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We would like to appreciate and give good thanks to our instructor Msc Abiyu Solomon who arranged us in participation of this type of good knowledge acquiring presentation

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The huge problem we faced is shortage of time for study and arranging all things we are told to do within the given duration. Any error in this presentation is the cause of hurrying to do the presentation If little more time is given for as we clearly and gently present this topic in good manner

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This presentation deals about the design criterion of chain drive and gears. In gear design we consider different gear types such as spur gear, bevel gear, helical gear and worm gear. We also try to show their designing procedure and special materials of them.

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Chain drive is diff. from rope and belt drive in chain drive there is no slip. The chains are made up of number of rigid links which are hinged together by pin joints in order to provide the necessary flexibility for wrapping round the driving and driven wheels.

The toothed wheels are known as sprocket wheels or simply sprockets.

Advantages ` As no slip takes place during chain drive, hence perfect velocity ratio is obtained. ` Since the chains are made of metal, therefore they occupy less space in width than a belt or rope drive. ` It may be used for both long as well as short distances. ` It gives a high transmission efficiency (upto 98 percent). ` It gives less load on the shafts. ` It has the ability to transmit motion to several shafts by one chain only. ` It transmits more power than belts. ` It permits high speed ratio of 8 to 10 in one step. ` It can be operated under adverse temperature and atmospheric conditions

Disadvantages ` The production cost of chains is relatively high. ` The chain drive needs accurate mounting and careful maintenance, particularly lubrication and slack adjustment. ` The chain drive has velocity fluctuations especially when unduly stretched.

**First of all, determine the velocity ratio of the chain drive
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Select the minimum number of teeth on the smaller sprocket or pinion from using standard table

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**Find the number of teeth on the larger sprocket
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Determine the design power by using the service factor, such that Design power = Rated power × Service factor Choose the type of chain, number of strands for the design power and r.p.m. of the smaller sprocket

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Note down the parameters of the chain, such as pitch, roller diameter, minimum width of roller etc USING this table

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Find pitch circle diameters and pitch line velocity of the smaller sprocket.

Determine the load (W) on the chain by using the following relation

Calculate the factor of safety by dividing the breaking load (WB) to the load on the chain ( W ).

**Fix the centre distance between the sprockets
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Centre distance between the sprockets,= 30 p Determine the length of the chain. L = K.p

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Gear is a toothed machine element Use to transmit power/motion Use for short space consideration

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**the position of axes of the shafts.
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x Parallel, x Intersecting, x Non-intersecting and non-parallel.

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**the peripheral velocity of the gears.
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x Low velocity < 3 m/s x Medium velocity 3 - 15 m / s x High velocity >15 m / s

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**the type of gearing.
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x External gearing x Internal gearing x Rack and pinion

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**the position of teeth on the gear
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x Straight x Inclined x Curved

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Pitch circle

It is an imaginary circle which by pure rolling action, would give the same motion as the actual gear.

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Addendum:-the radial distance of a tooth from the pitch circle to the top of the tooth. Dedendum:- the radial distance of a tooth from the pitch circle to the bottom of the tooth. Addendum circle. It is the circle drawn through the top of the teeth and is concentric with the pitch circle. Dedendum circle. the circle drawn through the bottom of the teeth. It is also called root circle. Circular pitch. It is the distance measured on the circumference of the pitch circle from a point of one tooth to the corresponding point on the next tooth.

pc =

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D/T

D = Diameter of the pitch circle, and T = Number of teeth on the wheel Diametral pitch. It is the ratio of number of teeth to the pitch circle diameter in millimeters.

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Module. It is the ratio of the pitch circle diameter in millimeters to the number of teeth. It is usually denoted by m. Mathematically, Module, m = D / T

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Let v1 and v2 be the velocities of the point Q

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1. Cycloidal teeth A cycloid is the curve traced by a point on the circumference of a circle which rolls without slipping on a fixed straight line

2. Involute teeth. An involute of a circle is a plane curve generated by a point on a tangent

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The cast iron is widely used for the manufacture of gears due to its good wearing properties, The phosphor bronze is widely used for worm gears in order to reduce wear of the worms The steel is used for high strength gears

In the design of a gear drive, the following data is usually given : 1. The power to be transmitted. 2. The speed of the driving gear, 3. The speed of the driven gear or the velocity ratio, and 4. The centre distance. The following requirements must be met in the design of a gear drive : (a) The gear teeth should have sufficient strength so that they will not fail under static loading or dynamic loading during normal running conditions. (b) The gear teeth should have wear characteristics so that their life is satisfactory. (c) The use of space and material should be economical. (d) The alignment of the gears and deflections of the shafts must be considered because they effect on the performance of the gears. (e) The lubrication of the gears must be satisfactory.

