Sociology ± As a Science
Sociology is a science of society. It also deals with social group, social institutions. It study about study of society. It studies, about casual explanation. Science is systematic arrangement knowledge by establishing rationality. Science generally deals with experimentation. It always deals with facts. These facts will be existed only when there is empirical evidence (proof). It has important feature for verification. Science is always neutral i.e. will not say good and bad. It deals also with to what time it is valid and also testing is important. Experimental method Case study method Survey method Historical method
Functions of Media
Information Interpretation Mobilization Transmission of values Entertainment
Role of Media
Social changes Reformations Creating awareness Enhances
Involving citizens Public opinions transparency
Deep insights Case studies Cause and effects
Solve problems Remedial measures predict
Sociological imagination creates a relationship with an individual and wider society ± it helps to comprehend the link between our immediate personal social settings and the remote impersonal social would that surround and helps to shape us. It is the ability to view our own society as an outsider, rather from perspective at personal experience It allows us to go beyond personal experience and observation to understand broader public issue. It can bring new understanding to daily life around us.
skill. talent & potentiality) Interdependence Dynamic changes Social control Culture
Society is made up of
Collection of individuals Mode of behaviour Consists of people Mutual awareness Co-operation and division of labour (Specialization.
Culture is a complex whole which includes knowledge. custom. art. law. belief. and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society
Features of Culture
It is learnt It is social It is shared It is transmissive It is consistent and integrated It is dynamic and adaptative It varies from society to society
Internal It consists of words.. It is concerned with the external. and in fact. automobiles. the physical substance which has been changed and used by man.Types of Culture
Consists of man-made objects such as tools. a machine gun. taste. a television. values etc. buildings. roads. a tractor. It also includes customs. etc. dams. feeling and thinking
. a telephone. outlook. furniture. belief. language. mechanical and utilitarian objects. attitudes. a locomotive. It includes technical and material equipments like a printing press.
Functions of Culture
It defines the situation It is a treasury of knowledge Defines attitude. values and goals It provides behaviour pattern It molds personality
Elements of Culture
Cognitive Element :. Belief:.Mental thought.Values refers to goodness where in norms refers to rules and regulations Signs:.Rational and Irrational Values and Norms :.Includes signals and symbols Non-normative ways of behaviour:1/26/2011 11
Counter culture is found among the young.slang language. It places a priority on understanding culture rather than dismissing them as strange cultural relativism employs Cntd«.When a sub-culture deliberately opposes certain aspect of large culture then it is known as counter culture.it views peoples behaviour from the perspective of their own culture. parties.Different Concepts in culture
Sub-culture :. ³hippie´ culture Counter culture :. Relativism :.Segment of a society that shares a distinctive pattern of mores. For ex:. Folk ways and values that differs from the pattern of the larger society ± culture existing within larger society ± members of a sub-culture participate in the dominant culture at the same time engage in unique and distinctive form of behaviour.
Presence of 2 culture conflicting with each other is called culture conflict. fearful when immersed in and unfamiliar culture may be experiencing culture shock Ethnocentrism :.e.The conflict between authoritanism and democratic conservatism v/s modernity
.Ogburn introduced the term cultural lag to refer the period of mat adjustment when the non-material culture is still adapting to new material conditions i.any one who feels disoriented. For eg:.it is a belief that product style or ideas of one¶s society are inferior to those that originate else-where. uncertain out of place. Xenocentrism :. Culture Shock :. It leads to solidarity within one¶s own group that leads to antagonism and hatredness towards other group. Cultural Lag :.it is feeling that one¶s own culture is best and rating the other culture perspective. the non-material culture is more resistant to change than the material culture Culture conflict :.
It is described as recognized and established usages governing the relationship between individual and groups. It is established forms or conditions of procedure characteristic of group activities.
Social in nature Universal Satisfying needs Controlling mechanism Permanent
Satisfy needs Control the human behaviour Simplify actions for the individual Assign role and status Contribute to unity and uniformity
Instruction. Social. Mobilization. Psychological. Awareness. Management crisis. Political needs Norms and Rules & Regulations (Law & Legal status)
Media as an Institution
Satisfy needs (Communication) Information. Entertainment
Assigning role and status (Individual status is assigned according to the situations and conditions
. Economic.Media as an institution
Social control (Media laws) Target (audience) Catering needs (Nation building.
Awareness. Entertainment) Norms and Rules & Regulations (Law & Legal status) Catering needs Social. Instruction. Slot) 1/26/2011
Symbol (Logo) 18
. Psychological.Case Study
Social control (Media laws) Target (audience ± Sports. News. Economic. Mobilization. Political needs
Competitive (With other channels)
STAR NET WORK
Satisfy needs (Communication) Information. Entertainment
Assigning role and status (Individual status is assigned according to the situations and conditions
Primary biological Father Mother & Children
Family as an Institution
Roles & Status
Features of Family
Reward and Punishment
Stable satisfaction of sex need Reproduction Rearing of child Provision of home An instrument of cultural transmission Status ascribing function Emotional functions
Economic functions Educational functions Religious functions Recreational functions
liberal attitude individuality
. feeling of inter-dependence
Nuclear Family Values independence self-confidence. sacrifice.Types
On the basis of Authority
Joint family values Co-operation.
