It Operates on three phase supply. ‡ Product Specifications: Standard: IS 13947 & IEC 947 ‡ Voltage Rating: 240/415 V ‡ Frequency: 50 Hz ‡ Breaking Capacity: 10 KA-25 KA ‡ Current Rating: 32 A. It can also be used to control infrequent motor operation. Moreover. Molded case circuit breaker (MCCB) is mainly used in electric power system with rated frequency of AC50Hz.MAIN INCOMER MCCB: MCCB is known as molded case circuit breaker. The protection specialty of the electronic tripper and the intelligent tripper is accurate and convenient. these are also used to protect the line and equipment from being damaged due to overload. rated voltage up to 690V and rated current up to 800A to distribute electric power.250 A. short circuit and under voltage. .

Available in 1. . Reactive loads. Capacitance.MCB MCB: MCB is Known as Miniature Circuit breaker.General Domestic Consumer Unit use C type .4 Poles in both incoming and outgoing Supplies. Depending on their type they can rated for different applications ² B type . The MCBs have either a button or lever that can be flicked to reset it.2.Inductive.3. etc. Miniature circuit breakers (MCBs) are fitted as protection units in place of fuses. They have the advantage that they can be manually reset without having to replace wire as in the case of the traditional fuse.Motor Rated And others . ´MCB·S BREAKING CAPACITY IS UPTO 16 KAµ The MCB tripping is an indication either that the circuit has been overloaded or that a short circuit has occurred somewhere in the system.

slightly modified to include current limit of British BS 1363 sockets).e. 63 A. the ampere figure is preceded by a letter "B". The circuit breaker is labeled with the rated current in amperes. 10 A. but without the unit symbol "A". 20 A. 32 A. expressed in terms of In: . that is the minimum value of current that causes the circuit-breaker to trip without intentional time delay (i. 13 A. 40 A. "C" or "D" that indicates the instantaneous tripping current. Instead.STANDARD CURRENT RATING The commonly-available preferred values for the rated current are 6 A. in less than 100 ms).. 25 A. 80 A and 100 A (Renard series. 50 A. 16 A.

Operational range usually from 0.11 A to 100 A and this is usually adjustable from the front of the unit as opposed to MCB which are generally set. overload protection.11A to 100A.4 pole 2)Specially installed for high load protection of motor To avoid burning of motor. They generally provide contacts to indicate The Motor Protection Circuit Breakers (MPCBs) provide short circuit protection. and motor position (Trip. Current rating: . 3) Needs three phase supply for operation. . Not Tripped) and also axillaries contacts normally open closed .MPCB The MPCBs may be combined with a magnetic contactor to provide 2 component combination starters and with the addition of an overload relay. They are also more expensive. Features: 1) In 2.3.

. Current flowing through the coil of the relay creates a magnetic field which attracts a lever and changes the switch contacts. The coil current can be on or off so relays have two switch positions and most have double throw (changeover) switch contacts as shown in the diagram.RELAYS There are 5 types of relays which are used normally in practice: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Simple relay Overload relay Control relay Interposing relay Double change over relay A relay is an electrically operated switch.


INTERPOSING RELAY Interposing Relay is special type of relay which is used to provide the isolation between two electrical components. so an Interposing relay operates in such a condition that it provides 24V dc to PLC for operation & 120V ac to contactor for holding. It has 2 NO contacts And 2 NC contacts. Option for screw less / screw terminal connection. Double Changeover Relay Module ‡ Jumpers for "common +ve" or "common -ve" mode operation. Spare jumper given on pcb. For example: A plc operates on the 24V dc supply whereas a contactor operates on 120V ac. Din rail mounting. .


Coil voltage The relay's coil voltage rating and resistance must suit the circuit powering the relay coil. Some relays operate perfectly well with a supply voltage which is a little lower than their rated value. Many relays have a coil rated for a 12V supply but 5V and 24V relays are also readily available.CHOOSING A RELAY You need to consider several features when choosing a relay: ‡ Physical size and pin arrangement If you are choosing a relay for an existing PCB you will need to ensure that its dimensions and pin arrangement are suitable.You can use Ohm's law to calculate the current: ‡ ‡ . Coil resistance The circuit must be able to supply the current required by the relay coil. You should find this information in the supplier's catalogue.



in the following illustration a relay is used as the actuating device. The language of controls consists of a commonly used set of symbols which represent control components. Contacts are shown as normally open (NO) or normally closed (NC). The standard method of showing a contact is to indicate the circuit condition produced when the actuating device is in the de-energized state. meaning the contacts are open when the relay is de-energized.ELECTRICAL SYMBOLS Language has been developed in order to transfer ideas and information. The contacts are shown as normally open. Contacts shown by this symbol require another device to actuate them. Contact Symbols : Contact sym bols are used to indicate an open or closed path of current flow. . an understanding of the language is necessary. In order to understand the ideas and information being communicated. A complete path of current does not exist and the light is off. For example.

