Routing

Routing

Session Number Presentation_ID

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential

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C 20.0.0.1 /24 directly connected S0/0 C 10.0.0.10 /24 directly connected E0/0

C 20.0.0.2 /24 directly connected S0/0 C 30.0.0.10 /24 directly connected E0/0

R1
10.0.0.10 /24

S0/0 -20.0.0.1 /24 S0/0 -20.0.0.2 /24

R2
30.0.0.10 /24
30.0.0.1 /24

10.0.0.1 /24 dfg. 10.0.0.10

dfg. 30.0.0.10

Session Number Presentation_ID

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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C 20.0.0.1 /24 directly connected S0/0 C 10.0.0.10 /24 directly connected E0/0 S 30.0.0.0 /24 [ 1/0 ] via 20.0.0.2

C 20.0.0.2 /24 directly connected S0/0 C 30.0.0.10 /24 directly connected E0/0 S 10.0.0.0 /24 [ 1/0 ] via 20.0.0.1

R1
10.0.0.10 /24

S0/0 -20.0.0.1 /24 S0/0 -20.0.0.2 /24

R2
30.0.0.10 /24
30.0.0.1 /24

10.0.0.1 /24 dfg. 10.0.0.10

dfg. 30.0.0.10

IP route 30.0.0.0 255.255.255.0 20.0.0.2
N/W
Session Number Presentation_ID

IP route 10.0.0.0 255.255.255.0 20.0.0.1
N/W N.H.
Cisco Confidential
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N.H.
© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

10 /24 directly connected E0/0 S 10.0 20.1 /24 dfg.0.0.0.0.0 10.0 /24 [120/1] via 20.0.0.1 R1 10.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.1 /24 dfg.255.0. 10.2 /24 R2 30.0.0.0.0.0.10 /24 directly connected E0/0 S 30.0.0 /24 [ 1/0 ] via 20.0 Router Rip Net 20.2 /24 directly connected S0/0 C 30.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0 255.0.0. 30.255.10 /24 S0/0 -20.1 /24 S0/0 -20.0.10 IP route 30.C 20.0.1 R 10.0.0.0. All rights reserved. Inc.1 /24 directly connected S0/0 C 10.0.0.10 /24 Router Rip Net 20.0.2 C 20.0.0.0.0.0.0.10 30.0.0 Net 30.0. Cisco Confidential 4 .0 /24 [1/0 ] via 20.0 Net 10.0.2 Session Number Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems.0.0.

0.0.0.1 / 0.1 /24 directly connected S0/0 C 10.2 Session Number Presentation_ID 30.0.0.0.0.1 O 10.0. 0.0.10 IP route 30.0.0 /24 [ 110/245 ] via 40. All rights reserved.0 20.0.2 /24 /24 .0.10 /24 directly connected E0/0 S 30.0 /24 [ 110/24567 ] via 20.0.10 /24 .255.255.0.0.0.0.0.0.10 30.1 R 10.0.0 /24 [ 1/0 ] via 20.0.0.0.0.0.0. 10.0.0.10 /24 directly connected E0/0 R 10.0.0. Inc.0 /24 [ 120/2 ] via 40.0.1 /24 dfg.2 C 20.0. 24 .0.0 /24 [ 120/1 ] via 20. Cisco Confidential 5 .1 © 2006 Cisco Systems.1 50 .0.0.10 /24 S0/0 -20.0.1 /24 dfg.2 /24 directly connected S0/0 C 30.2 R2 O 10.0.0 40 .2 .2 R3 .0.1 /24 S0/0 -20.0.0.0.0.0.1 10.0.0.0.0.0.1 R1 10.0 255.0. 30.C 20.

1 /24 directly connected S0/0 C 10.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0. Inc.0.10 /24 directly connected E0/0 C 40.0.0.2 R2 IP route 10.2 /24 directly connected S0/0 C 30.0 /24 directly connected bri0 S 10.C 20.255.0.0.0 20.0.0 /24 [ 1/0 ] via 20.10 /24 S0/0 -20.2 /24 .0.0.0.0.0.0 /24 30.0.2 ISDN R3 40.10 /24 directly connected E0/0 C 40. Cisco Confidential 6 .0.0.10 Session Number Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems.10 /24 .0.1 /24 S0/0 -20.0.1 R1 10.10 /24 directly connected bri0 S 30.0.0.2 C 20.0 /24 [ 1/0 ] via 20. All rights reserved.0.0.0.0.0.0.1 .0. 10.0.255.0.0. 30.0.10 30.0.0 255.1 /24 dfg.0.1 /24 dfg.1 10.0.

0.0.1 /24 directly connected S0/0 C 10.255.255.1 S 10.0 255.0.2 .1 .1 /24 S0/0 -20.0.0 20.0.0.0.0 /24 [ 1/0 ] via 40.0.0.0.0.0. Inc.1 /24 dfg.0.2 /24 directly connected S0/0 C 30.0. All rights reserved.0.0.0.0.0.10 30.0.0.0.0.0.0.2 S 30.0.0.0.1 /24 dfg.0.0.1 30.0 /24 [ 1/0 ] via 20.0.0 /24 [ 1/0 ] via 20.0.0.0 /24 [ 1/0 ] via 40.0 /24 IP route 10.10 /24 directly connected E0/0 C 40.0.0.10 /24 directly connected E0/0 C 40.0.0 255.0.0.0 40.10 /24 R1 10.C 20.0.0.0.255.0 /24 directly connected bri0 S 10.0.0.10 /24 directly connected bri0 S 30.0.0.0.10 Session Number Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems.0.255. 30.2 C 20.0. Cisco Confidential 7 .10 /24 S0/0 -20.2 R2 ISDN R3 40.0.0.1 10.0.2 /24 .0. 10.0.0.1 IP route 10.