On the Basis of Marriage
On the Basis of Residence
On the Basis of Ancestry
On the Basis of Relations
Recent trends in the nuclear family
Industrialization Urbanisation Democratic Ideals The decline of the influence of Mores and Religious Beliefs and the Spread of Secular Attitude The Spirit of Individualism and Romantic Love Economic Independence of Women Emancipation of Women Decline in Birth Rate Divorce Parent-Youth conflict
Functions of Nuclear Family
Stable satisfaction of sex need Procreation and Upbringing of children Socialization of children Provision of home
Depth of Generations Common Roof Common Kitchen Common Worship Common Property Exercise of Authority Arranged Marriages Procreation Identification with obligations towards the family Self-sufficiency
Economic function Social function Recreation function Social control Psychological function Promotes co-operative virtues
marriage with one¶s own group Exogamy :.Marriage
Marriage is relatively permanent bond Features of marriage
Universal Relationship between man & women Marriage require special approval Association with religious and civil ceremony Creates mutual obligation Regulation of sex life It leads to establishment of family Marriage contribution to emotional & intellectual inter-stimulation Marriage aims at social solidarity Endogamy :.opposite of endogamy
Functions of marriage
Types of Marriage
Polygyny (one man marries more than one women)
So (Wife¶s sister can get married to husband)
Faternal (One women can marry more than one man)
Non-so formal (Husband can marry any one other than wife¶s sister
Non-faternal (Wife can more than other than marry husband¶s brothers) eg. draupady 29
There are sacred values and beliefs are attached in performing the marriages in India. kanyadana. mangalyadana. There are different aims in Hindu marriage Dharma ± social duty Praja ± desire to give birth Rati ± Pleasure Marriages are associated with elaborate rights and rituals such as Creating homas. Marriage system in India is a part of sacrament.
. pani-grahana. satapadi.
Class. Lower class not given proper justice
.Social Stratification (Caste. Age & Gender)
Stratification is division of society Need for social stratification
It encourages to work hard ± there will be social motivating Important role for circulation of elite groups Important role in promoting economic function Skill and aptitude ± compare with other group. Social control
Caste as social stratification
Promoting hierarchical division of society Idea of pollution is developed lower caste ± polluted Civil & religious disabilities ± instability in lower caste Economic disabilities Hereditary occupation ± No occupational mobility Political disability ± Upper class people occupied power in society.
values. life style Class as social stratification
It is based on economic aspect Based on achieved status Mobility is possible in class Defined through wealth (Upper. Middle. lower class)
Features of Class
Open Has mobility Class consciousness Play an important role ± prestige / symbol. Important role to create stability in society 1/26/2011 Life style pattern
It is a hierarchical division of society ± homogeneous group with respect to attitudes.
Professional characteristic coming from the middle class.Top professionals and business man. Skilled and semi-skilled 33 workers (cheap mass produced items)
. The style is gracious and careful (Indulge in conspicuous consumption) Lower Middle class:Common man. Emphasis on education.Social class categorization
Upper Upper class ± Wealthy aristocratic landed class. Earned money (Specialized luxury goods) Upper Middle class :.A largest group. Small selfemployed business man (Mass marketed goods)
Working class:. It acts as a reference group. The size is small (niche marketing) Lower Upper class:.
enjoy good quality products and wants value for their money).Age as a social stratification
Infant Child Adolescence Adult Old age In India there are three age cohorts
Generation Next. Their past conditioning forces them to rationalize their actions. Generation Past (Independent¶s age generation). 34
. (Younger People ± Comprises innovators ± they treat parents as providers ) Generation Now (Rajiv Gandhi generation ± wishes to lead a comfortable life. They follow the 1/26/2011Gandian values. Initially they resist to change.
.Gender as social stratification
Gender :.It is based on social conditioning Values are specified ± what role a mother father son has to do.
e. to say things set apart and forbidden Components of Religion
Belief in supernatural force Man¶s adjustment with supernatural force Acts defined as right and sin
Structural aspects of religion
Theologies and creeds Ceremony and rituals Symbolism Religious code Sect Festivals 1/26/2011 Sacred Literature
It is a unified system of belief and practices relative to sacred things i.
