Locating a Thermal Power Plant

24 January 2011

PMI Revision 00

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Site Selection
‡ Defining types and sizes of power plant: depends on type of fuel and its delivery method, capacity anticipated in next 5-7 years, area for fuel storage, cooling towers, switchyards, space needs for store yards, workshops etc, other factors to be considered are : ‡ Land & Geology ‡ Water for Power Stations ‡ Coal for Power Station ‡ Transport ‡ Disposal of Effluents ‡ Transmission ‡ Climatic Conditions ‡ Proximity of Airfields ‡ Fisheries and Marine Life ‡ Personnel Requirement 00 24 January 2011 PMI Revision 2 ‡ Amenities

SITE SELECTION AND INVESTIGATIONS
THE BASIC REQUIREMENTS FOR A POWER STATION ARE : ‡ SUPPLY OF FUEL AT A COMPETITIVE COST ‡ LOAD CENTRE FOR TRANSMISSION OF ELECTRICITY ‡ A LABOUR FORCE OF THE SIZE AND QUALITY REQUIRED ‡ MEANS OF DISPOSAL OF POWER HOUSE EFFLUENTS OR BY-PRODUCTS SUCH AS FLY ASH & BOTTOM ASH ‡ LAND, WATER & POWER FOR CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION
24 January 2011 PMI Revision 00 3

TECHNICAL SITE REQUIREMENTS FOR COAL- BASED TPS
‡ COAL DELIVERY BY ECONOMIC MEANS. ‡ COOLING WATER FOR
A) DIRECT COOLING WATER SYSTEM-once through system B) COOLING TOWER SYSTEM re-circulation system

‡ LAND FOR A) MAIN PLANT INCLUDING BALANCE OF PLANT B) DISPOSAL OF ASH. C) COLONY FOR POWER STATION PERSONNEL. ‡ GEOLOGY ± GEOTECHNICAL STUDIES FOR GROUND WHICH IS ABLE TO SUPPORT HEAVY LOADS.

24 January 2011

PMI Revision 00

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ACCESS TO SITE A) FOR CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS (ROAD. RAIL OR SEA ACCESS) B) FOR TRANSPORT OF HEAVY LOADS ± ROAD OR SEA ACCESS. ‡ FLY ASH DISPOSAL A) FLY ASH IN DRY FORM B) FLY ASH & BOTTOM ASH IN WET FORM ‡ TRANSMISSION OF POWER ± MEANS OF POWER EVACUATION 24 January 2011 PMI Revision 00 5 .

Siting of a New Project Basic Inputs :‡ Land ‡ Water ‡ Fuel 24 January 2011 PMI Revision 00 6 .

BASIC INPUTS LAND ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ 24 January 2011 Location & Approach Requirement Site Specific Data Siting Criteria of MOEF Land Use Plan Land cost PMI Revision 00 7 .

Lead & SPM 24 January 2011 PMI Revision 00 8 . NO2.ash content in coal and emission levels allowed ‡ Number and arrangement of Coal Mills-calorific value ‡ Arrangement and size of Maintenance bay ‡ Distance to be kept between the units ‡ Exhaust ducting layout for multiple units ‡ Flexibility of Maintenance and Future Expansion ‡ Environmental Aspects:GLC limits of SO2.Land requirement For Main Plant ‡ Boiler Size.Coal characteristics ‡ Electrostatic precipitator (ESP) size. CO.

20 acres extra ‡ Pit head station more area Loop formation.Coal Handling System ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Merry-Go-Round (MGR) Wagon Tippler Type System Crusher House Marshalling yard/ Railway siding . Bottom discharge wagons. Marshalling yard requirements are less ‡ Type of coal unloading system ‡ The storage requirement 15 days in case of pit head stations ‡ Redundancies 24 January 2011 PMI Revision 00 9 .

once through cooling system is not permitted ± Space for natural draft or induced draft cooling towers ‡ If the source of water is not available during certain periods of the year.Raw Water Reservoir ‡ Source of water for the station ‡ Type of cooling system adopted ‡ Quality of raw water available ± Sea water for direct cooling . then the storage reservoir has to be kept. ‡ Reservoir capacity is kept for even upto 30 days of water consumption. depth between 4 to 8 metres.7 degree temperature rise ‡ Power plants using river water. 24 January 2011 PMI Revision 00 10 .

treatment and clarification plant Water treatment plant Circulating water system with cooling towers Effluent treatment system natural draught type of cooling Natural Draft Cooling Towers (NDCT) require large area whereas the induced draught type of cooling towers (IDCT) need relatively less . ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ 24 January 2011 PMI Revision 00 11 . ‡ Use of natural draft cooling towers recommended to reduce auxiliary consumption.Water System Pre.