2 C 20.0.0.0.0.10 30.0.1 /24 directly connected S0/0 C 10.0.0.0.0.0 /24 directly connected bri0 S 10.0.0.0.0.0.1 /24 dfg.255.0.10 Session Number Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems.0.0 /24 [ 1/0 ] via 40.0 20.0.1 30.10 /24 S0/0 -20.1 /24 dfg.0.2 .1 /24 S0/0 -20.255.1 IP route 10.0.0.0.255. Cisco Confidential 8 .0.0 /24 [ 1/0 ] via 20.2 S 30.0.0 /24 directly conn 20.0 255.0.0. 10.0. Inc.0.0.1 .0 S0/0 ISDN R3 40.0.0.0 255.0.0.0.0.255.0.0. All rights reserved.0.0.0.0.0.2 R2 Best Practice IP route 10.1 S 10.0. 30.C 20.0.10 /24 directly connected bri0 S 30.10 /24 R1 10.2 /24 .0 /24 [ 1/0 ] via 40.0.0 /24 10.0.0.0.0.0.2 /24 directly connected S0/0 C 30.0.0.10 /24 directly connected E0/0 C 40.10 /24 directly connected E0/0 C 40.0.

0.0.0.2 ISDN R3 30.0.1 /24 directly connected S0/0 C 10.10 /24 directly connected E0/0 C 40.0.0.10 Session Number Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems. Cisco Confidential 9 .0 /24 [ 1/0 ] via 20.0.1 IP route 10.0 /24 [ 1/0 ] via 40.0.0 40.0.10 /24 directly connected bri0 S 30. Inc.0.0 /24 directly connected bri0 S 10.0.0.0.10 /24 S0/0 -20.0.255.0.0.0 /24 [200/0 ] via 40.0.0.2 /24 directly connected S0/0 C 30.0.0.0. 30.0.10 30.0 255.0.0.0.0.0.10 /24 .1 /24 dfg.0.0.0.2 R2 40.1 200 10.255.0.1 /24 dfg.10 /24 directly connected E0/0 C 40.0.0.255.0.0.0.C 20.0.0.0.1 S 10.1 /24 S0/0 -20.2 C 20.1 .0.0 20.2 S 30.0 /24 IP route 10.0. All rights reserved.0.0.0.255.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.1 R1 10.0 /24 [ 1/0 ] via 20.0.2 /24 .0. 10.0.0 255.

0.0.10 /24 .0.0.1 /24 dfg.0.0.0.0. Cisco Confidential 10 .0.0.0.255.0.255. Inc.0.0. 10.0.0.2 /24 directly connected S0/0 C 30.0.0.0.0.0 255.10 /24 directly connected E0/0 C 40. All rights reserved.1 200 10.0.0 20.C 20.1 .0.10 30.10 IP route 10.0.0.0.0.0 /24 [ 1/0 ] via 40.0 /24 [ 1/0 ] via 20.1 Permenant Session Number Presentation_ID 30.0.0.0.1 R1 10.0.0.10 /24 S0/0 -20.0.1 /24 directly connected S0/0 C 10.0 /24 directly connected bri0 S 10.0.0.0 /24 [200/0 ] via 40.0.0.0.2 /24 .0 /24 [ 1/0 ] via 20.0.255.255.0 40.1 /24 S0/0 -20.0.0.0.0.2 R2 © 2006 Cisco Systems.2 C 20.0. 30.10 /24 directly connected E0/0 C 40.0.0 255.0.0.2 S 30.0.0 /24 IP route 10.0.0.2 ISDN R3 40.0.0.0.1 S 10.0.10 /24 directly connected bri0 S 30.1 /24 dfg.0.

0 /24 R1 Session Number Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems.0 /24 R1 50.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0 /24 R1 R1 60.0.0 /24 10.0 /24 R1 30.0 /24 .0 /24 20. Cisco Confidential 11 .R1 40. Inc.0.0.1 R2 R1 70. All rights reserved.0.0.0.

0 /24 R1 30.1 10.0 60.1 R1 40.0 /24 10.0.0.0.0.0 /24 30.0.0.0 R1 50.0.0.0.0. Cisco Confidential 12 .0.0.0 10.0.20.0.0 /24 20.0.0.0. All rights reserved. Inc.0 R1 R1 60.0.0 40.0.1 R2 R1 70.0.0.0.0.0.0.1 10.0.0 /24 .1 10.0.0 /24 50.1 10.0.0.0.0 /24 R1 Session Number Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems.1 10.0.0 70.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.

0.0 10.0.0.0.0.0.0 /24 R1 30.0.0.0.0.1 10.0 0.0.0.0.0.1 10.1 R1 40.1 10.0.0.0.1 R1 70.0 10.0.0 /24 .0.0 /24 R1 Session Number Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems.0.0.1 R2 STUB NETWORK IP route 0.0 /24 50.1 10.0.0.0 40.0.0.0.1 10.0.0.0 /24 30.0.0 60.0. Inc. All rights reserved.0.0 R1 50.0 /24 20.0.0.0.0.0.20.0 /24 10.0 R1 R1 60. Cisco Confidential 13 .0.0.0.0.0 70.0.0.0.0.

