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**Sin-Min Lee
**

Department of Computer Science

**Two-Level NAND Gate Implementation
**

Example 1

Two-Level NAND Gate Implementation Example 1 .

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Verify the correctness of the design. Draw the logic diagram. . Obtain the Boolean function. Derive the truth table that defines the required relationship between inputs and outputs.Design Procedure Determine the required number of inputs and outputs and assign letter symbols to them.

and C and D. We need 4 input variables and 4 output variables. and the four output variables by w. Let us designate the 4 input binary variables by the symbols A. x. y. and z. B. The truth table relating the input and output variables is shown below: .Example Design a circuit that converts a BCD codeword to its corresponding excess-3 codeword.

.Note that the outputs for inputs 1010 through 1111 are don't care.

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Two-Lvel NOR Gate Implementation Example 2 e .

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Multiplexers A combinational circuit that selects info from one of many input lines and directs it to the output line. They are commonly abbreviated as ³MUX´. . The selection of the input line is controlled by input variables called selection inputs.

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If last variable is called Z. last variable used as data inputs. Z¶. or 1.Combinational circuit implementation using MUX We can use Multiplexers to express Boolean functions also. then each data input has to be Z. First n-1 variables of the function used as selection inputs. 0. Expressing Boolean functions as MUXs is more efficient than as decoders. .

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Karnaugh Map Method of Multiplexer Implementation Consider the function: A is taken to be the data variable and B,C to be the select variables.

**Example of MUX combo circuit
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F(X,Y,Z) = 7m(1,2,6,7)

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Sequential components: their output values are computed using both the present and past input values. Sequential circuits can contain only a finite number of states finite state machines Synchronous and Asynchronous .Sequential Logic Combinatorial components: the output values are computed only from their present input values.

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which are specified by the rising or falling edge of a clock signal Clock period is the time between successive transitions in the same direction Active high ± state changes occur at the clock¶s rising edge( on higher voltage) Active low ± state changes occur at the clock¶s falling edge( on lower voltage) .Sequential Circuits Contains Memory Elements Asynchronous sequential circuits change their state and output values when input changes Synchronous sequential circuits change their output values at fixed points of time.

4 Basic types of Flip-Flops SR. D. S (set) and R (reset) that set or reset the output Q when asserted . JK. which sets the ff when D = 1 and resets it when D = 0 T ff has1 input T (Toggle). J and K need to be asserted at the same time to change the state D ff has 1 input D (DATA). and T JK ff has 2 inputs. which forces the ff to change states when T = 1 SR ff has 2 inputs.

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Gated D-Latch Ensures S and R inputs never equal to 1 at the same time Useful in control application where setting or resetting a flag to some condition is needed Stores bits of information Constructed from a gated SR latch and a Data latch .

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NOT gates: D J Q Q¶ To Be CLK Designed K . OR.Sequential Systems Example: ± Design a D FF with a JK FF and AND.Recap .

Sequential Systems .Cont. D(t) 0 0-1 JK 1 1-0 .

D 0 Q 1 Q 1 D 0 J=D K = D¶ D CLK J Q Q¶ K .Cont.Sequential Systems .

Analysis of Sequential Systems Goal: ± Decide the timing and functional behavior from the implementation of a sequential system composed of FFs and logic gates Types: ± Functional analysis ± Timing analysis .

Characteristic Equation of FFs .

D Flip-Flop D Q+ 0 0 1 1 Characteristics : Q+ = Next State Synchronous Avoids the instability of RS flip-flop Retains its last input value To set the ff. place 1 on D input and pause the CK input To reset. place 1 on D input and pause the CK input .

T Flip-Flop T 0 1 T = 1 force the state change T = 0 state remain the same Q+ Q Q¶ .

JK ± Flip Flop J ± Set K ± Reset J = K = 0 ± output does not change J = K = 1 ± invert the outputs .

Clocked JK ± Flip Flop .

D and JK Flip-Flop D 0 1 J 0 0 1 1 K 0 1 0 1 Q+ 0 1 Q+ Q 0 1 Q¶ .

X Y 2 ± TO ±1 MUX F Z .

T CLK Q1 .

T CLK Q1 .

J K CLK Q1 .

How to use JK to implement D Flip-Flop D 0 1 Q+ 0 1 J 0 0 1 1 D K 0 1 0 1 Q+ Q 0 1 Q¶ D ff¶s property: When in = 0. the out(Q+) is 1 invert K invert K . When in = 1. the out(Q+) = 0.

the out(Q+) = no change When in = 1.How to use JK to implement T Flip-Flop J 0 0 1 1 T 0 1 K 0 1 0 1 Q+ Q 0 1 Q¶ Q+ Q Q¶ T ff¶s property: When in = 0. the out(Q+) is = complement No change State change T .

How to use D to implement JK Flip-Flop J 0 0 1 1 D 0 1 K 0 1 0 1 Q+ Q 0 1 Q¶ KQ J 0 1 00 01 11 10 0(Q) 1(Q) 0 0 1 1 0(Q¶) 1(Q¶) Q+ 0 1 (Q ) = no state change (Q¶) = state change D = JQ¶ + K¶Q .

How to use D to implement JK Flip-Flop D = JQ¶ + K¶Q J K .

How to use T to implement JK Flip-Flop J 0 0 1 1 T 0 1 K 0 1 0 1 Q+ Q 0 1 Q¶ KQ 00 J 0 1 0 1 01 0 0 11 1 1 10 0 1 Q+ Q Q¶ T = KQ + JQ¶ .

How to use T to implement JK Flip-Flop T = KQ + JQ¶ .

How to use D to implement T Flip-Flop Q+ D 0 1 Q+ 0 1 T0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 T 0 1 Q+ Q Q¶ D = TQ¶ + T¶Q .

How to use D to implement T Flip-Flop D = TQ¶ + T¶Q T .

How to use T to implement D Flip-Flop T 0 1 D 0 1 Q+ Q Q¶ Q+ 0 1 Q+ 0 D 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 T = DQ¶ + D¶Q .

How to use T to implement D Flip-Flop T = DQ¶ + D¶Q D .

SR-Flip Flop S 0 1 0 1 S 1 0 1 0 R 0 0 1 1 R 1 1 0 0 Q Q 1 0 0 Q Q 1 0 1 Q¶ Q¶ 0 1 0 Q¶ Q¶ 0 1 1 SET RESET SET RESET .

a transition to S=1. R=1 will cause oscillation . and Q¶ is set to 1 If S=1 and R=1. and Q¶ is reset to 0 IF R=0 and S=1. Q and Q¶ maintain their previous state If S=0 and R=0. Q is reset to 0.SR-Flip Flop Asynchronous If S=0 and R=1. Q is set to 1.

Instability RS flip-flops can become unstable if both R and S are set to 0 All sequential elements are fundamentally unstable under certain conditions ± Invalid transitions ± Transitions too close together ± Transitions at the wrong time .

the activating edge of the CK signal will be gone Positive edge triggered ± ff responds to a positive going edge of clock Negative edge triggered ± responds to a negative-going edge .Edge and level-triggered Flip Flop Digital circuit often form loops. flip-flops oscillations can Oscillation will not occur because by the time an output change cause an input change.

Positive-edge-triggered D Flip-Flop When CLK=0 the master latch is open and the content of D is transferred to QM When CLK=1 the master is closed and its output is transferred to the slave Master and slave latches are never enabled at the same time .

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