Switchyard ‡ Type of arrangement of bays. ‡ Number of line bays necessary to evacuate the power from the generating station. ‡ Necessary to restrict the width of the switchyard to that of the main plant ‡ Recommended depth is 350 meters for 400 kV and 500 meters for 765 kV 24 January 2011 PMI Revision 00 12 .either a 1½ breaker system or a 2 main bus + 1 transfer bus system.

Ash Handling System ‡ Ash handling plant consists of bottom ash & fly ash collection and disposal systems. need space due to the large quantity of ash to be handled. ‡ MOE&F in their notification dated 19th July. silos etc. 24 January 2011 PMI Revision 00 13 . 1999 had specified that the fly ash utilization has to be 100% from 10th year of commissioning of the plant. ‡ Fly ash evacuation is done using dry and wet systems ‡ Bottom ash and air preheater ash is generally evacuated in wet mode. compressor rooms ash slurry pump house. ‡ Laying of dry ash pipelines/ash slurry pipe lines.

System ‡ Necessary to capture the sulphur in the flue gas when the boiler is fired with high sulphur coal ‡ High percentage of sulphur is observed in imported coal. a byproduct.G. ‡ Two types of FGD system .Limestone based & Sea Water based ‡ Space is required for FGD system equipments and for the storage of limestone. Indigenous coal has very low sulphur and FGD system is not warranted. 24 January 2011 PMI Revision 00 14 .F.D.

Miscellaneous Station Facilities ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Administrative Building Service Building Compressor house Fire station Fire water pump house Laboratories ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Hydrogen generation plant DG set room Auxiliary boiler building Fire water tanks Workshop Canteen Security office building 24 January 2011 PMI Revision 00 15 .

‡ Space for the steel storage yard will be kept as 10 acres uniformly irrespective of the station capacity 24 January 2011 PMI Revision 00 16 .Laydown. Steel Storage yard and Preassembly Yard ‡ Laydown area is necessary for keeping/storing equipments to be erected or to be repaired. ‡ Steel storage yard and preassembly yard are required for storing and assembling of plant and equipments ‡ Coal handling area can also be used for preassembly activities during the initial stages ‡ Space being kept initially for the laydown & pre-assembly will be later converted into green belt.

consumables etc. required during the operation and maintenance 24 January 2011 PMI Revision 00 17 . spares.Permanent Store and Construction Store ‡ Provided for storing of materials.

‡ All secondary plant roads shall be 5 metre wide provided with 1. 24 January 2011 PMI Revision 00 18 . ‡ Provide access to all the units of the generating station from the site boundary line and throughout the site to buildings and activity areas. of watch towers as per requirement.Roads ‡ Following Types: ‡ All main plant roads shall be 10 metre wide.5 metre wide hard shoulders on either side and shall be for access to plant auxiliary areas and buildings. ‡ Land requirement for the roads along the boundary of the power station ‡ Land for roads inside the plant area are already considered while arriving at the land requirement for the main plant and other auxiliary plant areas. ‡ Peripheral roads along the boundary wall shall have adequate nos.

Land Scaping & Green Belt ‡ Landscaping and ground cover system is meant to enhance the appearance of selected areas. and assist in reducing the noise level and fugitive dust generated by the plant. 24 January 2011 PMI Revision 00 19 . enhance soil and slope stabilization of the land of the generating station. ‡ As per the stipulations of MOE&F. green belt is to be provided all around the power station boundary by planting trees and the total green area including landscaping area will be 1/3rd of the plant area. ‡ Land scaping is generally adopted for power station premises from the main gate to the service/administrative building.