0 172. All rights reserved.0 E0 S0 Network Protocol Connected RIP IGRP Destination Network 10. 172.2.2.17.3.120. • Once the path is determined a router can route a routed protocol. Inc.0 172.2.0 Exit Interface E0 S0 S1 172.120.3.0 • Routing protocols are used between routers to determine paths and maintain routing tables. Cisco Confidential 14 .1.0 Routed Protocol: IP Routing protocol: RIP. IGRP Session Number Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems.16.17.16.What is a Routing Protocol? 10.

Autonomous Systems: Interior or Exterior Routing Protocols IGPs: RIP. Inc. All rights reserved. IGRP EGPs: BGP Autonomous System 100 Autonomous System 200 An autonomous system is a collection of networks under a common administrative domain IGPs operate within an autonomous system EGPs connect different autonomous systems Session Number Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems. Cisco Confidential 15 .

Cisco Confidential 16 .Classes of Routing Protocols Distance Vector C B A D Hybrid Routing B C D A Link State Session Number Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Inc.

IGP RIP V2 RIP V1 IGRP EIGRP OSPF ISIS EGP BGP D.V L. Inc.V D.S L.V D.S D.V Adv. D.S = Link State Session Number Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems.V D.V = Distance Vector L. Cisco Confidential 17 . All rights reserved.

Inc.0 /24 R1 10.1 R1 Session Number Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems.R1 10.0 10.0.0 /24 .0. All rights reserved.0.0.10.0 /24 10.0.30. Cisco Confidential 18 .0.0.20.0 /24 R1 R1 10.

All rights reserved. Inc. Cisco Confidential 19 .Distance Vector Routing Protocols B C Distance—How far Vector—In which direction D A D Routing Table C Routing Table B Routing Table A Routing Table • Pass periodic copies of routing table to neighbor routers and accumulate distance vectors Session Number Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems.

2.0.0.1.0 S1 0 0 Routing Table 10.0.0.0.4.0 10.0 A S0 S0 10.0.Distance Vector—Sources of Information and Discovering Routes 10.0 B S1 S0 10.0 E0 S0 0 0 Routing Table 10. Cisco Confidential 20 .0 S0 E0 0 0 • Routers discover the best path to destinations from each neighbor Session Number Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems. Inc.0 E0 10.0.2.0 C E0 Routing Table 10. All rights reserved.3.3.0 10.0 S0 10.2.4.0.3.0.0.1.

0. Inc.1.4.0 B S1 S0 10.1.0 10.1.0.0.4.0 10.0 A S0 S0 10.0.0 E0 10.2.0 S0 S1 S1 S0 0 0 1 1 Routing Table 10.2.0.0.0. All rights reserved.0 10.0 10.0.3.0.3.0.0.0.0 C E0 Routing Table 10.0 10.Distance Vector—Sources of Information and Discovering Routes 10.0 10.0 S0 E0 S0 0 0 1 • Routers discover the best path to destinations from each neighbor Session Number Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems.0.3.0 E0 S0 S0 0 0 1 Routing Table 10.3.0 10.2.2.4. Cisco Confidential 21 .0.

0 E0 S0 S0 S0 0 0 1 2 Routing Table 10.0 10.3.0 10.2.1.0 C E0 Routing Table 10.0.0.0.0 10.0.1.0.3.0.0 10.0 10.4.0.2.0 A S0 S0 10.1.3.4.0 10.0 10.0.4.0.2. Cisco Confidential 22 .3.0.1.0 S0 S1 S1 S0 0 0 1 1 Routing Table 10.0.0 10. Inc.Distance Vector—Sources of Information and Discovering Routes 10.0.0.0. All rights reserved.0.0 B S1 S0 10.0 S0 E0 S0 S0 0 0 1 2 • Routers discover the best path to destinations from each neighbor Session Number Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems.0 E0 10.0.2.4.0 10.

Distance Vector—Selecting Best Route with Metrics A 56 RIP Hop count IPX Ticks. All rights reserved. Inc. Cisco Confidential 23 . hop count T1 B Information used to select the best path for routing IGRP Bandwidth Delay Load T1 56 Reliability MTU Session Number Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems.

Inc. Cisco Confidential 24 .Do not delete Session Number Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.

All rights reserved. Inc.Distance Vector—Maintaining Routing Information Process to update this routing table Topology change causes routing table update A • Updates proceed step-by-step from router to router Session Number Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems. Cisco Confidential 25 .

Distance Vector—Maintaining Routing Information Process to update this routing table Router A sends out this updated routing table after the next period expires Topology change causes routing table update A • Updates proceed step-by-step from router to router Session Number Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems. Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 26 .

All rights reserved.Distance Vector—Maintaining Routing Information Process to update this routing table Router A sends out this updated routing table after the next period expires Process to update this routing table Topology change causes routing table update B A • Updates proceed step-by-step from router to router Session Number Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems. Cisco Confidential 27 . Inc.

0. Inc.0 10.0 10.0 E0 S0 S0 S0 0 0 1 2 Routing Table 10.4.3.1.0 A S0 S0 10.0.0.0.2.0 10.3.2.1. Cisco Confidential 28 .0.0 10.0.1.Maintaining Routing Information Problem— Routing Loops 10.0.4.0.0 10.2.0 10.4.0 E0 10.3.0.0 10.0. All rights reserved.0.4.0.0.0.0.0 10.2.0 10.0 S0 E0 S0 S0 0 0 1 2 • Each node maintains the distance from itself to each possible destination network Session Number Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems.0 S0 S1 S1 S0 0 0 1 1 Routing Table 10.0 C E0 Routing Table 10.0 B S1 S0 10.1.0.3.

