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CONTENTS: ´ Definition ´ Function ´ Anatomic consideration ´ Physiologic consideration ´ Vibrating line ´ Classification of soft palate ´ Techniques ´ Errors in recording PPS ´ Summary
The anatomy of edentulous ridge in the maxilla and mandible is very important for the design of COMPLETE DENTURE..
hamular notch. buccal frenum. POSTERIOR PALATAL SEAL AREA. postero lateral slopes of the residual alveolar ridge. mid-palatine raphe. buccal vestibule.ANATOMICAL LANDMARKS IN MAXILLA ´ ´ ´ Limiting Structures: Labial frenum. rugae. Supporting Areas: hard palate. labial vestibule. cupid eminence. fovea palatina . maxillary tuberosity Relief Areas: Incisive papilla.
DEFINITION It is a soft tissue along the junction of hard & soft palate on which pressure with in the physiologic limit on the tissue can be applied by denture to a in the retention of the denture. (GPT) .
The adequate PPS resist the horizontal & lateral forces acting on maxillary denture base as the denture border terminate on soft resilient tissue & there by maintain a proper denture seal. cohesion & interfacial surface tension that resist the dislodging forces that act perpendicular to the denture base. Retention stability of a denture is achieved from adhesion. the seal prevent passage of air between denture & tissue. .´ ´ ´ The peripheral seal of maxillary denture is a area of contact between the mucosa & peripheral polished surface of the denture base.
Reduces patients awareness about the area hence decrease gag reflex. Prevents food accumulation between posterior border of denture and the soft palate.SIGNIFICANCE OF PPS ´ ´ ´ ´ ´ Prevents air passage between the tissues and denture base. Compensates for polymerization shrinkage of denture base resin . Serves Primarily in denture retention by making contact with anterior portion of soft palate.
FUNCTION OF PPS
Stability ´ Prevention & retention ´ Compressibility ´ Comfort
STABILITY: The main function of PPS is to maintain contact with the anterior portion of the soft palate ( the tissue under go shallow displacement ) during functional movement of the somatognathic system ( that is mastication, deglutination & phonation) therefore the main purpose of PPS is the retention of maxillary denture. ´ PREVENTION : It also reduce gag reflex as there is no separation between denture base & soft palate during normal functional movement
COMPRESSIBILITY : It also reduce food accumulation beneath the posterior aspect of denture owing to proper utilization of tissue compressibility. ´ COMFORT : reduce patient discomfort contact occur between dorsum of the tongue & posterior end of denture base. The correctly placed PPS creates a partial vacuum beneath the maxillary denture , this partial vacuum is activated only one horizontal tipping forces act is very small & hence produce no irreversible alternation of the underlying mucosa.
Pteriomaxillary seal The post palatal seal is extend one tuberosity to other. It also occupies the entire width of pterygomaxillary notch.ANATOMIC & PHYSIOLOGIC CONCIDERATION The PPS is divided in two anatomic separate boundaries1.Post palatal seal 2. Pterygomaxillary seal extend through pterygo maxillary notch continuing for 3-4 mm anterolaterally approximation the mucogingival junction. ´ .
´ .This pterygomaxillary notch is covered by pterygomandibular fold which extend from the posterior aspect of the tuberocity posterio-inferiorly to insert into the retro molar pad. ´ Hamular notch should never be covered by denture as only covered by thin layer of mucous membrane. ´ This fold of tissue influence the posterior border seal if the mouth is wide open position during the final impression process.
´ .Fovea palatina are two glandular opening within the tissue posterior of hard palate lying on the either side of midline. ´ Fovea palatina should be used only as a guideline for the placement of posterior palatal seal. ´ Medial palatal raphe which overlies medial palatal suture contain little or sub mucosa & will tolerate little or no compression .
VIBRATING LINE The imaginary line across the posterior part of the palate marking the division between the movable & immovable tissue of the soft palate which can be identified when the movable tissue are moving. (GPT) Anterior vibrating line Posterior vibrating line .
.ANTERIOR VIBRATING LINE ´ It is an imaginary line lying at the junction between the immovable tissues over the hard palate & the slightly movable tissue of the soft palate-GPT.
The anterior vibrating line is not a straight line between both hamular process.L. ´ Instructing the patient to say ´AHµ with short vigorous bursts due to projection of the posterior nasal spine.V. .METHOD OF LOCATING A.
It represent demarcation between the part of soft palate that has limited or shallow movement during function (quivers) & the remainder of the soft palate that is markedly displaced during functional movement. Winkler.POSTERIOR VIBRATING LINE ´ It is an imaginary line as junction of the aponeurosis of tensor vili palatini muscles in the muscular portion of the soft palate.-S. .
Cord like band of tissue extending between the posterior nasal spine & aponeurosis of tensor vili palatini muscles should receive slight amount of relief. .´ ´ ´ ´ Thus the placement of PPS across mid-palatal suture demand careful attention. If the tours palatini extend to the bony limit of the palate leaving little or no room to place the PPS then its removable is indicated. PPS should also extend into mid palatal fissure to ensure proper peripheral seal.
