Ergonomics Anthropometrics

Outline
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Anthropometrics Measuring Anthropometrics Static Dimension Dynamic Dimension Anthropometrics Data Tables Design by Anthropometrics

Let·s Start with this«

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Open your mind« .

human being ‡ ³Metron´ (greek) = measure. ‡ ³Anthropos´ (greek) = person.Anthrop-what? ‡ Anthro·pom·etry deals with human body shape and size. extent ‡ ³Anthropometrics´ = measurement of people . limit.

Measuring Anthropometrics Transverse Plane Frontal Plane Sagittal Plane .

Measuring Anthropometrics ‡ Two main points in measurement: Static Dimension Dynamic Dimension .

which typically involves standing or sitting´. thickness Distance between body segment joints Weight. Volume. unclothed dimensions Standing vs. width. Density = mass/volume Circumference Contour: radius of curvature Centre of gravity Clothed vs. height. ‡ Types x x x x x x x x Size: length.Static Dimensions ‡ Definition: ³Measurements taken when the human body is in a fixed position. seated dimensions .

Static Dimensions .

Static Dimension .

Static Dimension Palm dimension Foot dimension .

Static Dimension Head Dimensions .

such as « ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Age Gender Ethnicity Occupation Percentile within Specific Population Group Historical Period (diet and living conditions) .Static Dimensions ‡ Static Dimensions are related to and vary with other factors.

Static Dimensions Anthropometry and aging AGE Lengths and Heights 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Age (years) .

Static Dimensions ‡ Equipment design for 90% of US males would fit: 90% of Germans 80% of Frenchmen 65% of Italians 45% of Japanese 25% of Thais 10% of Vietnamese .

‡ Types: Static Dimensions (adjusted for movement).Dynamic Dimension ‡ Definition: ³Measurements taken when the human body is engaged in some physical activity´. Radius of Gyration . Rotational Inertia.

g. dynamic arm reach = 120% of static arm length .g.Dynamic Dimension ‡ Principle 1 . dynamic height = 97% of static height x e.Estimating Conversion of Static Measures for Dynamic Situations x e.

Dynamic Dimension ‡ Principle 2 .g. Arm Reach = arm length + shoulder movement + partial trunk rotation and + some back bending + hand movement .Integrating The entire body operates together to determine the value of a measurement parameter x e.

Dynamic Dimension .

Anthropometrics Data Table .

95% are stronger than required in design ‡ Posture Complex.Useful Anthropometrics for Design ‡ Clearance Leg room. ‡ e. thus 95th%ile of users can reach further ‡ Strength Similar to reach. limits may be imposed in multiple directions. Too high for a short person as bad as too low for a tall person . & access to confined spaces ‡ Reach Designed for 5th%ile.g. head room.

Common uses of Anthropometric variables ‡ Standing eye height: Maximum height for visual display = height of short person¶s eye height ‡ Standing elbow height: Maximum bench height for standing work Delicate = higher High force = lower .

Common uses of Anthropometric variables ‡ Sitting elbow height: Arm rest heights & work surface heights ‡ Hip breadth: Minimum seat width .

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Designing for special purposes .Designing for the Extremes 3.Designing for the Average 2.Ergonomic Design Principles 1.Designing for Adjustment 4.

Ergonomic design steps ‡ Decide who you are designing for first of all you need to know exactly who you are designing for. The group of people you are designing for is called the user population. .

Ergonomic design steps ‡ Decide which body measurements are relevant You need to know which parts of the body are relevant to your design .

of average height but have a longer than average hand length. You may use %ile concept .Ergonomic design steps ‡ Decide whether you are designing for the 'average' or extremes or adjustment nobody is 'average' in all body dimensions. Someone might be say.

Ergonomic design steps ‡ %ile concept .

Ergonomic design steps .

Ergonomic design steps ‡ Add dimensional allowances for any clothing. safety precautions. and task performance ‡ Think about other human factors . equipment.

. i. visual & muscle fatigue Ong (1984) ‡ Performance / Usability 25% improvement in data-entry operators ‡ Health & Safety Short term: reduce muscle action. repetitive strain injuries.back.Design for Everyone ‡ Design processes that consider human variability will influence: Comfort / Musculoskeletal pain Comfort = productivity. fatigue Long term: sickness absence .e. neck pain.

Group Assignments I : ‡ Ergonomics anthropometric assessment (using 5W + 1H) ‡ Design a product/tool for special population. briefly describe what dimension can be used for your design .