AUGUSTAN AGE (1689 1740

Presented to Miss Maimona Anwar Presented by Rushda Saeed- Political and Religious situation SaeedFazila Fazal Abbas- Social and Economic situation AbbasZahra Nayab- Poetry NayabTayyaba Ahmad- Augustan Drama AhmadSabia Munawar- Prose and Novel Munawar-


After their demise." King George I of Hanover (the capital of the federal state of Lower Saxony. Germany) who inherited the throne after the death of Queen Anne Stuart. Queen Anne Stuart came to the throne. according to the Act of Settlement 1701. when in bad humor.Political condition      The Restoration period ended with the exclusion crisis. Queen Anne . . was sulkily stupid."when in good humor.. The parliament brought William and Mary to the throne instead of James II. where Parliament set up a new rule for succession to the British throne that favored Protestantism. [she] was meekly stupid and..

Thus elections were largely controlled by the powerful landowners and politicians who were more interested in bribing for winning their elections than in obtaining the vote of the citizens. hereditary and privileged. like the period of Roman History which had achieved political stability and power as well a flourishing of the arts. . George spent much of his time in Hanover. The political organization was hierarchical. and never learned English. even after gaining the throne of Britain..Continued     The Augustan Age is generally regarded as a golden age. During George's reign the powers of the monarchy diminished and Britain began a transition to the modern system of cabinet government led by a prime minister.

Another attempt was launched by the latter's son Charles Edward Stuart in 1745.continued        Whigs and Tories The Tories were the conservatives.. The first Prime Minister was Sir Robert Walpole. who supported the monarchy and the Church and had a great influence under the Stuarts. They achieved influence under the Hanoverians and they met without the king under the guide of a prime minister. James Francis Edward Stuart launched an attempt to retake the throne in 1715. The Whigs stood for industrial and commercial development. . public preference for Hanover over England . George's own behavior .started to produce some discontent. who managed to keep England out of foreign conflicts and made trade flourish. a vigorous foreign policy and religious toleration. George I was served by Robert Walpole until his death. While the Hanoverian succession was initially popular.his lack of speaking English.

Scotland. and the Kingdom of Ireland .The population pressure lead to the urban discontent. While Anne was high church. The Dissenters saw the Roman Catholic Church as the Whore of Babylon. George I came from a far more Protestant nation than England. Dissenters (those radical Protestants who would not join with the Church of England) recruited and preached to the poor of the city..Jacobitism was the political movement dedicated to the restoration of the Stuart kings to the thrones of England.Religious Aspects      London's population exploded spectacularly --. Anyone too high church was suspected of being a closet JacobiteJacobite..


Because of accepted. . Because of this literacy increase. this age is called the Age of Reason as well. nonsense and insanity were also getting more adherent than before. Newspapers were compromised as well. Empiricism: the most eminent feature to make Augustan age .Social situation The age of enlightenment           Empiricism is a theory of knowledge that asserts that knowledge arises from evidence gathered via experience. the age of enlightenment. literature began to appear from all over the kingdom. Literacy rate increased and education was not confined only to aristocracy. there was a darkness to such literacy as well. 18th century was more educated than the centuries before. everybody contributed in producing literature. However. rational methods as superior to tradition. Press made the material easily available for the common people. clear. Literature was spread quickly. Newspapers not only began but multiplied.

. The Enclosure Acts were series of United Kingdom Acts of Parliament which enclosed open fields to common people.000.50.000. by 18th it had reached 950.000 to 600. In the Restoration it grew from around 3. The Enclosure Acts destroyed lower class farming in the countryside and The black act forced them to migrate to the big cities.The socioeconomic situation of London    The population of London was increasing.

Poor and cheap labour increased for the city employers. .continued     The countryside was left empty This situation swelled the ranks of population in the city.. This population pressure led to the proper crimes in the city.

mining and technology had a profound effect on the socioeconomic and the cultural conditions. .Economic situation Industrial revolution   Industrial revolution was stepping in. industrial revolution was a period from the 18th to the 19th century. Major changes in agriculture. manufacturing.