For example.NORMALLY OPEN CONTACT Norm ally Open Contact: In a control diagram or schematic. completing the path of current and illuminating the light. It is used here for illustrative purposes only. in the following illustration the circuit is first shown in the de-energized state. symbols are usually not shown in operated state. (This is not a legitimate symbol. for the purposes of explanation in this text.) . a contact or device shown in a state opposite of its normal state will be highlighted. However. Example shown in the energized or operated state. The contacts are shown in their normally open (NO) state. The contacts have been highlighted to indicate they are now closed. the contacts close. When the relay is energized.

When the Relay is energized.NORMALLY CLOSED CONTACT Normally Closed Contact In the following illustration the contacts are shown as normally closed (NC). meaning the contacts are closed when the relay is de-energized. A complete path of current exists and light is on. EXAMPLE: . the contacts open & light is off.

Pushbutton Symbols: There are two basic types of pushbuttons: Momentary and Maintained. level switches. and selector switches. . flow switches. A normally closed momentary pushbutton opens as long as the button is held down. foot switches. A maintained pushbutton latches in place when the button is pressed. In the case of a manual switch. Like contacts. switches require another device or action to change their state. someone must manually change the position of the switch. pressure switches. A normally open momentary pushbutton closes as long as the button is held down. Variations of this symbol are used to represent limit switches. temperature-actuated switches.SWITCH SYMBOLS Switch symbols : These are also used to indicate an open or closed path of current flow.





A small dot or node at the intersection of two or more wires indicates an electrical connection . Line Diagrams The method of expressing the language of control symbols is a line diagram. One should know how to read the line diagrams. Line diagrams are made up of two circuits.HOW TO READ PANEL DRAWING To understand the drawing of panel we must under stand line diagrams. and power-circuit wiring is represented by a heavier-weight line. Electrical wires in a line diagram are represented by lines. the control circuit and the power circuit. also referred to as a ladder diagram. Control-circuit wiring is represented by a lighter-weight line.

For example. not the physical relationship. the following illustration shows the physical relationship of an indicator light and a pushbutton.Line diagrams show the functional relationship of components and devices in an electrical circuit. The following illustration shows the physical relationship of an indicator light and a pushbutton: .





The first PLCs were installed in industry in 1969. Communications abilities began to appear in approximately 1973. and depending upon their state make decisions based on its program or logic.PLC HISTORY PLC development began in 1968 in response to a request from an US car manufacturer (GE). . What does µPLC¶ mean? A PLC (Programmable Logic Controllers) is an industrial computer used to monitor inputs. They could also be used in the 70 s to send and receive varying voltages to allow them to enter the analog world. to control (turn on/off) its outputs to automate a machine or a process.

. . Central Processing Unit (CPU) CPU ± Microprocessor based. Programming device. functions. logic operators.The control bus for signals relating to internal control actions. Input/Output. may allow arithmetic operations. block memory moves.The system bus is used for communications between the I/O ports and the I/O unit. The system has four busses: . and other devices.PLC HARDWARE Hardware Components of a PLC System Processor unit (CPU). local area network. etc. Memory. computer interface. System Busses The internal paths along which the digital signals flow within the PLC are called busses. . Power supply unit.The CPU uses the data bus for sending data between the different elements. . CPU makes a great number of check-ups of the PLC controller itself so eventual errors would be discovered early.The address bus to send the addresses of locations for accessing stored data.

such as switches and sensors. and lights. RAM for data. . EPROM for ROM·s that can be programmed and then the program made permanent. Outputs control other devices. I/O Sections Inputs monitor field devices. while small and medium series already contain the supply module. Some PLC controllers have electrical supply as a separate module. The program is developed in the programming device and then transferred to the memory unit of the PLC. such as motors. solenoid valves. Memory System (ROM) to give permanent storage for the operating system and the fixed data used by the CPU. Programming Device The programming device is used to enter the required program into the memory of the processor. pumps. This is where information is stored on the status of input and output devices and the values of timers and counters and other internal devices. Power Supply Most PLC controllers work either at 24 VDC or 220 VAC.PLC HARDWARE CONTD.

Since they are simulated they are limited in their counting speed.PLC OPERATION Input Relays These are connected to the outside world. Some manufacturers also include highspeed counters that are hardware based. sensors. Typically they are not relays but rather they are transistors. They are simulated counters and they can be programmed to count pulses. down or both up and down. They are simulated relays and are what enables a PLC to eliminate external relays. Typically these counters can count up. etc. . Counters These do not physically exist. There are also some special relays that are dedicated to performing only one task. They physically exist and receive signals from switches. Internal Utility Relays These do not receive signals from the outside world nor do they physically exist.