1.0 B S1 S0 10. Inc.0 A S0 S0 10.Maintaining Routing Information Problem— Routing Loops 10.0 C E0 X Routing Table Routing Table Routing Table 1 2 1 1 1 2 • Slow convergence produces inconsistent routing Session Number Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems.0.0.4.2.0 E0 10. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 29 .0.3.0.

0.0 B S1 S0 10.3.0 C E0 X Routing Table Routing Table Routing Table 1 2 1 1 1 2 Router C concludes that the best path to network 10.4. Inc.0 is through Router B Session Number Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems.0.0.0 A S0 S0 10. All rights reserved.0.Maintaining Routing Information Problem— Routing Loops 10.0 E0 10.1.0.4.2. Cisco Confidential 30 .

0 E0 10.0 A S0 S0 10.0. Inc. All rights reserved.4.0.0 B S1 S0 10. Cisco Confidential 31 .3.0 C E0 X Routing Table Routing Table Routing Table 1 4 3 1 1 2 Router A updates its table to reflect the new but erroneous hop count Session Number Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems.1.2.Maintaining Routing Information Problem— Routing Loops 10.0.0.

0.4.0. Inc.Symptom: Counting to Infinity 10.0 A S0 S0 10.2.0.3.4.4.0 counts to infinity 1 2 Session Number Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems. and C • Hop count for network 10.0. Cisco Confidential 32 .0 E0 10. All rights reserved.0.0.0 C E0 X Routing Table Routing Table Routing Table 1 6 5 1 • Packets for network 10. B.0 bounce between routers A.1.0 B S1 S0 10.

Inc.2.0 10.0 C E0 X Routing Table 10.0 A S0 S0 10.2.2.0 S0 S1 S1 0 0 16 Routing Table 10. All rights reserved.0.0 10.0.0 S0 S0 S0 0 16 1 16 S0 Define a limit on the number of hops to prevent infinite loops 2 1 S0 10.1.0.0.2.4.4.4.1.3.0 10. Cisco Confidential 33 .0 E0 10.0.0 10.0 10.3.0.0 S0 • Session Number Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems.0.3.3.Solution: Defining a Maximum 10.0.0 10.4.0.0 10.1.0.0.1.0.0.0.0 E0 S0 S0 0 0 1 Routing Table 10.0 B S1 S0 10.0 10.0.0.

0 E0 10.0. Inc.0.0. All rights reserved.0 S0 X S0 X C E0 X Routing Table Routing Table Routing Table 1 1 1 2 2 packet • It is never useful to send information about a route back in the direction from which the original 2 came Session Number Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems. Cisco Confidential 34 .4.0 A S0 10.3.Solution: Split Horizon 10.2.0 B S1 10.0.1.

0.0 10.0.4.0.0 S0 S0 0 1 S0 Infinity • 2 routes that have gone down to infinity S0 2 2 10.0.2.4. Cisco Confidential 35 .3.0 10.0 10.0 B S1 S0 10.4.0 S0 S1 S1 0 0 1 Routing Table 10.0 C E0 X Routing Table 10.Solution: Route Poisoning 10.0.4.0 E0 S0 S0 0 0 1 Routing Table 10.0.0.1.0.0.2.0.3.3.0. All rights reserved.0.0.0 S0 Session Number Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems.0 A S0 S0 10.1.1.0.0 10.2.0 10.0.2.3.0 10.0 Routers set the distance of E1 10.0.0 10.1. Inc.0 E0 10.

4.1.Solution: Poison Reverse 10.0.0.0.0 E0 S0 S0 S0 0 0 1 2 Routing Table 10. All rights reserved.0 10.0.0 10.0 10.0 C E0 X Poison Reverse Routing Table 10.2.3.1.0.0.0 10.0.0.3.4.2.0.0.1. Cisco Confidential 36 .2.0.0 A S0 S0 10.4.3.0 S0 S0 S0 0 1 2 S0 Infinity 2 • Poison Reverse overrides split horizon Session Number Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems.0 S0 S1 S1 E1 0 0 Possibly Down Routing Table 10.0.0 10.0. Inc.0 E0 10.3.2.4.1.0 10.0 B S1 S0 10.0.0.0 10.0.0 10.0 10.

Solution: Hold-Down Timers

Update after hold-down Time

Network 10.4.0.0 is unreachable

10.1.0.0
E0

10.2.0.0 A
S0 S0

10.3.0.0 B
S1 S0

10.4.0.0 C
E0

X

Update after hold-down Time

Network 10.4.0.0 is down then back up • Router keeps an entry for the network possibly down state, allowing time for then back down
other routers to recompute for this topology change

Session Number Presentation_ID

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Solution: Triggered Updates

Network 10.4.0.0 is unreachable

Network 10.4.0.0 is unreachable

Network 10.4.0.0 is unreachable

10.1.0.0
E0

10.2.0.0 A
S0 S0

10.3.0.0 B
S1 S0

10.4.0.0 C
E0

X

• Router sends updates when a change in its routing table occurs

Session Number Presentation_ID

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential

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Blank Slide for Instructor Notes

Session Number Presentation_ID

© 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential

39

Cisco Confidential 40 .Implementing Solutions in Multiple Routes D 10.0 E B X C A Session Number Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems.0.4. Inc. All rights reserved.

Inc. Cisco Confidential 41 . All rights reserved.Implementing Solutions in Multiple Routes (cont.0 E Holddown B X C A Holddown Session Number Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems.) Holddown D 10.0.4.

) Holddown Poison Reverse D Poison Reverse 10. Cisco Confidential 42 .4. Inc.Implementing Solutions in Multiple Routes (cont.0 E Holddown Poison Reverse Poison Reverse B X C A Holddown Session Number Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.0.