**w = o × Cv where o = Allowable static stress, and Cv = Velocity factor.
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The values of the velocity factor (Cv) are given as follows :

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**Dynamic load occurs b/c of
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x Inaccuracies of tooth spacing, x Irregularities in tooth profiles x Deflections of teeth under load.

WD = WT + WI WD = Total dynamic load, WT = Steady load due to transmitted torque, and WI = Increment load due to dynamic action.

The increment load (WI) depends upon the pitch line velocity

WD = Total dynamic load in newtons, WT = Steady transmitted load in newtons, v = Pitch line velocity in m/s, b = Face width of gears in mm, and C = A deformation or dynamic factor in N/mm.

K = A factor depending upon the form of the teeth. = 0.107, for 14 1/2 ° full depth involute system. = 0.111, for 20° full depth involute system. = 0.115 for 20° stub system tooth error in action (e) depends upon the pitch line velocity (v) and the class of cut of the gears.

Values of maximum allowable tooth error in action (e) verses pitch line velocity, for well cut commercial gears.

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is obtained by Lewis formula by substituting flexural endurance limit or elastic limit stress ( e) in place of permissible working stress ( w).

the values of flexural endurance limit ( e) for different materials are presented in design data books For safety, against tooth breakage, the static tooth load (WS) should be greater than the dynamic load (WD). For steady loads, WS 1.25 WD For pulsating loads, WS 1.35 WD For shock loads, WS 1.5 WD

Ww = DP.b.Q.K where Ww = Maximum or limiting load for wear in newtons, DP = Pitch circle diameter of the pinion in mm, b = Face width of the pinion in mm, Q = Ratio factor

es = Surface endurance limit in MPa or N/mm2, = Pressure angle, EP = Young's modulus for the material of The values of surface endurance limit the pinion in N/mm2, and ( es) are given in the design databooks EG = Young's modulus for the material of the gear in N/mm2. The maximum limiting wear load (Ww) must be greater than the dynamic load (WD).

K = Load-stress factor

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Bending failure Pitting:- The failure occurs when the surface contact stresses are higher than the endurance limit of the material. Scoring :-occurs when excessive heat is generated when there is an excessive surface pressure Abrasive wear Corrosive wear

First of all, the design tangential tooth load

WT = Permissible tangential tooth load in newtons, P = Power transmitted in watts, v = Pitch line velocity in m / s D = Pitch circle diameter in metres, N = Speed in r.p.m., and CS = Service factor.

WT = w.b.pc.y = w.b. m.y = ( o.Cv) b. m.y (Q w = o.Cv)

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The Lewis equation is applied only to the weaker of the two wheels The product ( w × y) is called strength factor of the gear. ` The face width (b) may be taken as 3 pc to 4 pc (or 9.5 m to 12.5 m) for cut teeth and 2 pc to 3 pc (or 6.5 m to 9.5 m) for cast teeth. Calculate the dynamic load (WD) on the tooth by using Buckingham equation WD = WT + WI

**Find the static tooth load
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WS = e.b.pc.y = e.b. m.y For safety against breakage, WS should be greater than WD.

Terms used in Helical Gears Helix angle:- It is a constant angle made by the helices with the axis of rotation. Axial pitch. It is the distance, parallel to the axis, between similar faces of adjacent teeth. Normal pitch. It is the distance between similar faces of adjacent teeth along a helix on the pitch cylinders normal to the teeth. pN = pc cos

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Overlap = pc = b tan WA = WN sin = WT tan

b = Minimum face width, and m = Module. In case of double helical or herringbone gears, the minimum face width is given by The maximum face width ranges from 20 m to 30 m. In single helical gears, the helix angle ranges from 20° to 35°, while for double helical gears, it may be made upto 45°.

**TE = T / cos3 T = Actual number of teeth on a helical gear, and = Helix angle.
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Proportions for Helical Gears

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WT = ( o × Cv) b. m.y' WT = Tangential tooth load, o = Allowable static stress, Cv = Velocity factor, b = Face width, m = Module, and y' = Tooth form factor or Lewis factor corresponding to the formative or virtual or equivalent number of teeth.

