Quality Gurus

Presented By Kavita Mehta (034) Cyrus Carvalho(007) Kaustubh Joshi(118) Devanshi Desai(105) Jerry Tomy(161)

Water Andrew Shewhart
‡ March 18, 1891 - March 11, 1967 ‡ American physicist, engineer and statistician ‡ sometimes known as the father of statistical quality control ‡ Born in New Canton, Illinois ‡ Attended the University of Illinois before being awarded his doctorate in physics from the University of California, Berkeley in 1917

His Work
‡ Founder of the P-D-C-A cycle ‡ Introduced the schematic control chart for process quality control at the Western Electric Company in 1924 ‡ Shewhart's work pointed out the importance of reducing variation in a manufacturing process and continual processadjustment ‡ Interests diverged towards science and statistical inference ‡ Led him to formulate the statistical idea of tolerance levels and propose his data presentation rules which are;
o Data have no meaning apart from their context. o Data contain both signal and noise. To be able to extract information, one must separate the signal from the noise within the data.

Edwards Deming ‡ October 14. professor. and consultant ‡ Best known for his work in Japan ‡ Born in Sioux City. 1900 December 20.S.D from Yale University . lecturer. Iowa ‡ Attended the University of Wyoming ‡ M.W. 1993 ‡ American statistician. from the University of Colorado ‡ Ph. author.

‡ Within Japan.S. and scholars in statistical process control (SPC) and concepts of quality ‡ Deming's message to Japan's chief executives: Improving quality will reduce expenses while increasing productivity and market share ‡ Deming declined to receive royalties. turned around the fortunes the Ford Motor Company in the early 1980 s . managers..His Work ‡ Worked in Japan since 1947 ‡ Member of the Japanese Union of Scientists and Engineers ‡ Deming trained hundreds of engineers. so JUSE's board of directors established the Deming Prize to repay him for his friendship and kindness. the Deming Prize continues to exert considerable influence on the disciplines of quality control and quality management ‡ In the U.

Edwards Deming.Shewhart & Deming ‡ In 1938. ‡ Deming developed some of Shewhart's methodological proposals around scientific inference and named his synthesis the Shewhart cycle. ‡ Deming was highly influenced by Shewhart s work on measurement error in science. Shewhart s work came to the attention of W. . ‡ The encounter began a long collaboration between Shewhart and Deming that involved work on productivity during World War II and Deming's championing of Shewhart's ideas in Japan.

Goldratt ‡ Eliyahu Moshe Goldratt(born March 31. the Thinking Processes. 1948) ‡ Physicist who became a business management guru ‡ Optimized Production Technology. Critical Chain Project Management (CCPM) and other TOC derived tools . DrumBuffer-Rope.Eliyahu M. the Theory of Constraints (TOC).

.From The Goal by Eli Goldratt What is a bottleneck? Simply a constriction in the flow that limits the output of a system.

The Goal ‡ Every system was built for a purpose ‡ Must define the system s goal ‡ Actions of and decision about subsystems must be judged on impact towards the goal From The Goal by Eli Goldratt .

Five Steps From The Goal by Eli Goldratt ‡ Identify the System s Constraints ‡ Decide how to exploit the system s constraints ‡ Subordinate everything else to the above decision ‡ Elevate the system s constraints ‡ If in the previous steps a constraint has been broken. go back to step 1 .

so you need to focus on the primary product flow first. From The Goal by Eli Goldratt . in real systems there are often hundreds of different machines/workstations/processes.Identify the System s Constraints (The resource or policy that prevents the organization from obtaining more of the goal) ‡ When identifying constraints you need to focus on the major ones first.

Decide how to exploit the system s constraints (Get the most capacity out of the constrained process) ‡ Find ways to maximize output of bottlenecks aka active constraints ‡ Find ways to offload and maximize effectiveness of this resource From The Goal by Eli Goldratt .

Subordinate everything else to the above decision (Align the whole system or organization to support the decision made above) ‡ Priorities for ± _________(Maintenance and repair) ± _________ (Setup and Material Delivery) ± _________(Lost production) From The Goal by Eli Goldratt .

Elevate the system s constraints (Make other major changes needed to break the constraint) ‡ Can you ± Increase the capacity of the bottleneck? ‡ Speed up? ‡ Add more available time? ‡ Reduce setup time and other downtime? ± Cut the constraint resource out of some processes? ± Use alternate resources? ± Improve the effectiveness ‡ Inspection prior to bottleneck? ± Can we break the constraint? From The Goal by Eli Goldratt .

go back to step 1 ‡ Once you break the critical / active constraint there will be a new one ‡ Find the new one and repeat the process From The Goal by Eli Goldratt .If in the previous steps a constraint has been broken.

May 28.Taiichi Ohno ‡ Taiichi Ohno(February 29.S. and have been extended into the service arena . 1990) ‡ He is considered to be the father of the Toyota Production System. ‡ Ohno's principles influenced areas outside of manufacturing. which became Lean Manufacturing in the U. 1912 .

‡ Two categories of flexibility ± Machine flexibility. capacity. which consists of the ability to use multiple machines to perform the same operation on a part. 17 . whether predicted or unpredicted. ± Routing flexibility.What is an FMS? ‡ A flexible manufacturing system (FMS) is a manufacturing system in which there is some amount of flexibility that allows the system to react in the case of changes. and ability to change the order of operations executed on a part. covers the system's ability to be changed to produce new product types. such as in volume. or capability. as well as the system's ability to absorb large-scale changes.