Cisco Confidential 43 .4.0.0 B X C A Holddown Session Number Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems.0 E Holddown Packet for Network 10.4.4. All rights reserved.0.0.0 Packet for Network 10. Inc.Implementing Solutions in Multiple Routes (cont.) Holddown D 10.

0 E B Link up! C A Session Number Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems.4.) D 10. Inc. All rights reserved.0. Cisco Confidential 44 .Implementing Solutions in Multiple Routes (cont.

Implementing Solutions in Multiple Routes (cont.4. Cisco Confidential 45 .) D 10.0.0 E B Link up! C A Session Number Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Inc.

Link-State Routing Protocols B C D Link-State Packets Topological Database SPF Algorithm Routing Table A Shortest Path First Tree • After initial flood. Inc. pass small event-triggered link-state updates to all other routers Session Number Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems. Cisco Confidential 46 . All rights reserved.

Hybrid Routing Choose a routing path based on distance vectors Balanced Hybrid Routing Converge rapidly using change-based updates • Share attributes of both distance-vector and link-state routing Session Number Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems. Cisco Confidential 47 . All rights reserved. Inc.

Cisco Confidential 48 .30.0 RIP • Router configuration Select routing protocols Specify networks or interfaces RIP IGRP.0 Network 172.0. Inc.0.0. All rights reserved. RIP IGRP Network 160.89.IP Routing Configuration Tasks Network 172.16.0 Session Number Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems.

All rights reserved.Dynamic Routing Configuration ter(config)#router protocol [keyword] Defines an IP routing protocol r(config-router)#network network-number • Mandatory configuration command for each IP routing process • Identifies the physically connected network that routing updates are forwarded to © 2006 Cisco Systems. Inc. Session Number Presentation_ID Cisco Confidential 49 .

RIP Overview 19. Inc. Cisco Confidential 50 . All rights reserved.2 kbps T1 T1 T1 Maximum six paths (default = 4) Hop count metric selects the path Routes update every 30 seconds Session Number Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems.

RIP Configuration ter(config)#router rip Starts the RIP routing process (config-router)#network network-number • Selects participating attached networks • The network number must be a major classful network number Session Number Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 51 . Inc.

0.1.0.0 router rip network 172.1 2.1.2 10.1.0.0 2.0 router rip network 192.0.1.1.16.3.0.0 Session Number Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems.1 10.3 192.1.16.0 network 10.3.168.0.168.0.0 S2 S2 10.1 C 10.1. Cisco Confidential 52 .1.RIP Configuration Example E0 172.0. Inc.168.0 network 10.0 router rip network 10.2.2.2 B S3 S3 E0 192.0 A 172.1.2.0.2. All rights reserved.16.

1.3 192. receive any version Interface Send Recv Key-chain Ethernet0 1 1 2 Serial2 1 1 2 Routing for Networks: 10. All rights reserved.0.1.2.1.1 C 10. flushed after 240 Outgoing update filter list for all interfaces is Incoming update filter list for all interfaces is Redistributing: rip Default version control: send version 1.0 Routing Information Sources: Gateway Distance Last Update 10. Cisco Confidential 53 .1. hold down 180.2 120 00:00:10 Distance: (default is 120) Session Number Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems.1.168.1.168.2.16.2 B S3 S3 E0 192.0.2 10.1.2. next due in 0 seconds Invalid after 180 seconds.0.1 10.16. Inc.2.0 172.16.Verifying the Routing Protocol—RIP E0 172.0 S2 S2 10.1.1 RouterA#sh ip protocols Routing Protocol is "rip" Sending updates every 30 seconds.1.0 A 172.1.

1 C 10.0/24 is subnetted.OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 .1.OSPF NSSA external type 1.2 10.IS-IS level-2.2.1.0 [120/1] via 10. L1 .RIP.2. Serial2 10.1. Inc.per-user static route. E .IS-IS.1 10.0 is directly connected. Ethernet0 10.168.1.1.1.IGRP.OSPF external type 2.16. 1 subnets 172.1.1. I .16.1 RouterA#sh ip route Codes: C . L2 .1.1.1.2.2.2.ODR T .1.OSPF. Serial2 192. B .0 is directly connected.168.1. M .168.0 A 172. * .1.mobile.16.EIGRP external.OSPF external type 1. Serial2 © 2006 Cisco Systems.2.2. 2 subnets 10.connected.1.EIGRP.16. IA . E2 .0/24 [120/2] via 10. o .0.2. EX . O .1.0.3 192.candidate default U . S . C R C R Session Number Presentation_ID Cisco Confidential 54 .IS-IS level-1.traffic engineered route Gateway of last resort is not set 172.EGP i . N2 . 00:00:07.static. All rights reserved. 00:00:07. R .2 B S3 S3 E0 192.OSPF inter area N1 .Displaying the IP Routing Table E0 172.0.0 S2 S2 10.0/24 is subnetted.BGP D .

metric 1 00:06:34: network 192.0.1. Inc.255. All rights reserved.0.2 B S3 S3 E0 192.2 on Serial2 00:06:24: 10.1) 00:06:34: network 172.0 S2 S2 10.168.168.1) 00:06:34: network 10.2.2.0.1.1.2 10.255.255.0.1.255 via Serial2 (10. metric 3 00:06:34: RIP: sending v1 update to 255.0 in 1 hops 00:06:24: 192.3 192. metric 1 Session Number Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems.2.16.168.2. Cisco Confidential 55 .1.255.168.0.debug ip rip Command E0 172.2.0 A 172.1.1.1 RouterA#debug ip rip RIP protocol debugging is on RouterA# 00:06:24: RIP: received v1 update from 10.1.1.16.1 C 10.1 10.16.16.1.255 via Ethernet0 (172.0.0 in 2 hops 00:06:33: RIP: sending v1 update to 255.1.1.1.1.2.1.