´ The presence of thick ropy saliva may create a problem for maxillary complete denture retention as it create hydrostatic pressure in the area anterior to PPS resulting in a downward dislodging force everted major denture base. .
The posterior vibrating line marks the most distal extension of the denture base. ´ .L.V.METHOD OF LOCATING P. Instruct the patient to say ´AHµ in a short vigorous burst in a normal unexaggerated fashion.
CLASSIFICATION OF SOFT PALATE It is classified inclass I class II class III .
.´ CLASS I It indicate soft palate that is rather Horizontal as a extend posteriorly with minimum muscular activity. There is considerable separation between anterior & posterior vibrating line does having white PPS area yielding more retentive denture base.
. There is few mm separation of anterior & posterior vibrating line thus there is small PPS area & less retention.´ CLASS III it is seen in conjugation with high V shape palatal vault.
.´ CLASS II palatal contour lie between classI & classIII.
The important once are:Conventional approach Fluid wax technique Arbitrary scrapping of master cast . 2. 3.TECHNIQUES ´ 1. There are several established techniques for the placement of PPS.
1. To determine if adequate retention & seal of the potential denture border is present. The rational for the placement of a seal in the impression tray as follows:To establish positive contact posteriorly to prevent the final impression material from sliding down the pharynx. especially if a shim has been used within the tray to establish the borders. To serve as a guide for positioning the impression tray. . To create slight displacement of the soft palate. 2. 4. 3.
There are steps to be followed . To rinse with an astringent mouth wash that is remove to stringy saliva that might prevent clear transfer marking.CONVENTIONAL APPROACH After the special tray is fabricated there are certain instructions given to the patients:1.
3. Identification of posterior vibrating line the patient asked to say ´AHµ in short burst in an exaggerated fashion. . This is necessary as there are times when small depression in the residual ridge may resemble pterygo maxillary notch. Location of pterygo maxillary notch is done by moving the T burnisher posterior angle to the maxillary tuberosity until it drops into the pterygo maxillary notch.2.
Identification of the anterior vibration line. This is done by asking the patient to say ´AHµ with short vigorous bursts (Valsalva Maneuver can also be used) .4.
This complete the out lining of pterygo maxillary seal .PROCEDURE ´ A line is placed with an indelible pencil (Thomson sanitary colour transfer applicators) through the pterygo maxillary notch & extended 3-4 mm antero-laterally the tuberosity approximating the mucogingival junction same is done on the opposite side.
The posterior vibrating line is marked with an indelible pencil by connection the line through the pterygomaxillary seal with line just drown demarcation the post palatal seal ´ The resin or shellac tray inserted into the mouth & seated firmly to place upon removal from the mouth. The indelible lines will be transferred to the tray. The tray in return to master cast to complete the transfer of the complete posterior border. ´ . ´ Sometimes it is necessary to redefine transfer marking.
this complete the transferring the outline of posterior palatal seal area. . The anterior vibrating line now marked transferred to master cast .´ ´ ´ ´ The tray is trimmed until the posterior vibration line so that it decides the post extent denture border. The termination of glandular tissue usually coincides with the anterior vibrating line. Returning to the mouth the palatal fissure are palpated with the ¶T· burnisher or mouth mirror to determine their compressibility in width & depth.
(A) A T burnisher is used to palpate for the hamular process. (B) Palpating for the pterygomaxillary notch .
5 mm . Kingsley scraper used to score the cast the deepest area are located on either side of midline. The tissue covering the medial palatal raffe as little sub mucosa & cannot withstand same compressive force as the tissue lateral to it .´ ´ The visual outline is in the shape of cupid bow the area between the anterior posterior vibrating line is usually narrowest in the mid palatal region because of the projection of the posterior nasal spine. It is usually scraped to a depth of approximately 1-1. one third the distance anteriorly from the posterior vibrating line.
5-1 mm within the outline of cupid bow & cast is scrapped to depth of half among to palatal tissue in that area can be compressed being tapered posteriorly.´ This area is scraped to depth of approximately 0. ´ . Failure to taper the seal posterior mainly to tissue irritation.
Patient will be able to experience the retentive qualities of the trail base.ADVANTAGE 1. 2. The trail base will be more retentive. This can produce more accurate maxillo mandibular records. . giving them the psychologic security of knowings that retention will not be a problem in the completed prosthesis.
3. The new denture wearer will be able to realize the posterior extent of the denture which may ease the adjustment periods. 4. . leaving nothing to chance at the insertion appointment. The practioner will be able to determine the retentive qualities of the finished denture.
2. It is not a physiologic technique & therefore depends upon accurate transfer of the vibrating lines & careful scraping of the cast. . The potential for over compression of the tissue is great.DISADVANTAGES 1.