5. 3. Innovations of industrial revolution Transfer of knowledge More focus on scientific experiments Cheap labour The countryside was left which provided free land to establish factories Social factors of Industrial revolution Factories and urbanization in the countryside Environment was polluted Child labour Capitalism Life standard was improved Aristocracy was falling down The study of Political economy was focused .Continued  1. 4. 2. 4. 2. 7.  1. 3.. 6.

and refers to the poetry of literature. many poets focused 18th century English poetry was political. Augustan poetry was written during the reign of Caesar Augustus and includes poets such as Virgil. for it fit in another respect endeavors. the British poets picked up that term as a way of referring to their own endeavors. The term comes most eighteenthoriginally from a term that George I had used for himself. poets were even more conversant with each other than were novelists. with each poet writing satire when in opposition direct counterpoint and direct expansion of one another. the eighteenth-century. it is a neoclassical type of (early-topoetry such as that found in the works of Alexander Pope. and marked by the central philosophical problem of whether the individual or society took precedence as the subject of verse. with each poet writing satire when in opposition      . During the time period.POETRY  In the classical sense. Horace. satirical. Therefore. and Ovid. Augustan poetry is a branch of Augustan literature. In the Augustan era. specifically the first half of the century. In the English sense (early-to-mid 18th century poetry). He saw himself as an Augustus. Their works were written as direct counterpoint and direct expansion of one another.

elegy. satire. There are many other plausible and coherent explanations of the causes of the rise of the subjective self. elegy. Every genre of poetry was recast. ballad. songs no longer be personal lyrics. Odes would cease to be encomium.. parodies no longer be bravura stylistic performances. elegies cease to be sincere memorials. reconsidered. and lyric poetry would all be adapted from their older uses. but whatever the prime cause. ballad. and the lyric would become a celebration of the individual rather than a lover's complaint. one seemingly agreed upon by both sides. parody. satires no longer be specific entertainments.continued    The other development. Ode. Ode. ballads cease to be narratives. was a gradual expropriation and reinvention of all the Classical forms of poetry. and used to serve new functions. song. . poets showed the strains of the development as a largely conservative set of voices argued for a social person and largely emergent voices argued for the individual person. song.

Alexander Pope      Pope began publishing when very young and continued to the end of his life. as much as the achievements. Pope's abilities were recognized early in his career. running for an unheard-of eighty unheardperformances. of both sides demonstrated the stakes of the battle. Pope and his enemies (often called "the Dunces" because of Pope's successful satirizing of them in The Dunciad of 1727 and 1738) fought over central 1738) matters of the proper subject matter for poetry and the proper pose of the poetic voice. but not for the purpose of ridicule. a second generation did not emerge to eclipse his position. or even 1740s. Wordsworth. 1720s.The case with figures such as John Dryden or William Wordsworth. The person imitated was not satirized . so contemporaries acknowledged his superiorit. 1730s. his The Beggar's Opera was an enormous success. The Scribbleran Club (GAY) In 1728. and the excesses and missteps. Furthermore. Old style poetic parody involved imitation of the style of an author for the purposes of providing amusement. his poetry is a reference point in any discussion of the 1710s.

be gentry. Augustan drama reflected questions the mercantile class had about itself and what it meant to gentry. reign of Caesar Augustus. . In drama. she-tragedy. but it most commonly refers to the plays of Great Britain in the early 18th century. Instead.AUGUSTAN DRAMA Augustan drama can refer to the dramas of Ancient Rome during the Augustus. it was an age in transition between the highly witty and sexually playful Restoration comedy. marriage for fortune. the pathetic she-tragedy. The Augustan stage retreated from the Restoration's focus on cuckoldry. comedy. and a life of leisure. and any later plots of middle-class middleanxiety.