24 dyke by PMI Ash 00 20 . ash content in the coal and also on the ash utilization in the area where the plant is located. the task of 100% fly ash utilization is difficult in most of the cases. However. there is a considerable scope for reducing the land requirement for ash January 2011 maximum utilization of FlyRevisionas well as bottom ash. ‡ Since the power stations have no control over the agencies in the field of fly ash utilization.Maximum Land Requirement for Ash Dyke ‡ Land requirement for ash disposal depends on the capacity of the power station. ‡ MOE&F had specified that the fly ash utilization has to be 100% from 10th year of commissioning of the plant.

for 660/800 MW units ‡ Calorific value of coal .90% ‡ Ash content in coal . ‡ Fly ash will be discharged starting with 10% utilization in the first year and 100 % utilization during the 10th year.2250 kCal/kWh.3600 kCal/kg for Indian coal and 6000 kCal /kg for imported coal 24 January 2011 PMI Revision 00 21 .1 T/m3 ‡ Unit Heat Rate .Criteria for land requirement for the ash dyke ‡ PLF .40% for units upto 660 MW/ 34% for 800 MW units based on Indian coal and 10% ash in imported coal ‡ Height of ash dyke -18 metre (In stages) for pit head/load centre projects and 15metre for coastal projects ‡ Ash dyke shall be sufficient for 25 years of plant operation ‡ Bottom ash will be fully discharged into the dyke for 25 years of plant operation. ‡ Density of ash in dyke .

24 January 2011 PMI Revision 00 22 . recreation club etc.Township ‡ Township requirement depends on the manpower employed ‡ Depends on the capacity of the station ‡ Township for station upto 2000 MW capacity shall be kept as 100 acres and for stations beyond 2000 MW capacity 150 acres. hospital. ‡ Further optimize the land required for the township by adopting multi-storey type residential accommodation ‡ Minimizing the land required for other facilities such as school.

SUMMARY OF TOTAL LAND REQUIREMENT FOR INDIGENOUS COAL BASED STATIONS 24 January 2011 PMI Revision 00 23 .

BASIC INPUTS WATER ‡ Source ‡ Requirement ‡ Quality Parameters ‡ Drawl point 24 January 2011 PMI Revision 00 24 .

24 January 2011 PMI Revision 00 25 .

24 January 2011 PMI Revision 00 26 .

BASIC INPUTS FUEL ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ 24 January 2011 Fuel source Quality Parameters Requirement Fuel Transportation Cost PMI Revision 00 27 .

0 40.1 to 55.Grades of Non coking coal Grade Useful Heat Value (UHV) (Kcal/Kg) UHV= 8900-138(A+M) Exceeding 6200 Exceeding 5600 but not exceeding 6200 Exceeding 4940 but not exceeding 5600 Exceeding 4200 but not exceeding 4940 Exceeding 3360 but not exceeding 4200 Exceeding 2400 but not exceeding 3360 Exceeding 1300 but not exceeding 2400 Corresponding Ash% + Moisture % at (60% RH & 40O C) Not exceeding 19. 6049 Exceeding 5089 but not Exceeding 5597 Exceeding 4324 but not exceeding 5089 Exceeding 3865 but not exceeding.6 to 23.0 34.1 to 47.1 to 40.5 19. 4324 Exceeding 3113 but not exceeding 3865 28 A B C D E F G 24 January 2011 .9 to 28.8 23.0 PMI Revision 00 Gross Calorific Value GCV (Kcal/ Kg) (at 5% moisture level) Exceeding 6454 Exceeding 6049 but not exceeding 6454 Exceeding 5597 but not exceeding.7 to 34.0 47.6 28.

ECL(for 8 units vide Annex II) ECL/ Mugma(for 16 units vide Annex IV) ECL/ Rajmahal BCCL CCL NCL SECL MCL 24 January 2011 A 1490 1710 1440 1470 1350 1190 1160 B 1340 1520 1310 1330 1220 1110 1030 C 1120 1300 1090 1110 1000 950 860 D 900 1080 900 910 840 800 720 E 680 860 890 720 720 670 660 560 F 530 640 760 570 570 530 520 440 G 370 420 610 410 410 390 390 320 29 PMI Revision 00 .Coal Price Basic Price of Run of Mine Non-Long-Flame Non-Coking Coal (In Rupees/ Tonne) Field/ Co.

) Fuel Commitment (SLC) Fuel Transportation Clearance (Min.) Water Commitment (State Govt.Statutory Clearances/ Commitments ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Site Clearance from MOEF (pithead) Land Commitment (State Govt. of Railways) ‡ Defence Clearance (Min. of Defence) 24 January 2011 PMI Revision 00 30 .

Statutory Clearances/ Commitments Applicable For A Typical New Project ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Associated Transmission System (ATS) Clearance NOC from Airports Authority of India Minutes of Public Hearing from SPCB Concurrence of Central Water Commission/ MOWR on Water Availability ‡ Environmental Clearance from Ministry of Env. and Forests 24 January 2011 PMI Revision 00 31 .