Introduction to IGRP IGRP More scalable than RIP Sophisticated metric Multiple-path support Session Number Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems. Inc. Cisco Confidential 56 . All rights reserved.

2 kbps Source 19.IGRP Composite Metric 19.2 kbps Destination Bandwidth Delay Reliability Loading MTU Session Number Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems. Cisco Confidential 57 . Inc. All rights reserved.

Inc. Cisco Confidential 58 . All rights reserved.Blank Slide for Instructor Notes Session Number Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems.

All rights reserved.IGRP Unequal Multiple Paths New Route Source Initial Route Destination Maximum six paths (default = 4) Within metric variance Next-hop router closer to destination Session Number Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems. Cisco Confidential 59 . Inc.

Inc. All rights reserved.Configuring IGRP Router(config)#router igrp autonomous-system • Defines IGRP as the IP routing protocol config-router)#network network-number • Selects participating attached networks Session Number Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems. Cisco Confidential 60 .

Inc. Cisco Confidential 61 .Configuring IGRP (cont. All rights reserved.) Router(config-router)#variance multiplier • Control IGRP load balancing ter(config-router)#traffic-share alanced | min } • Control how load-balanced traffic is distributed Session Number Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems.

3 192.2 10.0 S2 S2 10.1.1.168.1.2.0.0 Session Number Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems.1.1 router igrp 100 network 172.2.168. Inc.1.2 B S3 S3 E0 192.1 C 10.IGRP Configuration Example Autonomous System = 100 E0 172.1.1 10.0 router igrp 100 network 192.0 network 10.16.2.2.1. All rights reserved.1.0 network 10.0.0.1. Cisco Confidential 62 .0.0.0.16.16.0 A 172.0 router igrp 100 network 10.0.168.

K4=0.16.3 192. hold down 280.16.0 172.1 RouterA#sh ip protocols Routing Protocol is "igrp 100" Sending updates every 90 seconds.1.2 10.2 B S3 S3 E0 192.2. next due in 21 seconds Invalid after 270 seconds.0. flushed after 630 Outgoing update filter list for all interfaces is Incoming update filter list for all interfaces is Default networks flagged in outgoing updates Default networks accepted from incoming updates IGRP metric weight K1=1.0. Cisco Confidential 63 .0 A 172.168.1 10.1 C 10.2.2.1. K3=1.0 S2 S2 10.0 Routing Information Sources: Gateway Distance Last Update 10.2 100 00:01:01 Distance: (default is 100) Session Number Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems. Inc.0.1.1. All rights reserved.1. K2=0.1.Verifying the Routing Protocol—IGRP E0 172.168.2.1.1.1. K5=0 IGRP maximum hopcount 100 IGRP maximum metric variance 1 Redistributing: igrp 100 Routing for Networks: 10.16.1.

N2 .1. I .168.IGRP.IS-IS level-2.1 10. M .1.static. All rights reserved.BGP D .2. E2 . * .16.3 192.0/24 is subnetted.1. L2 . 2 subnets 10.1.1. Serial2 10.0 A 172.16.2.0. Ethernet0 10.2.connected.RIP.1.EIGRP.0.0 [100/90956] via 10. L1 .1. Serial2 © 2006 Cisco Systems. o .1. 1 subnets 172.2.OSPF inter area N1 . O .2.OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 . Inc.EGP i .1 C 10.168.Displaying the IP Routing Table E0 172. IA . C I C I Session Number Presentation_ID Cisco Confidential 64 . S .0 is directly connected.1.per-user static route. R .0 S2 S2 10.EIGRP external.1. Serial2 192.IS-IS.1.1.IS-IS level-1. E .2.candidate default U .mobile. 00:00:23.OSPF external type 2.1.0 is directly connected.1 RouterA#sh ip route Codes: C .16. EX .traffic engineered route Gateway of last resort is not set 172.OSPF external type 1. 00:00:23.168. B .16.ODR T .2 10.2.1.OSPF.0/24 is subnetted.2.2 B S3 S3 E0 192.OSPF NSSA external type 1.0.1.0/24 [100/91056] via 10.1.

2 on Serial2 00:21:16: subnet 10.2.1) 00:21:07: network 172.1.2.255.16.0.0.0. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 65 .16.0 A 172.1.2.0 S2 S2 10.debug ip igrp transaction Command E0 172.3 192.2 B S3 S3 E0 192.1 RouterA#debug ip igrp transactions IGRP protocol debugging is on RouterA# 00:21:06: IGRP: sending update to 255.168.0.168.1. metric=88956 00:21:06: network 192.1.1.2 10.2.255 via Serial2 (10.1.2.1.1.168.255.1) 00:21:06: network 10.255. Inc.0. metric=1100 00:21:16: IGRP: received update from 10.0.1.1.1.1 10.16.168.0. metric 90956 (neighbor 88956) 00:21:16: network 192.16.1.0.1 C 10.255. metric=91056 00:21:07: IGRP: sending update to 255.1.1. metric 91056 (neighbor 89056) Session Number Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems.1.2.255 via Ethernet0 (172.

