# Establishmment of Norms

1.) Giving the test to a representative sample of individuals. 2.) Calculating the average score (mean) at each level. 3.) Preparing a table of equivalence that the transformation of the raw scores into derived s

) Preparing a table of equivalence that the transformation of the raw scores into derived scores can be made more convenient . 2. 3.) Calculating the average score (mean) at each level.   1.) Giving the test to a representative sample of individuals.

These tests have to be validated and standardized.Interpreting Norms   Norms are widely used in many standardized achievement tests prepared. .

Grade Norms    Are widely used in standardized educational achievement tests. Grade equivalence is expressed in two numbers. This is so because tests are employed within the academic settings. .

They are interpreted in terms of age equivalents.Age Norms    Are based n the average scores earned by pupils at different ages. in mental ability ( mental age ) and achievement tests in arithmetic. Age norms are commonly used in tests in reading indicated as reading age). .

Can be used more meaningfully in the elementary level. . Do not represent what the child can actually do.Characteristics of age norms    Represent test performance in unequal units.

PERCENTILE NORMS  Are not the same as percentage scores because percentiles are derived scores which are expressed in terms of the percentage of persons while percentage scores are expressed in terms of percentage of items. .

. They are easy to compute and can readily be understood.  Percentile norms are more widely used than other norms.

STANDARD SCORE NORMS    Indicate the pupil¶s relative position by showing how far his raw score is above or below average. . Is represented by the normal probability curve or what is commonly called the normal curve. Express the pupil¶s performance in terms of standard units from the mean.

.The mathematical Characteristics of a Normal Curve   It is divided into standard deviation units Each portion under the curve has a fixed percentage of cases.

. Standard deviation permits us to convert raw scores into a common scale of equal units ( SD units ) which can readily be interpreted in terms of a normal curve.

Z-scores   Are linearly derived standard scores. and then divide the difference by the SD of a normative group. . find the difference between the individual¶s raw score and the mean of the normative group. To compute a z score.

4 Z=- Tina¶s score X1 = 70-60 705 X1= +2 Ronald¶s Score : X1 = 48 .Example: Formula: z = X-M SD Given: M=60 SD = 5  Z= 48-60 485 Z=-2.

scores are obtained by multiplying z-scores are obtained by multipying z scores by 10 and adding the product to 50. T.Scores   Refer to any set of normally distributed standard scores that has a mean of 50 and a standard deviation of 10. .T.

Formula: T-score = 50 + 10(z) TApplying this formula to the two zzscores we computed earlier:  T=50 + 10(2) = 70 T=50+10 (-2.2)=28 (- .

Thus comparisons of test results taken by the same individuals can best be done by using standard scores. .  One very good features of standard scores is they have equal units of measures and their size is the same from distribution to distribution.