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Introduction Statistics Symptoms Causes Diagnosis prevention
Introduction to Diabetes
Diabetes is a very big topic
Diabetes is a medical disorder, characterized by varying or persistent hyperglycemia (high blood sugar levels), especially after eating. Diabetes is a chronic condition that needs close attention. It is a condition in which the body either does not produce or properly use insulin.
Dia means through or entirely. was confronted with a patient exhibiting excessive urination. 4 . the immortal Alexandrian physician of the second century. baino meaning to go. He chose a Greek word signifying siphon.Word Origin Aretaeus the Cappadocian.
in Latin means honey (and also refers to the bee) The true Latin word for sweet is dulcis. Mellis. 5 . is a word of Latin origin. The word mellitus however.
Statistics According to information recently released by the International Diabetes Federation. 6 . people diagnosed with diabetes have increased from 30 million to 246 million over the last two decades. a staggering figure.
While diabetes in the United States has always been well documented, the federation·s data reveals that the 7 out of 10 countries with the highest number of diabetics are in the developing world, with China and India leading the way.
In some countries in the Caribbean and the Middle East, the percentage of the diabetic population ranges from 12 to 20%.
In 2007, the five countries with the largest numbers of people with diabetes are 1. India (40.9 million) 2. China (39.8 million) 3. United States (19.2 million) 4. Russia (9.6 million) 5. Germany (7.4 million).
10 . 2. Nauru (30. 3.4%).2%) Kuwait (14.In 2007. the five countries with the highest diabetes prevalence in the adult population are 1.7%) Bahrain(15. 5.5%) Saudi Arabia (16.7%) United Arab Emirates (19. 4.
Each year 3. Each year a further 7 million people develop diabetes. Diabetes is the fourth leading cause of global death by disease. 11 . Every 10 seconds a person dies from diabetesrelated causes.8 million deaths are attributable to diabetes. Every 10 seconds two people develop diabetes. the largest increases in diabetes prevalence will take place in developing countries. An even greater number die from cardiovascular disease made worse by diabetesrelated lipid disorders and hypertension. By 2025.
12 . Diabetes is the largest cause of kidney failure in developed countries and is responsible for huge dialysis costs. In some countries this figure may reach 80%. Up to 80% of type 2 diabetes is preventable by adopting a healthy diet and increasing physical activity. Type 2 diabetes has become the most frequent condition in people with kidney failure in countries of the Western world. The reported incidence varies between 30% and 40% in countries such as Germany and the USA. At least 50% of all people with diabetes are unaware of their condition.
On average. Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of vision loss in adults of working age (20 to 65 years) in industrialized countries. 13 .5 million people worldwide are affected by diabetic retinopathy. 10% to 20% of people with diabetes die of renal failure. mostly due to cardiovascular disease. It is estimated that more than 2. people with type 2 diabetes will die 5-10 years before people without diabetes.
accounting for some 50% of all diabetes fatalities. People with type 2 diabetes are over twice as likely to have a heart attack or stroke as people who do not have diabetes. Indeed. people with type 2 diabetes are as likely to suffer a heart attack as people without diabetes who have already had a heart attack. 14 . and much disability. Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of death in diabetes.
History In the writings of Aretaios (Aretaeus) of Cappadocia.. 15 . References to this are also found in Indian. there is a reference to Diabetes.D. a Greek physician who lived during the period 120-200 A. Egyptian medicine.
written probably in the first half of the 16th Century B. The Papyrus of Ebers. in Egypt. 16 . mentions the passing of excessive urine amongst the other ailments.C.
17 . ancient Hindu physicians had referred this disorder as ´Madhu Mehaµ. Surprisingly there is no reference of Diabetes in Chinese. Persian and Greco-Arabic (Unani) medicine. In Charaka Samhita.
till after the ´Renaissanceµ. did not evoke any special interest amongst medical men.D. 18 . Long period of several centuries between 3rd and early 17th Century A.
starches and other food into energy needed for daily life. It is needed to convert sugar. The stimulus for insulin secretion is a HIGH blood glucose 19 .Insulin Insulin is a hormone that is produced by pancreas. Insulin is normally secreted by the beta cells (a type of islet cells) of the pancreas.
Glucagon Glucagon is also a hormone secreted by the alpha cells of the pancreatic islets. This hormone is secreted when blood glucose goes LOW 20 .
The important roles of insulin and Glucagon: Diabetes and Hypoglycemia 21 .