1. and 0 exterior routes. 2 system.255.1.16.1) 00:23:45: IGRP: Update contains 0 interior.3 192. 00:23:48: IGRP: Total routes in update: 2 Session Number Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems. Inc.16.0 S2 S2 10.2.1.255.2.1.1 10.1) 00:23:44: IGRP: Update contains 0 interior.1.168. 1 system. 1 system.1.255.1 C 10.2 10.1. Cisco Confidential 66 .255 via Ethernet0 (172.1.2.16. 00:23:45: IGRP: Total routes in update: 1 00:23:48: IGRP: received update from 10.168.1.1. and 0 exterior routes.0 A 172.1.1 RouterA#debug ip igrp events IGRP event debugging is on RouterA# 00:23:44: IGRP: sending update to 255.2.2 on Serial2 00:23:48: IGRP: Update contains 1 interior.255.debug ip igrp events Command E0 172.255 via Serial2 (10.2 B S3 S3 E0 192.1. 00:23:44: IGRP: Total routes in update: 2 00:23:44: IGRP: sending update to 255.1. and 0 exterior routes. All rights reserved.

00:31:16: IGRP: Total routes in update: 3 Session Number Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems.1.0.1.16. All rights reserved.1. and 0 exterior routes.Updating Routing Information Example E0 172.1 X S2 S2 10.168.168.1.0.2 10.2.16.1.16.0 A 172.3 192.255.168. Cisco Confidential 67 .0.2.1.1. changed state to down 00:31:15: IGRP: edition is now 3 00:31:15: IGRP: sending update to 255.2.0.0. 2 system.0. Inc.2.1 RouterA# debug ip igrp trans 00:31:15: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface Ethernet0.1. 00:31:16: IGRP: Total routes in update: 1 00:31:16: IGRP: broadcasting request on Serial2 00:31:16: IGRP: received update from 10. metric=4294967295 00:31:16: IGRP: Update contains 0 interior.2.2.1) 00:31:15: network 172.1.1. metric 90956 (neighbor 88956) 00:31:16: network 172.255 via Serial2 (10.2 on Serial2 00:31:16: subnet 10. metric 4294967295 (inaccessible) 00:31:16: network 192. 1 system.1.255.0 C 10. and 0 exterior routes.1. metric 91056 (neighbor 89056) 00:31:16: IGRP: Update contains 1 interior.1 10.2 B S3 S3 E0 192.1.16.

0.1.2 B S3 S3 E0 192.1.2.0 A 172.2. metric 4294967295 (inaccessible) 1d19h: IGRP: edition is now 10 1d19h: IGRP: sending update to 255. metric=89056 1d19h: IGRP: sending update to 255.2.1 X S2 S2 10. metric=88956 1d19h: network 172.1.0.16.3 192.1.2.2. metric=89056 1d19h: IGRP: received update from 10.255 via Serial2 (10. Cisco Confidential 68 .16.168.168.0.0.1. metric=4294967295 Session Number Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems.16. metric=88956 1d19h: network 172.1. Inc.1. metric=89056 1d19h: IGRP: sending update to 255.2) 1d19h: subnet 10.1.255. metric=88956 1d19h: network 172.2.255 via Serial3 (10.1 10.255.1.0.0.Updating Routing Information Example (cont. metric=88956 1d19h: network 192.2) 1d19h: subnet 10.1.0.2 10.255.0.168.1.) E0 172.1.255.16.16.2.255 via Serial3 (10. metric=4294967295 1d19h: network 192.0 C 10.2.1.0.0.0.1.255.2.1 on Serial2 1d19h: network 172.1.2.255.0.1.1.1.255.16.2) 1d19h: subnet 10.1.2) 1d19h: subnet 10. All rights reserved.0.1.2.0.2.255 via Serial2 (10.255.168.1 RouterB#debug ip igrp trans IGRP protocol debugging is on RouterB# 1d19h: IGRP: sending update to 255.

2 subnets C 10. 100-byte ICMP Echos to 172. Cisco Confidential 69 .1.1.mobile. routing via 10. 00:00:14.2.1.2. o . L2 . S .2.connected.0.traffic engineered route Gateway of last resort is not set I 172.16.BGP D .OSPF external type 1.) E0 172.1.16.0.2.static. Serial3 RouterB#ping 172. EX .1.RIP.0 A 172.IS-IS level-1.per-user static route. timeout is 2 seconds: .1. Success rate is 0 percent (0/5) RouterB# Session Number Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems.168.1 Type escape sequence to abort.0/24 [100/89056] via 10.IGRP.1.0/16 is possibly down.2. R .3 192. Serial2 10.168.0. L1 .16. Inc.OSPF inter area N1 .1.3.168.1 10. N2 . Sending 5..1. * .1 X S2 S2 10. E .OSPF.EGP i .OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 .1.EIGRP external.Updating Routing Information Example (cont.IS-IS level-2. Serial3 I 192.EIGRP.IS-IS.2 B S3 S3 E0 192. B .2.1 RouterB#sh ip route Codes: C .OSPF NSSA external type 1. All rights reserved. M . O . E2 . Serial2 C 10.0/24 is subnetted.1.1.16.2 10.candidate default U .ODR T .16.0 is directly connected.0 C 10.1. I .1..0 is directly connected.2.OSPF external type 2.1.1..2..1. IA .

