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Lect. 2.1 CMOS Transistor Theory

Engr. Anees ul Husnain ( anees.buzdar@gmail.com ) Department of Electronics & Computer Systems Engineering, College of Engineering & Technology, IUB

Outline

Introduction MOS Capacitor nMOS I-V Characteristics pMOS I-V Characteristics Gate and Diffusion Capacitance

drain all have capacitance I = C ((V/(t) -> (t = (C/I) (V Capacitance and current determine speed .Introduction So far. source. we have treated transistors as ideal switches An ON transistor passes a finite amount of current Depends on terminal voltages Derive current-voltage (I-V) relationships Transistor gate.

MOS Capacitor Gate and body form MOS capacitor Operating modes Accumulation Depletion Inversion .

source is terminal at lower voltage Hence Vds u 0 nMOS body is grounded.Terminal Voltages Mode of operation depends on Vg. Three regions of operation Cutoff Linear Saturation . Vd. First assume source is 0 too.Vgd Vg + Vgs Vs + Vgd Vds + Vd Source and drain are symmetric diffusion terminals By convention. Vs Vgs = Vg ± Vs Vgd = Vg ± Vd Vds = Vd ± Vs = Vgs .

nMOS Cutoff No channel Ids § 0 + s n+ p-type bo y b n+ + - ¡ s =0 .

from s to d + s £ + n+ p-type bo y b Ids increases with Vds Similar to linear resistor s n+ > + s n+ p-type bo y b + n+ s s ¢ £ £ I s 0< £¢ ¢ t > ¢ £¢ ¢ ¢ Channel forms Current flows from d to s s > t = s s =0 > t < s - t .nMOS Linear e.

nMOS Saturation Channel pinches off Ids independent of Vds We say current saturates Similar to current source s > t n+ p-type bo y b n+ s ¤ ¥ ¥ s I s ¥¤ + - + - < ¤ t > s - t .

I-V Characteristics In Linear region. Ids depends on How much charge is in the channel? How fast is the charge moving? .

I x = 3.9) Vgd drain Vd channel + n+ Vds -t d .Channel Charge MOS structure looks like parallel plate capacitor while operating in inversions Gate ± oxide ± channel Qchannel = CV C = Cg = IoxWL/tox = CoxWL V = Vgc ± Vt = (Vgs ± Vds/2) ± Vt lysilic n gate W ¦ C x=I x/t gat Vg Cg x t n+ x s urc Vs n+ ¦ + Vgs + L -t e d n+ (g SiO2 gate xide d insulat r.

Carrier velocity Charge is carried by eElectrons are propelled by the lateral electric field between source and drain E = Vds/L Carrier velocity v proportional to lateral E-field v = QE Q called mobility Time for carrier to cross channel: t=L/v .

nMOS Linear I-V Now we know How much charge Qchannel is in the channel How much time t each carrier takes to cross Qchannel I ds ! t W ! QCox L ¨V V Vds © gs t 2 ª ¨V V Vds ¸V ! F © gs t 2 ¹ ds ª º ¸V ¹ ds º F = W ox .

nMOS Saturation I-V If Vgd < Vt. channel pinches off near drain When Vds > Vdsat = Vgs ± Vt Now drain voltage no longer increases current I ds ¨ F© ª F .

2 dsat gs t ¸ 2¹ º dsat gs t 2 .

nMOS I-V Summary Shockley 1st order transistor models ® ± 0 ± ±¨ Vds I ds ! ¯ F ©Vgs Vt 2 ª ± 2 ± F .

Vgs Vt ± ° 2 Vgs Vt cutoff linear saturation ¸V V V ¹ ds ds dsat º Vds " Vdsat .

6 Qm process for your project From AMI Semiconductor 2.Example We will be using a 0. Vds Vgs = 0.5 Vt = 0. 3.7 V Vgs = 5 Plot Ids vs. 1. 5 Use W/L = 4/2 P ¨ 3.5 tox = 100 Å 2 Q = 350 cm2/V*s 1.9 v 8. 4. 2.85 10 14 W ! .

5 0 0 1 2 Vgs = 2 Vgs = 1 3 Vds 4 5 W ¸ A/V 2 ! 120 ¹ L º .350 © F ! Q Cox 8 L ª 100 10 ¸¨W ¹© ºª L Ids (mA) Vgs = 4 1 Vgs = 3 0.

8 -5 Vgs -4 © © § ¨ In this class.4 - - -3 Vds © -0 .6 -0 . assume Qn / Qp = 2 ) -0 .6 Qm process Vgs Vgs Ids ( Vgs -0 .2 - -2 © - Vgs © - Thus pMOS must be wider to provide same current 0 -1 0 .pMOS I-V All dopings and voltages are inverted for pMOS Source is the more positive terminal Mobility Qp is determined by holes Typically 2-3x lower than that of electrons Qn 120 cm2/Vs in AMI 0.

Operation modes summary I ds ® ± 0 ± ± V ! ¯ F ¨ V gs Vt ds ¸ V ds © 2 ¹ º ± ª 2 F ± V gs Vt .

± ° 2 V gs V ds Vt Vdsat cutoff linear saturatio n V ds " Vdsat .

Capacitance Any two conductors separated by an insulator have capacitance Gate to channel capacitor is very important Creates channel charge necessary for operation .

Capacitance Source and drain have capacitance to body Across reverse-biased diodes Called diffusion capacitance because it is associated with source/drain diffusion .

Capacitance .

9 I 0) . I ox = 3.Gate Capacitance Approximate channel as connected to source Cgs = IoxWL/tox = CoxWL = CpermicronW Cpermicron is typically about 2 fF/Qm polysilicon gate W t ox n+ L p-type body n+ SiO 2 gate oxide (good ins lator.

Cdb Undesirable.Diffusion Capacitance Csb. called parasitic capacitance Capacitance depends on area and perimeter Use small diffusion nodes Comparable to Cg for contacted diff Varies with process .

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