The human body wants blood glucose (blood sugar) maintained in a very narrow range. 22 . Both insulin and Glucagon are secreted from the pancreas. and thus are referred to as pancreatic endocrine hormones. Insulin and Glucagon are the hormones which make this happen.
Pancreas 23 .
Islet cells of Pancreas 24 .
Major Types of Diabetes Type 1 or IDDM (Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus) Type 2 or NIDDM (Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus) Gestational Diabetes (GDM) Other Types are MODY (Maturity Onset Diabetes Mellitus in Young Adults) YD (Young Diabetics ² a kind of type 2 diabetes) Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT) (Pre-Diabetic state) 25 .
Insulin is secreted by groups of cells within the pancreas called islet cells. The pancreas is an organ that sits behind the stomach and has many functions in addition to insulin production 26 . insulin is a protein. Like many hormones.What is Insulin? Insulin is a hormone.
What if insulin is not secreted? Without insulin. 27 . Insulin is a necessary hormone. you can eat lots of food and actually be in a state of starvation since many of our cells cannot access the calories contained in the glucose very well without the action of insulin. That is why Type 1 diabetics who do not make insulin can become very ill without insulin shots.
28 . people will develop insulin resistance (Type 2 Diabetes) rather than a true deficiency of insulin. In this case. the levels of insulin in the blood are similar or even a little higher than in normal.Insulin Resistance More commonly. non-diabetic individuals.
Many cells of Type 2 diabetics respond sluggishly to the insulin they make and therefore their cells cannot absorb the sugar molecules well. This leads to blood sugar levels which run higher than normal. Occasionally Type 2 diabetics also need insulin shots but most of the time other methods of treatment will work. 29 .
Insulin was the first hormone to be identified Late in 1920. a medical doctor and his student (Banting and Best) discovered insulin by tying a string around the pancreatic duct of several dogs which won them the Noble Prize. I assume that they might have killed several dogs to invent this life saving protein compound. 30 .
scattered through the pancreas are several hundred thousand clusters of cells called islets of Langerhans. However. It helps in digestion.Pancreas The bulk of the pancreas is an exocrine secreting pancreatic fluid into the duodenum after a meal. 31 .
Islets of Langerhans The islets are endocrine clusters of cells called islets of Langerhans. 32 .
Alpha cells. which secrete glucagon. 33 . and Gamma cells. which secrete somatostatin. Beta cells. which secrets insulin and amylin. which secrete a polypeptide of unknown function.The islets are endocrine tissue containing four types of cells. Delta cells.
Excessive hunger Excessive thirst Excessive urination Loss of weight Tiredness Irritability Itching in the genitals Delayed wound healing 34 .What are the symptoms? Diabetes mellitus is an endocrine disorder characterized by many signs and symptoms.
A resulting increase in the volume of urine because of the osmotic effect of this glucose (it reduces the return of water to the blood) 35 . A failure of the kidney to reclaim glucose so that glucose spill over into urine 2.Primary among these symptoms are: 1.
DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA FOR DIABETES (Non-Pregnant) Venous plasma glucose (mg/dl) Fasting Normal IGT Diabetes 110 Two hours after 75 grams glucose 126 140 -199 200 139 36 .
never drink on an empty stomach.Alcohol If you have diabetes and take insulin shots or oral diabetes pills. you risk low blood sugar when you drink alcohol. 37 . To protect yourself.
Your close friends should know that you are on treatment and that hypoglycaemia and drunken behaviour share many common features 38 . Many of the early warning symptoms of hypoglycaemia are mimicked by alcohol.? Drinking alcohol may result in your judgement being impaired. Your friends may also mistake these hypoglycaemic symptoms for effects of alcohol and may not seek help until you lose consciousness...What are the risks of taking excess alcohol.
39 . such as vitamins and minerals. Alcohol has about 7 calories per gram. These are considered "empty" calories because alcohol contains no beneficial nutrients.
Environmental Factors of Diabetes Food habits Sedentary life style Cold weather Smoking Stress Alcoholism 40 .
you can try these tips: Satisfy your sweet tooth with fresh or dried fruit Eat a small serving of your favorite dessert. but also want to lose weight. instead of something ordinary When you are eating out.What if I take sweets? If you like sweets. split desserts with a friend or family member 41 .
Try new recipes for lower-calorie sweets Choose lower-calorie. lower-fat versions of your favorite desserts Cut back on the amounts of sugar and fat in your recipe favorites Use a low-calorie sweetener instead of sugar for your coffee or tea 42 .