FEASIBILITY REPORTCONTENTS ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Executive Summary Introduction Demand Analysis and Justification Feasibility Studies Layout Systems Civil Works Mechanical Systems Electrical Systems Control & Instrumentation Systems PMI Revision 00 32 24 January 2011 .

SCOPE FOR FEASIBILITY STUDY It provides a base to justify the investments for a project ( power) considering different options. ‡Technology ‡Economic ‡Commercial 24 January 2011 PMI Revision 00 33 .

INPUTS  Defined Capacity  Selected location  Type of Plant  Fuel availability 24 January 2011 PMI Revision 00 34 .

OUTPUTS ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ An optimised solution for Site Arrangement Configuration Selection of Engg. Equipment systems Manpower requirement Profit /loss Operating pattern PMI Revision 00 35 24 January 2011 .

FEASIBILITY REPORTCONTENTS ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Environmental Aspects Technical Data & Bill of Quantity Cost Estimate & Financial Analysis Project Implementation Manpower training & Placement Operation & Maintenance Philosophy Marketing Philosophy List of Annexure List of Exhibits PMI Revision 00 36 24 January 2011 .

STAGES OF PLANNING CONSTRUCTION STAGE INVESTMENT DECISION STATUTORY CLEARANCES EVALUATION & APPRAISAL ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNO ECONOMIC COST ESTIMATE FEASIBILITY REPORT/ OTHER INPUTS DETAILED PROJ REPORT CIVIL. ELECT & C&I INPUTS BASIC ENGG SITE SPECIFIC STUDIES/INVESTIGATIONS PROJECT SITE SELECTION/PRE-FEASIBILITY STUDIES FEASIBLITY 24 January 2011 PMI Revision 00 37 . MECH.

irrespective of generation capacity of the plant. 1986. may prescribe a limit of 150 mg/Nm 3. the State Pollution Control Boards and other implementing agencies ‡under the Environment (Protection) Act. and H is Stack height in metres. Stack Height (Metres) 275 220 H= 14 Q0. such as protected area. PMI Revision 00 38 Thermal Power Plants : Stack Height/Limits Generation Capacity 500 MW and above 200 MW/210 MW and above to less than 500 MW Less than 200 MW/210 MW 24 January 2011 .Thermal Power Plant : Emission Standards Generation Capacity Generation capacity 210 MW or more Generation capacity less than 210 MW Pollutant Particulate matter Particulate matter Emission limit 150 mg/Nm3 300 mg/Nm3 ‡Depending upon the requirement of local situation.3 where Q is emission rate of SO2 in kg/hr.

TEMPERATURE LIMIT FOR DISCHARGE OF CONDENSER COOLING WATER FROM THERMAL POWER PLANT A. 1998 24 January 2011 PMI Revision 00 39 . 22. dated Dec. which will be using water from rivers/lakes/reservoirs. New projects in coastal areas using sea water. 1999. shall install cooling towers irrespective of location and capacity. Source : EPA Notification [GSR 7. New thermal power plants commissioned after June 1. B. New thermal power plants. Thermal power plants which will use sea water for cooling purposes. the condition below will apply. The thermal power plants using sea water should adopt suitable system to reduce water temperature at the final discharge point so that the resultant rise in the temperature of receiving water does not exceed 7°C over and above the ambient temperature of the receiving water bodies.

In case of discharge of cooling water into sea. No cooling water discharge shall be permitted in estuaries or near ecologically sensitive areas such as mangroves. coral reefs/spaning and breeding grounds of acquatic flora and fauna. Source : EPA Notification [GSR 7. The point of discharge may be selected inconsultation with concerned State Authorities/NIO. 22.TEMPERATURE LIMIT FOR DISCHARGE OF CONDENSER COOLING WATER FROM THERMAL POWER PLANT C. Guidelines for discharge point: The discharge point shall preferably by located at the bottom of the water body at mid stream for proper dispersion of thermal discharge. dated Dec. Rise in temperature of condensor cooling water from inlet to the outlet of condenser shall not be more than 10°C. proper marine outfall shall be designed to achieve the prescribed standards. D. 1998 24 January 2011 PMI Revision 00 40 . Existing thermal power plants.

THANK YOU 24 January 2011 PMI Revision 00 41 .

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