Prepared by: Angela Santos

Introduction What is listeriosis?
y Listeriosis is an infectious disease

caused by a group of bacteria called Listeria monocytogenes. The bacteria are found worldwide and in New

.y Brunswick. They live in the intestines of infected persons and animals and are passed in the feces.

Etiology y Listeria monocytogenes is ubiquitous in the environment. y The main route of acquisition of Listeria is through the ingestion of contaminated food products. .

y Listeria has been isolated from raw meat. vegetables. unpasteurised pâté are potential dangers. dairy products. unpasteurized milk and . some outbreaks involving post-pasteurized milk have been reported y Soft cheeses. and seafood. however.

domestic mammals. y Even though listeriosis is an uncommon disease in swine. . the disease is world wide.Epidemiology y Except for tropical countries. affecting man. several cases have been reported as encephalitis or septicemia. several avian species and a wide range of free-living forms.

with septicemia occurring in those <1 mo old and encephalitis in older pigs.Animals Affected y Listeriosis is relatively uncommon in pigs. .

Transmission y The natural reservoirs of L monocytogenes appear to be soil and mammalian GI tracts. y animals ingest or inhale the organism and further contaminate vegetation and soil. Animal-to-animal transmission occurs via the fecal-oral route . both of which contaminate vegetation.

.y Listeria may be shed for 1 mo via the vagina and milk.

Median incubation is estimated to be three weeks. . Outbreak cases have occurred 3-70 days after a single exposure to an implicated product.Incubation period y The incubation period is mostly unknown.

y Pneumonia. y Weak piglets at birth. y Head on one side. .Clinical Signs y The bacterium may cause a septicaemia and high temperature in piglets. y Middle ear infections. y Nervous signs possibly meningitis.

but stillbirths and neonatal deaths occur .y fatal course of 3-4 days after onset of signs y Listeric abortion usually occurs in the last trimester without premonitory signs y Fetuses usually die in utero.

trigeminal and facial nerve paralysis. and less commonly.y Clinical signs vary according to the function of damaged neurons but often are unilateral and include depression. . circling.

Contributing factors y Stress causing the bacteria to invade the system. y Heavy environmental exposure .

y Listeric encephalitis is essentially a localized infection of the brain stem that develops when L monocytogenes ascends the trigeminal nerve.Pathogenesis y Listeria organisms that are ingested or inhaled tend to cause septicemia. abortion. .. and latent infection.

.Diagnosis y Listeriosis is confirmed only by isolation and identification of L monocytogenes y Specimens of choice are brain from animals with CNS involvement and aborted placenta and fetus.

urine. y Serology is not used routinely for .y Occasionally. L monocytogenes has been isolated from spinal fluid. nasal discharge. and milk of clinically ill diagnosis because many healthy animals have high Listeria titers. feces.

Icterus in igs sometimes abortion. weakness . weakness last trimester of gestation Abortion . Abortion during stillbirth.Differential Diagnosis Disease Comparison Contrast Listeriosis Abortion. stillbirth Abortion in early in gestation Brucellosis Japanese B encep alitis tillbirth.

.Treatment y L monocytogenes is susceptible to penicillin (the drug of choice). erythromycin. y High doses are required because of the difficulty in achieving minimum bactericidal concentrations in the brain. and trimethoprim/sulfonamide. ceftiofur.

y Recovery depends on early. y If signs of encephalitis are severe. . death usually occurs despite treatment. aggressive antibiotic treatment.

Listeria monocytogenes .

Encephalitic form .

Sheep with listeria .

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