the plays were popular precisely because they seemed to reflect the audience's own lives and concerns. melodrama. for Anne had no surviving children. Instead of amusing or inspiring the audience. for Queen Anne was seriously ill at the time. Therefore. they sought to instruct the audience and ennoble it. Cato concerned the Roman statesman who opposed Julius Caesar. Catholic. They emphasized drama on a household scale rather than a national repentance. The play is unique. the figure of Cato was a transparent symbol of Roman integrity.PLAY    The English stage was changing rapidly from Restoration comedy and Restoration drama and their noble subjects to the quickly developing melodrama. The plots are resolved with Christian forgiveness and repentance. Joseph Addison also wrote a play entitled Cato in 1713. and both the Tory ministry of the day and the Whig opposition (already led by Robert Walpole) were Walpole) concerned about the succession. Lillo's plays consciously turned from heroes and kings toward shopkeepers and apprentices. scale. Londoners sensed this anxiety. Further. Both groups were in contact with Anne's exiled Stuart. all of the closest successors in the Stuart family were Roman Catholic. followers. . brother James Francis Edward Stuart. George Lillo and Richard Steele wrote the trend-setting plays of the early Augustan trendperiod. but it did not inspire Caesar.

and consequently plays that reflected city anxieties and celebrated the lives of citizens were the ones to draw crowds. and adaptations of Tudor plays were made and ran. The aristocratic material from the Restoration continued to be mounted.SPECTACLE AND PANTOMIME  As during the Restoration.and middle-class dramas. of William and Mary. economic reality drove the stage during the Augustan period. after the reign Mary. . and so Restoration comedy featured a highly sexualized set of plays. Under Charles II court patronage meant economic success. and therefore the Restoration stage featured plays that would suit the monarch and/or court. therefore. However. domesticmiddleThe other dramatic innovation was "spectacle": plays that had little or no "spectacle": text. but which emphasized novel special effects. Charles II was a philanderer. the court and crown stopped taking a great interest in the playhouse. Theaters had to get their money from the audience of city dwellers. but the new plays that were authored and staged were the domestic.

They put on plays that were actually just spectacles. not dramatists. . thunder. required very little in the way of a playwright and much more in the way of a director. where the text of the play was almost an afterthought. A pantomime. particularly in the 1720s. The playwrights of these works were hired men. Dragons. and even actual elephants were on stage. but also attended when there was a sight that would impress them. audiences would attend. infuriated established literary authors. ocean waves. Rich specialized in pantomime and was famous as the character "Lun" in "Lun" harlequin presentations. If costumes were lavish. after all. explosions. the sets impressive or the actresses alluring..Continued      The public attended when they saw their lives represented on the stage. and horses were put on the boards (Cibber). but their near monopoly on the theaters. John Rich and Colley Cibber dueled over special theatrical effects. Battles. The plays put on in this manner are not generally preserved or studied. whirlwinds.

experienced Restoration. . Playwrights were at a loss. conflating all emotion and sense under a tune that might be entirely unrelated. it also took away dramatic subject matter. which had crossed over to England in the Restoration. seemingly. that infuriated English authors. an enormous surge in popularity with Italian grand opera in England in the 1710s and 1720s. and its violation of neoclassical strictures had made it a controversial form from the start. Opera combined singing with acting. opera.Opera      If vacant. It was not merely the fact that such operas drove out original drama. sub literary spectacles were not enough of a threat to dramatists. but also that the antics and vogue for the singers took away all else. it was a mixed genre. This type of opera not only took up theatrical rehearsal time and space. High melodies would cover the singers' expressions of grief or joy. opera.

in that it was intended to be entertaining rather than actually funny. the behavior of opera stars. plays were judged by potential criticism of the ministry and not just by reaction or performance. The Licensing Act required all plays to go to a censor before staging. . William Shakespeare's reputation grew enormously as his plays saw a quadrupling of Shakespeare's performances. In comedy. Dramatists themselves had to turn to prose or to less obvious forms of criticism. the playhouses had little choice but to present old plays and pantomime and plays that had no conceivable political content. The plots also relied upon characters being in or out of sympathy with each other. one effect of the Licensing Act was that playwrights began to develop a comedy of sentiment.LICENSING ACT 1737      Toward the end of the 1720s. and brought about its entertainment by elevating the sentiments of the viewer. and only those plays passed by the censor were allowed to be performed. This comedy was critically labeled as "high" comedy. Therefore. and an escalation of political warfare between the two parties led to a reclamation of the stage by political dramatists. and sentimental comedy and melodrama were the only "safe" choices for new drama. Therefore. the absurdity of spectacle productions.