(work like a tortoise not the hare.) ‡ Principle 5: Build the culture of stopping to fix problems to get quality right the first time. Section II ± The Right processes will produce the right results ‡ Principle 2: Create continuous process flow to bring problem to the surface.14 TPS Principles Section I ± Long-term philosophy ‡ Principle 1: Base your management decisions on a long-term philosophy. ‡ Principle 4: Level out the workload (heijunka). ‡ Principle 3: Use ³pull´ system to avoid overproduction. even at the expense of short-term financial goals. 18 .

Section III ± Add value to the organization by developing your people and partners ‡ Principle 9: Grow leaders who thoroughly understand the work. live the philosophy. ‡ Principle 7: Use visual control so no problems are hidden. ‡ Principle 8: Use only reliable. 19 .14 TPS Principles ‡ Principle 6: Standardize tasks are the foundation for continuous improvement and employee empowerment. thoroughly tested technology that serves your people and processes. and teach it to others.

Section IV ± Continuously solving root problem drives organizational learning ‡ Principle 12: Go and see for yourself to thoroughly understand the situation (genchi genbutsu). ‡ Principle 13: Make decisions slowly by consensus.14 TPS Principles ‡ Principle 10: Develop exceptional people and teams who follow your company¶s philosophy. thoroughly considering all options. 20 . implement decisions rapidly. ‡ Principle 11: Respect your extended network of partners and suppliers by challenging them and helping them improve.

14 TPS Principles ‡ Principle 14: Become a learning organization through relentless reflection (hensei) and continuous improvement (kaizen). 21 .

4P model of the Toyota way .

TPS House .

Crosby ‡ Crosby initiated the Zero Defects program at the Martin Company Orlando. Crosby was credited with a 25 percent reduction in the overall rejection rate and a 30 percent reduction in scrap costs . plant ‡ As the quality control manager of the Pershing missile program.Philip B. Florida.

Philip B. He would also include four major principles: ± ± ± ± the definition of quality is conformance to requirements the system of quality is prevention the performance standard is zero defects the measurement of quality is the price of nonconformance ‡ Crosby's prescription for quality improvement was a 14-step program ‡ His belief was that an organization that established a quality program will see savings returns that more than pay off the cost of the quality program: "quality is free" . Crosby ‡ The principle of "doing it right the first time" (DIRFT).

People routinely do things right first time 2. New products and services appear when needed 5. Change is anticipated and used to advantage 3. Everyone is happy to work there .‡ The Eternally Successful Organization (1988) presented a broader approach to improvements ‡ In it Crosby identified five characteristics essential for an organization to be successful: 1. Growth is consistent and profitable 4.

V. Feigenbaum ‡ Armand Vallin Feigenbaum (born 1922) is an American quality control expert and businessman.A. later known as Total Quality Management (TQM). . He devised the concept of Total Quality Control.

it may become nobody's job the idea that quality must be actively managed and have visibility at the highest levels of management ‡ The concept of quality costs . and quality improvement efforts of the various groups in an organization so as to enable production and service at the most economical levels which allow full customer satisfaction. quality maintenance.V." ‡ The concept of a "hidden" plant the idea that so much extra work is performed in correcting mistakes that there is effectively a hidden plant within any factory ‡ Accountability for quality: Because quality is everybody's job.A. Feigenbaum ‡ His contributions to the quality body of knowledge include: ‡ "Total quality control is an effective system for integrating the quality development.

‡ He stresses that quality does not mean best but best for the customer use and selling price ‡ The word control in quality control represents a management tool with 4 steps: ± Setting quality standards ± Appraising conformance to these standards ± Acting when standards are exceeded ± Planning for improvements in the standards .

Juran s Systematic Approach to Quality Management ‡ Establish policies and goals for quality ‡ Establish plans for meeting quality goals ‡ Provide resources to evaluate progress against goals and take appropriate actions ‡ Provide motivation to stimulate people to meet the goal .

Organise to reach the goals 4. Communicate results 9. Give recognition 8. Keep score 10. Provide Training 5. Maintain momentum by making annual improvement part of the regular systems and processes of the company . Carry out projects to solve problems 6.Juran s Ten Steps to Quality Improvement 1. Build awareness of the need and opportunity for improvement 2. Report progress 7. Set goals for improvement 3.

where he introduced the concept of quality circles ‡ 1982 he developed the Ishikawa diagram which is used to determine root causes ‡ The Fish bone(cause-effect) diagram show the causes of an event .Ishikawa ‡ Started his career as an associate professor at the University of Tokyo ‡ In 1949. Ishikawa joined the Japanese Union of Scientists and Engineers (JUSE) quality control research group.

Ishikawa. temperature. used to produce the final product ± Measurements: Data generated from the process that are used to evaluate its quality ± Environment: The conditions. regulations and laws ± Machines: Any equipment. such as policies. rules. procedures. required to accomplish the job ± Materials: Raw materials. computers. etc.Fish bone diagram ‡ The categories typically include: ± People: Anyone involved with the process ± Methods: How the process is performed and the specific requirements for doing it. paper. such as location. parts. pens. and culture in which the process operates . time. tools etc.

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