They physically exist and send on/off signals to solenoids. Usually used as temporary storage for math or data manipulation. Increments vary from 1ms through 1s. Others include off-delay and both retentive and non-retentive types. Output Relays These are connected to the outside world.PLC OPERATION CONTD. . or triacs depending upon the model chosen. relays. Data Storage Typically there are registers assigned to simply store data. They can also typically be used to store data when power is removed from the PLC. lights. Timers These also do not physically exist. They can be transistors. They come in many varieties and increments. The most common type is an on-delay type. etc.

INTRODUCTION TO PLC·S RS Logix 500 Series PLC MICROLOGIX 1000 MICROLOGIX 1100 MICROLOGIX 1200 MICROGIX 1400 MICROLOGIX 1500 PROCESSOR CAT. NO. - . 1761 1763 1762 1766 1764 1762 1762 1762 1769 I/O CAT NO.

RS LOGIX 500 SERIES SLC 500 SLC 5/01 SLC5/02 SLC 5/03 SLC 5/04 SLC 5/05 1747 1747 1747 1747 1747 1747 1746 1746 1746 1746 1746 1746 .

RS LOGIX 5000 SERIES COMPACT LOGIX L23 COMPACT LOGIX L32 COMPACT LOGIX L35 COMPACT LOGIX L52 1769 1769 1756 1756 1769 1769 1756 1756 .

PLC COMMUNICATION ‡ Extension modules PLC I/O number can be increased through certain additional modules by system extension through extension lines. Extension modules can have inputs and outputs of a different nature from those on the PLC controller. Each module can contain extension both of input and output lines. to the PLC. to the PLC. over the long distances. over the long distances. . ‡ Remote PLCs In some situations a number of PLCs may be linked together with a master PLC unit sending and receiving I/O data from the other units. ‡ Remote I/O connections When there are many I/O located considerable distances away from the PLC an economic solution is to use I/O modules and use cables to connect these. When there are many I/O located considerable distances away from the PLC an economic solution is to use I/O modules and use cables to connect these.

Fiber-optic cabling has the advantage of resistance to noise. There are 24 lines: 8 data (bidirectional). 3 handshaking. Coaxial cable enables higher data rates to be transmitted and does not require the shielding of steel conduit.COMMUNICATION Cables Twisted-pair cabling. ‡ Parallel standards The standard interface most commonly used for parallel communication is IEEE-488. Parallel data communications can take place between listeners . Might be used when connecting laboratory instruments to the system. often routed through steel conduit. Parallel communication ‡ Parallel communication is when all the constituent bits of a word are simultaneously transmitted along parallel cables. This allows data to be transmitted over short distances at high speeds. talkers . and 8 ground lines . small size and flexibility. and controllers. and now termed as General Purpose Instrument Bus (GPIB). 5 status & control.

pins of serial port. RS 232 is a communication interface included under SCADA applications. Might be used for the connection between a computer and a PLC.COMMUNICATION MODES Serial communication ‡ Serial communication is when data is transmitted one bit at a time. ‡ Serial standards RS-232 communications is the most popular method of plc to external device communications. Other standards such as RS422 and RS423 are similar to RS232 although they permit higher transmission rates and longer cable distances. Serial communication is used for transmitting data over long distances.5 no. RS-485-When pins above 5 are used in serial port. . ‡ RS-232 devices has two types of protocols: DF1 ±When we use 2. A data word has to be separated into its constituent bits for transmission and then reassembled into the word when received.3.

ASCII ASCII is a human-readable to computer-readable translation code (each letter/number is translated to 1 s and 0 s). This is termed the protocol. One device needs to indicate to the other to start or stop sending data. Interconnecting several devices can present problems because of compatibility problems. Protocols It is necessary to exercise control of the flow of data between two devices so what constitutes the message. so we can translate 128 characters (2^7 is 128). In order to facilitate communications between different devices the International Standard Organization (ISO) in 1979 devised a model to be used for standardization for Open System Interconnection (OSI).MODES CONTD. It¶s a 7-bit code. . is defined. and how the communication is to be initiated and terminated.

NC13: Use to communicate HMI & Laptop. HM02: Use to communicate plc & Panel view. NULL cable: consists of one port male and other port female. NC21: Use to communicate HMI & plc.CABLES USED FOR COMMUNICATION PM02:Use to communicate plc & laptop. C10: communicate RJ-45 with RJ-45. ETHERNET: Use for programming. . CP3: Use to communicate Plc & Modem.


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