low-content lowplays and a new generation of wits made the stage political and aggressive again.CONCLUSION      Augustan drama has a reputation as an era of decline. . a number of playwrights worked steadily to find subject matter that would appeal to a new audience. the Whig ministry stepped in and began official censorship that put an end to daring and innovative content. There were few dominant figures of the Augustan stage. This conspired with the public's taste for special effects to reduce theatrical output and promote the novel. Instead of a single genius. When the public did tire of anonymously authored.


journalism. 1615). drama. One of the names usually associated with the novel is the most prominent in Puritan writing: Daniel Defoe. The ground for the novel had been laid by journalism. and he worked as a journalist during and after its composition. artform. Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe (1719) was the first major novel of the new century and was published in more editions than any other works besides Gulliver's Travels (Mullan 252). However. Defoe had (Mullan written political and religious polemics prior to Robinson Crusoe. and satire.NOVEL The English novel was truly begun as a serious artform. Long prose satires like Swift's Gulliver's Travels (1726) had a central character who goes through adventures and may (or may not) learn lessons. In general. the most important single satirical source for the writing of novels came from Cervantes's Don Quixote (1605. as blending in and giving rise to three different types of novel. one can see these three axes. It had also been laid by drama and by satire. .

or Virtue Rewarded (1740) is the next landmark development in the English novel. They all involve a fall. Virtue Rewarded (1740) is the next landmark development in the English novel. a conversion. from that. generated a fictional life. a degradation of the spirit. Samuel Richardson's Pamela. In the 1720's. He interviewed famed criminals and produced accounts of their lives. bildungsroman. or. Thematically. . Samuel Richardson's Pamela. This religious structure necessarily involved a bildungsroman. here were other novels and novelistic works in the interim.. Defoe wrote "Lives" of criminals for Applebee's Journal. Defoe's works are consistently Puritan. and an ecstatic elevation.Continued      Defoe took the actual life and. for each character had to learn a lesson about him or herself and emerge the wiser.

satire. . ESSAY/JOURNALISM: Periodical literature grew between 1692 and 1712. written by Joseph Addison and Richard Steele (with occasional contributions from their friends). however. and dialogue (in philosophy and religion) thrived in the age. and consequently there were many broadsheet periodicals headed by a single author and staffed by hirelings (so-called "Grub Street" authors). though rates of female literacy are very difficult to establish. Class). Literacy in the early 18th century passed into the working classes. Periodicals were inexpensive to produce. as well as the middle and upper classes (Thompson.PROSE         The essay. Literacy was not confined to men. and that was The Spectator. but they were mainly associated with female patronage and novel reading. and a viable way of influencing public opinion. Libraries were open to all. quick to read. (soOne periodical outsold and dominated all others.

but his assault on the logic and assumptions of theodicy and cosmogeny was devastating." Only. David Hume. took empiricist skepticism to its extremes. Bishop Berkeley extended Locke's emphasis on perception to argue that perception entirely solves the Cartesian problem of subjective and objective knowledge by saying "to be is to be perceived. . on the other hand.PHILOSOPHY AND RELIGIOUS WRITING     Philosophy in England was fully dominated by John Locke. the 18th century had a vigorous competition among followers of Locke. Berkeley argued. those things that are perceived by a consciousness are real. Hume doggedly refused to enter into questions of his personal faith in the divine. and he was the most radically empiricist philosopher of the period. and he concentrated on the provable and empirical in a way that would lead to utilitarianism and naturalism later.


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