It provides religious experience It provides peace of mind It promotes social solidarity. unity and identity It conserves the value of life Religion ± as an agent of social control Priestly function of religion It promotes Welfare Provides recreation Explains individual suffering and helps to integrate personality Enhances self-importance
A community is the total organized social life of a locality. Significance
It provides protection and security It provides co-operation It depends on some kind of communication system (language) It provides individual opportunity for the manifestation of talents and abilities
Collectively organized form Promote a change Resist a change
Collective action Oriented to social changes (+ & -) Ideology leadership important role Organizational framework Technique and results
Stages of social movement
Preliminary ± stage of unrest Popular stage Formalization Institutionalization 1/26/2011Dissolution
Conditions / Reasons
Large no. of people are involved Reaction ± take in strong involvement Personal values to be involved Object of dissatisfaction
± helps in strengthening project level of
Media ± promoting the interest of various people on particular issue ± slowly role of leadership comes to existence Media tries to give platform to leader ± highlights and intensify the issue. Media tries to describe nature. decision making ± taking entire confidence of group ± media plays important role ± in popularizing ideology ± will create set b/w leader and ideology ± creates mobilization Media promotes ± institution ± that has been created by the leader which has bureaucratic procedures ± leader ± propagate tactics and strategies ± in order to know how movement grows. controlling.e. type and role of the leader. Media plays important role ± legalize the leader ± planning. society ± it is complicated ± macro level ± highlight dissatisfaction Media ± provide information ± by collecting information discontent ± focus of S. M. shows how the procedure started continued and failed / success
.Role of media in projecting social movement
Media ± creates ± awareness ± discontent ± among people ± i.
Different types of social movement
Reform movement ± bring out change Revolutionary movement ± Industrial revolution movement Revivalist movement ± Arya samaj Resistance movement Uthopian movement ± put state in perfection.
Features of a group Collection of individuals interaction among members mutual awareness feeling Group unity and solidarity (unity) common interest similar behaviour group norms groupµs are dynamic stability influence on personality 1/26/2011
A social group exist when two or more people are in direct or indirect contact and communication.
They lack organization.e.
Importance of social group For survival Group¶s contributes for development of personality For identification Helps in promoting social bond Classification of social group In group & out group i. it depends upon the tendency involuntary and voluntary groups primary group and secondary group community and association
Community ± Intimate. Social relations 1/26/2011 44 are organized. They have a group structure. The size of group is small as well as big. They are temporary in character. Crowd Organized group are called associational group. For eg. private. very close Eg.
. They do not have definite pattern of social interaction. Mahar group It represents relations that are specific (Foreign business)
Small group and large group Unorganized group ± temporary in character.
A group which serves as point of comparison are known as reference group There are 4 circumstances in which a group can be called as reference group When some or all the members of a particular group aspire to membership in the reference group When the members of the particular group struggle to imitate the members of reference group or try to make their group just like the reference group atleast in some respects.
. when the members of the particular group derive some satisfaction from being distinctive and unlike the members of the reference group in some aspects. when the members of a particular group consider the reference 1/26/2011 45 group or its members as a standard of comparison.
Types of Reference Group
Formal V/s informal Primary V/s secondary Aspiration V/s dis-associative Reference group ± application in marketing Using Celebrities Use of experts and professionals Use of spokes man Common man
Formal and informal agency of social control Role of media Law and administration Copy write Intellectual property right Censorship with regard to film and advertisements Trademark Patent Royalty Defamation Right of information
codes and culture of the contemporary news media ± analyzing the consequences of news in the Indian society.Sociology of News
It refers to origin structure. operating practices.
Whatever news happen forms a news. News is every information received from NEWS It interests a number of persons Timely report of facts It is a Stimulating information Compilation of facts and events Account of events Nature of News News ± a report Idea events and problems It is real It is current It interests people
. extra-ordinary incident leads to news. Unusual.
Qualities of News
Accuracy Balance Objectivity Clarify Impact Conflicts Progress Disaster Consequence Prominence Novelty Human interest
Timeliness Proximity Size Importance 1/26/2011Personal benefit
Stories that generally require interpretation from the reporter¶s background of specialized information.
. funerals Fires and accidents Seasons and weather Crime
Complex Types:. industry. science Religion philanthropy. research. trial lawsuits Government and politics Business. labour Education.Stories that general require little interpretative writing by the reporter
Illness.Types of News
Personal and brief Speeches and publications. deaths. Meetings and events
Simple Types:. agriculture. interviews.
Popular music. theatre. Special Types:Stories and articles that encompass a variety of subjects often requiring a high degree of specialized knowledge on the part of the writer
Lifestyles (including social events and consumer news) Sports Entertainment (Films. art. criticism) Editorials and Editorial columns Interpretative and investigative
The facts are presented in a easy and clear style Descriptive News :-
Taking into the impact of news on people it is divided into
Spot News Spread News (Affect the good number of people for a long time ± Occupy major space in news)
Importance of events
Most important news Important news Less importance news
Depending upon the nature of the news
Thought based news Expression based news Research based news Sensation based news Personality based news
.Based on the following factors: Style of writing news reports are of two types
Straight News :.
human story. where and why
Brought sheet daily covers hard news Hard news has a date value. background and interpretation It deals with lighter side of the life It does not have a date value Now-a-days it is becoming a very important segment 54
. when. event centered.Serious news.
Soft news:. introduction of ministry etc. where.It is a light stuff such as features.. entertainment etc. sports. Example:.
Less important happenings Depends upon the space availability It is not event centered It is more an analysis reason.Government information..Hard V/s Soft News
Hard News:. the news items are on what. session of parliament.