# FHMM 1114 General Mathematics I

Lecture Chapter 1 (Number and Set) Part A

Topics
Real Numbers 
   Set of Real Numbers Operations on Real Numbers Intervals Absolute Values (Modulus)

Exponents and Logarithms 
Exponents  Logarithms
2

Real Numbers
What number system have you been using most of your life?

The real number system.

A real number is any number that has a decimal representation.

3

L } (ii) Integers Natural numbers.1. «« } Whole Numbers: W ! {0}  N ! {0. 2. their negatives.3. ±1. 0. 3. and 0. 1. ««} 4 . 2.Set of Real Numbers (i) Natural Numbers Counting numbers (also called positive integers) N = { 1. ±2. 2. Z = {««.

All rational number can be represented by: (a) terminating decimal numbers such as 5 2 ! 2.. where a and b are integers and b { 0..1333 .5. 2 15 ! 0. 1 2 ! 0.Set of Real Numbers (iii) Rational Numbers..5.666.75 (b) nonterminating repeating decimal numbers such as  2 3 ! 0.. 5 .. Q Numbers that can be represented as a b .  3 4 ! 0.

. 6 .a (v) Real Numbers. I ! _ 2 . They are nonterminating & nonrepeating decimal numbers. T ..Set of Real Numbers (iv) Irrational Numbers Numbers which cannot be expressed as a ratio of two integers. e. R Rational and irrational numbers.

Set of Real Numbers R Q I Z N 7 .

Real Number Line Origin ±8 ±4 21  4 0 4 8 T 53 8 .

141414« as a ratio of two integers.1 Change the rational number 0. Answer 9 .Example 1.

168168168 « as a ratio of two integers.Example 1. Answer 10 .2 Change the rational number 0.

Operations on Real Numbers (i) Commutative Law * Addition : a  b ! b  a * Multiplication : a b ! b a 11 .

Operations on Real Numbers (ii) Associative Law * Addition : a  (b  c) ! (a  b)  c * Multiplication : a (bc ) ! ( ab )c 12 .

Operations on Real Numbers (iii) Distributive Law (1) a(b  c) ! ab  ac (2) a(b  c) ! ab  ac 13 .

Operations on Real Numbers (iv) Identity Law * Addition : a  0 ! 0  a ! a a + identity = a * Multiplication : a v 1 ! 1 v a ! a a v identity = a 14 .

Operations on Real Numbers (v) Inverse Law *Addition : a  (a) ! (a)  a ! 0 a + inverse = identity *Multiplication : a v 1 a ! va !1 1 a 15 a v inverse = identity .

with a b : The open interval is defined as the set ( a . b] ! {x : a e x e b} 16 . b) ! { x : a x b} The closed interval is defined as the set [a.Real Number Intervals For any two different real numbers. a and b.

Absolute Values The absolute value (or modulus) of a real number. x is denoted by x . ®x if x u 0 x !¯  ° x if x 0 17 .

x " a 18 .Absolute Values x a  a x a x " a  x a .

3 Find the values of x if (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) 2x  3 ! 5 x2 !3 x 3x  1 5 5  2x u 3 19 .Example 1.

a ! a v a v a v. 20 .Exponents For n a natural number (positive integer) and a any real number. v a n where n is called the exponent and a is called the base.

a z a ! a iii.Properties of Exponents For m. (a ) ! a iv. and a  n i. a ! 1 0 m n mn v. a v a ! a m n mn ii. n  Q n R+. 1 an !a n 21 .

called an exponential equation. then x ! y . x y x ** If a " 0 . a { 1 . and x ! y . then a ! a . and a ! a . Property : ** I a " 0 .Exponential Equation An equation with a variable in the exponent. y Note : Both bases must be the same!! 22 . a { 1 .

6 ) ! 9 25 23 .4 Solve (a) 9 ! 27 x (b) 32 2 x 1 ! 128 x x 3 (c) ( 0 .Example 1.

5 Solve the equation (a) 2 (b) 5 2x 3  5(2 )  32 ! 0 .Example 1.  6(5 )  1 ! 0 24 x 2 x 1 x .

p q r 25 . show that pq ! r ( 4q  p ) .6 If 2 ! 3 ! 48 .Example 1.

n g 1 1 1 1 1 1 e !     K ! § 0! 1! 2! 3! 4! k !0 k ! 26 ..71828. whose approximate value is 2..Natural Exponential Base Definition of e : As m becomes larger and larger. ¨ 1¸ e ! lim ©1  ¹ n pg ª nº lternatively. ¨ 1¸ ©1  ¹ ª nº n becomes closer and closer to the number e.

the graphs show that 3x e x 2 x. ** For x 0 . 27 . 1). ** For x " 0 . because e is between 2 and 3. ** ** All three graphs have y-intercept (0.Natural Exponential Base 1 y ! 2x y ! 3x y ! ex 2 -2 -1 x 1 2 e x is between 2 x and 3x . the graphs show that 3x " e x " 2 x.

x!a 1 ! a0 ** ** a ! a 1 n means loga x ! n log a 1 ! 0 log a a ! 1   When a=10 => common logarithm When a=e => natural logarithm 28 .Logarithms Definition of logarithm : For a " 0. and x " 0. a { 1.

log a x y ! log a x  log a y p iii. log a xy ! log a x  log a y ii.Properties of Logarithms i. log a x ! p log a x 29 .

Properties of Logarithms log b c iv. log a b ! log b a 30 . log a c ! log b a 1 v.

given that log b 2 x  log b ( x  2b ) ! 1 31 .Example 1. (b) Find x in term of b.7 (a) Solve log 2 x  log 2 ( x  3) ! 1.

Example 1. 2 Note: log x ! lg x ! log10 x 32 .8 Solve the equation log (19x  4)  2 log x  2 ! 0.

9 Solve the equation (a) log 2 x  log x 8 ! 4 (b) log 4 x  12 log x 4 ! 7 (c) log 3 x ! 4 log x 3 33 .Example 1.

Example 1. 34 . 999 .10 Find the smallest integer of n such that 3 (1  3 n ) " 2 .

Example 1.11 Given that x ! 3 y 2 lg x y ! 3  lg x  lg y Find the values of x and y. 35 2 .