The static tooth load or endurance strength of the tooth is given by WS = e.b. m.y' The maximum or limiting wear tooth load for helical gears is given by

N = Normal pressure angle.

for transmitting power at a constant velocity ratio between two shafts whose axes intersect at a certain angle

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Mitre gears:- When equal bevel gears (having equal teeth and equal pitch angles) connect two shafts whose axes intersect at right angle Angular bevel gears :-When the bevel gears connect two shafts whose axes intersect at an angle other than a right angle Crown bevel gears:-When the bevel gears connect two shafts whose axes intersect at an angle greater than a right angle and one of the bevel gears has a pitch angle of 90º

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Internal bevel gears:-When the teeth on the bevel gear are cut on the inside of the pitch cone,

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Pitch cone:-It is a cone containing the pitch elements of the teeth Cone centre:-the point where the axes of two mating gears intersect each other. Pitch angle:-It is the angle made by the pitch line with the axis of the shaft. It is denoted by µ P¶. Cone distance:- It is the length of the pitch cone element

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Addendum angle:-It is the angle subtended by the addendum of the tooth at the cone centre

Dedendum angle:- It is the angle subtended by the dedendum of the tooth at the cone centre

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Face angle:- It is the angle subtended by the face of the tooth at the cone centre oot angle:- It is the angle subtended by the root of the tooth at the cone centre Back (or normal) cone:- It is an imaginary cone, perpendicular to the pitch cone at the end of the tooth. Back cone distance:- It is the length of the back cone Backing:- It is the distance of the pitch point (P) from the back of the boss, parallel to the pitch point of the gear

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Crown height:- It is the distance of the crown point (C) from the cone centre (O), parallel to the axis of the gear Mounting height:- It is the distance of the back of the boss from the cone centre. Pitch diameter:- It is the diameter of the largest pitch circle Outside or addendum cone diameter:- It is the maximum diameter of the teeth of the gear.

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Inside or dedendum cone diameter:-

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Addendum, a = 1 m Dedendum, d = 1.2 m Clearance = 0.2 m Working depth = 2 m Thickness of tooth = 1.5708 m where m is the module

The modified form of the Lewis equation for the tangential tooth load is given as follows

For satisfactory operation of the bevel gears the number of teeth in the pinion must not less than

The static tooth load or endurance strength of the tooth for bevel gears is given by

The maximum or limiting load for wear for bevel gears is given by

Q is based on formative or equivalent number of teeth, such that

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The magnitude of the tangential and radial components is

forces are considered to act at the mean radius (Rm).

radial force (WR) acting at the mean radius may be further resolved into two components, WRH and WR. axial force acting on the pinion shaft

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used for transmitting power at high velocity ratios between non-intersecting shafts that are generally, but not necessarily, at right angles

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Cylindrical or straight worm

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Cone or double enveloping worm

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Straight face worm gear :-it is used for light service Hobbed straight face worm gear:-its teeth are cut with a hob, after which the outer surface is turned. Concave face worm gear:-used for all heavy service and general industrial uses.

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Axial pitch It is also known as linear pitch of a worm. It is the distance measured axially(i.e. parallel to the axis of worm) from a point on one thread to the corresponding point on the adjacent thread on the worm Lead It is the angle between the tangent to the thread helix on the pitch cylinder andthe plane normal to the axis of the worm Lead angle. It is the angle between the tangent to the thread helix on the pitch cylinder and the plane normal to the axis of the worm

The lead angle ( ) may vary from 9° to 45°.

For a compact design, the lead angle may be determined by the following relation, i.e.

where NG is the speed of the worm gear and NW is the speed of the worm.

Recommended values of lead angle and pressure angle

Normal pitch. It is the distance measured along the normal to the threads between two corresponding points on two adjacent threads of the worm. Mathematically, Normal pitch, pN = pa.cos

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Helix angle It is the angle between the tangent to the thread helix on the pitch cylinder and the axis of the worm W + = 90° Velocity ratio It is the ratio of the speed of worm (NW) in r.p.m. to the speed of the worm gear(NG) in r.p.m

empirical relation for the values of

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The load stress factor is given in design data books

The heat dissipating capacity depends upon Area of the housing (A) Temperature difference between the housing surface and surrounding air (t2 ± t1), and Conductivity of the material (K). heat dissipating capacity

Notes : The maximum temperature (t2 ± t1) should not exceed 27 to 38°C The maximum temperature of the lubricant should not exceed 60°C. According to AGMA recommendations, the limiting input power of a plain worm gear unit from the standpoint of heat dissipation, for worm gear speeds up to 2000 r.p.m. may be checked from the following relation«.

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Tangential force on the worm

Axial force or thrust on the worm

Radial or separating force on the worm

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In designing a worm and worm gear, the quantities like the power transmitted, speed, velocity ratio and the centre distance between the shafts are usually given and the quantities such as lead angle, lead and number of threads on the worm are to be determined

the centre distance

The centre distance may be expressed in terms of the axial lead (l), lead angle ( ) and velocity ratio (V.R.),

The lowest point on the curve may be determined mathematically by differentiating the equation with respect to and equating to zero, i.e.