The Muscular System

By: Dr. Nazia Qamar
Lecturer Anatomy LCMD

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Muscles:contractile tissue
Muscles are responsible for all types of body movement Three basic muscle types are found in the body
±Skeletal muscle ±Cardiac muscle ±Smooth muscle
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Characteristics of Muscles
Muscle cells are elongated (muscle cell = muscle fiber) Contraction of muscles is due to the movement of microfilaments All muscles share some terminology
± Prefix myo refers to muscle ± Prefix mys refers to muscle ± Prefix sarco refers to flesh
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Skeletal Muscle Characteristics
Most are attached by tendons to bones

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Skeletal Muscle Characteristics
Cells are multinucleate Striated ± have visible banding Voluntary ± subject to conscious control Cells are surrounded and bundled by connective tissue

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How to study skeletal muscles
How to study skeletal muscles: origo, insertion, position (scheme, tables), identification, muscle groups, innervation, function, osteofascial spaces (compartments), transverse sections of limb segments, dissection

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Connective tissue wrapping of skeletal muscle
perimysium

endomysiu epimysiu m m

Attachments of skeletal muscles ± origin, insertion,
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endomysial and perimysial sheaths,

Microscopic anatomy of skeletal muscle
muscle fibre, myofibrils, sarcomeres sarcoplasmic reticulum, T-tubules, triads mitochondria, sarcolemma, basal lamina

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Microscopic Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle
Sarcomere
± Contractile unit of a muscle fiber

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Smooth Muscle Characteristics
Has no striations SpindleSpindle-shaped cells Single nucleus Involuntary ± no conscious control Found mainly in the walls of hollow organs
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Cardiac Muscle Characteristics
Has striations Usually has a single nucleus Joined to another muscle cell at an intercalated disc Involuntary Found only in the heart
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Function of Muscles
Produce movement Maintain posture Stabilize joints Generate heat

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Fibre Types of Skeletal Muscle
‡ Type 1 fibres are slow-contracting and fatigue-resistant ‡ Type 2A fibres are fast-contracting and easily fatigue ‡ Type 2X fibres are fast-contracting and resistant to fatigue

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Fascicular architecture of muscles

pennation of muscles

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Shapes of muscle fibers

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Properties of Skeletal Muscle Activity
Irritability ± ability to receive and respond to a stimulus Contractility ± ability to shorten when an adequate stimulus is received

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Naming Skeletal Muscles
Direction of Muscle Fibers Action Location

Skeletal Muscle Origin & Insertion Size

Shape

Number Of Origins

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Direction of Muscle Fibers
Relative to the Midline RECTUS = parallel to the midline
± Rectus Abdominus

TRANSVERSE = perpendicular to midline
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Location
Structure near which muscle is found
± FRONTALIS = near FRONTAL bone ± OCCIPITALIS = near OCCIPITAL bone

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Size
Relative Size of Muscle MAXIMUS = largest
± Gluteus Maximus

MEDIUS = middle
± Gluteus Medius

MINIMUS = smallest
± Gluteus Minimus

LONGUS = longest
± Fibularis Longus

BREVIS = short
± Fibularis Brevis

TERTIUS = shortest
± Fibularis Tertius
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Number of Origins
Number of tendons of origin BICEPS = Two
± Biceps Brachii

Biceps Femoris TRICEPS = Three
± Triceps Brachii

QUADRICEPS = Four
± Quadriceps Femoris ± Transverse Abdominus

OBLIQUE = diagonal to midline
± External Oblique

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Shape
Relative Shape of the Muscle DELTOID = triangular shape TRAPEZIUS = trapezoid shape š SERRATUS = sawtoothed RHOMBOIDEUS = rhomboid shape TERES = round

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Origin & Insertion
Origin ± attachment to an immoveable bone Insertion ± attachment to a movable bone ILIO COSTALIS= attaches to the ilium & ribs (costal = ribs)
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Action
NAME FLEXOR EXTENSOR ABDUCTOR ADDUCTOR LEVATOR DEPRESSOR SUPINATOR PRONATOR ACTION
Decrease angle at a joint Increase angle at a joint Move bone away from midline Move bone toward midline Produce upward movement Produce downward movement Turn palm upward/anterior Turn palm downward/posterior
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EXAMPLE
Flexor Carpi Radialis Extensor Carpi Ulnaris Abductor Pollicis Longus Adductor Longus Levator Scapulae Depressor Labii Inferioris Supinator Pronator Teres
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Nerve supply of skeletal muscle

Innervation of skeletal muscle: motoneurons, motor units, motor end- plates, acetylcholine, The Muscular System proprioceptive neurons,
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Types of Muscles
Prime mover ± muscle with the major responsibility for a certain movement Antagonist ± muscle that opposes or reverses a prime mover Synergist ± muscle that aids a prime mover in a movement and helps prevent rotation Fixator ± stabilizes the origin of a prime mover
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Muscular Dystrophy
Congenital muscle-destroying disease muscleaffect specific muscle groups Muscle fibers degenerate & atrophy due to an absence of dystrophin, a protein dystrophin, that helps keep muscle cells intact Most common & serious²Duchenne¶s serious² M.D.
± Mostly in males (diagnosed between2-6 yrs) between2± Survival is rare beyond early 30¶s ± X-linked recessive
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Myasthenia gravis
Rare adult disease caused by antibodies to acetylcholine receptors at the neuromuscular junction which prevents the muscle contraction from occurring Drooping upper eyelids, difficulty swallowing & talking, muscle weakness & fatigue Death occurs when respiratory muscles cease to function
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Aging
Connective Tissue increases Amount of Muscle tissue decreases Muscles become stringier(sinewy) Body weight declines due to loss of muscle mass By age 80, muscle strength usually decrease by 50% without weight training exercises
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Effects of Exercise on Muscle
Aerobics result in stronger muscles due to increase blood supply Muscle fibers increase mitochondria and oxygen storage Muscle becomes more fatigue resistant Heart enlarges to pump more blood to body Does not increase skeletal muscle size
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Effects of Exercise on Muscle
Results of increased muscle use from resistance training Individual muscle cells make more contractile filaments & connective tissue increases
± Increase in muscle size ± Increase in muscle strength The Muscular System

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Five Golden Rules of Gross Muscle Activity
1. all muscles cross at least one joint 2. bulk of muscles lies proximal to the joint crossed 3. all muscles have at least 2 attachments: origin & insertion 4. muscles only pull/never push 5. during contraction the muscle insertion moves toward the origin
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THANK YOU

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