00:00:18.1. I .1. o . Sending 5.1 10. Inc.2 B S3 S3 E0 192.Updating Routing Information Example (cont. E2 . round-trip min/avg/max = 32/38/48 ms Session Number Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems.1.16. * .16. E . Serial2 C 10.168. All rights reserved.1 C 10.1 on Serial2 1d20h: network 172.2.OSPF inter area N1 .0.0/24 is subnetted.2 10.static.2.1 RouterB#debug ip igrp transactions RouterB# 1d20h: IGRP: received update from 10.2. O .0 A 172.1.1.16.1.1. N2 .OSPF. Cisco Confidential 70 .0/16 is possibly down. Serial2 10.IS-IS. metric 89056 (neighbor 1100) RouterB# RouterB#sh ip route Codes: C .1.16.1.1.1.2.0. Serial3 RouterB#ping 172.OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 .0 is directly connected.3. routing via 10. 2 subnets C 10.EIGRP.168.1.1 Type escape sequence to abort. M . S .IGRP.2. Serial3 I 192.1.1.0 S2 S2 10. IA .candidate default U .IS-IS level-1.16.ODR T . timeout is 2 seconds: !!!!! Success rate is 100 percent (5/5).OSPF NSSA external type 1.0/24 [100/89056] via 10.0.16.2. R .0 is directly connected.per-user static route.1.connected.EGP i .RIP.0.BGP D .168.IS-IS level-2. L1 .3 192. L2 .) E0 172. 100-byte ICMP Echos to 172.mobile. B .1.1.0.1.EIGRP external.1.OSPF external type 1.2. EX .2.traffic engineered route Gateway of last resort is not set I 172.OSPF external type 2.

2.16.1: With ip classless Default Drop With no ip classless 10.0 via 0.0.2.ip classless Command Default route 10. Inc.0 Router(config)#ip classless Network Protocol C C RIP Destination Network Exit Interface E0 S0 S0 E0 To get to 10.7.1.0 10.0.0 172.0 S0 172.0.0 Session Number Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems.0 10.0.7. All rights reserved.1.0.1.0.16. Cisco Confidential 71 .1.0.0.1 E0 10.

140.2.13.11 10.11 10.140.13.12.3.11.2.140.1.8.140.13.6. fa0/24 core_ server 10.7.11 10.13.2 10.11.2 10.1.4.1.13.6.11 RIP e0/1 e0/2 e0 10.12.4.140.12.3 10.2 10.1.13.10.140.11 10.140.2.2.8.8.3 10.5.2 10.140.8.2.1.11.140.3 10.140.140.3 10.7.1.140.1/24 fa0/23 core_sw_a 10.12 pod A B C D E F G H I J K L ro’s s0 10.2 10.2.9.5.11 10.1.5.2/24 wg_ro_a s0 10.s2/3 10.3 10.9.13.1.140.12.13.2.5.9.10.2.1.4.2 10.11 10.10.11 10.3.3. Inc.2.13.140.2 fa0/0 core_ro 10.3 10.2 10.13.12 e0/1 e0/2 wg_sw_l 10.6.8.12.2 10.3.2 10.140.2.5.3 10. Cisco Confidential 72 .3 10.10.3.11 10.11 e0 10.1 Session Number Presentation_ID s1/0 .9.11 10.6.12.2 10.3 s0 10.3 10.3 10.7.2 10.Visual Objective wg_pc_a 10.140.11.1/24 … 10.4.2.11 10.3 wg_sw_a 10.6.2 ro’s e0 10.12.9.11 wg_pc_l 10..7..4. All rights reserved.3 © 2006 Cisco Systems.3 10.7.2/24 RIP wg_ro_l LL .3 sw 10.11 10.10.11.

2 10.2.1/24 … 10. All rights reserved.5.13.140.7.2/24 IGRP wg_ro_l LL s1/0 .3.140..2.1.140.3 sw 10.11 10.13.3 10.11 10.12.8.12.9.12.13.4.2.11.11 10.3 © 2006 Cisco Systems.4.13.4.140.2.3 10.140.13.11 10.2 10.11 10.11 10.13.140.13.3 10.13.10.7.Visual Objective wg_pc_a 10. Cisco Confidential 73 .3 10.1.9.2 10.7.5.7.140.140.3 10.1 Session Number Presentation_ID fa0/23 core_sw_a 10.2.13.2/24 wg_sw_a 10.10.3 wg_ro_a s0 10.s2/3 .11 10.10.6.140.11 10.3 s0 10.1.140.3 10.2 10.5..11 IGRP e0/2 e0 10.12.3.5.2 10.12.11.4.1.12.140.6.2.5.140.2.1.2 ro’s e0 10.2 10.7.6.8.12.2.3.4.2.10.10.6.9.11 10.2 10. Inc.11 10.9.11 10.3 10.12 e0/1 pod A B C D E F G H I J K L ro’s s0 10.3.3 10.2.11.11.2 10.3 10.2 10.8.9.11 wg_pc_l 10.11 e0 10.2 10.140.3.1.140.1/24 fa0/24 core_ server 10.12 e0/1 e0/2 wg_sw_l 10.8.1.1.11.8.6.3 10.2 fa0/0 core_ro 10.1.13.2. 10.2 10.140.3 10.140.

Inc. Configure the RIP and IGRP routing protocols on a Cisco router. Describe how distance vector routing protocols operate.Summary • After completing this chapter. Use show ip route. Configure a static route on a Cisco Router. Cisco Confidential 74 . you should be able to perform the following tasks: Determine when to use a static or dynamic route. All rights reserved. Session Number Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems. and other show and debug commands to verify proper routing operation. show ip protocols.

To scale up to very large IP networks. What is an advantage of using a static route rather than a dynamic route? What is a disadvantage? 2. what routing protocols are recommended? Session Number Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems.Review Questions 1. What is the advantage of using IGRP rather then RIP? What is a possible disadvantage? 3. Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 75 .

Inc.Session Number Presentation_ID © 2006 Cisco Systems. Cisco Confidential 76 . All rights reserved.

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