p_and_l. ± A request for data is passed to a "central" pipe.pkg syscache. ± A listener program grabs the request (including the return pipe name).page 261 . ± Demonstrates the use of toggles and switches in packages.

.page 262 . A µgrab-bag¶ of miscellaneous operations SCHEMA 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques ..Built-in Packages: DBMS_UTILITY DBMS_UTILITY Application GET_TIME GET_HASH_VALUE FORMAT_CALL_STACK .

Returns execution call stack. Gets file number part of data block address. Returns hash value for string.pkg COMMA_TO_TABLE COMPILE_SCHEMA DATA_BLOCK_ADDRESS_BLOCK DATA_BLOCK_ADDRESS_FILE DB_VERSION EXEC_DDL_STATEMENT FORMAT_CALL_STACK FORMAT_ERROR_STACK GET_HASH_VALUE 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Parses comma-delimited list to index-by table.pkg dbparm.DBMS_UTILITY Module Outline ANALYZE_DATABASE ANALYZE_PART_OBJECT Analyze objects in database Runs ANALYZE TABLE or ANALYZE INDEX for each partition of the object (Oracle8). Returns database version (Oracle8) Executes DDL statement (Oracle8).page 263 dbver. Returns error stack. Gets block number part of data block address. Recompile INVALID objects in specified schema.

cont. GET_PARAMETER_VALUE GET_TIME IS_PARALLEL_SERVER MAKE_DATA_BLOCK_ADDRESS NAME_RESOLVE NAME_TOKENIZE PORT_STRING TABLE_TO_COMMA Retrieves value of database parameter (Oracle8). Parses string object designator into components. Returns platform and version of database. Returns TRUE if in parallel server mode. Returns "current time" down to hundredth of second.DBMS_UTILITY Module Outline. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . Converts list (in index-by-table) of elements into a comma-delimited list (string).page 264 . Creates data block address from block & file numbers. Resolves name of object into component parts.

especially those that run in sub-second time. so GET_TIME offers significant additional granularity. calc_totals.  Compare results from consecutive calls to GET_TIME to determine the elapsed time of PL/SQL code execution. DECLARE v_start BINARY_INTEGER. DBMS_OUTPUT. ± SYSDATE only reflects times down to the nearest second. BEGIN v_start := DBMS_UTILITY. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . END. ± Useful when analyzing individual PL/SQL programs.GET_TIME .PUT_LINE (DBMS_UTILITY.page 265 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein . Basic steps necessary to convert GET_TIME into a performance analysis tool.Sub-Second Timings with GET_TIME  GET_TIME returns the number of 100ths of seconds that have elapsed since an arbitrary point in time.GET_TIME.v_start).

PROCEDURE capture ( context_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) PROCEDURE show_elapsed (prefix_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL. Clean and lean timing code ovrhead.sps plvtmr.sql plvtmr. adjust_in IN NUMBER := 0. BEGIN PLVtmr. calc_totals.page 266 . PLVtmr.capture. PROCEDURE set_factor (factor_in IN NUMBER).show_elapsed. END.spb 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques . reset_in IN BOOLEAN := TRUE).Building a Layer Over GET_TIME Partial package specification PACKAGE PLVtmr IS PROCEDURE turn_on. PROCEDURE turn_off. END PLVtmr.

Accessing the Execution Call Stack Use in the exception section to show context of error. ± Does not show package elements.VALIDATE_REQUEST function STEVEN. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN DBMS_OUTPUT.COMPANY_TYPE procedure STEVEN.FORMAT_CALL_STACK).CALC_NET_WORTH anonymous block  "Little known facts" about FORMAT_CALL_STACK: ± Contains embedded new-line characters. 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .PUT_LINE ( DBMS_UTILITY. equivalent to CHR(10).PL/SQL Call Stack ----object line object handle number name 88ce3f74 88e49fc4 88e49390 88e2bd20 8 2 1 1 package STEVEN. only the package name.page 267 . ----. END. ± Most recent program at beginning of "report".

pkg plvcs. END LOOP.PUT_LINE (next_line). BEGIN stk := DBMS_UTILITY. CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE dispcs IS stk VARCHAR2(10000). LOOP next_newline := INSTR (stk.tst callstack. which means you cannot pass it to DBMS_OUTPUT directly. next_line VARCHAR2(255). next_newline .startpos + 1). next_newline INTEGER. END.sp dispcs. PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .Accessing Call Stack Contents  The call stack length can easily exceed 255 bytes. 1). startpos INTEGER := 1. EXIT WHEN next_newline = 0.sps DBMS_OUTPUT. startpos := next_newline + 1. startpos.page 268 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein .FORMAT_CALL_STACK || CHR(10). use a loop to read through the stack. next_line := SUBSTR ( stk. Instead. CHR(10). dispcs. startpos.

pkg 1/21/2011 Copyright 2001 Steven Feuerstein PL/SQL Advanced Techniques .. see it as an opportunity.  Possible "Part 1" Types 5 7 8 9 Synonym Procedure Function Package What a chore! All those arguments. part2 OUT VARCHAR2.page 269 .but don't see it as a problem. part1_type OUT NUMBER. context IN NUMBER.for encapsulation! showcomp.. dblink OUT VARCHAR2..Resolving Names of Stored Code  Code names have many components. object_number OUT NUMBER). schema OUT VARCHAR2.. ± Use NAME_RESOLVE to break down an identifier string into its components easily. part1 OUT VARCHAR2.sp snc. PROCEDURE DBMS_UTILITY.NAME_RESOLVE (name IN VARCHAR2. the way they are attached also follows a complicated syntax.