Smith.FLUID WAX TECHNIQUE All of the procedure remain the same as conventional technique that is transfer location & transfer marking of the anterior & posterior vibrating line The marking are recorded in final impression one of the four type of wax can be used for their technique:1. . Iowa wax white developed by Dr. Earl S.
4. H. The melted wax is painted into the impression surface & in the outline at seal area . O. 3. . these wax are designed to flow at mouth temperature. the wax applied in slightly & excess of the estimated depth & allowed to cool to blow mouth temperature to increase its consistency & make it more resistant of flow. Adaptol green developed by Nathan G.2. 4. orange developed by Dr.S. Applegate. Harkins. physiologic paste.L.C. yellow-white developed by Dr. Korecta wax no. C.
.The impression is carried to mouth & held under gentle pressure 4-6 minute to allow the material flow position of head & tongue during this is procedure. The soft palate should be impression in it most functionally depressed positions that is by keeping Frankfurt plane 30° below the Hz & the tongue is firmly positioned against mandibular anterior teeth.
Soft palate is impression in its most functionally depressed position. 2.ADVANTAGE-THIS POSTION 1. The flow of saliva & impression material into the pharynx is prevented. After 4-6 minutes impression tray is removed from the mouth & examined for uniform contact. If the tissue contact has not established the wax will appear dull. .
If excess wax protruded out of the tray it should be removed. A Secondary impression is reinserted & held for 3-5 minutes under gentle pressure followed by 23 minutes of firm pressure applied to mid palatal area of the impression tray.If the tissue contact has been established it will appear glossy. . upon removal of tray from the mouth it is careful examined to see wax terminate in feathered edge near the anterior vibrating line.
. If the wax is over extended it should be careful trimmed the scalpel.It a butt joint is present & proper flow has not been taken place & impression tray is reinserted.
3. Mechanical scrapping of the cast is avoided. 2. Over compression of tissue is avoided.ADVANTAGES 1. It is physiologic technique displacing tissues within their physiologically acceptable limits. Posterior palatal seal is incorporated into the trail denture base for added retention. . 4.
DISADVANTAGES 1. . 2. Difficulty in handling the materials & added care during the boxing procedure. More time is necessary during the impression appointment.
´ . Vibrating lines are visualized by examining the pt·s mouth and approximately marked on master cast. ´ This tech is inaccurate and not physiological and should be avoided. & post.5 to 1mm of stone in posterior palatal seal area of the master cast and fabricates the denture.Arbitrary Scrapping Of The Master Cast: Ant. ´ The lab technician scraped 0.
2.ERROR IN RECORDING OF PPS 1. Under extension Under post damming Over post damming Over extension . 3. 4.
. UNDER EXTENSION This is the most common cause for poor posterior palatal seal. the tissue coverage is reduced & the posterior border of the denture is not in contact with the soft resilient tissue which will move alongwith the denture border during functional movements. 2. It may be produced due to one of the following reason:The denture does not cover the fovea palatina.1. Reduce the patient anxiety to gagging. 1.
Improper delineation of the anterior & posterior vibrating line. Prevention: Excessive trimming of the posterior border of the cast. 4.3. .
3. specially during function.2. the patient will experience sharp pain. Prevention: These region are trimmed & poslished 1. 2. 4. . OVER EXTENSION The denture base can lead to ulceration of the soft palate & painful degulutition. The most frequent complaint from the patient will be that swallowing is painful & difficult. The hamuli are covered by the denture base .
The pterygoid hamuli must never be covered by the denture base. The overextension can be removed with a bur & then carefully repolished.4. . 5.
g. . E. This will produce a space between the denture base & tissue. UNDER POSTDAMMING 1. the mouth is wide open while recording the posterior palatal seal the mucosa over the hamular notch becomes stretched.3. This can occur due to improper head positioning & mouth positioning.
3. If air bubble are seen to escape under the posterior border it indicates under damming. . Inserting a wet denture into a patient·s mouth & inspecting the posterior border with the help of mouth mirror.2. Prevention: The master cast can scraped in the posterior palatal area or the fluid wax impression can be repeated with proper patient position.
Prevention: Reduction of the denture border with a carbide bur. It occur more commonly in the hamular notch region. 2. Pterygo maxillary seal area. 3. This commonly occur due to excess scraping of the master cast. OVER POSTDAMMING 1. . followed by lightly pumishing the area while maintaining its convexity.4. then upon insertion of the denture the posterior border will be displaced inferiorly.
it is concluded that the existence of posterior palatal seal plays a major role in the development of stability. retention & prevention. compressibility & comfort of the complete denture.SUMMARY So. .
Prosthodontic Treatment for edentulous patients. ´ Zarb Bolender.twelfth edition. ´ Deepak Nallaswamy.s Prosthodontic treatment for edentulous patient. ´ .REFERENCES Sheldon Winkler.Text book of prosthodontics.first edition. ´ Boucher.ninth edition.second edition. Essentials of complete denture prosthodontcs.
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