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It is advisable in developing large simulation models to have more than one person review the computer program } Structured walk-through of the program .2 Verification of Simulation Computer Programs 1. } Start with a ´moderately detailedµ model 2. write and debug the computer program in modules or subprograms. In developing a simulation program.
} } batch-mode trace Interactive debugger . Run the simulation program under a variety of settings of the input parameters. and check to see that the output is reasonable. One of the most powerful technique that can be used to debug a discrete-event simulation program is a ´traceµ. 4.3 Verification of Simulation Computer Programs 3.
under simplifying assumptions for which its true characteristics are known or can easily be computed. 6.4 Verification of Simulation Computer Programs 5. it may be helpful to observe an animation of the simulation output. The model should be run. With some types of simulation models. when possible. .
8. This suggests that values are being correctly generated from these distributions. Use a commercial simulation package . and compare then with the desired mean and variance.5 Verification of Simulation Computer Programs 7. Compute the sample mean and sample variance for each simulation input probability distribution.
Data may contain measurement. Collect high-quality information and data on the system. 2. Data may have inconsistent units. . 1. Data may be ´biasedµ because of self-interest e. or rounding errors d. recording. Data are not representative of what one really wants to model b. Conversations with SMEs Observations of the system The following are five potential difficulties with data: a.6 Techniques for Increasing Model Validity and Credibility 1. Data are not of the appropriate type or format c.
there may not be a clear idea of the problem to be solved. Interact with the manager on a regular basis Benefits: 1. as the study proceeds and the nature of the problem become clearer. 4. the greatest model for the wrong problem is invalid! . this information should be conveyed to the manager. 5. When a simulation study is initiated. Existing theory Relevant results from similar simulation studies Experience and intuition of the modelers. Clearly. who may reformulate the study·s objectives. Thus. 2.7 Techniques for Increasing Model Validity and Credibility 3.
3. The manager·s knowledge of the system contributes to the actual validity of the model. . 4. Maintain an assumptions document and performs a structured walk-through. The manager·s interest and involvement in the study is maintained. 3.8 Techniques for Increasing Model Validity and Credibility 2. The model is more credible since the manager understands and accepts the model·s assumptions.
Factors that could be investigated by a sensitivity analysis: a. e. . d. c.9 Techniques for Increasing Model Validity and Credibility 4. b. Validate components of the model by using quantitative techniques. The value of the parameter The choice of the distribution The entity moving through the simulated system The level of detail for a subsystem What data are the most crucial to collect.
6.10 Techniques for Increasing Model Validity and Credibility 5. Animation . Validate the output from the overall simulation model.