Complications of Diabetes Diabetes can cause long-term complications such as Heart kidney Eye Foot Skin and nerve disease 43 .
Adults with diabetes are at high risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). at least 65 percent of those with diabetes die from heart disease or stroke. 44 . In fact.
Healthy eating 2. It is also important to manage blood pressure and cholesterol levels through 1. Use of medications (if needed) 4. if recommended by the health care team 5. Smoking cessation 45 . Aspirin therapy. Physical activity 3.Managing diabetes is more than keeping blood glucose levels under control.
also called erectile dysfunction or ED 46 .Does it affect my sexual life? Diabetes can affect many aspects of your health. including your sex life. But diabetes can affect a woman's sex life Some men with diabetes have impotence. Sex is an important part of life and relationships.
People cannot ´catchµ it from each other.Is it contagious? Diabetes is not contagious. 47 .
fainting can occur 48 . Judgement can be impaired and if blood glucose falls too low. A person can become nervous.Hypoglycemia Before I move on to the next topic I feel it is important to talk about hypoglycemia. shaky and confused. a condition in which the blood sugar drops too low suddenly.
Always keep chocolates or candy in your bag to chew during hypoglycemic conditions Take divided doses of meal Take lot of fibrous food items Drink lot of water 49 . Much of the daily care involves keeping blood glucose levels from going too low.What are the precautions to be taken to avoid hypoglycemic conditions People must take responsibility for their day-today care.
Prevention of Diabetes Is it possible to delay or even prevent type 2 diabetes from ever developing? 50 .
pre-diabetes. or are at risk for. There is a lot you can do yourself to know your risks for prediabetes and to take action to prevent diabetes if you have. Yes it is. 51 .
Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) The recently completed Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) proved that type 2 diabetes can be prevented or delayed by keeping weight in control by increasing physical activity diet changes life style changes Cessation of smoking & alcohol. 52 .
Get Moving Getting started is the hardest part about beginning any exercise program but once you·ve got into the habit of working out and feeling better about yourself then there is no turning back.Nutrition and Life Style Advices Come on««««««« «.. 53 .
4. 1. 2. The following are among the many health benefits of regular physical activity Overall improvement of body composition Better blood glucose control Increase in insulin sensitivity Improvement of blood lipid values (low LDL or bad cholesterol and high HDL or good cholesterol) 54 . 3.
5. Decrease in blood pressure 6. Gradual weight loss and or weight management in combination with dietary management 8. Decrease risk of heart disease 7. Building stronger muscles and bones 55 .
Before starting any exercise program. 56 . you should always consult physician and or diabetes health care team about any necessary precautions and or specific guidelines that need to be taken.
during (if the work out is of long duration) and after exercising. It is very important to self monitor your blood glucose levels before. There is an increased rate of hypoglycemic episodes. Thus carry fastacting carbohydrate is a must 3. Remember to stay hydrated at all times 57 .Points to keep in mind: 1. 2.
It is really important to try to be active all day long.Never Exercised before? It is never too late. you can start by just briskly walking for about 5-10 minutes a day and then gradually increase your exercise routine to about 30 minutes a day. 58 .
Take the stair instead of the elevator or escalator 2.Ways to incorporate physical activity throughout the day: 1. Be active with your family and kids. Park your car farther away in the parking lot ² you will benefit from a five minute walk 3. Ride a bike or go jogging on the Corniche. 59 . enjoy outdoor activities 4.
take a break for five minutes every hour or so and just move around 7. If you work at a desk all day long. aqua-aerobics or circuit training 6. Enjoy dancing 60 . Be active around the house 8. Try different exercise classes such as kick-boxing.5.
Maintain a healthy weight Eat regularly Include slowly absorbed starchy foods Take fruits and vegetables Cut down fat Cut down sugar Cut down sweetened beverages Include oily fish Cut down on salt Keep active 61 . 10. 9. 8.Ten important tips 1. 4. 5. 2. 3. 7. 6.
Are you at a healthy body weight? One easy tool used by physicians and other health care professionals to assess an individual·s weight in relation to their height is Body Mass Index (BMI). 62 . It is calculated by dividing one·s weight in kg by their height in metres squared. The BMI is not a direct measurement of a person·s body fat.
BMI = weight in kg/height in metres squared 63 .
Thank You 65 .
Wish you a Sweet Diabetes Free Life 66 .
By Shanthi Christian 67 .
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